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  1. 75 FR 22814 - Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. FDA-2005D-0261) Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for...

  2. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT formation at low NAT supersaturations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Voigt

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A polar stratospheric cloud (PSC was observed on 6 February 2003 in the Arctic stratosphere by in-situ measurements onboard the high-altitude research aircraft Geophysica. Low number densities (~10−4 cm−3 of nitric acid (HNO3 containing particles – probably NAT – with diameters up to 6 µm were measured at altitudes between 18 and 20 km. These particles have the potential to grow further and to remove HNO3 from the stratosphere, thereby enhancing polar ozone loss. Interestingly, the NAT particles formed in less than a day at temperatures T>TNAT−3.5 K, just slightly below the NAT equilibrium temperature TNAT. This unique measurement of PSC formation at extremely low NAT saturation ratios (SNAT≤11 constrains current NAT nucleation theories. In particular, NAT formation on ice can for certain be excluded. Conversely, we suggest that meteoritic particles may be favorable candidates for triggering nucleation of NAT at the observed low number densities.

  3. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds - Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooß, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled a thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  4. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds – Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled a thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM. The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  5. Heterogeneous Formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds- Part 1: Nucleation of Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooss, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled a thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  6. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds – Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled the thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM. The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed PSCs very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  7. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds – Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT)

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. Hoyle; I. Engel; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M.C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooß, J.-U.; Peter, T

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoriti...

  8. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds – Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT)

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. Hoyle; I. Engel; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M.C.; Poole, L. R.; J.-U. Grooß; Peter, T

    2013-01-01

    Satellite based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For t...

  9. A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    An improved microbial method for the screening of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals has been developed. The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening) is based on the analysis of renal pelvis fluid and comprises five test plates enabling group specific identification. The NAT-screening combines

  10. NAT: perspectives for cellular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, J A

    1999-12-01

    The introduction of routine testing to detect viral genomes in donated blood was originally driven by requirements for plasma fractionation in relation to exclusion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. Nevertheless, it was obvious from the outset that a dual standard for fractionated products and individual blood components would be untenable. In many countries therefore, planning for introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood incorporated progression to release of HCV RNA tested components. HCV was singled out because of its long seronegative 'window period', relatively high prevalence and incidence in blood donors, rapid burst time and high genome copy number during seroconversion. The latter properties made HCV particularly suitable for detection in pools of samples. If HCV RNA testing is required for release of labile components such as platelets, rapid provision of NAT results is vital because of short shelf life of platelets and the problems of delays when resolving the infectious unit in a reactive pool. For NAT release of labile components smaller sample pool sizes allow faster resolution of RNA positive units. Smaller pools involve high test throughput, the likely need for more testing laboratories and ensuing increased costs. Single sample testing is the ultimate extrapolation of reducing sample pool size. With reduced pool sizes or single sample testing, the option of testing for other viruses (e.g. HIV or HBV) singly or in multiplex also arises. The cost-benefit and incremental yield of such strategies in the light of 'combo' assays for HIV Ag/Ab and the recently described HCV Ag assay will require careful and objective assessment, together with re-appraisal of anti-HBc screening for detection of HBV infected donors at the "tail-end" of carriage. PMID:10686060

  11. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Sonia Gupta; Amarjit Kaur; Manvi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV...

  12. Eignung von HAM-Nat und TMS-Modul "Medizinisch-naturwissenschaftliches Grundverständnis" für die Studienbewerberauswahl in der Medizin [Suitability of the HAM-Nat test and TMS module "basic medical-scientific understanding" for medical school selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hissbach, Johanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Tests with natural-scientific content are predictive of the success in the first semesters of medical studies. Some universities in the German speaking countries use the ‘Test for medical studies’ (TMS for student selection. One of its test modules, namely “medical and scientific comprehension”, measures the ability for deductive reasoning. In contrast, the Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine, Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat evaluates knowledge in natural sciences. In this study the predictive power of the HAM-Nat test will be compared to that of the NatDenk test, which is similar to the TMS module “medical and scientific comprehension” in content and structure. Methods: 162 medical school beginners volunteered to complete either the HAM-Nat (N=77 or the NatDenk test (N=85 in 2007. Until spring 2011, 84.2% of these successfully completed the first part of the medical state examination in Hamburg. Via different logistic regression models we tested the predictive power of high school grade point average (GPA or “Abiturnote” and the test results (HAM-Nat and NatDenk with regard to the study success criterion “first part of the medical state examination passed successfully up to the end of the 7 semester” (Success7Sem. The Odds Ratios (OR for study success are reported.Results: For both test groups a significant correlation existed between test results and study success (HAM-Nat: OR=2.07; NatDenk: OR=2.58. If both admission criteria are estimated in one model, the main effects (GPA: OR=2.45; test: OR=2.32 and their interaction effect (OR=1.80 are significant in the HAM-Nat test group, whereas in the NatDenk test group only the test result (OR=2.21 significantly contributes to the variance explained. Conclusions: On their own both HAM-Nat and NatDenk have predictive power for study success, but only the HAM-Nat explains additional variance if combined with GPA. The selection according to HAM-Nat and GPA has under the

  13. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

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    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  14. 血液病毒核酸检测与酶联免疫检测比较研究%Comparison of ELISA and NAT testing of blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊鹏; 田喜凤; 贾幼珍; 张敬

    2011-01-01

    目的 对酶联免疫检测血样做NAT检测,分析酶联免疫筛查献血者血样误检的原因. 方法 对献血者血样进行HBsAg、HCVAb和HIVAb二次ElLISA筛查,阴性和阳性血样分别做NAT检测,对HBsAg阴性、HBV DNA阳性献血者做HBV两对半免疫检测和罗氏病毒含量定量测定. 结果 对二次EILISA筛查及转氨酶和螺旋体检测合格的29 852份血样进行NAT检测,其中15份HBV DNA阳性,漏检率为0.50‰,未发现HCV和HIV RNA阳性.15份HBV DNA阳性献血者乙肝两对半免疫检测,HBsAg均为阴性,7份HBsAb阳性,1份HBeAg阳性,7份HBeAb为阳性,11份HBcAb为阳性.其中1份HBsAg阴性DNA阳性血样HBV罗氏定量为2 520 IU/ml,血液存在严重传染可能.对151份二次ELISA阳性血样进行NAT检测,有83份阴性,ELISA的灵敏度为81.93%,特异度为99.72%. 结论 二次酶联免疫检测法的灵敏度较低,增加抗原、抗体检测和NAT检测可减少漏检.%Objective To determine how many blood samples may be overlooked by ELISA testing. Methods First, double ELISA testing was performed on donor blood samples and NAT testing was performed on samples that were negative and positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV according to ELISA. Second, the donors' samples were pooled with a HAMILTON STAR sampling processor and nucleic acid was extracted with the Ezbead System-32. HBV DNA, HCV RNA, and HIV RNA were amplified and detected with an ABI quantitative Fluorescence PCR instrument. Third, donor samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for HBV DNA were subjected to double ELISA (HBsAg HB-sAb HBeAg HBeAb HBcAb) and a Roche Quantitative Assay. At the same time, sensitivity and specificity were preliminarily determined. Results Of 30 315 donor blood samples, 29 852 samples tested with ELISA and negative for ALT and syphilis were tested with NAT; 15 samples were positive for HBV DNA. No HCV RNA and HIV RNA were detected. None of the 15 donor samples were positive for HBsAg, 7 were

  15. Antarctic NAT PSC Belt of June 2003: Observational Validation of the Mountain Wave Seeding Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, S. D.; Hoffmann, L.; Hoepfner, M.; Wu, D. L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) over Antarctica in June 2003 revealed small nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles forming suddenly along the vortex edge. Models suggest the trigger was mountain waves over the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) forming ice for NAT nucleation. We test this hypothesis by analyzing perturbations in stratospheric radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). AIRS data show mountain waves over the AP on 10-14 June, with no resolved wave activity before or after. Peak wave temperature amplitudes derived from independent 40 hPa channels all return values of 10-12 K, in agreement with values used to model this NAT event. These observations support a NAT wake from a small region of mountain wave activity over the AP as the source of this circumpolar NAT outbreak.

  16. NATCracker: NAT Combinations Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Roverso, Roberto; El-Ansary, Sameh; Haridi, Seif

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report our experience in working with Network Address Translators (NATs). Traditionally, there were only 4 types of NATs. For each type, the (im)possibility of traversal is well-known. Recently, the NAT community has provided a deeper dissection of NAT behaviors resulting into at least 27 types and documented the (im)possibility of traversal for some types. There are, however, two fundamental issues that were not previously tackled by the community. Firs...

  17. Dimensionality and predictive validity of the HAM-Nat, a test of natural sciences for medical school admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hissbach Johanna C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge in natural sciences generally predicts study performance in the first two years of the medical curriculum. In order to reduce delay and dropout in the preclinical years, Hamburg Medical School decided to develop a natural science test (HAM-Nat for student selection. In the present study, two different approaches to scale construction are presented: a unidimensional scale and a scale composed of three subject specific dimensions. Their psychometric properties and relations to academic success are compared. Methods 334 first year medical students of the 2006 cohort responded to 52 multiple choice items from biology, physics, and chemistry. For the construction of scales we generated two random subsamples, one for development and one for validation. In the development sample, unidimensional item sets were extracted from the item pool by means of weighted least squares (WLS factor analysis, and subsequently fitted to the Rasch model. In the validation sample, the scales were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and, again, Rasch modelling. The outcome measure was academic success after two years. Results Although the correlational structure within the item set is weak, a unidimensional scale could be fitted to the Rasch model. However, psychometric properties of this scale deteriorated in the validation sample. A model with three highly correlated subject specific factors performed better. All summary scales predicted academic success with an odds ratio of about 2.0. Prediction was independent of high school grades and there was a slight tendency for prediction to be better in females than in males. Conclusions A model separating biology, physics, and chemistry into different Rasch scales seems to be more suitable for item bank development than a unidimensional model, even when these scales are highly correlated and enter into a global score. When such a combination scale is used to select the upper quartile of

  18. Half a decade of mini-pool nucleic acid testing: Cost-effective way for improving blood safety in India

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    Shivaram Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is well established that Nucleic acid testing (NAT reduces window phase of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI and helps improve blood safety. NAT testing can be done individually or in pools. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility, feasibility and cost effectiveness of an in-house minipool-NAT(MP-NAT. Materials and Methods: Blood donors were screened by history, tested by ELISA and sero-negative samples were subjected to an in-house NAT by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Testing was done in mini-pools of size eight (8. Positive pools were repeated with individual samples. Results: During the study period of Oct 2005-Sept 2010 (5 years all blood donors (n=53729 were screened by ELISA. Of which 469 (0.87% were positive for HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Sero-negative samples (n=53260 were screened by in-house MP-NAT. HIV-NAT yield was 1/53260 (n=1 and HBV NAT yield (n=2 was 1/26630. Conclusion: NAT yield was lower than other India studies possibly due to the lower sero-reactivity amongst our donors. Nevertheless it intercepted 9 lives including the components prepared. The in-house assay met our objective of improving blood safety at nominal cost and showed that it is feasible to set up small molecular biology units in medium-large sized blood banks and deliver blood within 24-48 hours. The utility of NAT (NAT yield will vary based on the donor population, the type of serological test used, the nature of kit employed and the sensitivity of NAT test used. The limitations of our in-house MP-NAT consisted of stringent sample preparation requirements, with labor and time involved. The benefits of our MP-NAT were that it acted as a second level of check for ELISA tests, was relatively inexpensive compared to ID-NAT and did not need sophisticated equipment.

  19. Thermochemical Kinetics of H2O and HNO3 on crystalline Nitric Acid Hydrates (alpha-, beta-NAT, NAD) in the range 175-200 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michel J.; Iannarelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The growth of NAT (Nitric Acid Trihydrate, HNO3x3H2O) and NAD (Nitric Acid Dihydrate, HNO3x2H2O) on an ice substrate, the evaporative lifetime of NAT and NAD as well as the interconversion of alpha- and beta-NAT competing with evaporation and growth under UT/LS conditions depends on the interfacial kinetics of H2O and HNO3 vapor on the condensed phase. Despite the existence of some literature results we have embarked on a systematic investigation of the kinetics using a multidiagnostic experimental approach enabled by the simultaneous observation of both the gas (residual gas mass spectrometry) as well as the condensed phase (FTIR absorption in transmission). We report on thermochemically consistent mass accommodation coefficients alpha and absolute evaporation rates Rev/molecule s-1cm-3 as a function of temperature which yields the corresponding vapor pressures of both H2O and HNO3 in equilibrium with the crystalline phases, hence the term thermochemical kinetics. These results have been obtained using a stirred flow reactor (SFR) using a macroscopic pure ice film of 1 micron or so thickness as a starting substrate mimicking atmospheric ice particles and are reported in a phase diagram specifically addressing UT (Upper Troposphere)/LS (Lower Stratosphere) conditions as far as temperature and partial pressures are concerned. The experiments have been performed either at steady-state flow conditions or in transient supersaturation using a pulsed solenoid valve in order to generate gas pulses whose decay were subsequently monitored in real time. Special attention has been given to the effect of the stainless-steel vessel walls in that Langmuir adsorption isotherms for H2O and HNO3 have been used to correct for wall-adsorption of both probe gases. Typically, the accommodation coefficients of H2O and HNO3 are similar throughout the temperature range whereas the rates of evaporation Rev of H2O are significantly larger than for HNO3 thus leading to the difference in

  20. The Hamburg Selection Procedure for Dental Students – Introduction of the HAM-Nat as subject-specific test for study aptitude

    OpenAIRE

    Kothe, Christian; Hissbach, Johanna; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examines the question whether the selection of dental students should be based solely on average school-leaving grades (GPA) or whether it could be improved by using a subject-specific aptitude test. Methods: The HAM-Nat Natural Sciences Test was piloted with freshmen during their first study week in 2006 and 2007. In 2009 and 2010 it was used in the dental student selection process. The sample size in the regression models varies between 32 and 55 students. Re...

  1. The Hamburg Selection Procedure for Dental Students - Introduction of the HAM-Nat as subject-specific test for study aptitude

    OpenAIRE

    Kothe, C.; Hissbach, J; Hampe, W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examines the question whether the selection of dental students should be based solely on average school-leaving grades (GPA) or whether it could be improved by using a subject-specific aptitude test.Methods: The HAM-Nat Natural Sciences Test was piloted with freshmen during their first study week in 2006 and 2007. In 2009 and 2010 it was used in the dental student selection process. The sample size in the regression models varies between 32 and 55 students. R...

  2. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV and its role in blood safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 32978 donations were tested for all three viruses using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (Vironostika ® HIV Ag-Ab, Hepanostika ® HCV ultra and hepatitis B surface antigen ultra by Biomerieux and ID-NAT using Procleix Ultrio plus ® Assay (Novartis Diagnostic, USA. All initial NAT reactive samples and serology nonreactive were retested in triplicate and NAT discriminatory assay for HIV-1, HCV and HBV were performed. Results: Of the 32978 samples, 43 (0.13% were found to be ID-NAT reactive but seronegative. Out of 43, one for HIV-1, 13 for HCV and 27 for HBV were reactive by discriminatory assays. There were two samples that were reactive for both HCV-HBV and counted as HCV-HBV co-infection NAT yield. The prevalence of these viruses in our sample, tested by ID-NAT is 0.06%, 0.71%, and 0.63% for HIV-1, HCV and HBV respectively. The combined NAT yield among blood donors was 1 in 753. Conclusion: ID-NAT testing for HIV-1, HCV and HBV can tremendously improve the efficacy of screening for protecting blood recipient from TTIs. It enables detection of these viruses that were undetected by serological test and thus helped in providing safe blood to the patients.

  3. The results of nucleic acid testing in remunerated and non-remunerated blood donors in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kalibatienė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, governmentally covered remuneration for whole blood donations prevails. Donors may choose to accept or reject the remuneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of nucleic acid testing (NAT) discriminatory-positive markers for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in seronegative, first-time and repeat, remunerated and non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania during the period from 2005 to 2010. Materials and methods All seronegative whole blood and blood component donations were individually analysed by NAT for HIV-1, HBV and HCV. Only discriminatory-positive NAT were classified. The prevalence of discriminatory-positive NAT per 100,000 donations in the donor groups and the odds ratios comparing the remunerated and non-remunerated donations were determined. Results Significant differences were observed for HBV NAT results: 47.42 and 26.29 per 100,000 remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 10.6 and 3.58 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. The differences were also significant for HCV NAT results: 47.42 and 51.99 for remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 2.12 and 0 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. No seronegative, discriminatory-positive NAT HIV case was found. The odds of discriminatory HBV and HCV NAT positive results were statistically significantly higher for both first-time and repeat remunerated donations compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations. Discussion First-time and repeat remunerated seronegative donations were associated with a statistically significantly higher prevalence and odds for discriminatory-positive HBV and HCV NAT results compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania. PMID

  4. Das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren in der Zahnmedizin – Einführung des HAM-Nat als fachspezifischer Studierfähigkeitstest [The Hamburg Selection Procedure for Dental Students – Introduction of the HAM-Nat as subject-specific test for study aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothe, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: The present study examines the question whether the selection of dental students should be based solely on average school-leaving grades (GPA or whether it could be improved by using a subject-specific aptitude test.Methods: The HAM-Nat Natural Sciences Test was piloted with freshmen during their first study week in 2006 and 2007. In 2009 and 2010 it was used in the dental student selection process. The sample size in the regression models varies between 32 and 55 students. Results: Used as a supplement to the German GPA, the HAM-Nat test explained up to 12% of the variance in preclinical examination performance. We confirmed the prognostic validity of GPA reported in earlier studies in some, but not all of the individual preclinical examination results. Conclusion: The HAM-Nat test is a reliable selection tool for dental students. Use of the HAM-Nat yielded a significant improvement in prediction of preclinical academic success in dentistry.[german] Einleitung: In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob die Auswahl der Studierenden in der Zahnmedizin alleine durch die Abiturdurchschnittsnote erfolgen sollte oder ob sie durch den Einsatz eines fachspezifischen Studierfähigkeitstest verbessert werden kann. Methoden: Der Naturwissenschaftstest HAM-Nat wurde in den Jahren 2006 und 2007 in der Erstsemesterwoche an den Studienanfängerinnen und -anfängern* erprobt sowie 2009 und 2010 im Auswahlverfahren eingesetzt. Die Stichprobengrößen der Regressionsmodelle variieren in allen Jahrgängen zwischen 32 und 55 Teilnehmern. Ergebnisse: Der HAM-Nat erklärte zusätzlich zur Abiturdurchschnittsnote bis zu 12 % der Leistungsvarianz in den vorklinischen Prüfungsleistungen. Die in anderen Studien gefundene prognostische Güte der Abiturdurchschnittsnote konnte für einige, aber nicht für alle Einzelprüfungen bestätigt werden. Schlussfolgerung: Der HAM-Nat erwies sich als zuverlässiges Auswahlinstrument

  5. Reduzierbarkeit der Abbrecherquote im Humanmedizinstudium durch das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat [Possible reduction of the medical school dropout number by the Hamburg Assessment test for Medicine - part Natural sciences (HAM-Nat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Since 2005 German medical faculties are allowed to select 60% of their freshmen. Nevertheless, many faculties stick to a selection based merely on the grade point average assigned by the secondary school (Abiturnote which is the best known predictor of success in German medical schools. Methods: In order to improve selection with respect to medical school dropout numbers we developed the HAM-Nat (Hamburg Admission test for Medicine - part Natural sciences, a test consisting of 52 multiple-choice questions from the topics of chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics, and assessed its difficulty with pupils of 6 different schools. Then the HAM-Nat was administered to 333 first-year students just before the start of their courses in October 2006. After the first academic year the power of the HAM-Nat to predict individual study success was compared to that of the grade point average. Study success was measured by the number of passed exams. Outcomes: The HAM-Nat was found to correlate better with study success than the grade point average. A projection based on data from older student cohorts shows that student selection with the HAM-Nat can reduce the number of students dropping out compared with a selection based on the grade point average alone. Other parameters like chosen natural science subjects at school or an industrial training in medicine or other areas do not predict academic success. Conclusions: The HAM-Nat is a valuable tool to predict student success at medical school. Based on this study Hamburg’s medical faculty has decided to introduce the HAM-Nat to select its entrants in 2008. [german] Zielsetzung: Seit das Hochschulrahmengesetz 2005 den Hochschulen ermöglicht, 60% der Medizinstudienanfänger selbst auszuwählen, sind die Medizinischen Fakultäten auf der Suche nach dem optimalen Auswahlverfahren. Viele tun sich schwer, ein Auswahlkriterium zu definieren. Noch schwieriger ist es, einen Test für die Auswahl

  6. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  7. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  8. Re-investigation of the concordance of human NAT2 phenotypes and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M; Selinski, Silvia; Dannappel, Doris; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    A comparative study of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotyping and phenotyping (caffeine test method) was performed on 211 persons to elucidate apparent discrepancies in the assignment of NAT2*12 and NAT2*13 alleles which occur in the literature. The study used the standard procedures of genotyping (two PCR runs and application of seven restriction enzymes) and phenotyping (determination of the two caffeine metabolites 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU) and 1-methylxanthine (1X)), as documented in detail and validated by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The data were consistent with an AFMU/1X molar ratio of 0.85 as cut-off point (antimode) between phenotypically slow and rapid acetylators. Under this provision, several R/S allele combinations did not comply, either fully or partly, with their associated phenotypes. In particular, there was a wide phenotypic overlap of the alleged rapid allele combination groups (i) NAT2*12A/*5A; NAT2*12C/*5D; NAT2*4/*5B, (ii) NAT2*13/*6B; NAT2*4/*6A, and (iii) NAT2*13/*7A; NAT2*4/*7B. These groups obviously contained both phenotypically rapid and slow acetylators. If one assumes that the presence of one "wild type" allele NAT2*4 defines a rapid acetylator the assignment of the alleles NAT2*12A, NAT2*12C, and NAT*13 as determinants of a rapid acetylator phenotype must be questioned. This refers in particular to the nucleotide changes A803G (NAT2*12A, NAT2*12C) and C282T (NAT2*13). Based on discussions in the literature and the data presented here, there is accumulating evidence that current assignments of the NAT2*12 and NAT2*13 alleles as determinants of a rapid acetylator state should be reconsidered.

  9. Integrated sample-to-detection chip for nucleic acid test assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Pabbaraju, K; Wong, S; Tellier, R; Kaler, K V I S

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic acid based diagnostic techniques are routinely used for the detection of infectious agents. Most of these assays rely on nucleic acid extraction platforms for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids and a separate real-time PCR platform for quantitative nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). Several microfluidic lab on chip (LOC) technologies have been developed, where mechanical and chemical methods are used for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids. Microfluidic technologies have also been effectively utilized for chip based real-time PCR assays. However, there are few examples of microfluidic systems which have successfully integrated these two key processes. In this study, we have implemented an electro-actuation based LOC micro-device that leverages multi-frequency actuation of samples and reagents droplets for chip based nucleic acid extraction and real-time, reverse transcription (RT) PCR (qRT-PCR) amplification from clinical samples. Our prototype micro-device combines chemical lysis with electric field assisted isolation of nucleic acid in a four channel parallel processing scheme. Furthermore, a four channel parallel qRT-PCR amplification and detection assay is integrated to deliver the sample-to-detection NAT chip. The NAT chip combines dielectrophoresis and electrostatic/electrowetting actuation methods with resistive micro-heaters and temperature sensors to perform chip based integrated NATs. The two chip modules have been validated using different panels of clinical samples and their performance compared with standard platforms. This study has established that our integrated NAT chip system has a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the standard platforms while providing up to 10 fold reduction in sample/reagent volumes.

  10. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease.

  11. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eCosta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid testing (NAT designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90´s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnosis for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnosis approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease.

  12. Das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren in der Zahnmedizin – Einführung des HAM-Nat als fachspezifischer Studierfähigkeitstest [The Hamburg Selection Procedure for Dental Students – Introduction of the HAM-Nat as subject-specific test for study aptitude

    OpenAIRE

    Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Hissbach, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    [english] Introduction: The present study examines the question whether the selection of dental students should be based solely on average school-leaving grades (GPA) or whether it could be improved by using a subject-specific aptitude test.Methods: The HAM-Nat Natural Sciences Test was piloted with freshmen during their first study week in 2006 and 2007. In 2009 and 2010 it was used in the dental student selection process. The sample size in the regression models varies between 32 and 55 stu...

  13. Analysis of HBsAg/NAT test results in Shenzhen city in 2003-2012%深圳地区2003~2012年间无偿献血者抗-HCV 抗体与核酸检出情况分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊姣梅; 吴桂丹; 郑欣; 杨爱莲; 魏天莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析深圳地区2003~2013年献血者抗-丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)抗体/病毒核酸检测(NAT)阳性检出情况。方法献血者经乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)快速试纸条初筛后,使用进口与国产两种酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)及血液病毒 NAT 方法检测抗-HCV 抗体、HCV RNA,对11年来献血者抗-HCV 抗体、NAT 阳性率流行趋势进行统计分析比较。结果深圳地区2003~2013年献血人数逐年增长,抗-HCV 抗体阳性率呈 M 型检出走势,于2013年达到最低。献血者抗-HCV 抗体阳性/NAT 阴性检出率与抗-HCV 抗体走势一致,而真实感染 HCV 的指标抗-HCV 抗体与 NAT 双阳性组检出率则缓慢下降;对抗-HCV 抗体阳性献血者在不同分类组别比较发现,31~45岁献血者组、初次献血者组的抗-HCV 抗体检出率分别高于其他年龄组与重复献血者(P <0.05);抗-HCV 抗体阴性/NAT 阳性献血者有3例(检出率为1/134518)。结论NAT 检测为常规酶联免疫方法的补充检测手段,缺一不可,能大大降低输血风险,而 NAT 阴性献血者的抗-HCV 抗体阳性占多数的检测结果应引起重视,避免因假阳性导致此类献血者资格淘汰。%Objective To investigate and analyze the popular trend of HBV infection in blood donors in Shenzhen City from 2003 to 2012.Methods After preliminary routine strip screening of HBsAg、ALT,blood samples were tested by using both domestic and imported ELISA reagents along with nucleic acid detection,then tried to find a trend of HCV prevalence in blood donor by analysis data.Results Blood donors′number rised year by year from 2003 to 2013,but prevalence of anti-HCV gave a volatile reception, which had a lowest rate at 2013.The detection rate of anti-HCV positive/NAT-was basically the same as anti-HCV positive,where-as the detection rate of anti-HCV positive/NAT positive declined slightly in those confirmed HCV infectors;blood donors were

  14. Bacterial and fungal genome detection PCR/NAT: discussion of the Mai 2015 distribution for external quality assessment of nucleic acid-based protocols in diagnostic medical microbiology by INSTAND e.V.

    OpenAIRE

    Reischl, U.; W. Schneider; Ehrenschwender, M; Hiergeist, A; Maaß, M.; Baier, M; Straube, E; Frangoulidis, D.; Grass, G.; von Buttlar, H; Fingerle, V.; A Sing; Jacobs, E; Reiter-Owona, I; Anders, A.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides an analysis report of the recent proficiency testing scheme "Bacterial and Fungal Genome Detection (PCR/NAT)". It summarizes some benchmarks and the overall assessment of results reported by all of the participating laboratories. A highly desired scheme for external quality assessment (EQAS) of molecular diagnostic methods in the field of medical microbiology was activated in 2002 by the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) and is now organized by INST...

  15. Comparison the effect of individual donation NAT and minipool of 16 donations NAT%单检及16份混样检测模式对献血者核酸检测效果的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美兰; 任芙蓉; 龚晓燕; 姚凤兰; 王卓妍; 朱家明; 刘江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of individual donation-nucleic acid amplification test (ID-NAT) and minipool of 16 donations-NAT (P16-NAT) on the results of NAT of blood donors.Methods From February 2009 to June 2009,samples randomly collected from voluntary blood donors in Beijing were tested individually or in pooling of 16 donations by the PROCLEIX ULTRIO assay.For ID-NAT reactive samples with HBsAg,anti-HCV,or anti-HIV serologically unqualified,ID-NAT repeat reactive samples with serologically qualified,and P16-NAT reactive and followed resolution ID-NAT reactive samples,were performed for further discriminatory assays for HIV-1,samples and followed resolution ID-NAT reactive samples,were performed for further discriminatory assays for HBV,HCV and HIV-1 discriminatory reagents.Samples which were HBV NAT + alone with serologically qualified were further quantified and confirmed of HBV DNA by Roche HBV quantitative PCR,analyzed by HBV serology and were diluted to simulate if they could be detected in P16-NAT.Results ( 1 ) Among 7613 samples tested by ID-NAT,26 were NAT positive,i.e.the ID-NAT positive rate was 0.34% ( 26/7613 ). ( 2 ) Among 1004 P16 samples from 16 064 blood donations,27 were NAT positive,i.e.the P16-NAT positive rate was 0.17% (27/16 064).(3)In serological qualified donations,ID-NAT yield rate (1 in 826,9/7438 ) was much higher than P16-NAT ( 1 in 7875,2/15 750) (x2 =11.880,P < 0.05 ).All these 9 ID-NAT positive and 2 P16-NAT positive donations were discriminated as HBV NAT positive.There were no HCV NAT yield or HIV NAT yield samples. (4) Dilution assay showed only 2 of the 9 (22.22% ) ID-NAT HBV yields were detected by P16-NAT.(5)Eight ID-NAT and 2 P16-NAT positive samples were quantified for HBV DNA and confirmed as HBV NAT yield,although the virus loads were very low:2 samples had HBV viral loads of 15 IU/ml and 472 IU/ml,6 samples < 12 IU/ml,and 2 could not be detected in the original samples while had < 12 IU/ml and 14.3 IU

  16. Analyses of the Results of HIV-1 Western Blot Confirmative Test and NAT Test in Voluntary Blood Donors%无偿献血者HIV-1抗体蛋白印迹确认与核酸检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蓉; 王伦善; 盛琪琪; 赵阳; 蒋菲菲; 李敏; 刘忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the performance of confirmative Western blot (WB) and TMA-chemical luminescence test in detecting the reactive-samples for HIV antibody ELISA assay. Methods 117 reactive specimens detected by ELISA were repeatedly tested by two methods of primary screening assay and TMA-luminescence nucleic acid amplification testing(NAT). All samples of S/CO>0. 8 were analysed by the WB confirmative test. Serological tests participated in the external quality assessment (EQA) were surported by China CDC and Australian international CITIC as well as NAT participated in the EQA of Clinical Laboratory Center of the Ministry of Health and Australian CITIC. Results The results of all 117 tested samples were as followed, in primary screening test:S/CO>1,0. 8test: 7 were positive and 106 were negative, 4 cases could not be determined by this method. NAT test: 11 were HIV RNA positive and 106 were negative. Conclusion ELISA assay for the detection of HIV antibodies may result in false positive results. WB method can bring uncertain results. For the uncertain specimens, for instance, only positive in gpl60/120, P17, P24, NAT method can be used to confirm the HIV infection.%目的 对酶联免疫检测HIV抗体呈反应性标本进行蛋白印迹(WB法)确认和TMA-化学发光法对照检测,以探讨其应用特点.方法 将本中心检验科ELISA法检测结果呈HIV抗体反应性的117份标本,重新进行ELISA法检测,结果为S/CO>0.8的标本做蛋白印迹(WB法)确认试验.同时,对117份标本采用TMA-化学发光法检测核酸作为对照试验.血清学检测参加国家CDC及澳大利亚(CITIC)室间质评;核酸检测参加卫生部临检中心和澳大利亚(CITIC)室间质评.结果 ELISA初筛试验:117份标本中,S/CO>1的为37份;0.8<S/CO<1的为11份,S/CO<0.8的为69份;抗体确认试验:HIV抗体确认阳性7份,不确定4

  17. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Plus ID NAT assay for detection of HIV 1, HBV and HCV in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Procleix Ultrio Plusassay is a new-generation qualitative in vitro nucleic acid amplification test used to screen for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 RNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA and hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA in blood donors. This study was performed to compare the Procleix Ultrio assay with the new-generation Procleix Ultrio Plus Nucleic Acid Test (NAT assays. Materials and Methods: Ten thousand three hundred and two donor samples were run in parallel for ID NAT using the Procleix Ultrio and the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay. Simultaneously, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing was performed on an EVOLIS Walk away System for HIV, HCV, HBsAg and anti-HBc. Reactive samples were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the 10,302 samples tested during the study period, we identified 15 NAT yields, and all these revealed HBV DNA in the discriminatory assays. Eight of these were exclusive yields from the Ultrio Plus assay and the remaining seven cases were determined as HBV NAT yield, both by the Procleix Ultrio as well as the Ultrio Plus assays, i.e. "Combined" yields. No HCV or HIV 1 yields were detected during the study period by either of two assays. Conclusion: With an overall yield rate of 1 in 687 and an exclusive yield rate of 1 in 1287, the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay proved to be highly sensitive in detecting occult HBV infections.

  18. N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) in Tunisian Population: Correlation Between Acetylation Phenotype and Genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred tuberculous patients were studied during 2004-2005 to determine acetylation phenotype, frequent mutations of NAT2 gene and to compare acetylation phenotype with NAT2 genotype in Tunisian population. Acetylation phenotype was determined by determination of acetylation index. Five mutations of NAT2 gene were evaluated by PCR/RFLP. Results show bimodal distribution of acetylation SA and RA phenotype, 75% and 25% and genotype 56% and 44%, respectively. Ten NAT2 alleles were found, NAT2*4 being the major one. Thirty-two different genotypes were found (9 RA and 23 SA). The major one was NAT2*6 B/NAT2*4. The concordance value was 79%. A good sensibility (98, 2%) of acetylation test for SA detection was found. Thus, acetylation phenotype in SA is predicted with poor error risk. (author)

  19. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your provider for more information. ... acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

  20. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test is most often done to diagnose lactic acidosis . Normal Results 4.5 to 19.8 mg/ ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 118. Read More Acidosis Aerobic Anaerobic Heart failure - overview Hepatic Metabolism Muscle ...

  1. A Tropical "NAT-like" belt observed from space

    CERN Document Server

    Chepfer, Hélène; 10.1029/2008GL036289

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of cold tropical tropopause clouds are examined on a global scale, using two years of space-borne lidar observations from CALIPSO (June 2006 ? May 2008). The linear depolarization ratio, color ratio and backscatter signal are analyzed in tropical clouds colder than 200 K in a way similar to recent studies of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). It is found that the three categories of particles encountered in PSC (Ice, Sulfate Ternary Solutions or STS, and Nitric Acid Trihydrate or NAT) do also occur in tropical cold cloud layers. Particles with optical properties similar to NAT are few, but they cover the tropical belt and represent about 20% of cold cloud tropical particles. The optical behavior of these particles requires them to be small, non-spherical, optically thin, and persistent in the TTL at temperatures colder than 200 K; NAT particles and very small ice crystals meet these criteria.

  2. Influence of mountain waves and NAT nucleation mechanisms on Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation at local and synoptic scales during the 1999–2000 Arctic winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Browell

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A scheme for introducing mountain wave-induced temperature pertubations in a microphysical PSC model has been developed. A data set of temperature fluctuations attributable to mountain waves as computed by the Mountain Wave Forecast Model (MWFM-2 has been used for the study. The PSC model has variable microphysics, enabling different nucleation mechanisms for nitric acid trihydrate, NAT, to be employed. In particular, the difference between the formation of NAT and ice particles in a scenario where NAT formation is not dependent on preexisting ice particles, allowing NAT to form at temperatures above the ice frost point, Tice, and a scenario, where NAT nucleation is dependent on preexisting ice particles, is examined. The performance of the microphysical model in the different microphysical scenarios and a number of temperature scenarios with and without the influence of mountain waves is tested through comparisons with lidar measurements of PSCs made from the NASA DC-8 on 23 and 25 January during the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign in the 1999–2000 winter and the effect of mountain waves on local PSC production is evaluated in the different microphysical scenarios. Mountain wave-induced temperature fluctuations are introduced in vortex-covering model runs, extending the full 1999–2000 winter season, and the effect of mountain waves on large-scale PSC production is estimated in the different microphysical scenarios.

  3. Practical Evaluation of Stateful NAT64/DNS64 Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKOBERNE, N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that the approach to IPv6 transition is dual-stack deployment; however, it is not feasible in certain environments. As Network Address Translation -- Protocol Translation (NAT-PT has been deprecated, stateful NAT64 and DNS64 RFCs have been published, supporting only IPv6-to-IPv4 translation scenario. Now the question of usability in the real world arises. In this paper, we systematically test a number of widely used application-layer network protocols to find out how well they traverse Ecdysis, the first open source stateful NAT64 and DNS64 implementation. We practically evaluated 18 popular protocols, among them HTTP, RDP, MSNP, and IMAP, and discuss the shortcomings of such translations that might not be apparent at first sight.

  4. CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S Polymorphisms and Oral Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients: The NAT2 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte M J Merle

    Full Text Available Genetic susceptibility could be modified by environmental factors and may also influence differential responses to treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We investigated whether genotype could influence response to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-supplementation in the occurrence of choroidal new vessels (CNV.The Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 (NAT2 study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel, comparative study, including 250 patients aged 55 to 85 years with early lesions of age-related maculopathy, visual acuity better than 0.4 Logarithm of Minimum Angle of Resolution units in the study eye and neovascular AMD in the fellow eye. Patients were randomized at baseline to receive either 3 daily fish-oil capsules, each containing 280 mg DHA, 90 mg EPA and 2 mg Vitamin E, or placebo.Patients carrying the risk allele (C for CFH Y402H had no statistically significant increased risk for developing CNV in the study eye (Hazard Ratio (HR=0.97; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.54-1.76 for heterozygous and HR=1.29; 95%CI: 0.69-2.40 for homozygous. Patients carrying the risk allele (T for ARMS2 A69S had no statistically significant increased risk for developing CNV in the study eye (HR=1.68; 95%CI: 0.91-3.12 for heterozygous and HR=1.78; 95%CI: 0.90-3.52 for homozygous. A significant interaction was observed between CFH Y402H and DHA-supplementation (p=0.01. We showed a protective effect of DHA-supplementation among homozygous non-risk patients. Among these patients, occurrence of CNV was 38.2% in placebo group versus 16.7% in DHA group (p=0.008.These results suggest that a genetic predisposition to AMD conferred by the CFH Y402H variant limits the benefit provided by DHA supplementation.ISRCTN registry 98246501.

  5. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    OpenAIRE

    N K Naidu; Bharucha, Z. S.; Vandana Sonawane; Imran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory...

  6. P-CSCF's Algorithm for Solving NAT Traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Jae-Oh

    Many ways for efficient use of limited IP address of IPv4 are existed. The one of these ways is to construct the private network using Network Address Translator (NAT). NAT filtering rule makes network management easier. However, NAT Filtering rule makes NAT Traversal. Many solutions like Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN), Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) and Media Relay method exist. But these solutions require additional servers or devices. So, we suggest that P-CSCFs in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) change the packet's header and solve the NAT Traversal without any additional equipment.

  7. Amino acid transport in taxonomically diverse cyanobacteria and identification of two genes encoding elements of a neutral amino acid permease putatively involved in recapture of leaked hydrophobic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, M L; Herrero, A; Flores, E

    1997-02-01

    The activities of uptake of thirteen 14C-labeled amino acids were determined in nine cyanobacteria, including the unicellular strains Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803; the filamentous strain Pseudanabaena sp. strain PCC 6903, and the filamentous, heterocyst-forming strains Anabaena sp. strains PCC 7120 and PCC 7937; Nostoc sp. strains PCC 7413 and PCC 7107; Calothrix sp. strain PCC 7601 (which is a mutant unable to develop heterocysts); and Fischerella muscicola UTEX 1829. Amino acid transport mutants, selected as mutants resistant to some amino acid analogs, were isolated from the Anabaena, Nostoc, Calothrix, and Pseudanabaena strains. All of the tested cyanobacteria bear at least a neutral amino acid transport system, and some strains also bear transport systems specific for basic or acidic amino acids. Two genes, natA and natB, encoding elements (conserved component, NatA, and periplasmic binding protein, NatB) of an ABC-type permease for neutral amino acids were identified by insertional mutagenesis of strain PCC 6803 open reading frames from the recently published genomic DNA sequence of this cyanobacterium. DNA sequences homologous to natA and natB from strain PCC 6803 were detected by hybridization in eight cyanobacterial strains tested. Mutants unable to transport neutral amino acids, including natA and natB insertional mutants, accumulated in the extracellular medium a set of amino acids that always included Ala, Val, Phe, Ile, and Leu. A general role for a cyanobacterial neutral amino acid permease in recapture of hydrophobic amino acids leaked from the cells is suggested.

  8. Cost Savings Associated with Testing of Antibodies, Antigens, and Nucleic Acids for Diagnosis of Acute HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Karris, Maile Y.; Anderson, Christy M.; Sheldon R. Morris; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to identify all persons infected with HIV in the United States are driven by the hope that early diagnosis will lower risk behaviors and decrease HIV transmission. Identification of HIV-infected people earlier in the course of their infection with HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assays (4th-generation HIV assays) should help achieve this goal. We compared HIV RNA nucleic acid test (NAT) results to the results of a 4th-generation Ag/Ab assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo [HIV Com...

  9. N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (NAT) as a substrate for mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, V; Ben-Shalom, N

    1998-02-01

    N-acetyl tyrosine (NAT) is hydroxylated by mushroom tyrosinase and the N-acetyl dopa formed is oxidized by the enzyme to N-acetyl dopaquinone (lambda max = 390 +/- 10 nm). H2O2 and NH2OH each shortened the lag period of NAT hydroxylation by the enzyme. H2O2 had an effect on the changes with time in the spectrum of product(s) formed and on the spectrum of the final product(s) obtained when NAT was hydroxylated by mushroom tyrosinase, in a manner suggesting that H2O2 converts N-acetyl dopaquinone to a pink-violet product(s) (lambda max = 490 nm), whereas such a product(s) was not formed in the absence of H2O2. A pink-violet product(s) (lambda max 490 +/- 20 nm) was also formed when NAT was hydroxylated by mushroom tyrosinase in the presence of NH2OH or para amino benzoic acid (PABA), probably as a result of an interaction between N-acetyl dopaquinone and NH2OH or PABA forming mono- or di-oximes. Kojic acid (5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one) inhibited effectively the rate of NAT hydroxylation by mushroom tyrosinase in the absence or presence of H2O2. When NAT was oxidized by the enzyme in the absence of kojic acid, N-acetyl dopaquinone was formed at once and a shoulder at 490-530 nm appeared later. Under identical conditions but in the presence of kojic acid, a yellow product(s), characterized by a peak at 320 +/- 10 nm, was detected, suggesting that N-acetyl dopaquinone oxidizes kojic acid to the yellow product(s). Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one), a gamma-pyrone derivative structurally related to kojic acid, also inhibited the rate of NAT hydroxylation by mushroom tyrosinase. The addition of maltol at the plateau phase of the reaction resulted in an immediate decline in absorbance at 400 nm, suggesting that maltol conjugates with N-acetyl dopaquinone, yielding a product(s) characterized by a lower extinction coefficient at 400 nm than that of N-acetyl dopaquinone alone. The final brown-red product(s) formed when NAT was hydroxylated by mushroom

  10. Heterogeneous kinetics of H2O, HNO3 and HCl on HNO3 hydrates (α-NAT, β-NAT, NAD) in the range 175-200 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarelli, Riccardo; Rossi, Michel J.

    2016-09-01

    Experiments on the title compounds have been performed using a multidiagnostic stirred-flow reactor (SFR) in which the gas phase as well as the condensed phase has been simultaneously investigated under stratospheric temperatures in the range 175-200 K. Wall interactions of the title compounds have been taken into account using Langmuir adsorption isotherms in order to close the mass balance between deposited and desorbed (recovered) compounds. Thin solid films at 1 µm typical thickness have been used as a proxy for atmospheric ice particles and have been deposited on a Si window of the cryostat, with the optical element being the only cold point in the deposition chamber. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy in transmission as well as partial and total pressure measurement using residual gas mass spectrometry (MS) and sensitive pressure gauges have been employed in order to monitor growth and evaporation processes as a function of temperature using both pulsed and continuous gas admission and monitoring under SFR conditions. Thin solid H2O ice films were used as the starting point throughout, with the initial spontaneous formation of α-NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) followed by the gradual transformation of α- to β-NAT at T > 185 K. Nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) was spontaneously formed at somewhat larger partial pressures of HNO3 deposited on pure H2O ice. In contrast to published reports, the formation of α-NAT proceeded without prior formation of an amorphous HNO3 / H2O layer and always resulted in β-NAT. For α- and β-NAT, the temperature-dependent accommodation coefficient α(H2O) and α(HNO3), the evaporation flux Jev(H2O) and Jev(HNO3) and the resulting saturation vapor pressure Peq(H2O) and Peq(HNO3) were measured and compared to binary phase diagrams of HNO3 / H2O in order to afford a thermochemical check of the kinetic parameters. The resulting kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of activation energies for evaporation (Eev) and

  11. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination - applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Werwick, K; Winkler-Stuck, K; Hampe, W; Albrecht, P; Robra, BP

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: In the 2012/13 winter semester, the Magdeburg Medical Faculty introduced a test of knowledge for the selection of applicants. The Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine - Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat) comprises a multiple-choice test with questions on the aspects of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics relevant to medicine, which was specifically developed for the selection of medicine applicants. The aim is to study how the HAM-Nat influences student selection, the reasons...

  12. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination – applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Werwick, Katrin; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Hampe, Wolfgang; Albrecht, Peggy; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: In the 2012/13 winter semester, the Magdeburg Medical Faculty introduced a test of knowledge for the selection of applicants. The Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine - Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat) comprises a multiple-choice test with questions on the aspects of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics relevant to medicine, which was specifically developed for the selection of medicine applicants. The aim is to study how the HAM-Nat influences student selection, the reasons ...

  13. A mathematical approach to estimate the efficacy of individual-donation and minipool nucleic acid amplification test options in preventing transmission risk by window period and occult hepatitis B virus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marion; van Drimmelen, Harry; Coleman, Charl; Mitchel, Josephine; Reddy, Ravi; Lelie, Nico

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sensitivity data from a head-to-head comparison study in South Africa were used to compare the efficacy of the Ultrio Plus assay in individual-donation (ID) and minipool (MP)4 and MP8 formats with that of TaqScreen MP6 in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission risk. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The replicate nucleic acid test (NAT) results on 106 HBV NAT (Ultrio)-yield samples and 29 HBV DNA (Ultrio)-negative, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive samples were used to determine the viral load in copies/mL against the Eurohep HBV standard by probit analysis. Random viral load distributions were established in 32 pre-HBsAg window period (WP), 15 post-HBsAg WP, and 56 occult HBV infection (OBI) donations. Regression analysis of log viral load and Poisson distribution statistics of infectious HBV particles in blood components was used to predict infectivity and efficacy of NAT options in removing HBV transmission risk. RESULTS For red blood cell transfusions (20 mL of plasma), the modeling predicted an Ultrio Plus ID-NAT efficacy of 68 and 83% in removing WP and (antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen–negative) OBI transmission risk, respectively, compared to 52 and 49% by TaqScreen MP6. For 200 mL of fresh-frozen plasma the estimated efficacy levels by these ID- and MP6-NAT options reduced to 57 and 44% for WP and to 67 and 34% for OBI donations, respectively. CONCLUSION The efficacy of the currently available commercial NAT systems in reducing HBV transmission risk is mainly driven by the pool size and the transfusion plasma volume. The modeled OBI transmission risk and NAT efficacy levels were in line with those recently reported in three lookback studies and give more insight in the incremental safety provided by HBsAg and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen testing of ID-NAT screened blood. PMID:24749834

  14. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 genetic diversity and traditional subsistence: a worldwide population survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Sabbagh

    Full Text Available Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 is involved in human physiological responses to a variety of xenobiotic compounds, including common therapeutic drugs and exogenous chemicals present in the diet and the environment. Many questions remain about the evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the high prevalence of slow acetylators in the human species. Evidence from recent surveys of NAT2 gene variation suggests that NAT2 slow-causing variants might have become targets of positive selection as a consequence of the shift in modes of subsistence and lifestyle in human populations in the last 10,000 years. We aimed to test more extensively the hypothesis that slow acetylation prevalence in humans is related to the subsistence strategy adopted by the past populations. To this end, published frequency data on the most relevant genetic variants of NAT2 were collected from 128 population samples (14,679 individuals representing different subsistence modes and dietary habits, allowing a thorough analysis at both a worldwide and continent scale. A significantly higher prevalence of the slow acetylation phenotype was observed in populations practicing farming (45.4% and herding (48.2% as compared to populations mostly relying on hunting and gathering (22.4% (P = 0.0007. This was closely mirrored by the frequency of the slow 590A variant that was found to occur at a three-fold higher frequency in food producers (25% as compared to hunter-gatherers (8%. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Neolithic transition to subsistence economies based on agricultural and pastoral resources modified the selective regime affecting the NAT2 acetylation pathway. Furthermore, the vast amount of data collected enabled us to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of NAT2 worldwide genetic diversity, thus building up a useful resource of frequency data for further studies interested in epidemiological or anthropological research

  15. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section 862.1450....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base...

  16. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable and not...... and not correlated with auxin strength measured in the Avena coleoptile test....

  17. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295....1295 Folic acid test system. (a) Identification. A folic acid test system is a device intended to measure the vitamin folic acid in plasma and serum. Folic acid measurements are used in the diagnosis...

  18. The Bacillus anthracis arylamine N-acetyltransferase ((BACAN)NAT1) that inactivates sulfamethoxazole, reveals unusual structural features compared with the other NAT isoenzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inés; Kubiak, Xavier Jean Philippe;

    2011-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that biotransform arylamine drugs. The Bacillus anthracis (BACAN)NAT1 enzyme affords increased resistance to the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole through its acetylation. We report the structure of (BACAN)NAT1. Unexpectedly......, endogenous coenzymeA was present in the active site. The structure suggests that, contrary to the other prokaryotic NATs, (BACAN)NAT1 possesses a 14-residue insertion equivalent to the "mammalian insertion", a structural feature considered unique to mammalian NATs. Moreover, (BACAN)NAT1 structure shows...

  19. Implementing growth and sedimentation of NAT particles in a global Eulerian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. P. van den Broek

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a concise and efficient algorithm to mimic the growth and sedimentation of Nitric Acid Trihydate (NAT particles in the polar vortex in a state-of-the-art 3D chemistry transport model. The particle growth and sedimentation are calculated using the microphysical formulation of Carslaw et al. (2002. Once formed, NAT particles are transported in the model as tracers in the form of size-segregated quantities. Two different approaches were adopted for this purpose: one assuming a fixed particle number density ("FixedDens" and the other assuming a discrete set of particle diameter values ("FixedRad". Simulations were performed for three separate 10-day periods during the 1999–2000 Arctic winter and compared to the results of an existing Lagrangian model study, which uses similar microphysics in a computationally more expensive method for the simulation of NAT particle growth. The resulting maximum particle sizes for both our approaches compare favourably at 96 hPa with those obtained from this previous model study, and also in-situ observations related to the size of large NAT particles. Comparisons were made with a standard equilibrium approach and the differences in the redistribution of HNO3 were found to be substantial. For both approaches the performance of the algorithm is rather insensitive to both the number of size bins and the shape of the size distribution. However, the percentage of HNO3 sequestered into NAT is critically dependent on the total number density of particles prescribed for each size bin.

  20. Experimental determination of proton induced reaction cross sections on {sup nat}Ni near threshold energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Shuza [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Shariff, Md. Asad; Das, Sopan [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    A newly developed facility at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator at Dhaka for measurement of proton induced reaction cross sections in the energy region below 5 MeV is outlined and tests for the beam characterization are described. The results were validated by comparison with the well-known excitation function of the {sup 64}Ni(p, n){sup 64}Cu reaction. Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 60,61}Cu, {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 55,57,58m+g}Co and {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 57}Ni were also measured from threshold to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, whereby irradiations were performed with 5 MeV protons available at the Tandem Accelerator and 16.7 MeV protons at the BC 1710 cyclotron at Juelich, Germany. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. In particular, the results of the reaction {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 61}Cu below 3 MeV could serve as beam monitor.

  1. 病毒核酸检测在献血者保留中的应用%The application of nucleic acid testing in keeping blood donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新建

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the situation of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in Anyang city by analyzing false positive on ELISA method,and to assess blood samples of voluntary blood donors using detecting nucleic acid of HBV and HCV.Methods ELISA makes blood samples of 50 267 voluntary blood donors,and Real Time PCR tests positive specimens on HBsAg and antibody to HCV,and then blood donors whose results were single positive ELISA and negative NAT would be tracked after 6 months.Results The unmatch rate between two ELISA products in HBV and HCV tests was 46.7%.There were 249 specimens which showed positive in either of two ELISA tests but negative in PCR,and 103 samples that perform positive data in both ELISA products but negative PCR results.The x2 was 114.154 (P<0.01) between single and both positive HBV results,and this statistical item was 61.109 (P<0.01) in HCV comparison.83 of 91 tracked men had ELISA (-) NAT (-) results.Conclusion Real Time PCR could distinguish effectively false positive ELISA results of voluntary blood donors.We should apply Real Time PCR to our volunteers for keeping current blood donors and improving regular ones.%目的 了解安阳地区献血人群中,乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)和丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)用酶联免疫吸附法(ELASL)检测的假阳性情况,对无偿献血人群的血标本进行HBV和HCV核酸检测(NAT)的可行性评估.方法 对无偿献血者血液样本50 267份开展ELISA检测,对乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)和抗丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)阳性标本开展实时荧光定量PCR检测,并对ELISA单试剂(+)NAT(-)献血者6个月后进行追踪检测.结果 两个项目两种ELISA试剂检测结果不相符率达46.7%,ELISA检测方法单试剂阳性者PCR呈阴性者249份,EIISA检测方法双试剂阳性者PCR呈阴性者103份.HBV项目单试剂阳性组与双试剂阳性组比较,差异有统计学意义(x2 =114.154,P<0.01);HCV项目单试剂阳性组与双试剂阳性组比

  2. 核酸检测技术在安徽血液中心血液筛检中的应用分析%Application of nucleic acid testing(NET)technology for blood screening in Anhui blood center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蓉; 盛琪琪; 赵阳; 刘忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨核酸检测(NAT)技术用于血液筛查的意义。方法采用实时荧光定量PCR和转录介导扩增(TMA)两种方法分别对我站298份及6737份无偿献血者标本进行单人份病毒核酸检测(ID-NAT),并将两种核酸检测方法的结果与ELASA检测结果进行对比分析。结果两种方法均存在相当比例的ELASA(+)、NAT(-)结果,德国GFE核酸检测试剂HBV、HCV阳性检出率低于美国诺华的ID-TMA检测试剂。经TMA-NAT检测发现本地区2次ELASA血清学方法进行血液病毒筛查HBV的残余风险为万分之4.8。本次研究没有发现HCV和HIV的血清学漏检。诺华ID-NAT核酸检测试剂存在一定的假阳性。结论核酸检测对于降低输血传播传染病的风险起到了非常重要的作用;诺华TIGRIS核酸检测体系适用于献血者血液病毒的筛查。%Objective To investigate the signification of nucleic acid testing (NAT)technology in blood screening.Methods The 298 and 6737 blood donors'samples were detected with individual donation NAT(ID-NAT)by using real-time PCR and TMA,respectively. The results from two nucleic acid testing were analyzed compared with those from ELISA.Results Both methods contained a considerable proportion of results in ELASA(+)and NAT(-).The positive detection rate of the GFE NAT reagents in HBV and HCV was lower than the detection reagents of Novartis ID-TMA.Through TMA-NAT detection we find that the residual rate was 4.8 in a million by using twice serolo-gy method of ELASA which was used to screen the blood of HBV in our area.Undetected samples between HCV and HIV were not found by using serology method in this research.There was a false positive in the detection reagents of Novartis ID-NAT.Conclusion NAT could play an important role in decreasing the risk of blood transfusion.Novartis TIGRIS system of NAT is appropriate for screening the virus of the do-nors'blood .

  3. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  4. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G; Baylis, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  5. MeIQx-induced DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis in DNA repair deficient CHO cells expressing human CYP1A1 and rapid or slow acetylator NAT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaly, Jean; Zhao, Shuang; Neale, Jason R.; Metry, Kristin J.; Doll, Mark A.; States, J. Christopher; Pierce, William M.; Hein, David W.

    2007-01-01

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is one of the most potent and abundant mutagens in the western diet. Bioactivation includes N-hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450s followed by O-acetylation catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). Nucleotide excision repair-deficient chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were constructed by stable transfection of human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and a single copy of either NAT2*4 (rapid acetylator) or NAT2*5B (slow acetylator) alleles. CYP1A1 and NAT2 catalytic activities were undetectable in untransfected CHO cell lines. CYP1A1 activity did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the CYP1A1-transfected cell lines. Cells transfected with NAT2*4 had significantly higher levels of sulfamethazine N-acetyltransferase (p = 0.0001) and N-hydroxy-MeIQx O-acetyltransferase (p = 0.0093) catalytic activity than cells transfected with NAT2*5B. Only cells transfected with both CYP1A1 and NAT2*4 showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutagenesis following MeIQx treatment. dG-C8-MeIQx was the primary DNA adduct formed and levels were dose-dependent in each cell line and in the order: untransfected < transfected with CYP1A1 < transfected with CYP1A1 & NAT2*5B < transfected with CYP1A1 & NAT2*4. MeIQx DNA adduct levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in CYP1A1/NAT2*4 than CYP1A1/NAT2*5B cells at all concentrations of MeIQx tested. MeIQx-induced DNA adduct levels correlated very highly (r2 = 0.88) with MeIQx-induced mutants. These results strongly support extrahepatic activation of MeIQx by CYP1A1 and a robust effect of human NAT2 genetic polymorphism on MeIQx –induced DNA adducts and mutagenesis. The results provide laboratory-based support for epidemiological studies reporting higher frequency of heterocyclic amine-related cancers in rapid NAT2 acetylators. PMID:17627018

  6. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishna Shyamala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI, a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP and occult HBV infections (OBI. Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.

  7. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Naidu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results : The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions : What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors , there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction.

  8. INTERMEDIATE-MASS FRAGMENTS IN N-14+TB-159/AG-NAT/CU-NAT REACTIONS AT 22 MEV/U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOSIN, Z; BRZYCHCZYK, J; GROTOWSKI, K; HINNEFELD, JD; KOLDENHOF, EE; KOZIK, T; LEEGTE, HKW; LUKASIK, J; MICEK, S; PLANETA, R; SIEMSSEN, RH; WIELOCH, A; WILSCHUT, HW

    1994-01-01

    The yields of intermediate-mass fragments from the reactions N-14 + Tb-159/(nat)Ag/(nat)Cu have been measured at 22 MeV/u. A complete set of double-differential cross sections d2sigma/dE dOMEGA ranging from 15-degrees to 165-degrees and with low-energy thresholds has been obtained. The evolution of

  9. 核酸检测中HIV病毒载量对内质控扩增的影响%Effects of HIV viral load on internal control amplification by using NAT technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余谨; 毕昊; 陆华新; 王先广; 赵磊; 沈钢

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估酶联免疫法的窗口期HIV血样.方法 将酶联免疫法阴性标本采用六混样用2种试剂进行平行核酸检测,在检测出阳性标本后,亦用2种试剂对其拆分进行单管核酸检测.结果 10个月内共筛查16769例酶联免疫阴性标本中,核酸检测出1例HIV阳性标本,罗氏一代试剂由于该标本病毒载量浓度过高体现出抑制作用,罗氏二代试剂未显示出抑制作用.结论 目前现行开展的检测技术仍有安全隐患,为进一步保证临床用血的安全,开展核酸检测可以提高临床用血质量,为临床安全用血提供强有力的保障.%Objective To determine the prevalence of viral infections (HBV.HCV and HIV) in serological window period in blood donors screened with nucleic acid testing (NAT) . Methods All blood donors were tested with serological tests( Ag-HBVs,Anti-HCV and Anti-HIV)and molecular testing with NAT by PP6 and rPPl for HBV.HCV and HIV. The window period was defined with the positive NAT and negative serological test. Results During ten months, we evaluated 16 769 blood donors. One subject was identified with HIV in serological window period. HIV viral load has the effect on internal control amplification by using NAT technique. Conclusion Unsafe blood in the performance of viral infections due to HIV in serological window period in donors by using NAT technique.

  10. Tissue donation and virus safety: more nucleic acid amplification testing is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, A; Caspari, G; Krüger, D H; Blümel, J; Nübling, C M; Gürtler, L; Gerlich, W H

    2010-10-01

    In tissue and organ transplantation, it is of great importance to avoid the transmission of blood-borne viruses to the recipient. While serologic testing for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and -2, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc), and Treponema pallidum infection is mandatory, there is until now in most countries no explicit demand for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) to detect HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and HCV infection. After a review of reports in the literature on viral transmission events, tissue-specific issues, and manufacturing and inactivation procedures, we evaluated the significance of HIV, HCV, and HBV detection using NAT  in  donors of various types of tissues and compared our results with the experiences of blood banking organizations. There is a significant risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission by musculoskeletal tissues because of their high blood content and the high donor-recipient ratio. If no effective virus inactivation procedure for musculoskeletal tissue is applied, donors should be screened using NAT  for  HIV, HCV, and HBV. Serologically screened cardiovascular tissue carries a very low risk of HIV, HCV, or HBV transmission. Nevertheless, because effective virus inactivation is impossible (retention of tissue morphology) and the donor-recipient ratio may be as high as 1:10, we concluded that NAT  should be performed for HIV, HCV, and HBV as an additional safety measure. Although cornea allografts carry the lowest risk of transmitting HIV, HCV, and HBV  owing to corneal physiology, morphology, and the epidemiology of corneal diseases, NAT  for  HCV should still be performed. If the NAT  screening of a donor for HIV, HCV, and HBV is negative, quarantine storage of the donor tissue seems dispensable. In view of numerous synergistic effects with transfusion medicine, it would be advantageous for tissue banks to cooperate with blood

  11. Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1, NAT1 and NAT2 genes and bladder cancer risk in men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for bladder cancer. Epidemiological and biological data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in activating and detoxifying enzymes may play a role in determining an individual's susceptibility to bladder cancer in particular when in combination with specific environmental exposures such as cigarette smoking. N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2, are involved in the activation and detoxification of tobacco smoke constituents. Polymorphisms in these genes alter the ability of these enzymes to metabolize carcinogens, as certain allelic combinations result in a slow or rapid acetylation phenotype. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) also detoxify tobacco smoke constituents, and polymorphisms within the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes can result in a complete lack of enzyme activity. We assessed the association between common polymorphisms identified in the GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes and the risk of bladder cancer in two nested case-control studies within the Nurses' Health Study (n = 78 female cases, 234 female controls) and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (n = 139 male cases, 293 male controls). We also evaluated whether cigarette smoking modified the associations of the genotypes and bladder cancer risk in men and women. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between the polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk among men and women, although given our sample size, we had limited power to detect small to moderate effects. There was however the suggestion of an increased risk among female ever smokers with the NAT2 slow genotype and an increased risk in male never smokers with the GSTM1 null genotype. In summary, these prospective results are consistent with previous literature supporting associations between bladder cancer and the NAT2 slow acetylation and the GSTM1 null genotypes

  12. Detection efficiency simulation and measurement of 6LiI/natLiI scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Being of very high detection efficiency and small size, Lithium iodide (LiI) scintillator detector is used extensively in neutron measurement and environmental monitoring. Purpose: Using thermal reactor, neutron detectors will be tested and calibrated. And a new neutron detector device will be designed and studied. Methods: The relationship between the size and detection efficiency of the thermal neutron detector 6LiI/natLil was studied using Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and MCNP5 package, and the thermal neutron efficiency of detector was calibrated by reactor neutrons. Results: The theoretical simulation shows that the thermal neutron detection efficiency of detector of 10-mm thickness is relatively high, the enriched 6Lil is up to 98% and the nature natLiI 65%. The thermal neutron efficiency of detector is calibrated by reactor thermal neutrons. Considering the neutron scattering by the lead brick, high density polythene and environment neutron contribution, the detection efficiency of 6LiI detector is about 90% and natLiI detector 70%. Conclusion: The detector efficiency can reach the efficiency value of theoretical calculations. (authors)

  13. Estimation of thermal neutron flux from natZr activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron transmutation doped (NTD) Ge thermistors are developed as low temperature thermometry (in mK range) in the cryogenic Tin bolometer, the India-based TIN detector (TIN.TIN). For this purpose, semiconductor grade Ge wafers are irradiated with thermal neutron at Dhruva reactor, BARC and dopant concentration critically depends on thermal neutron fluence. In order to obtain an independent estimate of the thermal neutron flux, natZr is used in one of the irradiations. The irradiated natZr samples have been studied in the Tifr Low background Experimental Setup (TiLES). The thermal neutron flux is estimated from the activity of 95Zr

  14. NAT Traversal Capability and Keep-Alive Functionality with IPSec in IKEv2 Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAMAN SINGH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since IPv4 Private Networks are behind NAT (Network Address Translation devices. So, to bypass the Binding Update and Binding Acknowledgment by NAT, we need to encapsulate it in UDP (User datagram Protocol Packets. Hence, the Dual Stack Mobile IPv6 should support NAT Traversal and Detection. So for proper securing and fully functionality of NAT traversal, it should be IP Security Protected. Paper presents design and implementation of NAT traversal capability and keeps alive functionality with IP Security in IKEv2 (Internet Key Exchange version 2 implementation for proper Data Communication. It also implements how IPSec integrate with NAT.

  15. Formation of large NAT particles and denitrification in polar stratosphere: possible role of cosmic rays and effect of solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of large nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles has important implications for denitrification and ozone depletion. Existing theories can't explain the recent observations of large NAT particles over wide Arctic regions at temperature above ice frost point. Our analyses reveal that high-energy comic rays may induce the freezing of supercooled HNO3−H2O–H2SO4 droplets when they penetrate these thermodynamically unstable droplets. The cosmic ray-induced freezing (CRIF is consistent with the observed highly selective formation of NAT particles. We suggest that the physics behind the CRIF mechanism is the reorientation of polar solution molecules into the crystalline configuration in the strong electrical fields of moving secondary ions generated by passing cosmic rays. Our simulations indicate that strong solar proton events (SPEs may significantly enhance the formation of large NAT particles and denitrification. The CRIF mechanism can explain the high correlations between the thin nitrate-rich layers in polar ice cores and major SPEs. The observed enhancement in aerosol backscattering ratio at PSC layers shortly after an SPE and the significant precipitation velocity of the enhanced PSC payers also provide strong support for the CRIF mechanism.

  16. Arylamine N-acetyl Transferase (NAT) in the blue secretion of Telescopium telescopium: xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme as a biomarker for detection of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorain, Bapi; Chakraborty, Sumon; Pal, Murari Mohan; Sarkar, Ratul; Samanta, Samir Kumar; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-01-01

    Telescopium telescopium, a marine mollusc collected from Sundarban mangrove, belongs to the largest mollusca phylum in the world and exudes a blue secretion when stimulated mechanically. The blue secretion was found to metabolize (preferentially) para-amino benzoic acid, a substrate for N-acetyl transferase (NAT), thereby indicating acetyl transferase like activity of the secretion. Attempts were also made to characterise bioactive fraction of the blue secretion and to further use this as a biomarker for monitoring of marine pollution. NAT like enzyme from marine mollusc is a potential candidate for detoxification of different harmful chemicals. A partially purified extract of blue secretion was obtained by fractional precipitation with (NH4)2SO4. From different fractions obtained by precipitation, the 0-30% fraction (30S) displayed NAT like activity (using para amino benzoic acid as a substrate with para nitrophenyl phosphate or acetyl coenzyme A as acetyl group donors). Maximum NAT like enzyme activity was attained at 25°C and at a pH of 6. The enzyme activity was found to be inhibited by 5 mM phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride. The divalent metal ions reduced NAT like activity of 30S. Moreover, Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (at concentration of 1 mM) completely inhibited NAT activity. The thermal stability and bench-top stability studies were performed and it was found that the enzyme was stable at room temperature for more than 24 hours. Results from the present study further indicate that heavy metal content in blue secretion gradually decreased from pre-monsoon to post-monsoon season, which also corresponded to the change in NAT like activity. Therefore, this article stresses the importance of biomarker research for monitoring pollution. PMID:26034680

  17. Primary screening of blood donors by nat testing for HCV-RNA: development of an "in-house" method and results Triagem primária de doadores de sangue por teste de ácidos nucléicos: desenvolvimento de um método não-comercial e resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Wendel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An "in-house" RT-PCR method was developed that allows the simultaneous detection of the RNA of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV and an artificial RNA employed as an external control. Samples were analyzed in pools of 6-12 donations, each donation included in two pools, one horizontal and one vertical, permitting the immediate identification of a reactive donation, obviating the need for pool dismembering. The whole process took 6-8 hours per day and results were issued in parallel to serology. The method was shown to detect all six HCV genotypes and a sensitivity of 500 IU/mL was achieved (95% hit rate. Until July 2005, 139,678 donations were tested and 315 (0.23% were found reactive for HCV-RNA. Except for five false-positives, all 310 presented the corresponding antibody as well, so the yield of NAT-only donations was zero, presenting a specificity of 99.83%. Detection of a window period donation, in the population studied, will probably demand testing of a larger number of donations. International experience is showing a rate of 1:200,000 - 1:500,000 of isolated HCV-RNA reactive donations.Desenvolveu-se uma metodologia própria ("in-house" baseada em RT-PCR, que permite detectar simultaneamente o RNA do vírus HCV e de um RNA artificial empregado como controle externo. As amostras são analisadas em pools de 6-12 doações, cada doação sendo incluída em dois pools diferentes, um horizontal e um vertical, permitindo a identificação imediata de uma doação reativa, sem a necessidade de desmembrar-se um pool reativo. O processo todo consumiu de 6-8 horas diárias e os resultados foram emitidos em paralelo à sorologia. O método detectou os seis genótipos de HCV, com um limite de sensibilidade de 500 UI/mL (95% hit rate. Até julho de 2005 haviam sido testadas 139.678 doações com a detecção de 315 (0,23% doações reativas para HCV-RNA. Exceto cinco falso-positivas, todas estas doações também apresentavam o respectivo anticorpo, portanto

  18. Anti-hepatitis B core antigen testing with detection and characterization of occult hepatitis B virus by an in-house nucleic acid testing among blood donors in Behrampur, Ganjam, Orissa in southeastern India: implications for transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Rajesh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection might transmit viremic units into the public blood supply if only hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg testing is used for donor screening. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection among the HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive donations from a highly HIV prevalent region of India. Methods A total of 729 HBsAg negative donor units were included in this study. Surface gene and precore region were amplified by in house nucleic acid test (NAT for detection of occult HBV infection and surface gene was analyzed after direct sequencing. Results A total of 220 (30.1% HBsAg negative donors were antiHBc positive, of them 66 (30% were HBV DNA positive by NAT. HBV DNA positivity among 164 antiHBc only group, was 27.1% and among 40 antiHBs positive group was 30.0%. HBV/D (93.3% was predominant and prevalence of both HBV/C and HBV/A was 3.3%. Single or multiple amino acids substitutions were found in 95% samples. Conclusion Thus, a considerable number of HBV infected donors remain undiagnosed, if only HBsAg is used for screening. Addition of antiHBc testing for donor screening, although will lead to rejection of a large number of donor units, will definitely eliminate HBV infected donations and help in reducing HBV transmission with its potential consequences, especially among the immunocompromised population. The HBV genetic diversity found in this donor population are in accordance with other parts of India.

  19. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, P C; Jones, R N; Barry, A L; Thornsberry, C

    1984-01-01

    Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of ticarcillin plus the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid was performed on 489 clinical isolates, and the results were compared with reference broth microdilution susceptibilities. Four different disks containing 75 micrograms of ticarcillin plus 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 micrograms of clavulanic acid were evaluated. Based on test performance and clavulanic acid stability, the 75-10-micrograms disk is recommended. Interpretive criteria for ticarcillin as published by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards appear to be satisfactory for the combination drug, but because the number of ticarcillin-clavulanic acid-resistant isolates was small, this proposal must be considered only tentative. PMID:6715524

  20. Improvements in algorithms for phenotype inference: the NAT2 example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have analyzed the impact of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms on drug efficacy, side effects as well as cancer risk. Here, we present the state of the art of deriving haplotypes from polymorphisms and discuss the available software. PHASE v2.1 is currently considered a gold standard for NAT2 haplotype assignment. In vitro studies have shown that some slow acetylation genotypes confer reduced protein stability. This has been observed particularly for G191A, T341C and G590A. Substantial ethnic variations of the acetylation status have been described. Probably, upcoming agriculture and the resulting change in diet caused a selection pressure for slow acetylation. In recent years much research has been done to reduce the complexity of NAT2 genotyping. Deriving the haplotype from seven SNPs is still considered a gold standard. However, meanwhile several studies have shown that a two-SNP combination, C282T and T341C, results in a similarly good distinction in Caucasians. However, attempts to further reduce complexity to only one 'tagging SNP' (rs1495741) may lead to wrong predictions where phenotypically slow acetylators were genotyped as intermediate or rapid. Numerous studies have shown that slow NAT2 haplotypes are associated with increased urinary bladder cancer risk and increased risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. A drawback of the current practice of solely discriminating slow, intermediate and rapid genotypes for phenotype inference is limited resolution of differences between slow acetylators. Future developments to differentiate between slow and ultra-slow genotypes may further improve individualized drug dosing and epidemiological studies of cancer risk.

  1. Complementarity of ELISA and nucleic acid amplification test in blood screening%血筛用酶联免疫吸附试验与核酸检测互补性探讨和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾劲峰; 叶贤林; 马兰; 张红; 庄乃保; 李活

    2008-01-01

    目的 为了提高临床输血的安全性,探讨核酸检测(NAT)与酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)技术在血液筛查工作中的互补特性.方法 对2007年6月至2008年3月采集的无偿献血者标本共计45 022例用ELISA血清学检测方法对血液传染性指标HBsAg、抗-HCV、抗-HIV、梅毒螺旋体、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)进行检测,各项指标均正常的标本用NAT技术检测,以研究2种检测方法的互补性.结果 45 022例标本中血清学检测及ALT不合格人数共计803例,不合格率为1.98%.对各项检测指标合格的36 806例标本进行核酸检测,结果HBV-DNA呈阳性3例.HBV-RNA、HIV-RNA均未检出.结论 NAT与ELISA的血液筛查检测互补作用主要体现在3个方面:1)病理生理过程互补,检测窗口期的长短主要由检测对象的生理属性来决定,而非检测方法缺陷.2)检测方法学互补,由于检测方法学的不同使得NAT技术的检测灵敏度明显高于ELISA血清学检测方法.3)影响各自实验的错误发生各不相同.%Objective To investigate the complementarity of ELISA and nucleic acid amplification test(NAT)in blood screening,and to improve the security of clinieal blood transfusion.Methods A total of 45 022 blood samples from the blood donors without payment from June 2007to March 2008 were enrolled in the study.ELISA was applied to determining HBsAg,anti-HCV,anti-HIV,anti-treponema pallidum(anti-TP)and ALT,and then the normal samples for the above parameters(serologically negative for HBsAg.anti-HCV, anti-HIV,anti-TP and ALT)were detected with NAT.The complementarity of ELISA and NAT was analyzed.Results Totally 803 cases(1.98%)were unqualified(serologically positive)out of the 45 022 blood samples.The qualified 36 806samples were further detected with NAT.The results showed 3 cases were HBV-DNA positive,but none was positive for HBV-RNA and HIV-RNA.Conclusion The complementary action of ELISA and NAT is due to different window phase for detected

  2. [Clinical relevance of N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2) genetic polymorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furet, Y; Bechtel, Y; Le Guellec, C; Bechtel, P R; Autret-Leca, E; Paintaud, G

    2002-01-01

    Polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of several compounds relevant in pharmacology or toxicology, with diverse clinical consequences. Inter-ethnic variations in distribution of the acetylation phenotype are significant. The caffeine test is most often used to assess the acetylation phenotype and to identify rapid and slow acetylators. The NAT2 phenotype could account for the increased risk of certain side effects in slow acetylators treated with isoniazid (particularly peripheral neuropathies and lupus erythematosus), although therapeutic efficacy seems to be independent of the acetylation status. Hypersensibility reactions with sulfonamides (including Lyell and Stevens-Johnson syndromes) are more frequent in slow acetylators, who also show poor tolerance to sulfasalazine and dapsone. In contrast, myelotoxicity induced by amonafide is more frequent in rapid acetylators, probably because of increased production of a toxic metabolite of the drug. In carcinogenesis, NAT2 may play a protective role against bladder cancer, although studies have shown contradictory results. Slow acetylators may have a risk of developing primitive liver cancer. For lung cancer, data are not conclusive, but slow acetylation status may predispose to mesothelioma in subjects exposed to asbestos. No relation has been found between acetylation phenotype and breast cancer. Contradictory results were reported on its role in colorectal cancer. Non-smoking type 1 diabetics may be at increased risk of nephropathy if they are rapid acetylators. Parkinson's disease may be more frequent among slow acetylators, but again, data have shown contradictory results. Finally, a poor acetylator phenotype may predispose to atopic diseases. PMID:12611196

  3. Proton-induced fission at 190 MeV of W-nat, Au-197, Pb-nat, Pb-208, and Th-232

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvestijn, MC; Koning, AJ; Beijers, JPM; Gastal, M; van Klinken, J; Ostendorf, RW

    1999-01-01

    Proton-induced fission at 190 MeV of W-nat, Au-197, Pb-nat, Pb-208, and Th-232 is studied by means of an innovative method based on activation analysis. The fission-product mass distribution is reconstructed from the fission-product yields, which are obtained from off-line observed gamma-ray spectra

  4. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  8. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine: results of the first international collaborative quality control study among 96 laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); G.T. Noordhoek; P.E. Klapper; J. Reid; J. Schirm; G.M. Cleator; M. Ieven; G. Hoddevik

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, includ

  9. Positive direct antiglobulin tests due to clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M E; Thomas, D; Harman, C P; Mintz, P D; Donowitz, G R

    1985-01-01

    Clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, was found to be associated with the development of a positive direct antiglobulin test. Of 23 antibiotic courses in patients treated with ticarcillin, clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, 10 (43.5%) developed positive direct antiglobulin tests versus 2 of 26 (7.7%) patients treated with piperacillin and tobramycin (P = 0.0044). In vitro immunohematological studies showed that clavulanic acid caused a nonimmunologic adsorption of plasma proteins onto the erythrocyte surface. Hemolysis was not associated with such nonimmunologic adsorption. However, the resulting positive antiglobulin test might delay cross matching of blood products for transfusions or interfere with the evaluation of true immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. PMID:3872623

  10. Genotyping NAT2 with only two SNPs (rs1041983 and rs1801280) outperforms the tagging SNP rs1495741 and is equivalent to the conventional 7-SNP NAT2 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Moormann, Oliver; Guballa, Christoph; Kress, Alexander; Truss, Michael C; Gerullis, Holger; Otto, Thomas; Barski, Dimitri; Niegisch, Günter; Albers, Peter; Frees, Sebastian; Brenner, Walburgis; Thüroff, Joachim W; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Seidel, Thilo; Roth, Gerhard; Dietrich, Holger; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans M; Bolt, Hermann M; Falkenstein, Michael; Zimmermann, Anna; Klein, Torsten; Reckwitz, Thomas; Roemer, Hermann C; Löhlein, Dietrich; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Schöps, Wolfgang; Hassan Rizvi, Syed Adibul; Aslam, Muhammad; Bánfi, Gergely; Romics, Imre; Steffens, Michael; Ekici, Arif B; Winterpacht, Andreas; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Genotyping N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is of high relevance for individualized dosing of antituberculosis drugs and bladder cancer epidemiology. In this study we compared a recently published tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1495741) to the conventional 7-SNP genotype (G191A, C282T, T341C, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A haplotype pairs) and systematically analysed if novel SNP combinations outperform the latter. For this purpose, we studied 3177 individuals by PCR and phenotyped 344 individuals by the caffeine test. Although the tagSNP and the 7-SNP genotype showed a high degree of correlation (R=0.933, P<0.0001) the 7-SNP genotype nevertheless outperformed the tagging SNP with respect to specificity (1.0 vs. 0.9444, P=0.0065). Considering all possible SNP combinations in a receiver operating characteristic analysis we identified a 2-SNP genotype (C282T, T341C) that outperformed the tagging SNP and was equivalent to the 7-SNP genotype. The 2-SNP genotype predicted the correct phenotype with a sensitivity of 0.8643 and a specificity of 1.0. In addition, it predicted the 7-SNP genotype with sensitivity and specificity of 0.9993 and 0.9880, respectively. The prediction of the NAT2 genotype by the 2-SNP genotype performed similar in populations of Caucasian, Venezuelan and Pakistani background. A 2-SNP genotype predicts NAT2 phenotypes with similar sensitivity and specificity as the conventional 7-SNP genotype. This procedure represents a facilitation in individualized dosing of NAT2 substrates without losing sensitivity or specificity.

  11. Rinkodaros komunikacijos priemonių poveikis natūralių kosmetikos produktų vartojimui

    OpenAIRE

    Valkūnaitė, Indrė

    2011-01-01

    Tyrimo objektas – natūralios kosmetikos vartotojų informaciniai poreikiai. Tyrimo tikslas – ištyrus natūralių kosmetikos produktų vartotojų informacinius poreikius, parengti rinkodaros komunikacijos kanalo ,,gamintojas – vartotojas“ modelį. Uždaviniai: 1) Atskleisti rinkodaros komunikacijos poveikį vartojimui teoriniu aspektu. 2) Išanalizuoti natūralių kosmetikos produktų rūšis, kokybinius reikalavimus ir sertifikavimo sistemas Europos Sąjungoje bei Lietuvoje. 3) Nustatyti nat...

  12. Neutron emission asymmetries from linearly polarized γ rays on ^natCd, ^natSn, and ^181Ta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke Smith, W.; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in neutron yields produced by bombarding targets with linearly polarized photons via (γ,n), (γ,2n), and (γ,f) reactions are being investigated as a possible means of identifying various nuclear isotopes. The High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) at Duke University provides nearly monochromatic, circularly or linearly polarized γ rays with high intensity by Compton backscattering free-electron-laser photons from stored electrons. Linearly polarized γ rays produced by HIγS were incident on ^natCd, ^natSn, and ^181Ta targets at six energies Eγ between 11.0 and 15.5 MeV and emitted neutrons were detected both parallel and perpendicular to the plane of polarization by an array of 18 liquid-scintillator detectors at angles in the range θ=55^o--142^o. Detected neutrons were distinguished from Compton scattered photons by pulse-shape-discrimination and timing cuts, and their energies (En) were determined using time-of-flight information over a 0.5 m flight path. The characteristic plots of Rn, the ratio of neutron counts parallel to neutron counts perpendicular to the plane of the incident γ-ray polarization, against En were constructed for each value of Eγ and θ and then compared to those for other targets studied at HIγS, including fissile nuclei ^235U and ^238U.

  13. Global analysis of cis-natural antisense transcripts and their heat-responsive nat-siRNAs in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiang; Yang, Jun; Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Xuxin; Sun, Chuanbao; Wu, Feijie; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa includes several important leaf vegetable crops whose production is often damaged by high temperature. Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) and cis-NATs-derived small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However, genome-wide cis-NATs in B. rapa are not known. The NATs and nat-siRNAs that respond to heat stress have never been well studied in B. rapa. Here, we took advantage of RNA-seq and small RNA (sRNA...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  15. NAT10, a nucleolar protein, localizes to the midbody and regulates cytokinesis and acetylation of microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Qi; Zheng, Xingzheng; McNutt, Michael A.; Guang, Lizhao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Jiaochen; Gong, Yilei; Hou, Lin [Department of Pathology, Health Science Center of Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbo@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Health Science Center of Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-06-10

    The midbody is a structural organelle formed in late phase mitosis which is responsible for completion of cytokinesis. Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. In this study, we demonstrated that NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase 10, NAT10) is not only predominantly distributed in the nucleolus in interphase, but is also concentrated in the mitotic midbody during telophase. The domain in N-terminal residues 549-834 of NAT10 specifically mediated its subcellular localization. Treatment with genotoxic agents or irradiation increased concentration of NAT10 in both the nucleolus and midbody. Moreover, DNA damage induced increase of NAT10 in the midbody apparently accompanied by in situ elevation of the level of acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting that it plays a role in maintaining or enhancing stability of {alpha}-tubulin. The depletion of NAT10 induced defects in nucleolar assembly, cytokinesis and decreased acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest or delay of mitotic exit. In addition, over-expression of NAT10 was found in a variety of soft tissue sarcomas, and correlated with tumor histological grading. These results indicate that NAT10 may play an important role in cell division through facilitating reformation of the nucleolus and midbody in the late phase of cell mitosis, and stabilization of microtubules.

  16. Nat1 Deficiency Is Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Exercise Intolerance in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indumathi Chennamsetty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 as an insulin resistance (IR gene. Here, we examine the cellular mechanism linking NAT2 to IR and find that Nat1 (mouse ortholog of NAT2 is co-regulated with key mitochondrial genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of Nat1 led to mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial fragmentation as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, biogenesis, mass, cellular respiration, and ATP generation. These effects were consistent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, C2C12 myoblasts, and in tissues from Nat1-deficient mice, including white adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle. Nat1-deficient mice had changes in plasma metabolites and lipids consistent with a decreased ability to utilize fats for energy and a decrease in basal metabolic rate and exercise capacity without altered thermogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that Nat1 deficiency results in mitochondrial dysfunction, which may constitute a mechanistic link between this gene and IR.

  17. A Study Guide for Stephen B. Oates' "The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    2006-01-01

    This document is a study guide for Stephen B. Oates biography of Nat Turner, "The Fires of Jubilee." The book is a practical reading vehicle for introducing Nat Turner to secondary students in grades 11 and 12. Oates divides his work into four parts, which could provide the basis for four reading assignments, although the sections are not of equal…

  18. Analytical Modelling of Localized P2P Streaming Systems under NAT Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. M. Masoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available NAT has been design to work with Internet client-server structure. The emerged of Peer-to-Peer (P2Pnetworks and applications revealed the incompatibility between P2P applications and NAT. Many methodshas been developed and implemented to solve connectivity between peers behind NAT devices.Nevertheless, various NATing types can’t communicate with one another. In this work, we are going tostudy the impact of NAT types on the start-up delay time of peers in P2P streaming systems. We willdemonstrate the ability of NATing to expel peers in P2P live streaming systems. A new neighbour selectingalgorithm will be proposed. This algorithm will utilize NAT-types configurations as a parameter. We haveutilized NS2 simulator to show the performance of the new algorithm in increasing the connectivity,reducing the number of expelled peers and implementing of locality.

  19. Operation of the radioactive acid-digestion test unit (RADTU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, research and development work concerned with the acid digestion of combustible waste with high plutonium content is being carried out. The main objectives are the reduction of the waste volume, the recovery of the plutonium and the transformation of the process residues into a product suitable for final disposal. For this purpose an inactive demonstration plant with a throughput of 1.5 kg/h has been constructed. In the first version, the reactor of this plant was a tray reactor of the HEDL type. During test operations the sedimentation of a residue was observed on the tray. The density of this residue was higher than that of the residue suspended in the reaction acid. Experiments using tantalum oxide (D=8.4 g/cm3) to simulate the plutonium oxide (D=11.5 g/cm3) have verified this observation. This means that in active operation a sedimentation of plutonium oxide on the tray is to be expected. With respect to these results a new reactor was developed where the settling of the residue is avoided by appropriate design and high circulation velocity of the reaction acid. The reactor consists of a tube 50-80 mm in diameter, which is curved to form a closed loop with an arm length of about 1x1 m. Since October 1979 this ring reactor has been under inactive test operation. Its behaviour is very stable. The velocity of the reaction acid in the heater is 0.5-1 m/s. A settling of residues or tantalum oxide has not been observed. The throughput attained is comparable to that of the tray reactor but the space requirement is three times smaller, and the volume of the reaction acid four times smaller. (author)

  20. Arylamine N-acetyl Transferase (NAT) in the blue secretion of Telescopium telescopium: xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme as a biomarker for detection of environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gorain, Bapi; Chakraborty, Sumon; Pal, Murari Mohan; Sarkar, Ratul; Samanta, Samir Kumar; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-01-01

    Telescopium telescopium, a marine mollusc collected from Sundarban mangrove, belongs to the largest mollusca phylum in the world and exudes a blue secretion when stimulated mechanically. The blue secretion was found to metabolize (preferentially) para-amino benzoic acid, a substrate for N-acetyl transferase (NAT), thereby indicating acetyl transferase like activity of the secretion. Attempts were also made to characterise bioactive fraction of the blue secretion and to further use this as a b...

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Bacillus cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 [(BACCR)NAT3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubiak, Xavier Jean Philippe; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès;

    2012-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that catalyze the acetylation of arylamines. All functional NATs described to date possess a strictly conserved Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterizat......Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that catalyze the acetylation of arylamines. All functional NATs described to date possess a strictly conserved Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system... Test Systems § 862.1020 Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. (a) Identification. An acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the...

  4. The ultra-slow NAT2*6A haplotype is associated with reduced higher cognitive functions in an elderly study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Falkenstein, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level. Relative to the standard stimuli, deviant stimuli decreased performance in the recently described ultra-slow acetylators (NAT2*6A and *7B): The increase in error-corrected reaction times (a combined measure of response speed and accuracy) in ultra-slow acetylators (254 ms increase) was more than twice as high as in the rapid acetylator reference group (111 ms increase; p < 0.01). The increase was still higher than in the other slow acetylators (149 ms increase, p < 0.05). In addition, clear differences were found in the ERP results: Ultra-slow acetylators showed deficits specifically in the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment as evidenced by reduced mismatch negativity (MMN, p < 0.005 compared to rapid acetylators). Refocussing of attention after a distracting event was also impaired in the ultra-slow acetylators as evidenced by a reduced re-orienting negativity (RON, p < 0.01 compared to rapid acetylators). In conclusion, the ultra-slow acetylation status was associated with reduced higher cognitive functions.

  5. System for portable nucleic acid testing in low resource settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to enable timely diagnosis of infectious diseases through nucleic acid testing at the point-of-care and in low resource settings, via a compact system that integrates nucleic acid sample preparation, isothermal DNA amplification, and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection. We herein present an interim milestone, the design of the amplification and detection subsystem, and the characterization of thermal and fluidic control and assay execution within this system. Using an earlier prototype of the amplification and detection unit, comprised of a disposable cartridge containing flexible pouches, passive valves, and electrolysis-driven pumps, in conjunction with a small heater, we have demonstrated successful execution of an established and clinically validated isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) reaction targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA, coupled to NALF detection. The refined design presented herein incorporates miniaturized and integrated electrolytic pumps, novel passive valves, overall design changes to facilitate integration with an upstream sample preparation unit, and a refined instrument design that automates pumping, heating, and timing. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that facilitates fluid handling and appropriate thermal control. The disposable cartridge is manufactured using low-cost and scalable techniques and forms a closed system to prevent workplace contamination by amplicons. In a parallel effort, we are developing a sample preparation unit based on similar design principles, which performs mechanical lysis of mycobacteria and DNA extraction from liquefied and disinfected sputum. Our next step is to combine sample preparation, amplification, and detection in a final integrated cartridge and device, to enable fully automated sample-in to answer-out diagnosis of active tuberculosis in primary care facilities of low-resource and high-burden countries.

  6. Virtual Private Overlays: Secure Group Commounication in NAT-Constrained Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Choi, Tae Woong; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Structured P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications that are self-configuring, scalable, and resilient to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale Internet services such as content delivery networks and file sharing; however, widespread adoption in small/medium scales has been limited due in part to security concerns and difficulty bootstrapping in NAT-constrained environments. Nonetheless, P2P systems can be designed to provide guaranteed lookup times, NAT traversal, point-to-point overlay security, and distributed data stores. In this paper we propose a novel way of creating overlays that are both secure and private and a method to bootstrap them using a public overlay. Private overlay nodes use the public overlay's distributed data store to discover each other, and the public overlay's connections to assist with NAT hole punching and as relays providing STUN and TURN NAT traversal techniques. The security framework utilizes groups, which are cr...

  7. NAT/FIREWALL TRAVERSING BASED ON THE TECHNOLOGY OF FULL PROXY%基于Full Proxy的NAT/Firewall的穿越

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章仁龙; 罗宁

    2006-01-01

    VoIP语音视频流对NAT/Firewall的穿越已经成为语音数据业务开展过程中最大的障碍.Full Proxy提供了一种NAT/Firewall穿越的有效途径,具有很强的适应性和透明性.深入讨论了Full Proxy的实现原理和基于Full Proxy的整个呼叫流程,最后在一个嵌入式双CPU系统的基础上实现了一个Full Proxy.

  8. Research and Implementation of SIP Traversal NAT%SIP中NAT穿透技术的研究及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小燕; 曾桂根; 李敏

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of data service, packet -based multimedia communication system standards are widely used in vidco conference and IP phone. VolP developed from new generation network which is one of the most representative and perspective application technologies. SIP as one of signal control protocols of VoIP has great growth potentialities. So in order to extend the development of VoIP service, solving the problem of SIP traversal well will be an important research topic. In this paper, propose a solution for SIP traversal NAT through NATs based on UDP protocol. Finally realize the program in the VC environment and give the test results.%随着IP数据业务的蓬勃发展,基于分组的多媒体通信系统标准被广泛运用于视频会议和IP电话中,VOIP是新一代网络时代发展起来的最具代表性和发展前途的应用技术之一,SIP作为VOIP中的一种信令控制协议,具有很大的增长潜力,但SIP协议在设计时没有考虑到实际网络中会部署很多的NAT,为了更好的推广VOIP业务的发展,解决好SIP穿越NAT的问题将是一个重大的研究课题.文中主要在基于UDP穿透技术的基础上为SIP中NAT穿透提出了一种解决方案.最终在VC环境下实现该方案并给出测试结果.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  10. Clarifying haplotype ambiguity of NAT2 in multi-national cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Agundez, Jose A G; Martinez, Carmen; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is the key enzyme in aromatic amine metabolism. NAT2 genotyping requires a subsequent determination of the haplotype pairs (formerly: alleles) to derive the acetylation status. The chromosomal phase of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unclear for about 2/3 of the genotypes. We investigated NAT2 genotypes of 1,234 bladder cancer cases and 2,207 controls from Germany, Hungary, Pakistan and Venezuela plus 696 further German cancer cases. We reconstructed NAT2 haplotypes using PHASE v2.1.1. We analysed if the variability of the NAT2 haplotypes affected the haplotype reconstruction. Furthermore, we compared population haplotype frequencies in three Caucasian control cohorts (German, Hungarian, Spanish), in Pakistanis and Venezuelans and the impact on bladder cancer. We conclude that a common haplotype reconstruction is feasible, enhances precision and reliability. Hungarian controls showed the largest intra-ethnic variability whereas the Pakistanis showed a haplotype distribution typical for Caucasians. The main differences could be observed for the slow haplotypes *5B, *6A and *7B. The association of slow NAT2 genotypes with bladder cancer risk was most prominent in the Venezuelan study group.

  11. Prevalence of the N-Acetyltransferase (NAT2 gene polymorphism 282C>T in Peruvian population and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar-Granara Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency of the C282T polymorphism of the NAT2 gene (N acetyltransferase in Peruvian populations. Field work, focused on exploring genetic risk factor in Peruvian populations, which has influence in the response to drugs and malignancies aetiology. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. 166 voluntaries from Lima, Lambayeque, Apurimac, Puno, San Martin, Amazonas and Loreto were enrolled. The sampling was done by convenience and it was use the RFLP-PCR conventional technique was used. Results: The allele frequency were 54% (n=126 for C282 and 46% (n=106 for T282. For the T allele, by its orign , stand out 2 those which origins were Lima 42% (n=25, Amazonas 47% (n=16, San Martin 74% (n=28 and Apurimac 50% (n=13 (X , p>0.05. A global genotype frequency were 26.7% (n=31 for C282/C282, 56.0% (n=65 for C282/T282 and 17.2% (n=20 for T282/T282 (Hardy Weinberg Test p>0.05. By origin, Puno presented allelic imbalance (Hardy Weinberg test p0.05. Conclusion: The overall frequency of NAT2 allele T282 was 46%; San Martin had the highest prevalence (74%. The T282 allele is linked to neoplastic diseases and adverse reactions to anti-TB drugs, these results will be used for the application of pharmacogenetics in Peru

  12. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-05-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1 - 3 × 10-4 Torr H2O and 1 - 2.5 × 10-6 Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  13. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity characteristic leach ing

  14. Refinement of the prediction of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotypes with respect to enzyme activity and urinary bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) are well known to modify urinary bladder cancer risk as well as efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals via reduction in the enzyme's acetylation capacity. Nevertheless, the discussion about optimal NAT2 phenotype prediction, particularly differentiation between different degrees of slow acetylation, is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms and their haplotypes on slow acetylation in vivo and on bladder cancer risk. For this purpose, we used a study cohort of 1,712 bladder cancer cases and 2,020 controls genotyped for NAT2 by RFLP-PCR and for the tagSNP rs1495741 by TaqMan(®) assay. A subgroup of 344 individuals was phenotyped by the caffeine test in vivo. We identified an 'ultra-slow' acetylator phenotype based on combined *6A/*6A, *6A/*7B and *7B/*7B genotypes containing the homozygous minor alleles of C282T (rs1041983, *6A, *7B) and G590A (rs1799930, *6A). 'Ultra-slow' acetylators have significantly about 32 and 46 % lower activities of caffeine metabolism compared with other slow acetylators and with the *5B/*5B genotypes, respectively (P < 0.01, both). The 'ultra-slow' genotype showed an association with bladder cancer risk in the univariate analysis (OR = 1.31, P = 0.012) and a trend adjusted for age, gender and smoking habits (OR = 1.22, P = 0.082). In contrast, slow acetylators in general were not associated with bladder cancer risk, neither in the univariate (OR = 1.02, P = 0.78) nor in the adjusted (OR = 0.98, P = 0.77) analysis. In conclusion, this study suggests that NAT2 phenotype prediction should be refined by consideration of an 'ultra-slow' acetylation genotype.

  15. Production cross section of At radionuclides from $^{7}$Li+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Pb and $^{9}$Be+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Tl reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Moumita

    2011-01-01

    Earlier we reported theoretical studies on the probable production of astatine radionuclides from $^{6,7}$Li and $^{9}$Be-induced reactions on natural lead and thalliun targets, respectively. For the first time, in this report, production of astatine radionuclides has been investigated experimentally with two heavy ion induced reactions: $^{9}$Be+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Tl and $^{7}$Li+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Pb. Formation cross sections of the evaporation residues, $^{207,208,209,210}$At, produced in (HI, xn) channel, have been measured by the stacked-foil technique followed by the off-line $\\gamma$-spectrometry at the low incident energies ($<$50 MeV). Measured excitation functions have been explained in terms of compound nuclear reaction mechanism using Weisskopf-Ewing and Hauser-Feshbach model. Absolute cross section values are lower than the respective theoretical predictions.

  16. NAT2 polymorphisms combining with smoking associated with breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wang, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Jia-Lei; He, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Xi-Chun

    2010-10-01

    To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between the slow or rapid acetylation resulting from N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, a meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess strength of association. The pooled ORs were performed for slow versus rapid acetylation genotypes. A total of 26 studies including 9,215 cases and 10,443 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, no significantly elevated breast cancer risk was associated with NAT2 slow genotypes when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (OR = 1.026, 95% CI = 0.968-1.087). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, increased risks were not found for either Caucasians (OR = 1.001, 95% CI = 0.938-1.068) or Asians (OR = 1.155, 95% CI = 0.886-1.506). When stratified by study design, statistically significantly elevated risk associated with NAT2 slow genotypes was only found among hospital-based studies (OR = 1.178, 95% CI = 1.037-1.339). In the subgroup analysis by menopausal status, no statistically significantly increased risk was found in either premenopausal (OR = 1.053, 95% CI = 0.886-1.252) or postmenopausal women (OR = 0.965, 95% CI = 0.844-1.104). When stratified by cumulative smoking exposure, in the subgroup of smokers with high pack-years, NAT2 slow genotypes were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.400, 95% CI = 1.099-1.784). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that there is overall lack of association between NAT2 genotypes and breast cancer risk, however, NAT2 polymorphisms when combining with heavy smoking history may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:20180012

  17. Reliability of Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine: Results of the First International Collaborative Quality Control Study among 96 Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooyen, Roel; Noordhoek, G T; Klapper, P.E.; Reid, J.; Schirm, J.; Cleator, G. M.; Ieven, M.; Hoddevik, G.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, including three negative, two strongly positive, and five weakly positive samples. Ninety-six laboratories in 22 countries participated with a total of 102 data sets. Of 204 strongly positive samples 199 (97.5%) were corr...

  18. Influence of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NAT1, NAT2, EPHX1, MTR and MTHFR polymorphism on chromosomal aberration frequencies in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjelbred, Camilla Furu; Svendsen, Marit; Haugan, Vera; Eek, Anette Kildal; Clausen, Kjell Oskar; Kure, Elin H; Tuimala, Jarno T; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Norppa, Hannu; Hansteen, Inger-Lise

    2011-03-01

    We have studied the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the xenobiotic-metabolizing genes GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, NAT1 and NAT2 and the folate-metabolizing genes MTR and MTHFR on the frequencies of cells with chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral lymphocytes of Norwegian men. Log-linear Poisson regression models were applied on 357 subjects of whom data on all the polymorphisms examined were available. Total CAs and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) were significantly increased by higher age alone, whereas chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) were elevated by the GSTT1-null genotype and MTHFR codon 222 variant allele and chromatid gaps (CTGs) by EPHX1 high activity genotype and occupational exposure. Stratification by smoking and age (<40 and ≥40 years) showed that the effect of the GSTT1 null and EPHX1 high activity genotypes only concerned (older) smokers, in agreement with the roles of the respective enzymes in detoxification and metabolic activation. The MTHFR codon 222 variant allele was associated with high CTGs in smokers, the MTR codon 919 variant allele with high CTAs in older smokers and the NAT2 fast acetylator genotype with high CTGs in older subjects. Among younger nonsmokers, however, carriers of the MTHFR codon 222 and MTR codon 919 variant alleles showed a decrease in the level of CTGs and total CAs, respectively. In conclusion, polymorphisms of GSTT1, EPHX1, MTHFR, MTR and NAT2 differentially affect the frequency of CTAs, CSAs and CTGs, showing interaction with smoking and age. It appears that CA subtypes rather than total CAs should be considered in this type of studies.

  19. How recent advances in molecular tests could impact the diagnosis of pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, David R

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic tests have been the single major development in pneumonia diagnostics over recent years. Nucleic acid detection tests (NATs) have greatly improved the ability to detect respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens that do not normally colonize the respiratory tract. In contrast, NATs do not yet have an established role for diagnosing pneumonia caused by bacteria that commonly colonize the nasopharynx due to difficulties discriminating between pathogens and coincidental carriage strains. New approaches are needed to distinguish infection from colonization, such as through use of quantitative methods and identification of discriminating cut-off levels. The recent realization that the lung microbiome exists has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of pneumonia involving the interaction between multiple microorganisms. New developments in molecular diagnostics must account for this new paradigm.

  20. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. G. Loomis (INEEL); A. P. Zdinak (MSE); M. A. Ewanic (MSE); J. J. Jessmore (INEEL)

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity

  1. The role of boric acid in the Phebus-FP tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data in this report should enable proposed methods for the introduction of boric acid into the Phebus-FP tests to be assessed. Boric acid chemistry is reviewed in the condensed, vapour and aqueous phases. The chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions of boric acid is complex, involving polyborate species resulting in enhanced acidities. Equations are presented that allow the partition of boric acid between the vapour and aqueous phase to be calculated at different boric acid concentrations. The volatility of boric acid is enhanced significantly in the presence of steam. Equations are given that allow the effective vapour pressure of boric acid to be determined as functions of the water vapour pressure for temperatures in the range from 723 to 1000oC. These data are confirmed by experimental studies designed to simulate specific aspects of the conditions in the Phebus-FP tests. (author)

  2. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and... North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace Section 1 NAT MNPS.... Section 2 The navigation performance capability required for aircraft to be operated in the...

  3. The Swedish new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCT) remains undetected by many European laboratories as revealed in the recent PCR/NAT ring trial organised by INSTAND e.V., Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, U; Straube, E; Unemo, M

    2009-01-01

    The May 2009 round of INSTAND's ring trial "Chlamydia trachomatis detection PCR/NAT" included a sample with high amount of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis (nvCT). A spectrum of at least 12 different commercial diagnostic nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and many different in house NAATs were applied by the 128 participating laboratories which reported 152 results. Approximately 80% of the results correctly reported the presence of C. trachomatis in the nvCT specimen. The nvCT sample was mainly missed, as expected, by participants using the Roche COBAS Amplicor CT/NG (15.5% of reported results) but also by several participants using in house NAATs. The trend towards using nvCT-detecting NAATs is obvious and in addition to the new dual-target NAATs from Roche and Abbott, and BD ProbeTec ET, also a number of new CE mark-certified commercial tests from smaller diagnostic companies as well as many different in house NAATs were used. Laboratories using commercial or in house NAATs that do not detect the nvCT are encouraged to carefully monitor their C. trachomatis incidence, participate in appropriate external quality assurance and controls schemes, and consider altering their testing system. The reliable detection of low amounts of the wildtype C. trachomatis strain in other samples of the ring trial set indicates a good diagnostic performance of all applied commercial NAATs while also detecting the nvCT strain. PMID:19679035

  4. [The relationship between passive smoking, breast cancer risk and n-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Zipora; Baron-Epel, Orna; Boker, Lital Keinan

    2014-01-01

    Invasive breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality as well as the most common malignancy among Israeli women. Over 3,800 Israeli women are diagnosed with invasive breast cancer every year and around 3400 women are diagnosed with breast carcinoma in-situ. Although smoking, either active or passive, is a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, cigarette smoking involves exposure to substrates of the NAT2 gene. The NAT2 genotype may modify the risk of cancer by activating or detoxifying heterocyclic and aromatic amines. Identification of a potential, modifiable risk factor for common and serious disease is very important for prevention and identification of high risk groups. This literature review aims to describe published studies and increase attention to measures of exposure to tobacco smoke, as well as to aspects of the NAT2 genotype that may modify the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. The results suggest that the NAT2 status has a differential effect on the association of active and passive smoking with breast cancer and demonstrates the need to consider possible different mechanisms associated with exposure to main and side-stream tobacco smoke. However, methodological limitations, such as small sample size, and varying definitions of smoking, are likely to have contributed to the inconsistent findings. PMID:24791559

  5. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    This annual and final report describes the results of the multi-year project entitled 'NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)' (http://www.natcarb.org). The original project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) in the midcontinent of the United States (MIDCARB) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration. The NatCarb system built on the technology developed in the initial MIDCARB effort. The NatCarb project linked the GIS information of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project includes access to national databases and GIS layers maintained by the NatCarb group (e.g., brine geochemistry) and publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS, and Geography Network) into a single system where data are maintained and enhanced at the local level, but are accessed and assembled through a single Web portal to facilitate query, assembly, analysis and display. This project improves the flow of data across servers and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project worked to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO{sub 2} carbon capture and storage data through a single website portal (http://www.natcarb.org/). While the external

  6. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862..., psoriasis, starvation or other wasting conditions, and of patients receiving cytotoxic drugs....

  7. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abu Bakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10. The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of nat...

  9. Study on screening blood donors by nucleic acid amplification technique combined with Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay%核酸扩增与酶联免疫法联合在血液筛查中的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜勇; 杨亮; 蒋炜; 王佳维; 张哲

    2012-01-01

    Objective;The purpose of this study was to improve security level of clinical blood transfusion and e-valuate the necessity and practicability of the testing methodology based on nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT) in addition to the regular immunoassay test (EIA). Methods; The samples tested as negative by ELISA were screened by NAT with two work flow ( single detection or combined detection). The NAT - positive samples were further tested by Roche COBAS CAP_CTM system and eletro - cheniluminescence(ECL) system to evaluate the virus load and serological properties. Results; 28 NAT-positive samples were detected in the 20,925 ELISA negative donor samples. All samples were HBV DNA positive and 11 among the 28 samples were serology positive. The remaining risk of HBV infection was 0.13% under the routine EIA test. Conclusion; The risk of HBV infection still remain under the current blood donor screening method using repeated ELISA testing. The introduction of NAT test can help to reduce the risk of transfusion - transmitted disease which has a great value to increase the safety of blood.%目的:在酶联免疫法( enzyme immunoassay,EIA)检测的基础上,探讨HBV核酸扩增检测(nucleic acid amplification testing NAT)技术应用于血液筛查的意义.方法:分别使用两种模式(单检或混检)NAT与EIA两遍检测方式同时进行血液筛查,对NAT阳性标本作进一步做鉴别试验和病毒血清标志物.结果:20925份EIA(-)标本共发现28份核酸三项(HBV DNA、HCV RNA、HIV RNA)呈反应性,均为HBV- DNA,即EIA两遍检测合格后的HBV- DNA阳性率0.13%,检测其中11份血清,乙肝标志物均呈阳性.结论:EIA阴性献血者中仍有极少数的HBV感染者,核酸扩增检测和酶联免疫检测互补能够检测出EIA漏检的HBV携带者,对提高HBsAg阴性血液标本中HBV感染检出率具有重要价值.

  10. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Ibrahim A.; Kobeissi, Loulou; Jabbour, Michel E.; Dhaini, Hassan R.

    2012-01-01

    In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002–2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1∗14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1∗14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR = 7.86, 95% CI: 1.53–40.39). A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1∗14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1∗14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1∗14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association. PMID:22956951

  11. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1 Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Yassine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1 genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002–2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1∗14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1∗14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR=7.86, 95% CI: 1.53–40.39. A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1∗14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1∗14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1∗14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association.

  12. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lasik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1 to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology and 2 to evaluate the electrical impedance measurement method usefulness for fast and high precise test of antibacterial activity. Material and methods. Four types of antimicrobial disinfectants (commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide, 1% performic acid, 35% hydrogen peroxide and 15% formic acid were tested against Escherichia coli as hygiene indicator test microorganism. By evaluating the biocidal activity of selected disinfectants two methods were compared: electrical impedance measurement and classical serial dilution method with turbidity effect. Results.  It was stated that the performic acid expressed the highest antibacterial activity in comparison to other tested peroxide disinfectants: commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide solution and components required for performic acid production: 35% hydrogen peroxide solution with stabilizers and 15% formic acid solution with stabilizers. It was demonstrated that the proposed alternative microbiology method of electrical imped- ance measurement facilitates a rapidly and more precise analyses of the intensity of disinfectants inhibition effect. Conclusions. It can be postulated that both, the performic acid disinfectants as well as the impedimetric method can be a good advantage in the industrial microbiology.  

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  14. Structures and functions of insect arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (iaaNAT; a key enzyme for physiological and behavioral switch in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu eHiragaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of N-acetyltransfeases (NATs seems complex. Vertebrate arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT has been extensively studied since it Leads to the synthesis of melatonin, a multifunctional neurohormone prevalent in photoreceptor cells, and is known as as a chemical token of the night. Melatonin also serves as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species. This is also true with invertebrates. NAT therefore has distinct functional implications in circadian function, as timezymes (aaNAT, and also xenobiotic reactions (arylamine NAT or simply NAT. NATs belong to a broader enzyme group, the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Due to low sequence homology and a seemingly fast rate of structural differentiation, the nomenclature for NATs can be confusing. The advent of bioinformatics, however, has helped to classify this group of enzymes; vertebrates have two distinct subgroups, the timezyme type and the xenobiotic type, which has a wider substrate range including imidazolamine, pharmacological drugs, environmental toxicants and even histone. Insect aaNAT (iaaNAT form their own clade in the phylogeny, distinct from vertebrate aaNATs. Arthropods are unique, since the phylum has exoskeleton in which quinones derived from N-acetylated monoamines function in coupling chitin and arthropodins. Monoamine oxidase (MAO activity is limited in insects, but NAT-mediated degradation prevails. However, unexpectedly iaaNAT occurs not only among arthropods but also among basal deuterostomia, and is therefore more apomorphic. Our analyses illustrate that iaaNATs has unique physiological roles but at the same time it plays a role in a timezyme function, at least in photoperiodism. Photoperiodism has been considered as a function of circadian system but the detailed molecular mechanism is not well understood. We propose a molecular hypothesis for photoperiodism in Antheraea pernyi based on the transcription regulation of NAT interlocked by the

  15. Thermogravimetric and DSC testing of poly(lactic acid) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mróz, Patrycja; Białas, Sylwia [Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Łódź, Wólczańska 15 Street, 90-924 Łódź (Poland); Mucha, Maria, E-mail: muchama@wipos.p.lodz.pl [Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Łódź, Wólczańska 15 Street, 90-924 Łódź (Poland); Kaczmarek, Halina [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, Gagarin 7 Street, 87-100 Toruń (Poland)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • The presence of nanoadditivities in PLA matrix improves thermal stability of PLA. • Shielding effect main reason for PLA thermal stability by nanofillers. • Thermal degradation suppression in UV-irradiated PLA by the removing of unstable compounds. - Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites based on poly(lactic acid), PLA, and two types of nanofillers: nanosilver and nanoclay were obtained by casting method. The thermal properties of PLA and nanocomposites have been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All samples have been UV-irradiated and the effect of photoprocess on their thermal stability has been estimated. It was found that nanoadditives and UV irradiation causes an increase of the activation energy of PLA thermal decomposition. DSC result supplies information on glass transition and crystallization/melting processes in PLA in the presence of nanosilver or nanoclay, also after exposure to UV.

  16. DHA supplementation for late onset Stargardt disease: NAT-3 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Querques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Querques1, Pascale Benlian1, Bernard Chanu2, Nicolas Leveziel1, Gabriel Coscas1, Gisele Soubrane1, Eric H Souied11Department of Ophthalmology, University of Paris XII, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Creteil, 2Department of Nutrition, University of Paris XII, Hopital Henry Mondor, Creteil, FranceBackground: We analyzed the effects of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation in patients affected with late onset Stargardt disease (STGD.Methods: DHA (840 mg/day was given to 20 STGD patients for six months. A complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG, was performed at inclusion day 0 (D0 and at month 6 (M6.Results: Overall, no statistical differences have been observed at M6 vs D0 as regards BCVA and mfERG (P > 0.05. Mild Improvement of BCVA and improvement of mfERG was noted in seven/40 eyes of four/20 patients. In the first patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 66 nV/deg² to 75.4 nV/deg² in the right eye (RE and 24.5 nV/deg² to 49.1 nV/deg² in the left eye (LE. The peak of the b wave improved from 122 nV/deg² to 157 nV/deg² in the RE, and 102 nV/deg² to 149 nV/deg² in the LE. In the second patient peaks of the a and b waves respectively increased from 11.8 nV/deg² to 72.1 nV/deg² and 53 nV/deg² to 185 nV/deg² in the RE. In the third patient the peak of the a wave increased from 37 nV/deg² to 43 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 31 nV/deg² to 45 nV/deg² in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 70 nV/deg² to 89 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 101 nV/deg² to 108 nV/deg² in the LE. In the fourth patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 39 nV/deg² to 42 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 40 nV/deg² to 43 nV/deg² in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 86 nV/deg² to 94 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 87 nV/deg² to 107 nV/deg² in the LE.Conclusion: DHA seems to influence some functional parameters in patients affected with

  17. Development and performance test of a continuous source of nitrous acid (HONO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Roessler, E.; Kalberer, M.; Bruetsch, S.; Schwikowski, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Zellweger, C.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Laboratory investigations involving nitrous acid (HONO) require a stable, continuous source of HONO at ppb levels. A flow type generation system based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with sulfuric acid has been developed. Performance and speciation of gaseous products were tested with denuder and chemiluminescence techniques. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  18. Calibration factors for determination of relativistic particle induced fission rates in natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration factors w, for determination of fission rate in metallic foils of natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au were determined for foils in contact with synthetic mica track detectors. Proton-induced fission at proton energies of 0.7 GeV and 1.5 GeV were used. Using our experimental results as well as those of the other authors, w for different foil-mica systems were determined. Two methods were used to calculate w, relative to the calibration factor for uranium-mica system, which has been obtained in a standard neutron field of energy 14.7 MeV. One of these methods requires the knowledge of the mean range of the fission fragments in the foils of interest and other method needs information on the values of the fission cross-sections at the required energies as well as the density of the tracks recorded in the track detectors in contact with the foil surfaces. The obtained w-values were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and good agreements were found. It is shown that a calibration factor obtained at low energy neutron induced fissions in uranium isotopes deviates only by less than 10% from those obtained at relativistic proton induced fissions.

  19. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic value of amino acid consumption test on exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ming Lei; Dai Yu Li; Jing Li; Qing Wang; Kai He; Shi Lin Zheng; Yong Gui Gan

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION Amino acid consumption test (AACT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in evaluating exocrine pancreatic insufficiency[1,2], but its diagnostic value to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in Chinese has not been well understood. In this study, the oral reagent stimulating pancreatic secretion (O-AACT) was used instead of cerulein (I-AACT) for amido acid consumption test and the dignostic efficiency of O-AACT was evaluated and compared with I-AACT on the exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in Chinese.

  1. Personnel Photon Dosimeter on the Base of TLD natLiF

    CERN Document Server

    Kaskanov, G Ya

    2003-01-01

    A personnel photon dosimeter on the base of thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) ^{nat}LiF is described. Experimental responses of the dosimeters in the unit of individual equivalent dose H_p(10) for energy of photons 59.5, 120, 662, and 1250 keV are presented. It is shown that the dosimeter allows one to measure H_p(10) with admissible uncertainty in the energy range from 60 to 1250 keV.

  2. Zum Nadelbaumanteil an der potentiellen natürlichen Vegetation der Lüneburger Heide

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Gisela

    1985-01-01

    Beobachtungen über das sehr agressive Naturverjüngungsverhalten von Kiefer und Fichte in der Lüneburger Heide gaben die Veranlassung, der Frage ihrer "Natürlichkeit" nachzugehen. Pollenanalysen aus der Nacheiszeit und Ergebnisse archivalischer Untersuchungen lassen als wahrscheinlich bis sicher annehmen, dass beide Baumarten auch ohne menschliches Zutun sich in der "Hohen Heide" bis zur Zeit der Aufforstungstätigkeit an Sonderstandorten gehalten haben. Pollenanalysen aus der letzten Zwischene...

  3. Design und Modellierung eines integrierten Bioprozesses zur Produktion natürlicher Aromastoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Maltzahn, Bianca

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein integrierter Bioprozess zur mikrobiellen Biokonversion von L-Phenylalanin zu den natürlichen Aromastoffen 2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) und 2-Phenylethylacetat (2-PEA) entwickelt und optimiert. Zur in situ Entfernung der inhibierenden Produkte (2-PE, 2-PEA) wurde das Verfahren der organophilen Pervaporation gewählt. Nach Charakterisierung und Optimierung des Prozesses erfolgten eine Maßstabsvergrößerung sowie die Erstellung eines Modells zur Beschreibung d...

  4. Application of control chart in the internal quality control of NAT%核酸检测室内质控评价和关键控制点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙穆; 冯秋霞; 马维娟; 杨忠思

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨核酸扩增检测(nucleic acid amplification test,NAT)的室内质控评价方法及关键控制点.方法 对NAT阳性标本病毒载量的自然对数(lnc)与Ct值进行相关性分析,利用“即刻法转L-J质控图法”对Ct值进行质控.将低浓度质控品按4℃保存时间不同分为7组,进行核酸检测,分析4℃保存时间对Ct值的影响.结果 NAT阳性标本的Ct值与lnc的相关系数r=-0.901(P <0.01).质控品在4℃保存72 h后与0h组比较,差异有统计学意义.结论 应用质控图法进行NAT室内质控是可行的,4℃长时间保存对质控品的Ct值影响较大.

  5. Urinary mutagenicity, CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity in textile industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanlo, Ana; Sinuès, Blanca; Mayayo, Esteban; Bernal, Luisa; Soriano, Antonia; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique

    2004-11-01

    The two major causes of bladder cancer have been recognised to be cigarette smoke and occupational exposure to arylamines. These compounds are present both in tobacco smoke and in the dyes used in textile production. Aromatic amines suffer oxidative metabolism via P450 cytochrome CYP1A2, and detoxification by the polymorphic NAT2. The aim of the present work was to assess the association between occupational-derived exposure to mutagens and CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity. This cross-sectional study included 117 textile workers exposed to dyes and 117 healthy controls. The urinary mutagenicity was determined in 24 h urine using TA98 Salmonella typhimurium strain with microsomal activation S9 (MIS9) or incubation with beta-glucuronidase (MIbeta). Urinary caffeine metabolite ratios: AFMU+1X+1U/17U, and AFMU/AFMU+1X+1U were calculated to assess CYP1A2 and NAT2 activities, respectively. The results show that workers present a strikingly higher urine mutagenicity than controls (p0.05) was compared, and the urinary mutagenicity was not significantly associated with the CYP1A2 activity marker (r=0.04 and r=-0.01 for MIS9 and MIbeta, respectively). This study clearly indicates the need for further protective policies to minimise exposure to the lowest feasible limit in order to avoid unnecessary risks.

  6. Distributed Broker-Agent Architecture for Multimedia Communications Traversing NAT/Firewall in NGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟先太; 金炜东

    2004-01-01

    The forthcoming Next Generation Network (NGN) is an all IP network. Multimedia communications over IP networks are a type of bundled session communications, which cannot directly traverse Network Address Translations (NATs) and firewalls even in NGN. To solve the problem that the existing traversal methods are not suitable for service providers to set up a real system in NGN,a Distributed Broker-agent Architecture (DBA) is addressed. DBA is secure and realizable for service providers and enterprises because it is easy to set up and does not need to upgrade the existing devices like Firewalls, NATs or endpoint devices of subscribers.DBA is composed of two-layer distributed agents, the server proxies and the client agents, in which all multimedia communications use shared tunnels to carry signaling messages and media data between broker-agents, and the call signaling is encrypted over Security Socket Layer (SSL) to guarantee the security of calling. Moreover, the function model and multiplexed connection messages format of DBA are designed, which lays a basis for the protocol in the future NGN. In addition, a simple implementation based on H.323 verifyies the main function of traversing firewalls and NATs.

  7. A new test procedure for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincke; Verstichel; Monteny; Verstraete

    1999-01-01

    A new test method is described for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete, more specifically in sewer conditions. The aim of the new test method is the development of an accelerated and reproducible procedure for monitoring the resistance of different types of concrete with regard to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion. This experimental procedure reflects worst case conditions by providing besides H2S, also an enrichment of thiobacilli and biologically produced sulfur. By simulating the cyclic processes occurring in sewer pipes, significant differences between concrete mixtures could be detected after 51 days. Concrete modified by a styrene-acrylic ester polymer demonstrated a higher resistance against biogenic sulfuric acid attack.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Bacillus cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 [(BACCR)NAT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.42 Å resolution and the crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C121. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that catalyze the acetylation of arylamines. All functional NATs described to date possess a strictly conserved Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Bacillus cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 [(BACCR)NAT3], a putative NAT isoenzyme that possesses a unique catalytic triad containing a glutamate residue, is reported. The crystal diffracted to 2.42 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.44, b = 44.52, c = 132.98 Å, β = 103.8°

  9. SBVR struktūrizuotos natūralios kalbos klausimų redagavimo įrankis

    OpenAIRE

    Pocius, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    Ontologijos užklausų rašymas paprastiems vartotojams yra per daug sudėtingas. Vartotojai labiausiai mėgsta pateikti užklausas natūralia kalba. Tačiau dar nėra sukurtų programų, kurios suprastų tikrą natūralią kalbą. Šiuo metu galimas sprendimas yra naudoti ribotą (struktūrizuotą) natūralią kalbą, kuri sudaroma pagal tam tikrus šablonus. Sukūrus SBVR metamodeliu grindžiamą struktūrizuotos natūralios kalbos užklausų redaktorių, vartotojui nereikėtų specialistų pagalbos norint peržiūrėti ontolog...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  11. An investigation into the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions used for cough reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, James R; Wu, Zimei; Lau, Hugo; Suen, Joanna; Wang, Lucy; Pottinger, Sarah; Lee, Elaine; Alazawi, Nawar; Kallesen, Molly; Gargiulo, Derryn A; Swift, Simon; Svirskis, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Citric acid is used in cough reflex testing in clinical and research settings to assess reflexive cough in patients at risk of swallowing disorders. To address a lack of knowledge in this area, this study investigated the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions. Triplicate solutions of citric acid (0.8 M) in isotonic saline were stored at 4 ± 2 °C for up to 28 days and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbiological sterility of freshly prepared samples and bulk samples previously used for 2 weeks within the hospital was determined using a pour plate technique. Microbial survival in citric acid was determined by inoculating Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Candida albicans into citric acid solution and monitoring the number of colony-forming units/mL over 40 min. Citric acid solutions remained stable at 4 °C for 28 days (98.4 ± 1.8 % remained). The freshly prepared and clinical samples tested were sterile. However, viability studies revealed that citric acid solution allows for the survival of C. albicans but not for S. aureus or E. coli. The microbial survival study showed that citric acid kills S. aureus and E. coli but has no marked effect on C. albicans after 40 min. Citric acid samples at 0.8 M remained stable over the 4-week testing period, with viable microbial cells absent from samples tested. However, C. albicans has the ability to survive in citric acid solution if inadvertently introduced in practice. For this reason, in clinical and research practice it is suggested to use single-use aliquots prepared aseptically which can be stored for up to 28 days at 4 °C.

  12. Modified performance test of vented lead acid batteries for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a modified performance test for vented lead acid batteries in stationary applications has been developed by the IEEE Battery Working Group. The modified performance test is defined as a test in the ''as found'' condition of the battery capacity and its ability to provide a high rate, short duration load (usually the highest rate of the duty cycle) that will confirm the battery's ability to meet the critical period of the load duty cycle, in addition to determining its percentage of rated capacity. This paper will begin by reviewing performance and service test requirements and concerns associated with both types of tests. The paper will then discuss the rationale for developing a modified performance test along with the benefits that can be derived from performing a modified performance test in lieu of a capacity test and/or a service test. The paper will conclude with an example on how to apply a modified performance test and test acceptance criteria

  13. Performance Degradation Tests of Phosphoric Acid Doped PBI Membrane Based High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Araya, Samuel Simon; Grigoras, Ionela;

    2014-01-01

    Degradation tests of two phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membrane based HT-PEM fuel cells were reported in this paper to investigate the effects of start/stop and the presence of methanol in the fuel to the performance degradation. Continuous tests with H2 and simulated reformate which was composed...

  14. Bile acid malabsorption in patients with chronic diarrhoea: clinical value of SeHCAT test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Nørby Rasmussen, S; Madsen, Jan Lysgård;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), a cause of chronic diarrhoea, can be diagnosed by the SeHCAT test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of SeHCAT testing by assessing the extent of BAM and describing the clinical characteristics in a group of patients with chronic...

  15. Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baoxiang; Wang, Hua; He, Xie

    2014-12-01

    As we know, Lead-acid battery is difficult to balance many factors such as the accuracy and the on-line testing requirement. The detecting system, as stated in this article, is based on the vibration test procedure, dynamically following the electrochemical process of the Lead-acid Battery, and collects the real-time state parameters for calculation, analysis and judgment. It also quantizes precisely the degradation and chargeability of the battery and therefore self-adapts to the ideal target values. During the test, it has not charged and discharged large current to the lead-acid battery, it only plus a smaller and shorter time of impulse voltage signal on both ends of lead-acid battery, so the battery measured is damage free, and the system energy consumption is small; Using the load compensation technology, it has solved the influence of load on the test results. What's more, the load characteristics are improved at the same time, it realized the online detection. The vibration detection is based on the adaptive fuzzy inference model which has taken various factors into account, concerning the choices of input aspects which may influence the output value. It realized a number of Lead-acid Battery voltage self-adaption and accomplished a variety of high-precise tests.

  16. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA) biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Lasik; Renata Dobrucka; Piotr Konieczny

    2013-01-01

      Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1) to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology) and 2) to evaluate the electrical impedanc...

  17. Who to test and how to test for chronic hepatitis C infection - 2016 WHO testing guidance for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2016-10-01

    Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. New tools to support the hepatitis global response include the 2016 Global Hepatitis Health Sector Strategy which include targets for testing and diagnosis, and World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents, and children in low- and middle-income countries. The testing guidance complements recent published WHO guidance on the prevention, care and treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection. These testing guidelines outline the public health approach to strengthening and expanding current testing practices for HCV and HBV and address what serological and virological assays to use, and who to test, as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care after testing. They are intended for use across all age groups and populations. See boxes for key recommendations. Future directions and innovations in viral hepatitis testing include use of point-of-care assays for nucleic acid testing (NAT) and core antigen; validation of dried blood spots specimens with different commercial serological and NAT assays; multiplex and polyvalent platforms for integrated testing of HIV, HBV and HCV; and potential

  18. Affinity of nat/68Ga-Labelled Curcumin and Curcuminoid Complexes for β-Amyloid Plaques: Towards the Development of New Metal-Curcumin Based Radiotracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubagotti, Sara; Croci, Stefania; Ferrari, Erika; Iori, Michele; Capponi, Pier C.; Lorenzini, Luca; Calzà, Laura; Versari, Annibale; Asti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or technetium-99m have recently shown their potential as diagnostic tools for Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, no study by exploiting the labelling with gallium-68 has been performed so far, in spite of its suitable properties (positron emitter, generator produced radionuclide). Herein, an evaluation of the affinity for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils and for amyloid plaques of three nat/68Ga-labelled curcumin analogues, namely curcumin curcumin (CUR), bis-dehydroxy-curcumin (bDHC) and diacetyl-curcumin (DAC), was performed. Affinity and specificity were tested in vitro on amyloid synthetic fibrils by using gallium-68 labelled compounds. Post-mortem brain cryosections from Tg2576 mice were used for the ex vivo visualization of amyloid plaques. The affinity of 68Ga(CUR)2+, 68Ga(DAC)2+, and 68Ga(bDHC)2+ for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils was moderate and their uptake could be observed in vitro. On the other hand, amyloid plaques could not be visualized on brain sections of Tg2576 mice after injection, probably due to the low stability of the complexes in vivo and of a hampered passage through the blood–brain barrier. Like curcumin, all nat/68Ga-curcuminoid complexes maintain a high affinity for β-amyloid plaques. However, structural modifications are still needed to improve their applicability as radiotracers in vivo. PMID:27608011

  19. Affinity of (nat/68)Ga-Labelled Curcumin and Curcuminoid Complexes for β-Amyloid Plaques: Towards the Development of New Metal-Curcumin Based Radiotracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubagotti, Sara; Croci, Stefania; Ferrari, Erika; Iori, Michele; Capponi, Pier C; Lorenzini, Luca; Calzà, Laura; Versari, Annibale; Asti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or technetium-99m have recently shown their potential as diagnostic tools for Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, no study by exploiting the labelling with gallium-68 has been performed so far, in spite of its suitable properties (positron emitter, generator produced radionuclide). Herein, an evaluation of the affinity for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils and for amyloid plaques of three (nat/68)Ga-labelled curcumin analogues, namely curcumin curcumin (CUR), bis-dehydroxy-curcumin (bDHC) and diacetyl-curcumin (DAC), was performed. Affinity and specificity were tested in vitro on amyloid synthetic fibrils by using gallium-68 labelled compounds. Post-mortem brain cryosections from Tg2576 mice were used for the ex vivo visualization of amyloid plaques. The affinity of (68)Ga(CUR)₂⁺, (68)Ga(DAC)₂⁺, and (68)Ga(bDHC)₂⁺ for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils was moderate and their uptake could be observed in vitro. On the other hand, amyloid plaques could not be visualized on brain sections of Tg2576 mice after injection, probably due to the low stability of the complexes in vivo and of a hampered passage through the blood-brain barrier. Like curcumin, all (nat/68)Ga-curcuminoid complexes maintain a high affinity for β-amyloid plaques. However, structural modifications are still needed to improve their applicability as radiotracers in vivo. PMID:27608011

  20. Nucleic acid amplification technology screening for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus for blood donations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the

  1. Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Madrid-Barajas T-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamela, A.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the New Terminal Area of the Barajas airport. Its first part indicates the participants in the design and construction, as well as some general data. In the second part, organised like a data chart, technical data, such as general information, construction aspects, parking area, data about the building itself and others, are expressed in a concise way. The third part analyzes the construction aspects of the NAT Building, related to the power efficiency. The paper ends with a note that the author of the project has considered of interest about the functionality of the T4. Drawings, details and photographs that show the work in their total magnitude are also included.El articulo que se presenta trata de la Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Barajas y está diferenciado en una primera parte, donde se indican los créditos del proyecto y de la construcción, así como algunos datos generales. En el punto 2 y organizado como ficha, aparecen de forma escueta los datos técnicos, tales como: información general, sobre la construcción, sobre los aparcamientos, sobre el edificio terminal y otras. En el punto 3 se analizan los aspectos de la edificación NAT, relacionados con la eficiencia energética y finaliza el artículo con una nota sobre la funcionalidad de la T4, que el autor del proyecto ha considerado de interés. Se incluyen planos detalles y fotografías que muestran la obra en su total magnitud.

  2. Excitation functions of the nat-Ta(p,x)178m2Hf and nat-W(p,x)178m2Hf reactions at energies up to 2600 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Yu E; Pavlov, K V; Titarenko, A Yu; Zhivun, V M; Chauzova, M V; Ignatyuk, A V; Mashnik, S G; Leray, S; Boudard, A; David, J -C; Mancusi, D; Cugnon, J; Yariv, Y; Nishihara, K; Matsuda, N; Kumawat, H; Stankovsky, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Due to potential level of energy intensity 178m2Hf is an extremely interesting isomer. One possible way to produce this isomer is irradiation of nat-Ta or nat-W samples with high energy protons. Irradiation of nat-Ta and nat-W samples performed for other purposes provides an opportunity to study the corresponding reactions. This paper pre-sents the 178m2Hf independent production cross sections for both targets measured by the gamma-ray spectrometry method. The reaction excitation functions have been obtained for the proton energies from 40 up to 2600 MeV. The experimental results were compared with calculations by various versions of the intranuclear cascade model in the well-known codes: ISABEL, Bertini, INCL4.5+ABLA07, PHITS, CASCADE07 and CEM03.02. The isomer ratio for the nat-Ta(p,x)178m2Hf reaction is evaluated on the basis of the available data.

  3. 核酸检测在血液HBV筛查中的应用研究%Application of NAT detection for HBV in blood screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 金钊; 林松峰; 栾燕; 刘显智

    2010-01-01

    目的:了解沈阳地区乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)阴性献血者中乙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis B virus,HBV)感染状况,探讨HBV核酸扩增检测(nucleic acid amplification testing,NAT)技术应用于血液筛查的意义.方法:在酶联免疫法(enzyine immunoassay,EIA)检测的基础上,应用TaqMan实时荧光聚合酶链式反应(PCR)方法对HBsAg EIA阴性血液标本进行HBV DNA的NAT检测.对NAT阳性标本进一步做乙型肝炎病毒血清标志物(HBV Marker,HBV-M)及核酸定量检测.结果:共检测了105,152例HBsAg阴性的血液标本,检出HBV DNA阳性标本15例,阳性率0.014%.Abbott酶联免疫试剂检测发现,15例标本中有6例标本的HBV-M五项指标检测全部阴性,9例为HBsAg阴性但其它标志物阳性.其中10例HBV DNA阳性标本再经Roche试剂进行核酸定量检测,HBV DNA核酸含量最高为149 IU/ml.结论:在HBsAg ELA阴性献血者中仍有极少数的HBV感染者;核酸扩增检测和酶联免疫检测互补,能够缩短血液筛查中HBV检测窗口期,特别是对提高HBsAg阴性血液标本中HBV感染检出率具有重要价值.

  4. Multifragmentation threshold in ^{93}Nb+{nat}Mg collisions at 30 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Manduci, Loredana

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the $^{93}Nb$ on $^{nat}Mg$ reaction at 30 MeV/nucleon in the aim of disentangling binary sequential decay and multifragmentation decay close to the energy threshold, i.e. $\\simeq 3$ MeV/nucleon. Using the backtracing technique applied to the statistical models GEMINI and SMM we reconstruct simulated charge, mass and excitation energy distributions and compare them to the experimental ones. We show that data are better described by SMM than by GEMINI in agreement with the fact that multifragmentation is responsible for fragment production at excitation energies around 3 MeV/nucleon.

  5. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  6. The study on the methods of testing the sulphuric acid and the phosphoric acid in the air in workshops at the same time by chromatography of ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng-Yan Long; Yan-Ling Huang; Ying-Ying Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the method and result of testing the sulphuric acid and the phosphoric acid in the air in workshops at the same time by chromatography of ions.Method:to measure the sulphuric acid and the phosphoric acid in the air in workshops by adopting chromatography of ions. During the experiment, collect the sulphuric acid and the phosphoric acid in the air by using porous glass plates and put them into ultrapure water, or by using microporous filtering film, adopting ultrasonic elution with ultrapure water, testing them with ion chromatograph after filtering through a 0.2 μm microporous filtering film. The operating conditions of chromatography of ions includes Type Ionpac AS19 separator column (4×250 mm), ASRS300 (4 mm) anion suppressor, Type Ionpac AG19 guard column, KOH eluent and conductivity detector.Result: The testing the sulphuric acid and the phosphoric acid at the same time through chromatography of ions turns out high resolution, good linearity with the correlation over 0.999. The accuracy can be controlled between 1.6%-5.5% under the testing; the percentage of accuracy can be guaranteed between 92%-107% with high sampling and analysis efficiency.Conclusion: The method can turn out ideal results by testing the sulphuric acid and the phosphoric acid at the same time. It is simple operations, Sensitive and accurate. It is worth being used widely.

  7. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 Gene Polymorphisms and the Effectiveness of Infertility Treatment in Patients with Peritoneal Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina D. Dubinskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, infertility has become a global issue. WHO ranks it the fifth among the major diseases of those below 60 years, after alcoholism, depression, injuries and eyesight disorders. Numerous studies conducted on the problems of infertility in endometriosis still do not offer clear answers regarding the pathogenesis and mechanisms of this disease and its influences on fertility. According to the survey results, point mutations of the NAT2 gene (NAT2*5 and NAT2*6 have been identified in 75.6% of the patients with infertility problems and the peritoneal form of endometriosis, that create “slow” allelic variants, which exceed the average index in the population. The peculiarities of the NAT2 gene polymorphisms have been proven to be associated with the effectiveness of the infertility treatment of female patients with peritoneal endometriosis. In the group of non-pregnant patients, the presence of с.341Т>C, c.481C>T, c.590G>A and c.803A>G heterozygous point mutations are 73.2, 73.2, 5.4, and 62.5%, respectively. The significant difference in the comparison of the allelic polymorphism during the various stages of the endometriosis was not identified. At stage III-IV endometriosis the frequency of three and more point substitutions was significantly higher. NAT2 gene polymorphisms can find use as an additional criterion for predicting the effectiveness of the infertility treatment of patients with peritoneal endometriosis.

  8. Testing for spatial clustering of amino acid replacements within protein tertiary structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jiaye; Thorne, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    Widely used models of protein evolution ignore protein structure. Therefore, these models do not predict spatial clustering of amino acid replacements with respect to tertiary structure. One formal and biologically implausible possibility is that there is no tendency for amino acid replacements to...... be spatially clustered during evolution. An alternative to this is that amino acid replacements are spatially clustered and this spatial clustering can be fully explained by a tendency for similar rates of amino acid replacement at sites that are nearby in protein tertiary structure. A third...... possibility is that the amount of clustering exceeds that which can be explained solely on the basis of independently evolving protein sites with spatially clustered replacement rates. We introduce two simple and not very parametric hypothesis tests that help distinguish these three possibilities. We then...

  9. PYROLYTIC PRODUCTS FROM TRYPTOPHAN AND GLUTAMIC-ACID ARE POSITIVE IN THE MAMMALIAN SPOT-TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Juul

    1983-01-01

    Pyrolysates of tryptophan (Trp-P-2) and glutamic acid (Glu-P-1) are known mutagens in in vitro short term mutagenicity tests, and have also shown carcinogenic effects in long term animal studies. The present study demonstrates that they also produce mutations in somatic cells. This result demonst...

  10. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constru

  11. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Saakes, M.; Kluiters, C.E.; Schmal, D.; Have, P. ten

    1998-01-01

    A 80V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run succesfully. Model calculations showed that the constructed 80V module,

  12. 21 CFR 862.1060 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. 862.1060 Section 862.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  13. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated...

  14. En socialpsykologisk analys av samkönat partnervåld ur ett makt- och normativitetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Thérèse

    2009-01-01

    Uppsatsens syfte var att nå en större teoretisk förståelse av samkönat partnervåld, genom att analysera olika forskningsartiklars narrativa konstruktioner av våldet. De två frågeställningarna var: 1. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen samkönat partnervåld med fokus på temana relationsdynamik, karaktär hos parterna, kön, genus och sexualitet samt betydelsen av social kontext? 2. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen det professionella bemötandet av samkönat partnervåld? De 21 valda primärdo...

  15. Fatty acid breath test values in the malabsorption range in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, W.E.; Stuart, R.K.; Ettinger, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Fatty acid absorption breath tests (FABT) were found to be abnormal in most subjects in a group of cancer patients selected to exclude common causes of abnormal lipid absorption, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The breath tests were abnormal in both quality (delayed peak in 9 of 10 patients) and quantity (reduced maximum peak in 5 of 10 patients) of fatty acid absorption. Retrospective separation of patients into 2 groups (normal or low maximum peak height FABT), either at a common time after the start of the test or at each individual's maximum peak height FABT regardless of time, was significant at 0.005 and 0.001, respectively. The low maximum peak heights were in the range of the malabsorption syndrome. Further studies of pancreatic function and fat malabsorption are warranted before the abnormal results can be ascribed to altered intermediary metabolism or peripheral utilization of lipids.

  16. Standardization of formulations for the acute amino acid depletion and loading tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    The acute tryptophan depletion and loading and the acute tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of cerebral monoamines in behaviour and symptoms related to various disorders. The tests use either amino acid mixtures or proteins. Current amino acid mixtures lack specificity in humans, but not in rodents, because of the faster disposal of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by the latter. The high content of BCAA (30-60%) is responsible for the poor specificity in humans and we recommend, in a 50g dose, a control formulation with a lowered BCAA content (18%) as a common control for the above tests. With protein-based formulations, α-lactalbumin is specific for acute tryptophan loading, whereas gelatine is only partially effective for acute tryptophan depletion. We recommend the use of the whey protein fraction glycomacropeptide as an alternative protein. Its BCAA content is ideal for specificity and the absence of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine render it suitable as a template for seven formulations (separate and combined depletion or loading and a truly balanced control). We invite the research community to participate in standardization of the depletion and loading methodologies by using our recommended amino acid formulation and developing those based on glycomacropeptide.

  17. Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Wahyudi; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum; Yusoff Ali

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types...

  18. Radiological bile acid absorption test 75SeHCAT in patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose with this study was to investigate the usefulness of the 75SeHCAT test in patients suffering from 'functional' diarrhoea and to disclose earlier radiological investigations performed in the course of disease. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with chronic diarrhoea of unknown cause were investigated with the 75SeHCAT test. The cholestyramine test and an estimation of oro-caecal transit time (OCTT) were also performed in 13 and 10 patients respectively. Results: Ten patients had low 7-day retention (≤15%). Nine of these were tested with cholestyramine and 8 showed complete relief from the diarrhoea. The cholestyramine test had no effect on the 4 patients with normal bile acid retention. No correlation was found between the retention of 75SeHCAT and OCCT. A total of 80 inconclusive gastrointestinal barium examinations were performed during the course of disease. Conclusion: Pathological bile acid retention, studied with the radiological 75SeHCAT test, is common in patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause. The test should be performed earlier in the course of disease in order to prevent unnecessary radiological investigations and to reduce patient suffering and distress. (orig.)

  19. Gastric emptying of a solid meal starts during meal ingestion : Combined study using C-13-octanoic acid breath test and Doppler ultrasonography - Absence of a lag phase in C-13-octanoic acid breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, IM; Mundt, MW; Roelofs, JMM; Samsom, M

    2004-01-01

    Scintigraphy and the C-13-octanoic acid breath test are both applied to assess gastric emptying. Using the C-13-octanoic acid breath test, excretion curves show C-13 excretion immediately after ingestion of a solid egg meal, in contrast with scintigraphy where gastric emptying is observed after a la

  20. Skin testing of gallic acid-based hair dye in paraphenylenediamine/paratoluenediamine-reactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunseok; Lee, Joon Ho; Kwon, Hyok Bu; An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)/paratoluenediamine (PTD) hair dyes is increasing. Hair dyes utilizing gallic acid (GA) may be a safe alternative. However, pretesting is recommended. We investigated the contact sensitivity to ingredients of a dye product; GA, monoethanolamine thioglycolate (MT), l-cystein and ferrous sulfate, and an appropriate pretest method in 31 patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. An open test was performed with the test dye following the patch test. Subsequently, a use test was performed twice, with a 4-week interval. One subject showed a positive reaction to ferrous sulfate in the patch test. Another subject reacted to the first compound alone in the open test. Thirteen subjects manifesting cutaneous lesions from previous regular hair dyeing, showed reactions at the first use of the test dye; and six had reactions with reduced severity at the second test. GA and MT are safe for use in ACD patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. For predicting contact allergy to hair dyes, the open test appeared to be a better pretest method than the patch test. PMID:26663148

  1. Small RNAs derived from natural antisense transcripts%天然反义转录物(NAT)来源的小分子RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兆辉

    2009-01-01

    天然反义转录物(natural antisense transcript,NAT)通常指自然情况下生物体内生成的内源RNA,它们可以与其他RNA部分或完全互补.NAT在生物中非常普遍,并且可以产生多种具有调节作用的小RNA,如天然反义转录干扰小RNA、天然反义微RNA、长的十扰短RNA、扫描RNA和与Piwi相互作用的RNA等.这些小RNA或许是NAT调节基因表达的重要物质分子之一.本文就NAT来源的小RNA及其功能作一慨述.%Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are endogenous RNA molecules that exhibit partial or complete complementarity to other RNAs. They are common in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and can produce some small regulatory RNAs. Such as nat-small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs), nat-microRNAs (nat-miRNAs), long short interfering RNAs (lsiRNAs), scan RNA (scnRNAs) and PIWl-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These small RNAs may be involved in the gene regulation by NATs, In this paper, small RNAs derived from NATs and their mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Regioselective synthesis of α-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid derivatives and biological test against bacterial Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella agona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CASSIDY; Seamas

    2010-01-01

    α-D-Glucopyranosiduronides were stereoselectively synthesized from D-glucopyranosiduronic acid via the intermediate 1,6-lactone. Fatty acid esters were regioselectively introduced at the 2-O-position of α-D-glucopyranosiduronides using dibutyltin dimethoxide as the stannylating agent. Antibacterial tests show that methyl 2-O-lauroyl-O-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid and azido 2-O-lauroyl-O-D-glucopyranosid-uronic acid are effective inhibitors against Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  4. Experimental cross-sections for proton-induced nuclear reactions on natMo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červenák, Jaroslav; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the Co-ordinated Research Project of the IAEA, we measured in detail cross-sections of the nuclear reactions natMo(p,x)93gTc, 93mTc, 93m+gTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95gTc, 95mTc, 96m+gTc, 97mTc, 99mTc, 90Mo, 93mMo, 99Mo, 88gNb, 88mNb, 89gNb, 89mNb, 90m+gNb, 90m+gNbcum, 91mNb, 92mNb, 95gNb, 95mNb, 95m+gNb, 96Nb, 97m+gNb, 88m+gZrcum and 89m+gZrcum in the energy range of 6.9-35.8 MeV. The data for formation of 97mTc, 88gNb, 88mNb and 89mNb are reported for the first time. The obtained results were compared to the prediction of the nuclear reaction model code TALYS adopted from the TENDL-2015 library and to the previously published cross-sections. The thick target yields for all the radionuclides were calculated from the measured data. We suggest recommended cross-sections and thick target yields for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc, 100Mo(p,x)99Mo and natMo(p,x)96m+gTc nuclear reactions deduced from the selected experimental data.

  5. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  6. Bile acid malabsorption in patients with chronic diarrhoea: clinical value of SeHCAT test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Nørby Rasmussen, S; Madsen, Jan Lysgård;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), a cause of chronic diarrhoea, can be diagnosed by the SeHCAT test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of SeHCAT testing by assessing the extent of BAM and describing the clinical characteristics in a group of patients with chronic...... diarrhoea. Clinical outcome after treatment with cholestyramine was also evaluated. METHODS: During a 5-year period (1997-2001) the SeHCAT test was performed in 135 patients in whom a primary programme for diagnostic evaluation of chronic diarrhoea had not revealed a cause. File data from 133 patients could...... as a second-line investigation with a high diagnostic yield. The only a priori parameter to predict BAM was the existence of ileocaecal resections. The result of the SeHCAT test seems to predict the benefit of treatment with cholestyramine....

  7. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  8. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on natSm up to 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Proton induced reactions on natural samarium up to 65 MeV. •Stacked foil irradiation technique. •Comparison of experimental results with the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS theoretical model codes. •Calculation and comparison of thick target integral yields. -- Abstract: Activation cross sections for proton induced reactions on Sm are presented for the first time for natSm(p,xn)154,152m2,152m1,152g,150m,150g,149,148,147,146,145Eu, natSm(p,x)153,145Sm, natSm(p,x)151,150,149,148g,148m,146,144,143Pm and natSm(p,x)141Nd up to 65 MeV. The cross sections were measured via activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS (results taken from TENDL libraries). Integral yields of the activation products were calculated from the excitation functions

  9. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  10. Anxiogenic activity of quinolinic acid and kynurenine in the social interaction test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, I P; Mutovkina, L G; Ryzov, I V; Mirzaev, S

    1996-01-01

    Quinolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan on the kynurenine pathway, shortened the duration of social contacts (sniffings) in C57BL/6 mice which had been previously isolated for 24 h. This effect was observed at the following time intervals after i.c.v. administration: 2-6, 22-26 and 32-36 min. Locomotion was significantly less inhibited and only during the first interval. L-Kynurenine sulphate was less active. It shortened the duration of contacts only during the 32-36 min interval after i.c.v. administration. Grooming was significantly reduced by quinolinic acid at 7-11, 12-16 and 17-21 min after administration. These effects of quinolinic acid in the social interaction test are similar to those of standard anxiogens and suggest that quinolinic acid belongs to the putative endogenous anxiogens (and not only to the endogenous convulsants). The same assumption about L-kynurenine based on data in other models of anxiety has been made previously.

  11. Tipepidine enhances the antinociceptive-like action of carbamazepine in the acetic acid writhing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Miki, Risa; Urashima, Yuri; Honda, Sokichi; Shehata, Ahmed M; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2011-01-25

    Several antidepressants have been used to treat severe pain in clinics. Recently, we reported that the centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant drug), tipepidine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test, although the mechanism of action appears to be quite different from that of known antidepressants. In the present study, we investigated whether a combination of tipepidine and carbamazepine acts synergistically to induce an antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Prior to studying the combination of tipepidine and carbamazepine, the analgesic action of tipepidine alone was also examined in mice. Tipepidine at 5-40mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced the number of writhes induced by acetic acid in mice. Carbamazepine at 20mg/kg i.p. also significantly reduced the writhing reaction. Furthermore, co-administration of carbamazepine (5 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) and tipepidine (2.5mg/kg i.p.) significantly decreased the number of writhes induced by acetic acid. This finding suggests that a combination of carbamazepine and tipepidine may be a new strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain such as what occurs in trigeminal neuralgia, because the use of carbamazepine is often limited by its adverse effects and by reduction of its analgesic efficacy by microsomal enzyme induction. PMID:21114989

  12. Evaluation of a semiquantitative SNAP test for measurement of bile acids in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Seibert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum bile acids (SBA are used as a routine screening tool of liver function in dogs. Serum samples are usually shipped to a referral laboratory for quantitative analysis with an enzymatic chemistry analyzer. The canine SNAP Bile Acids Test (SNAP-BAT provides an immediate, semi-quantitative measurement of bile acid concentrations in-house. With the SNAP-BAT, bile acids concentrations of 5–30 µmol/L are quantified, and results outside of that range are classified as 30 µmol/L. Agreement of the SNAP-BAT with the enzymatic method has not been extensively investigated. Objectives. The purposes of this prospective clinical study were to assess the precision of the SNAP-BAT and determine agreement of SNAP-BAT with results from an in-house chemistry analyzer. Methods. After verifying intra-assay precision of the SNAP-BAT, a prospective analysis was performed using blood samples collected from 56 dogs suspected to have liver disease. Each sample was analyzed with an enzymatic, in-house chemistry analyzer and the SNAP-BAT. Agreement between the two methods was statistically assessed using the κ index of agreement. Results. Intra-assay variability was minimal. The κ index for agreement between the SNAP-BAT and routine chemistry analyzer was between 0.752 and 0.819, indicating substantial to near perfect agreement. Conclusions. The SNAP-BAT is a highly accurate, semi-quantitative test that yields immediate results, and has very little intra-assay variability, particularly for results >30 µmol/L.

  13. Evaluation of a semiquantitative SNAP test for measurement of bile acids in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Rachel L; Tobias, Karen M; Reed, Ann; Snyder, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serum bile acids (SBA) are used as a routine screening tool of liver function in dogs. Serum samples are usually shipped to a referral laboratory for quantitative analysis with an enzymatic chemistry analyzer. The canine SNAP Bile Acids Test (SNAP-BAT) provides an immediate, semi-quantitative measurement of bile acid concentrations in-house. With the SNAP-BAT, bile acids concentrations of 5-30 µmol/L are quantified, and results outside of that range are classified as 30 µmol/L. Agreement of the SNAP-BAT with the enzymatic method has not been extensively investigated. Objectives. The purposes of this prospective clinical study were to assess the precision of the SNAP-BAT and determine agreement of SNAP-BAT with results from an in-house chemistry analyzer. Methods. After verifying intra-assay precision of the SNAP-BAT, a prospective analysis was performed using blood samples collected from 56 dogs suspected to have liver disease. Each sample was analyzed with an enzymatic, in-house chemistry analyzer and the SNAP-BAT. Agreement between the two methods was statistically assessed using the κ index of agreement. Results. Intra-assay variability was minimal. The κ index for agreement between the SNAP-BAT and routine chemistry analyzer was between 0.752 and 0.819, indicating substantial to near perfect agreement. Conclusions. The SNAP-BAT is a highly accurate, semi-quantitative test that yields immediate results, and has very little intra-assay variability, particularly for results >30 µmol/L.

  14. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing: Our Evaluation Suggests that CDC-Recommended Approaches for Confirmatory Testing Are Ill-Advised

    OpenAIRE

    Schachter, Julius; Chow, Joan M.; Howard, Holly; Bolan, Gail; Moncada, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated three CDC-suggested approaches for confirming positive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for Chlamydia trachomatis: (i) repeat the original test on the original specimen, (ii) retest the original specimen with a different test, and (iii) perform a different test on a duplicate specimen. For approach 1, specimens (genital swabs or first-catch urine [FCU]) initially positive by the Abbott LCx Probe System Chlamydia trachomatis Assay (LCx; Abbott Laboratories), the APTIMA Com...

  15. Enhancing international earth science competence in natural hazards through 'geoNatHaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Clague, John J.

    2010-05-01

    "geoNatHaz" is a Transatlantic Exchange Partnership project (TEP 2009-2012) within the framework of the EU-Canada programme for co-operation in higher education, training, and youth. The project is structured to improve knowledge and skills required to assess and manage natural hazards in mountain regions. It provides student exchanges between European and Canadian universities in order to enhance international competence in natural hazard research. The university consortium is led by Simon Fraser University (Canada) and Università degli studi di Torino (Italy). Partner universities include the University of British Columbia, Queen's University, Università di Bologna, Université de Savoie, and the University of Athens. Université de Lausanne (Switzerland) supports the geoNatHaz advisory board through its bilateral agreements with Canadian partner universities. The geoNatHaz project promotes cross-cultural understanding and internationalization of university natural hazard curricula through common lectures, laboratory exercises, and field activities. Forty graduate students from the seven Canadian and European partner universities will benefit from the project between 2009 and 2012. Some students enrolled in graduate-level earth science and geologic engineering programs spend up to five months at the partner universities, taking courses and participating in research teams under the direction of project scientists. Other students engage in short-term (four-week) exchanges involving training in classic natural hazard case-studies in mountain regions of Canada and Europe. Joint courses are delivered in English, but complementary cultural activities are offered in the languages of the host countries. Supporting organizations offer internships and technical and scientific support. Students benefit from work-study programs with industry partners. Supporting organizations include government departments and agencies (Geological Survey of Canada; CNR-IRPI National

  16. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the

  17. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO3) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  18. MeIQx-induced DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis in DNA repair deficient CHO cells expressing human CYP1A1 and rapid or slow acetylator NAT2

    OpenAIRE

    Bendaly, Jean; Zhao, Shuang; Neale, Jason R.; Metry, Kristin J.; Doll, Mark A; States, J. Christopher; Pierce, William M.; Hein, David W.

    2007-01-01

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is one of the most potent and abundant mutagens in the western diet. Bioactivation includes N-hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450s followed by O-acetylation catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). Nucleotide excision repair-deficient chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were constructed by stable transfection of human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and a single copy of either NAT2*4 (rapid acetylator) or NAT2*5B (slow acetylator) alle...

  19. Physikalische Eigenschaften künstlicher Harnsteine aus natürlichen Materialien (BON(N-STONES im Vergleich zu natürlichen und anderen künstlichen Harnsteinen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimbach D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aus klinischer Sicht sind die bisher bekannten künstlichen Harnsteinmodelle aus artefiziellen Materialien (z. B. Gips für in vitro-Untersuchungen zur Lithotripsie ein Kompromiß. Für Experimente zur Chemolyse sind sie völlig ungeeignet, da sie humanen Nierensteinen nicht entsprechen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit bestand darin, die physikalischen Eigenschaften von künstlichen Steinen aus natürlichen Steinmaterialien (BON(N-STONES mit natürlichen Harnsteinen gleicher chemischer Zusammensetzung zu vergleichen. Im einzelnen wurden künstliche Harnsteine aus Apatit, Struvit, Brushit, Zystin, Harnsäure und Kalziumoxalat systematisch untersucht. Die Dichte der Steine wurde gemäß dem Archimedischen Prinzip mit einem Pyknometer untersucht. Die Messung der Mikrohärte erfolgte mit einem Vickers-Stempel. Mittels einer Ultraschall-Puls-Transmissionstechnik wurden longitudinale und transversale Wellengeschwindigkeiten untersucht. Wellenimpedanzen sowie dynamische Module wurden errechnet. Die neuen künstlichen Steine (BON(N-STONES haben eine Kugelform und sind einheitlich bezüglich Durchmesser, Volumen und Gewicht, Dichte und Mikrohärte. Die akustischen Eigenschaften und dynamischen Module der BON(N-STONES sind insbesondere mit natürlichen Steinen aus Apatit, Struvit, Brushit und Harnsäure vergleichbar. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß die BON(N-STONES in bezug auf ihre physikalischen Eigenschaften mit Ausnahme von Zystin und Kalziumoxalat natürlichen Steinen gleicher chemischer Zusammensetzung weitgehend entsprechen. Sie sind geeignet, um standardisierte und reproduzierbare in vitro-Untersuchungen durchzuführen und substanzspezifische Informationen zu geben und können zur Qualitätskontrolle und für wissenschaftliche Experimente eingesetzt werden.

  20. Measurement and theoretical estimation of induced activity in natIn by high energy neutrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maitreyee Nandy; P K Sarkar; N Nakao; T Shibata

    2009-10-01

    Induced radioactivity in natural indium (natIn) foils by high energy neutrons was measured at the KENS Facility, KEK, Japan, where a 16.7 cm thick W target was bombarded by protons of 500 MeV. High energy neutrons consequently produced irradiated the In targets placed at different depths inside a 4 m thick concrete shield placed at the beam exit. The measured activities were compared with the results calculated using the nuclear reaction model codes ALICE-91 and EMPIRE-2.18. To estimate the induced activity, excitation functions of the various radionuclides were calculated using the two codes and folded with the appropriate neutron energy distribution at different depths of the concrete shield. The calculated excitation functions of a given nuclide were found to vary widely from one another in some cases. The performances of the codes for different input parameters like level densities and inverse cross-sections are reported in this paper. Our analysis shows that neither of the two codes reproduced all the measured activities satisfactorily, requiring further improvements in the models adopted.

  1. Kinematický model mechanismu natáčení lopatek turbodmychadla

    OpenAIRE

    Tomanec, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá tvorbou parametrického modelu kinematiky mechanismu natáčení rozváděcích lopatek turbodmychadla, který je označován jako VNT ("Variable nozzle turbine"). V první části pojednává o turbodmychadlech obecně, proč se používají, popis konstrukce a jejich částí. V další části rozebírá regulaci turbodmychadel, používané způsoby a jejich principy, zhodnocení jejich výhod a nevýhod a na závěr jejich porovnání. Následuje hlavní část práce, věnovaná tvorbě modelu kinematik...

  2. 244CmO2/nat.-UO2 hybrid blanket with flat fission power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, 244CmO2 is mixed with nat.-UO2 for the purpose of power flattening in a hybrid blanket with a reasonably high energy multiplication factor. Also, the temporal variations of the fission power density (FPD) are observed during an 18-month plant operation period. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that it became possible to keep a flat fission power profile (FPP) over a very long plant operation period of 18 months by simply omitting the beryllium multiplier in the blanket and keeping the neutron spectrum fairly unchanged throughout the fission zone. This reduced the efforts for fuel management to a minimum. A further observation focused on only minor variations of the integral neutronic data over longer plant operation periods. Among others, the fission power generation increase is also very modest. This results in an optimum investment for the nonnuclear island. The blanket burns up high-level nuclear waste 244Cm effectively, with efficient electricity production and breeding of a new type of nuclear fuel 245Cm with very superior nuclear properties. Finally, a warning should be issued for the careful international safeguarding of such a hybrid plant due to the extremely high quality of the bred plutonium fuel

  3. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Oxalic Acid that Contains Dissolved Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Mickalonis, John I.; Subramanian, Karthik H.

    2012-10-11

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid (OA) will be used to chemically clean the tanks after waste retrieval is completed. The waste tanks at SRS were constructed from carbon steel materials and thus are vulnerable to corrosion in acidic media. In addition to structural impacts, the impact of corrosion on the hydrogen generated during the process must be assessed. Electrochemical and coupon immersion tests were used to investigate the corrosion mechanism at anticipated process conditions. The testing showed that the corrosion rates were dependent upon the reduction of the iron species that had dissolved in solution. Initial corrosion rates were elevated due to the reduction of the ferric species to ferrous species. At later times, as the ferric species depleted, the corrosion rate decreased. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution reaction became more dominant.

  4. Comparison of the boronic acid disk potentiation test and cefepime-clavulanic acid method for the detection of ESBL among AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shoorashetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase are important mechanisms of betalactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae . The ESBL confirmation test described by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI is in routine use. This method fails to detect ESBL in the presence of AmpC. Therefore, we compared two different ESBL detection methods against the CLSI confirmatory test. Materials and Methods: A total 200 consecutive clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from various clinical samples were tested for ESBL production using (i CLSI described phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT, (ii boronic acid disk potentiation test and (iii cefepime-CA disk potentiation method. AmpC confirmation was done by a modified three-dimensional test. Results: Among total 200 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 82 were only ESBL producers, 12 were only AmpC producers, 55 were combined ESBL and AmpC producers, 14 were inducible AmpC producers and 37 isolates did not harboured any enzymes. The CLSI described PCT detected ESBL-producing organisms correctly but failed to detect 36.3% of ESBLs among combined enzyme producers. The boronic acid disk potentiation test reliably detected all ESBL, AmpC, and combined enzyme producers correctly. The cefepime-CA method detected all ESBLs correctly but another method of AmpC detection has to be adopted. Conclusion: The use of boronic acid in disk diffusion testing along with the CLSI described PCT enhances ESBL detection in the presence of AmpC betalactamases.

  5. Dietary intake of U(nat) for population residing around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average intake of U(nat) from vegetarian diet was 61 Bq.y-1, whereas, for non-vegetarian diet it was 4 Bq.y-1. The average ingestion dose due to these two components can be worked out to be 3 mSv y-1.The dose reflects the natural background level and the effect of operations of uranium industry is insignificant

  6. Untersuchungs- und Überwachungsmethoden für die Beurteilung natürlicher Selbstreinigungsprozesse im Grundwasser

    OpenAIRE

    Wege, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    An einem kontaminierten Standort wirken der Schadstoffausbreitung im Aquifer natürliche Rückhalte- und Abbauprozesse entgegen, die unter günstigen Randbedingungen zu einem Stagnieren oder Schrumpfen der Schadstofffahne im Abstrom des Schadensherdes führen. Sollen derartige Prozesse bei der Altlastenbearbeitung berücksichtigt werden, setzt dies nach gegenwärtigem Kenntnisstand detaillierte Untersuchungen zu standortspezifischen Gegebenheiten voraus. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden im Rahmen dies...

  7. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Yassine, Ibrahim A.; Loulou Kobeissi; Jabbour, Michel E.; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2012-01-01

    In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002–2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the s...

  8. Contribution of liquid, NAT and ice particles to chlorine activation and ozone depletion during Antarctic winter and spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kirner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous reactions in the Antarctic stratosphere are the cause of chlorine activation and ozone depletion, but the relative roles of different types of PSCs in chlorine activation is an open question. We use multi-year simulations of the chemistry-climate model EMAC to investigate the impact that the various types of PSCs have on Antarctic chlorine activation and ozone loss. One standard and three sensitivity EMAC simulations have been performed. The results of these simulations show that the significance of heterogeneous reactions on NAT and ice particles, in comparison to liquid particles, is subordinate regarding chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic winter and spring. The heterogeneous chemistry on liquid particles is sufficient to activate at least 90% of the chlorine reservoir species. With the exception of the upper PSC regions between 10 and 30 hPa where temporarily the ice particles have a relevant contribution to the chlorine activation and during the initial PSC occurrence with short NAT contributions the liquid particles alone are sufficient to activate almost all of the available chlorine. In the model simulations heterogeneous chemistry on liquid particles is responsible for more than 90% of the ozone depletion in Antarctic spring. Only up to 5 DU of column ozone in high southern latitudes is depleted by chlorine activation due to additional heterogeneous chemistry on ice particles and less than 0.5 DU due to additional heterogeneous chemistry on NAT particles.

  9. Excitation functions of the proton induced nuclear reactions on {sup nat}Zn up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Khandaker, M.U. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.N. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr

    2007-05-15

    We measured the excitation functions of the {sup nat}Zn(p,xn){sup 66,67}Ga, {sup nat}Zn(p,pxn){sup 62,65,69m}Zn, and {sup nat}Zn(p,{alpha}xn){sup 61}Cu nuclear processes up to 40 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier reported experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the ALICE-IPPE code. We have given new data points for the formation of the above radionuclides. The present values are in good agreement with some well-measured literature values. Integral yields were also deduced from the measured cross-sections. The reported direct measured thick target yields for the formation of the {sup 66}Ga and {sup 67}Ga radionuclides at 22 MeV support our deduced yields. The optimum formation of the {sup 66}Ga and {sup 61}Cu radionuclides with minimum impurities can be obtained at 8-15 MeV and 10-20 MeV energy range, respectively. The yields and decay characteristics of the nuclide {sup 65}Zn are suitable for thin layer activation analysis.

  10. Probability density functions characterizing PSC particle size distribution parameters for NAT and STS derived from in situ measurements between 1989 and 2010 above McMurdo Station, Antarctica, and between 1991-2004 above Kiruna, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Balloon-borne optical particle counters were used to make in situ size resolved particle concentration measurements within polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) over 20 years in the Antarctic and over 10 years in the Arctic. The measurements were made primarily during the late winter in the Antarctic and in the early and mid-winter in the Arctic. Measurements in early and mid-winter were also made during 5 years in the Antarctic. For the analysis bimodal lognormal size distributions are fit to 250 meter averages of the particle concentration data. The characteristics of these fits, along with temperature, water and nitric acid vapor mixing ratios, are used to classify the PSC observations as either NAT, STS, ice, or some mixture of these. The vapor mixing ratios are obtained from satellite when possible, otherwise assumptions are made. This classification of the data is used to construct probability density functions for NAT, STS, and ice number concentration, median radius and distribution width for mid and late winter clouds in the Antarctic and for early and mid-winter clouds in the Arctic. Additional analysis is focused on characterizing the temperature histories associated with the particle classes and the different time periods. The results from theses analyses will be presented, and should be useful to set bounds for retrievals of PSC properties from remote measurements, and to constrain model representations of PSCs.

  11. Polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) Gene Polymorphism in Shanghai population:Occupational and Non-occupational Bladder Cancer Patient Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING-WEN MA; GUO-FANG LIN; JI-GANG CHEN; CUI-QING XIANG; WEI-CHAO GUO; KLAUS GOLKA; JIAN-HUA SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are involved in the detoxification of aromatic amines and hydrazine. In order to explore the possible association of NAT2 polymorphism with bladder cancer risk in benzidine exposed or non-exposed Chinese individuals, healthy subjects, subjects with bladder cancer of a former benzidine exposed cohort in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of bladder cancer patients without known occupational exposure to aromatic amines were genotyped for NAT2 gene polymorphism. Methods NAT2 genotyping was performed with a set of RFLP procedures at seven major polymorphic loci of gene coding area: G191A, C282T, T341C, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A. Results The wild allele NAT2 *4 was the most prevalent allele (59%) in healthy individuals. The alleles NAT2*6A and NAT2*7B were also frequently observed (21% and 17%, respectively). In contrast to Caucasians, the percentage of slow acetylators was lower (12% in Chinese vs. 58% in Caucasians, P<0.001). No relevant differences were observed for homogenous rapid, heterogeneous rapid/slow and homogeneous slow acetylation genotypes between the healthy subjects and both groups of bladder cancer patients. Conclusion The present work did not support the association of slow acetylating genotypes of NAT2 gene with elevated risk of bladder cancer in Chinese whereas it was documented as an important genetically determined risk factor in Caucasians. Different mechanisms might play a role in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer related with aromatic amine exposure in various races or ethnic groups.

  12. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  13. Research and Implementation of SIP Traverses NAT Based on SBC%基于 SBC的SIP穿越 NAT的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰; 石伟芳

    2014-01-01

    Currently, NAT relieves the problem of insufficient space of IP address .However, it can’ t translate IP and the port nested in the SIP , which is an application layer protocol .SIP protocol doesn't provide the function of NAT traverse .So it is very important to realize SIP to NAT traverse .This paper analyses the principle of the NAT and the SIP Protocol , puts forward a program that SIP traverses NAT based on SBC .%NAT缓解了目前IP地址空间不足的问题,但它不能对应用层协议 SIP 中嵌套的 IP 地址和端口进行转换,而在 NGN网络中处于核心地位的 SIP 协议也不提供穿越 NAT 的功能。因此,实现 SIP 穿越 NAT显得尤为必要。文章通过对 NAT及SIP协议的分析,提出基于 SBC的SIP穿越NAT解决方案。

  14. NAT2 variants are associated with drug-induced liver injury caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs in Indonesian patients with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliwulandari, Rika; Susilowati, Retno Wilujeng; Wicaksono, Britanto Dani; Viyati, Kencono; Prayuni, Kinasih; Razari, Intan; Kristin, Erna; Syafrizal; Subagyo; Sri Diana, Eva; Setiawati, Suci; Ariyani, Aziza; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Yanai, Hideki; Mushiroda, Taisei; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common adverse drug reaction in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Several studies showed that patients with TB and the slow-acetylator phenotype caused by NAT2 variants are highly susceptible to DILI caused by anti-TB drugs, hereafter designated AT-DILI. However, the role of NAT2 variants in AT-DILI has never been assessed for an Indonesian population. We recruited 50 patients with TB and AT-DILI and 191 patients with TB but without AT-DILI; we then used direct DNA sequencing to assess single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of NAT2. NAT2*6A was significantly associated with susceptibility to AT-DILI (P=7.7 × 10(-4), odds ratio (OR)=4.75 (1.8-12.55)). Moreover, patients with TB and the NAT2-associated slow-acetylator phenotype showed higher risk of AT-DILI than patients with the rapid- or intermediate-acetylator phenotypes (P=1.7 × 10(-4), OR=3.45 (1.79-6.67)). In conclusion, this study confirms the significance of the association between slow-acetylator NAT2 variants and susceptibility to AT-DILI in an Indonesian population.

  15. A quantitative test of infrared optical constants for supercooled sulphuric and nitric acid droplet aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR extinction spectra of supercooled H2SO4/H2O and HNO3/H2O solution droplets were recorded in the large coolable aerosol chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe for a range of aerosol compositions and at temperatures extending down to 192 K. The measured spectra were quantitatively analysed in terms of aerosol composition and mass concentration by using Mie theory in combination with published refractive index data as input parameters. Simultaneously, total sulphuric acid and nitric acid mass concentrations from filter analysis and total water concentrations measured with the Lyman-a hygrometer of Forschungszentrum Jülich were used to calculate the aerosol composition at thermodynamic equilibrium inside the aerosol chamber. By comparing these measured aerosol parameters with those retrieved from the analysis of the FTIR spectra, the accuracy of the literature data sets of refractive indices could be assessed. In summary, four data sets were tested in the H2SO4/H2O system as well as two data sets in the HNO3/H2O system, partly revealing significant discrepancies in the retrieved aerosol properties. Potential explanations for these differences are discussed in this paper.

  16. A quantitative test of infrared optical constants for supercooled sulphuric and nitric acid droplet aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR extinction spectra of supercooled H2SO4/H2O and HNO3/H2O solution droplets were recorded in the large coolable aerosol chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe for a range of aerosol compositions and at temperatures extending down to 192 K. The measured spectra were quantitatively analysed in terms of aerosol composition and mass concentration by using Mie theory in combination with published refractive index data as input parameters. Simultaneously, total sulphuric acid and nitric acid mass concentrations from filter analysis and total water concentrations measured with the Lyman-a hygrometer of Forschungszentrum Jülich were used to calculate the aerosol composition at thermodynamic equilibrium inside the aerosol chamber. By comparing these measured aerosol parameters with those retrieved from the analysis of the FTIR spectra, the accuracy of the literature data sets of refractive indices could be assessed. In summary, four data sets were tested in the H2SO4/H2O system as well as two data sets in the HNO3/H2O system, partly revealing significant discrepancies in the retrieved aerosol properties. Potential explanations for these differences are discussed in this paper.

  17. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the

  18. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  19. Influence of citric acid solution as a test drink in the 14C-urea breath test for diagnosis of helicobactor pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different test meals are used in the 14C-urea breath test (UBT) for the detection of H.pylori infection. The purpose of using test meals is to slow gastric emptying and to maximise the distribution of the urea substrate within the stomach so as to increase the area and time of contact between bacteria and substrate. Recently, citric acid has been suggested as an improved liquid test meal. The mechanism is not known and could act by delaying gastric emptying, decreasing the pH at the site of the bacteria, or both

  20. 核酸扩增技术在广州市献血员血液筛查中的应用价值%Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Amplification Screening for Blood Donors in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明凯华; 雷秀霞; 徐邦牢; 罗丽香; 胡洁洁

    2015-01-01

    【目的】评价核酸扩增技术(NAT)在广州市献血员血液筛查的应用价值。【方法】收集22139名无偿献血员血样,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)、丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)、梅毒螺旋体(TP)和人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV),并检测谷丙转氨酶(ALT)水平。对四项ELISA检测阴性和ALT≤40U/L者血样,用COBASs201系统进行HBVDNA、HCVRNA、HIVRNA检测。NAT反应性样本、HBV、HCV和HIVELISA检测阳性血样以COBASAmpliScreen试剂盒鉴定。【结果】22139名献血员中,21776例双试剂血清免疫学检测阴性,其中19例为NAT反应阳性,检出率0.087%(19/21776),后经NAT鉴定检测,HBV、HCV和HIV反应阳性检出率分别为0.051%(11/21776)、0.028%(6/21776)和0.009%(2/21776)。126例HBsAg阳性样本中,25例NAT阴性,其中15例HBsAg中和试验阳性,为低水平慢性感染携带者。50例anti‐HCV阳性血样,4例为NAT阴性,补充ELISA检测为anti‐HCV阴性。16例anti‐HIV阳性样本中,7例为NAT阴性,其单样品核酸检测(ID‐NAT)和补充ELISA检测均为anti‐HIV阴性。【结论】NAT血液筛查对HBV、HCV和HIV经ELISA检测阴性样本的检出率较高,在该地开展NAT血液筛查,对于降低输血残余危险有重大意义。少量HBsAg阳性的低水平感染慢性携带者,汇集核酸检测(MP‐NAT)阴性,HBsAg筛查依然是必不可少的筛查手段。%[Objective] To evaluate the application value of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) in screening of blood donors in Guangzhou .[Methods] Blood samples from 22 ,139 blood donors in Guangzhou were collected .Enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of hepatitis B sur‐face antigen (HBsAg ) ,anti‐hepatitis C virus (anti‐HCV ) ,anti‐human immunodeficiency virus (anti‐HIV ) and anti‐Treponemia pallid (anti‐TP) .And the

  1. Dietary fatty acid composition affects aminopeptidase activities in the testes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechaga, Garbiñe; Prieto, Isabel; Segarra, Ana B; Alba, Francisco; Ruiz-Larrea, María B; Ruiz-Sanz, José I; de Gasparo, Marc; Ramirez, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    The autocrine/paracrine control mechanisms of local factors, such as the renin-angiotensin system and the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), seem to play a relevant role in testicular physiology. It has been proposed that dietary fat composition influences male reproductive function modifying the cholesterol-phospholipid composition of testicular plasma membranes. Modifications in the composition and physical properties of the membranes may lead to alterations in the activities of membrane-bound (M-B) enzymes. We have previously demonstrated that cholesterol and steroid hormones affect aminopeptidase (AP) activities. Dietary fatty acids with different degrees of saturation modified AP activities in the serum of mice and an olive oil supplemented diet influenced the AP activities in the testes of mice. We hypothesized that the modification of dietary fat composition may affect angiotensin- [glutamyl-AP (GluAP), aspartyl-AP (AspAP)] and TRH- [pyroglutamyl-AP (pGluAP)] degrading activities in the testis. In this study, we investigated the effect of diets supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO), fish oil (FO), olive oil (OO), lard (L) or coconut oil (CO) on soluble (Sol) and M-B GluAP, AspAP and pGluAP in mice testis, using arylamides as substrates. Sol GluAP activity did not show differences among groups. However, Sol AspAP and Sol pGluAP progressively decreased with the degree of saturation of the fatty acid used in the diet. In contrast, M-B GluAP progressively increased with the degree of saturation of the fatty acid used in the diet. For M-B AspAP activity, mice fed diets containing FO showed significantly higher levels than those fed diets containing SFO, OO and L but not those containing CO. For M-B pGluAP activity, the highest levels were observed for mice fed diets containing FO and OO. The present data suggest that the type of fat used in the diet may influence the autocrine/paracrine functions of locally synthesized angiotensin peptides and TRH in the testis

  2. Performance Degradation Tests of Phosphoric Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Based High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Araya, Samuel Simon; Grigoras, Ionela;

    2015-01-01

    Degradation tests of two phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membrane based HT-PEM fuel cells were reported in this paper to investigate the effects of start/stop and the presence of methanol in the fuel to the performance degradation of the HT-PEM fuel cell. Continuous tests with pure dry H2 and meth......Degradation tests of two phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membrane based HT-PEM fuel cells were reported in this paper to investigate the effects of start/stop and the presence of methanol in the fuel to the performance degradation of the HT-PEM fuel cell. Continuous tests with pure dry H2...... to the corrosion of carbon support in the catalyst layer and degradation of the PBI membrane. During the continuous test with methanol containing H2 as the fuel the reaction kinetic resistance and mass transfer resistance of both single cells increased, which may be caused by the adsorption of methanol...

  3. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphism as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication in tuberculous meningitis or tuberculoma patients having seizures - A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adole, Prashant S.; Kharbanda, Parampreet S.; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Simultaneous administration of phenytoin and isoniazid (INH) in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) or tuberculoma patients with seizures results in higher plasma phenytoin level and thus phenytoin intoxication. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzyme catalyses two acetylation reactions in INH metabolism and NAT2 gene polymorphism leads to slow and rapid acetylators. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of allelic variants of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene as a predisposing factor for phenytoin toxicity in patients with TBM or tuberculoma having seizures, and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously. Methods: Sixty patients with TBM or tuberculoma with seizures and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously for a minimum period of seven days were included in study. Plasma phenytoin was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. NAT2 gene polymorphism was studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele specific PCR. Results: The patients were grouped into those having phenytoin intoxication and those with normal phenytoin level, and also classified as rapid or slow acetylators by NAT2 genotyping. Genotypic analysis showed that of the seven SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of NAT2 gene studied, six mutations were found to be associated with phenytoin intoxication. For rs1041983 (C282T), rs1799929 (C481T), rs1799931 (G857A), rs1799930 (G590A), rs1208 (A803G) and rs1801280 (T341C) allelic variants, the proportion of homozygous mutant was higher in phenytoin intoxicated group than in phenytoin non-intoxicated group. Interpretation & conclusions: Homozygous mutant allele of NAT2 gene at 481site may act as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication among TBM or tuberculoma patients having seizures. PMID:27488001

  4. Assessment of high power HEV lead-acid battery advancements by comparative benchmarking with a European test procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Mario; Pede, Giovanni; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Macerata, Diego

    The technical and practical suitability of lead-acid batteries for applications in vehicles with electrical drivetrains (battery-powered or hybrid electric) has been experimentally investigated in a variety of testing programmes. Under the direction and funding support of the Commission of the European Community, since early 1990s, the R&D Organisation EUCAR, a collaborative partnership of most European car manufacturers, has been conducting battery technological assessment projects, through bench tests carried out by different independent laboratories throughout Europe, using agreed test procedures. In this framework, ENEA acted as independent testing institute and tested, among others, three high power lead-acid batteries of various technologies (flat plate electrodes and spiral wound) for EV and HEV applications. In addition, different battery sizes and operating conditions have been tested at ENEA in a separate collaboration with ALTRA-IRISBUS. This paper intends to trace technological and performance improvements of high power lead-acid battery technology through the analysis of experimental data during parameter and life cycle tests, including the effects of battery sizes, charge/discharge profiles and testing procedures, with special emphasis on the reduction of the internal resistance and the variation of peak power and cycle life.

  5. Influenza A virus drift variants reduced the detection sensitivity of a commercial multiplex nucleic acid amplification assay in the season 2014/15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzly, Daniela; Korn, Klaus; Bierbaum, Sibylle; Eberle, Björn; Falcone, Valeria; Knöll, Antje; Steininger, Philipp; Panning, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    The influenza season 2014/15 was dominated by drift variants of influenza A(H3N2), which resulted in a reduced vaccine effectiveness. It was not clear if the performance of commercial nucleic-acid-based amplification (NAT) assays for the detection of influenza was affected. The purpose of this study was to perform a real-life evaluation of two commercial NAT assays. During January-April 2015, we tested a total of 665 samples from patients with influenza-like illness using the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21, a commercial multiplex kit, (cohorts 1 and 2, n = 563 patients) and the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay (cohort 3, n = 102 patients), a single-use cartridge system. An in-house influenza real-time RT-PCR (cohort 1) and the RealStar Influenza RT-PCR 1.0 Kit (cohort 2 and 3) served as reference tests. Compared to the reference assay, an overall agreement of 95.9 % (cohort 1), 95 % (cohort 2), and 98 % (cohort 3) was achieved. A total of 24 false-negative results were observed using the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit. No false-negative results occurred using the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay. The Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit and the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay had sensitivities of 90.7 % and 100 % and specificities of 100 % and 94.1 %, respectively, compared to the RealStar 1.0 kit. Upon modification of the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit, the sensitivity increased to 97.3 %. Influenza virus strains circulating during the 2014/15 season reduced the detection sensitivity of a commercial NAT assay, and continuous monitoring of test performance is therefore necessary. PMID:27316440

  6. The production of {sup 88}Y in the proton bombardment of {sup nat}Sr: New excitation and separation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, N.P. van der [Radionuclide Production Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)], E-mail: nick@tlabs.ac.za; Walt, T.N. van der [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Steyn, G.F. [Radionuclide Production Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Szelecsenyi, F.; Kovacs, Z. [Cyclotron Department, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026, Bem ter 18/C, Debrecen (Hungary); Perrang, C.M. [Radionuclide Production Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Raubenheimer, H.G. [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-07-15

    The cyclotron production of {sup 88}Y at iThemba LABS is performed via the reaction {sup 88}Sr(p,n){sup 88}Y. The yields obtained were inconsistent with nuclear data obtained from the literature and the excitation function of the nuclear reaction was re-measured, using a differentiation of thick-target production rate measurements. Ion exchange chromatographic methods are described to separate {sup 88}Y from {sup nat}Sr target material using AG MP-1 resin and AG 50W-X4 resins, respectively.

  7. Towards limits of excitation energy in the reaction 3He(1.8 GeV) + natAg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot nuclei are studied, where through an appropriate choice of incident channel and event selection, dynamical effects are attenuated and multifragmentation is limited. Three preparatory results are given, the 3He(1.8 GeV) + natAg can be described using an intranuclear cascade, INC, model; through a suitable selection of events a limit of the excitation energy that a nucleus can absorb without breaking into large pieces is given, it is shown that corresponding alpha decay is consistent with an evaporative process. (K.A.)

  8. Multifragmentation in the 4.8-GeV 3He+ natAg, 197Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifragmentation of natAg and 197Au nuclei induced by a 4.8-GeV 3He ions has been studied with the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4π detector array. Rapidity and moving source analyses are consistent with thermal emission from a source in approximate kinetic equilibrium. For the most dissipative collisions, the spectral Coulomb peaks are broadened to very low energies, indicative of emission from an extended nuclear system. Predictions of a model with an intranuclear cascade and an expanding, emitting source compare well with experimental multiplicity distributions and the evolution of fragment spectral shapes

  9. Multifragmentation in the 4.8-GeV {sup 3}He+ {sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, K.; Morley, K.B.; Foxford, E.R.; Bracken, D.S.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R.; Legrain, R.; Pollacco, E.C.; Volant, C.; Friedman, W.A.; Korteling, R.G.; Brzychczyk, J.; Breuer, H. [Department of Chemistry and Physics and IUCF, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)]|[Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique DAPNIA/Service de Physique des Particles, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]|[Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5A 1SG (Canada)]|[Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)]|[Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1995-05-08

    Multifragmentation of {sup nat}Ag and {sup 197}Au nuclei induced by a 4.8-GeV {sup 3}He ions has been studied with the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} detector array. Rapidity and moving source analyses are consistent with thermal emission from a source in approximate kinetic equilibrium. For the most dissipative collisions, the spectral Coulomb peaks are broadened to very low energies, indicative of emission from an extended nuclear system. Predictions of a model with an intranuclear cascade and an expanding, emitting source compare well with experimental multiplicity distributions and the evolution of fragment spectral shapes.

  10. Excitation functions of residual nuclei production from 40–2600 MeV proton-irradiated 206,207,208,natPb and 209Bi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu E Titarenko; V F Batyaev; V M Zhivun; V O Kudryashov; K A Lipatov; A V Ignatyuk; S G Mashnik

    2007-02-01

    The work is aimed at experimental determination of the independent and cumulative yields of radioactive residual nuclei produced in intermediate-energy proton-irradiated thin targets made of highly isotopic enriched and natural lead (206,207,208,natPb) and 209Bi. 5972 radioactive product nuclide yields have been measured in 55 thin targets induced by 0.04, 0.07, 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 and 2.6 GeV protons extracted from the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. The measured data have been compared with data obtained at other laboratories as well as with theoretical simulations by seven codes. We found that the predictive power of the tested codes is different but is satisfactory for most of the nuclides in the spallation region, though none of the codes agree well with the data in the whole mass region of product nuclides and all should be improved further.

  11. A comparative study of classical and biochemical endpoints for phytotoxicity testing of chlorobenzoic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pei-jun; YIN Pei-jie; ZHOU Qi-xing; SHI Xing-qun; XIONG Xian-zhe

    2005-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of chlorobenzoic acids(CBAs) was studied and the biochemical endpoints' suitability and sensibility was evaluated. Two terrestrial plant species in the same family were exposed to different concentrations of CBAS and tested their germination according to the guideline of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECP, 1984). The results showed that CBA doseinhibition rate of classical endpoint had the distinct linear relationship in the range of 10%-50% inhibition rate for root elongation( p <0.01), and the dose variances of CBAs had the greater influence on the inhibition rate of germination than on inhibition rate of root elongation. The CBA dose half effect concentration-inhibition rate of two antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase (CAT) had the quadratic relationship, and CBA dose-inhibition rate of the peroxides(POD) activity had the linear relationship( p<0.05). Comparing the half effect concentration (EC50 ) of two kinds of endpoints, the POD activity was more sensitive than classical endpoint, however, SOD and CAT activity were not sensitive in the experiment.

  12. Activation cross sections of the {sup nat}Yb(p,xn){sup 169}Lu reaction for indirect production of the therapeutic radionuclide {sup 169}Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)], E-mail: kiralyb@atomki.hu; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-01

    Activation cross sections of the {sup nat}Yb(p,xn){sup 169}Lu reaction have been measured for the first time up to 70 MeV to investigate the production possibility of the radionuclide {sup 169}Yb through decay of its parent {sup 169}Lu. The cross sections were measured using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma spectrometry. The experimental data were compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE theoretical model code. Different production routes were compared for the internal radiotherapy related radioisotope {sup 169}Yb. Above 30 MeV proton energy the integral yield of the {sup nat}Yb(p,xn){sup 169}Lu reaction is higher than that of the earlier investigated {sup 169}Tm(p,n){sup 169}Yb, {sup 169}Tm(d,2n){sup 169}Yb, {sup nat}Er({alpha},xn){sup 169}Yb, {sup nat}Yb({alpha},x){sup 169}Lu and {sup nat}Hf(p,x){sup 169}Lu reactions at the equivalent particle energies.

  13. 移动互联网环境下SIP穿越 NAT的研究%Research of NAT Traversal for SIP under Mobile Internet Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      NAT (Network Address Translation)穿越问题是制约SIP(Session Initiation Protocol )发展的主要障碍之一。分析了ICE(Interactive Connectivity Establishment )方式协助SIP穿越NAT的机制,并根据移动互联网环境的特点对ICE作了进一步改进,最后把改进的ICE作为一个模块成功嵌入到了Android VoIP软件之中。实验证明改进的ICE可使SIP穿越任何NAT ,且有成功率高、低时延的优点,非常适用于移动互联网环境。%NAT (Network Address Translation) traversal is one of the main obstacles restricting the development of SIP(Session Initiation Protocol ) .By analyzing the ICE (Interactive Connectivity Establishment ) method for SIP operating through NAT and the characteristics of the mobile Internet environment ,some further improvements are made to the ICE .Finally ,the improved ICE is embedded as a module into an Android VoIP software successfully . Experiments show that the improved ICE allows SIP to operate through all kinds of NAT with a high success rate and low delay ,and it is ideally suited to the mobile Internet environment .

  14. Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, Stefan; Cole, Shannon

    2011-03-23

    Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruit juices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruit juices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ∼1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described.

  15. Ten years after the Dutch public health campaign on folic acid : the continuing challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, Hermien E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Folic acid use in the periconceptional period reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, applying this knowledge in daily practice is not an easy task. We report here the current level of folic acid use in the Netherlands and discuss the figures within the framework of a nat

  16. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  17. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Michael A.; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A + B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse ...

  18. 4{pi} studies of the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. I. Energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, K.B.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Renshaw Foxford, E. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Legrain, R.; Pollacco, E.C.; Volant, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Korteling, R.G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Breuer, H. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Brzychczyk, J. [Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    1996-01-01

    The 4{pi} detector ISiS has been used to measure light-charged particles and intermediate-mass-fragments emitted in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. Ejectile multiplicity and total event kinetic energy distribution scale systematically with projectile energy and target mass, except for the {sup nat}Ag target at 3.6 and 4.8 GeV. For this system, a saturation in deposition energy is indicated by the data, suggesting the upper projectile energy for stopping has been reached. Maximum deposition energies of {approx}950 MeV for the {sup nat}Ag target and {approx}1600 MeV for the {sup 197}Au target are inferred from the data. Comparison of the experimental distributions with intranuclear cascade predictions shows qualitative agreement. (author). Submitted to Physical Review, C (US); 46 refs.

  19. 国内外肝炎病毒核酸定量和定性检测试剂的差异及质量控制%Comparison and quality control between domestic and foreign hepatitis virus nucleic acid amplification technology reagents for quantitative and qualitative tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星; 周诚; 梁争论

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis virus NAT reagents are now widely used clinically. However, the qulity of domestic and foreign NAT reagents varies dramatically. The main reasons for these differences including the manufacture technique, test principle and assay procedure were discussed in this paper and current status of the quality control of the NAT reagents were also described. Finally, it was pointed out that strengthening public supervision and laboratory internal control are very important for the quality improvement of the domestic reagents.%肝炎病毒核酸检测试剂在临床广泛应用,国内外相关试剂质量存在较大差异.本文从试剂的生产工艺、检测原理、操作过程等方面分析了国内外试剂质量存在差异的主要原因,同时阐述了国内外相关试剂质量控制的现状.提出为提高国产试剂质量,应加强上市后监管和实验室内部质量控制.

  20. Testing the Potential for Computational Chemistry to Quantify Biophysical Properties of the Non-Proteinaceous Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Freeland, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Although most proteins of most living organisms are constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids, all indications are that this standard alphabet represents a mere subset of what was available to life during early evolution. However, we currently lack an appropriate quantitative framework with which to test the qualitative hypotheses that have been offered to date as explanations for nature's "choices." Specifically, although many indices have been developed to describe the 20 standard amino acids, few or no comparable data extend to prebiotically plausible alternatives because of the costly and time-consuming bench experiments that would be required. Computational chemistry (specifically quantitative structure property relationship methods) offers a potentially fast, cost-effective remedy for this knowledge gap by predicting such molecular properties in silico. Thus, we investigated the use of various freely accessible programs to predict three key amino acid properties (hydrophobicity, charge, and size). We assessed the accuracy of these predictions by comparisons with experimentally determined counterparts for appropriate test data sets. In light of these results, and factors of software accessibility and transparency, we suggest a method for further computational assessments of prebiotically plausible amino acids. The results serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis of amino acid alphabet evolution.

  1. Decreased DNA Methylation in the Shati/Nat8l Promoter in Both Patients with Schizophrenia and a Methamphetamine-Induced Murine Model of Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kyosuke; Kikuchi, Yuu; Iwata, Mina; Uehara, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tadasu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Jinno, Hideto; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Nitta, Atsumi

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with schizophrenia has increased over the past decade. Previously, many studies have been performed to establish its diagnostic criteria, prophylactic methods, and effective therapies. In this study, we analyzed whether the ratios of DNA methylation in CpG islands of the Shati/Nat8l is decreased in model mice of schizophrenia-like phenotype using genomic DNA collected from brain regions and peripheral blood, since the mouse model of schizophrenia-like phenotype, mice treated repeatedly with methamphetamine showed increase of Shati/Nat8l mRNA expression in our previous experiment. The ratios of Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation were significantly decreased in both the nucleus accumbens and the peripheral blood of model mice compared with those of control mice. We also investigated Shati/Nat8l methylation in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. We found that Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation ratios were lower in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls, which is consistent with our findings in the mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show similar alterations in methylation status of a particular genomic DNA site in both the brain and peripheral blood of mice. Furthermore, the same phenomenon was observed in corresponding human genomic sequences of the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, DNA methylation profiles of the CpG island of Shati/Nat8l might be a diagnostic biomarker of schizophrenia. PMID:27348532

  2. Decreased DNA Methylation in the Shati/Nat8l Promoter in Both Patients with Schizophrenia and a Methamphetamine-Induced Murine Model of Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Uno

    Full Text Available The number of patients with schizophrenia has increased over the past decade. Previously, many studies have been performed to establish its diagnostic criteria, prophylactic methods, and effective therapies. In this study, we analyzed whether the ratios of DNA methylation in CpG islands of the Shati/Nat8l is decreased in model mice of schizophrenia-like phenotype using genomic DNA collected from brain regions and peripheral blood, since the mouse model of schizophrenia-like phenotype, mice treated repeatedly with methamphetamine showed increase of Shati/Nat8l mRNA expression in our previous experiment. The ratios of Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation were significantly decreased in both the nucleus accumbens and the peripheral blood of model mice compared with those of control mice. We also investigated Shati/Nat8l methylation in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. We found that Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation ratios were lower in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls, which is consistent with our findings in the mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show similar alterations in methylation status of a particular genomic DNA site in both the brain and peripheral blood of mice. Furthermore, the same phenomenon was observed in corresponding human genomic sequences of the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, DNA methylation profiles of the CpG island of Shati/Nat8l might be a diagnostic biomarker of schizophrenia.

  3. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. PMID:22841669

  4. Effect of solanine on N-acetylaransferase activity in HepG2 cell%龙葵碱对HepG2细胞NAT1酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世勇; 苏怡君; 季宇彬

    2010-01-01

    探讨龙葵碱对HepG2人肝癌细胞的N-乙酰基转移酶1(NAT1)酶活性的影响. 采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),以对氨基苯甲酸(PABA)为底物,以PABA被NAT1乙酰化为乙酰对氨基苯甲酸(Ac-PABA)的量反应NAT1酶的活性.观察不同质量浓度、不同时间龙葵碱对完整HepG2细胞NAT1酶活性的影响;龙葵碱对HepG2细胞细胞质中NAT1酶活性的影响.结果表明,在NAT1酶活性测定中,龙葵碱能显著降低HepG2完整细胞NAT1的活性;龙葵碱能够降低HepG2细胞质内NAT1的活性,且作用具有剂量依赖性;随着时间的增加NAT1转化产物的量逐渐增加,但龙葵碱能显著降低同一时段NAT1的活性.提示龙葵碱通过抑制HepG2细胞中NAT1的活性是龙葵碱抑制人肝癌细胞HepG2增殖的作用机制之一.

  5. Project 2: testing the current critical load maps of acidity for coniferous and deciduous forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornung, M.; Creamer, R.; Reynolds, B; Bell, S.; Langan, S.; Kennedy, F; Bradley, I.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: to examine the relationship between mapped exceedance of critical loads of acidity for woodlands, the Ca:A1 ratio of soil solution and forest status as measured by canopy condition and foliar chemistry

  6. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests

    OpenAIRE

    Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

  7. Field test of four methods for gas-phase ambient nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. R.; Hartsell, Benjamin E.; Luke, Winston T.; Rahmat Ullah, S. M.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Greg Huey, L.; Tate, Paul

    Three semi-continuous methods for detecting nitric acid (HNO 3) were tested against the annular denuder + filter pack (ADS) integrated collection technique at the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) Sydney research station ˜20km downwind of the Tampa, Florida, urban core. The semi-continuous instruments included: two slightly differing implementations of the NOY-NO (total oxides of nitrogen minus that total denuded of HNO 3) denuder difference technique, one from the NOAA Air Resources Lab (ARL), and one from Atmospheric Research and Analysis, Inc. (ARA); the parallel plate wet diffusion scrubber + online ion chromatography technique from Texas Tech University (TTU); and the chemical ionization mass spectrometer from the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT). Twelve hour ADS samples were collected by the University of South Florida (USF). Results for 10 min samples computed from the various higher sampling frequencies of each semi-continuous instrument showed good agreement (R2>0.7) for afternoon periods of the highest production and accumulation of HNO 3. Further, agreement was within ±30% for these instruments even at HNO 3 concentrations 60% for the nighttime samples; ADS results were below the corporate mean maximum HNO 3 concentration by >30% as well. The four instruments using semi-continuous methods, by contrast, were all within 10% of each other's 12 h mean mixing ratios. While only ARA employed a formal minimum detection limit at 0.050 ppb, error analysis with the other techniques established that at the same level of precision, TTU's effective limit was approximately the same as ARA's and that ARL's limit was 0.030 ppb; analysis for GIT showed no apparent effective limit at the levels of HNO 3 encountered in this field study. The importance of sample inlet height for HNO 3 measurements was indirectly shown through comparison to previous field work at this site when sample inlet heights ranged from 1.5-10 m and produced systematic

  8. Development of diagnostic RI test method for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in SMS and IDDM patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saida, Takahiko [Utano National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Western blotting with antigens purified using its specific antibody bound column has demonstrated that patients with Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) and insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) were both positive for anti-GAD antibody. Further, anti-GAD antibodies from various animal brains were characterized using GAD 65 and GAD 67 peptide antibody. The antibody against the anti-N-terminal peptide inhibited the enzyme activity of GAD, suggesting that the active site of GAD might exist in the N-terminal region. Development of a new detection method for anti-GAD antibody was attempted and the amount of GAD protein bound to protein G resin was determined based on the activity to release {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from {sup 14}C glutamic acid. In addition, solid-phase RIA method was developed using GAD purified by the anti-peptide antibody affinity column. The positive detection rate for GAD antibody was 39% for the enzymatic method and 56% for the solid-phase RIA method. To develop a further sensitive detection method for GAD antibody, construction of recombinant GAD was attempted and two GAD65s different in molecular size were constructed using pMal-c vector. Thus obtained antibodies against anti-N-terminal peptides were separately responded to GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms in the rat, mouse and bovine brains, whereas the carboxy-terminal antibodies were reactive to both isoforms together. Therefore, it became possible to make purification of GAD65 and GAD67 by the use of the two N-terminal peptide antibodies. Further, it became possible to purify GAD as a mixture of both isoforms. However, the yield of purification using anti-affinity column was still unsatisfactory ( several percent) and the GAD preparation obtained had little activity. The positive detection by the solid-phase RIA method was 50% for SMS patients and 56% for IDDM ones, indicating that this method was superior to the previous enzyme method. The protein A method in which labeled human recombinant GAD65 was used to

  9. Development of diagnostic RI test method for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in SMS and IDDM patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western blotting with antigens purified using its specific antibody bound column has demonstrated that patients with Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) and insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) were both positive for anti-GAD antibody. Further, anti-GAD antibodies from various animal brains were characterized using GAD 65 and GAD 67 peptide antibody. The antibody against the anti-N-terminal peptide inhibited the enzyme activity of GAD, suggesting that the active site of GAD might exist in the N-terminal region. Development of a new detection method for anti-GAD antibody was attempted and the amount of GAD protein bound to protein G resin was determined based on the activity to release 14CO2 from 14C glutamic acid. In addition, solid-phase RIA method was developed using GAD purified by the anti-peptide antibody affinity column. The positive detection rate for GAD antibody was 39% for the enzymatic method and 56% for the solid-phase RIA method. To develop a further sensitive detection method for GAD antibody, construction of recombinant GAD was attempted and two GAD65s different in molecular size were constructed using pMal-c vector. Thus obtained antibodies against anti-N-terminal peptides were separately responded to GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms in the rat, mouse and bovine brains, whereas the carboxy-terminal antibodies were reactive to both isoforms together. Therefore, it became possible to make purification of GAD65 and GAD67 by the use of the two N-terminal peptide antibodies. Further, it became possible to purify GAD as a mixture of both isoforms. However, the yield of purification using anti-affinity column was still unsatisfactory ( several percent) and the GAD preparation obtained had little activity. The positive detection by the solid-phase RIA method was 50% for SMS patients and 56% for IDDM ones, indicating that this method was superior to the previous enzyme method. The protein A method in which labeled human recombinant GAD65 was used to precipitate 125-I GAD

  10. Diagnostic value of nine nucleic acid amplification test systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülnur Tarhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, nine commercial Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Systems (NAATs were evaluated for diagnostic performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC from smear positive sputum species (SPss and smear negative sputum specimens (SNss. Methods: Sixty SPss and 55 SNss were examined icroscopically by Ehrlich Ziehl Neelsen (EZN staining method, and also inoculated on Löwenstein Jensen (LJ medium for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of nine NAATs were calculated according to LJ culture method accepted as gold standard. Results: When LJ culture results were taken as gold standard; the sensitivity rates of method COBAS Amplicor MTB (Method A, GenProbe MTD (Method B, Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR Method C, iCycler iQ RT PCR (Method D, TaqMan PCR AB 5700 (Method E, TaqMan PCR AB7700 (Method F, ightCycler® 480 RT PCR (Method G, Rotor Gene RT PCR (Method H and the AdvanSure TB/NTM RT PCR (Method I for SPss were 98.3 %, 93.3 %, 96.7 %, 100 %, 93.3 %, 100 %, 100 %, 100 % and 100 %, respectively. The sensitivity was 53.84% for the methods A, B, D, E, G and I; 38.46% for the method C and H; 61.5% for the method F for the method I in SNss. There were no statistical significant differences between the nine NAATs (p≥0.05. The specificity was 100% for all nine NAATs in SNss. The positivity rates of methods were 53.8% for methods A, B, D, E, G, I; 38.5% for methods C and H, and 61.5% for method F in SNss. These rates were 100% for D, F, G, H and I; 98.3% for method A; 96.7% for method C; 93,3% for methods B and E in SPss. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistically significant differences among the nine NAATs (p≥0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that the nine NAATs might be useful for detecting MTBC from SPss, but not effective for SNss. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(3: 103-109

  11. In vivo genotoxicity testing of the amnesic shellfish poison (domoic acid) in piscine erythrocytes using the micronucleus test and the comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavas, Tolga [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33343 Mersin (Turkey)], E-mail: tcavas@mersin.edu.tr; Koenen, Serpil [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33343 Mersin (Turkey)

    2008-11-11

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid naturally produced in the marine environment by some diatom species belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Although the neurotoxic properties of DA have been demonstrated, very little is known about in vivo genotoxicity of DA on aquatic organisms. In the present paper, an in vivo study on the genotoxic effects of domoic acid was carried out on a fish, Oreochromis niloticus, using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. The fish were exposed to three doses of domoic acid (1, 5 and 10 {mu}g/g body weight) by intracoelomic injections. Ethyl methane sulphonate at a single dose of 5 mg/l was used as positive control. Analysis of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and DNA damage were carried out on peripheral erythrocytes sampled 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities as well as DNA strand breaks and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of DA on fish.

  12. NAT2*6A,a haplotype of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene, is an important biomarker for risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Japanese patients with tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate an association between N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2)-haplotypes/diplotypes and adverse effects in apanese pulmonary tuberculosis patients.METHODS: We studied 100 patients with pulmonary TB treated with anti-TB drugs including INH. The frequencies and distributions of single nucleotide polymorphisms, haplotypes, and diplotypes of NAT2 were determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, and the results were compared between TB patients with and without adverse effect,using multivariate logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of a variant haplotype, NAT2*6A, was significantly increased in TB patients with hepatotoxicity,compared with those without hepatotoxicity [P = 0.001,odds ratio (OR) = 3.535]. By contrast, the frequency of a wild-type (major) haplotype,"NAT2*4″, was significantly lower in TB patients with hepatotoxicity than those without hepatotoxicity (P < 0.001, OR = 0.265).There was no association between NAT2-haplotypes and skin rash or eosinophilia.CONCLUSION: The present study shows that NAT2 is one of the determinants of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the haplotypes, NAT2*4 and NAT2*6A, are useful new biomarkers for predicting antiTB drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. P2P网络环境下解决NAT穿越问题的关键技术研究%Key Technology of NAT Hole Punching Solution under P2P Network Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫喜; 苟红玲

    2012-01-01

    目前广泛使用的NAT穿越方案STUN方法无法穿越对称型NAT,设计改进STUN方案以克服STUN无法穿越对称型NAT的缺陷,从而实现穿越双对称型NAT的目标.新方案保持STUN方式无须改动现有的NAT设备、协议简单等优点,并尽量避免目前TURN、ICE穿越对称型NAT方案延迟和丢包的问题,满足了越来越多的企业为提高信息安全性需要使用对称型NAT的要求.%The STUM method of Nat scheme cannot traversing symmetric NAT which widely used presently,improving STUN schyeme design to overcome the STUN cannot traversing symmetric NAT defects,so the target been achieved to traversing the double sym-metry NAT. New scheme of STUN requires no modification to existing NAT equipment, protocol is simple, and to avoid the current TURN, ICE traversing symmetric NAT scheme delay and packet loss problem, meet more and more enterprises1 requires that using the sym-metry NAT to improving information security.

  14. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA on the Reproductive Axis Pituitary, Thyroid, Testes of Ram in Non-reproductive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Mahdavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2 and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 g and the third group received 1 g of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 mL syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05. Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

  15. The Research on SIP Traversal of NAT Based on STUN%基于STUN协议的SIP穿越NAT研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹏; 程胜利

    2006-01-01

    SIP协议在满足多媒体通信和VOIP的独特优势使之成为NGN重要应用的信令协议.然而当今大量私有网络和地址转换协议(NAT)的存在对SIP的应用带来一定的困难.本文首先介绍了SIP协议,分析了NAT对SIP协议的部署所带来的问题,同时介绍了STUN协议,并且借助STUN协议对SIP穿透NAT的技术方案进行了阐述.

  16. Excitation functions of (nat)Zn(p,x) nuclear reactions with proton beam energy below 18 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Ali H; Chan, Sun; Morandeau, Laurence; Cryer, David; Smith, Suzanne V; Price, Roger I

    2014-12-01

    We measured the excitation functions of (nat)Zn (p,x) reactions up to 17.6MeV, using the stacked-foils activation technique. High-purity natural zinc (and copper) foils were irradiated with proton beams generated by an 18MeV isochronous cyclotron. Activated foils were measured using high-purity Ge gamma spectroscopy to quantify the radionuclides (61)Cu, (66)Ga, (67)Ga, and (65)Zn produced from the reactions. Thick-target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radioisotopes. These results were compared with the published literature and were found to be in good agreement with most reports, particularly those most recently compiled.

  17. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community.......To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  18. Noninvasive ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test shows delayed gastric emptying in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Toepfer, Marcel; Folwaczny, Christian; Lochmüller, H.; Schroeder, M; Riepl, R. L.; Pongratz, D; Müller-Felber, W.

    1999-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. However, ALS has been recognized to also involve non-motor systems. Subclinical involvement of the autonomic system in ALS has been described. The recently developed C-13-octanoic acid breath test allows the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying. With this new technique we investigated 18 patients with ALS and 14 healthy volunteers. None of the patients had diabe...

  19. Madīnat al-Zahrā', el paraíso y los fatimíes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fierro, Maribel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Qur'ānic verses on Paradise (especially Qur'ān, 55: 46-78, as well as the Kitāb waṣf al-firdaws by 'Abd al-Malik b. Ḥabīb, allow us to give specific meanings to the interpretation of Madinat al-Zahrā' as Paradise and to support it over other possible interpretations (although without necessarily eliminating the latter. On this basis, the variety and asymmetry of the wall decorations in the Hall of 'Abd al-Raḥmān III are explained, as well as how certain narratives on Madīnat al-Zahrā' came into being. The «green and manganese» decoration of the pottery produced in the town is given a new meaning and some considerations are offered on the name given to the town. A relationship can be established between Madīnat al-Zahrā' as Paradise and one of the doctrines attributed to Mundhir b. Sa'īd al-Ballūṭī, judge of Abd al-Raḥmān III from 339/950 until the death of the caliph. The silence of the Arab sources about this Paradisiac symbolism could be linked to the anecdote on how Mundhir b. Sa'īd censured 'Abd al-Raḥmān Ill's building activity. Finally, Madīnat al-Zahrā' has to be studied within the context of the political and religious struggle with the Fatimids, and more specifically taking into account the situation after the defeat of the «Man of the Donkey», who was presented as an eschatological figure by the Fatimids.

    Las aleyas coránicas sobre el Paraíso (y en especial Corán, 55: 46-78, así como el Kitāb waṣfal-firdaws de 'Abd al-Malik b. Habīb, nos permiten precisar mejor la interpretación «paradisíaca» de Madīnat al-Zahrā' y dotarla de sentidos concretos, mostrando sus ventajas sobre otras posibles (aunque no desechables. Se explica así no sólo la variedad, sino también la asimetría, de las decoraciones parietales del Salón de 'Abd al-Raḥmān III, se da sentido a cómo pudieron surgir una serie de relatos en tomo a Madīnat al-Zahrā', se puede plantear una nueva

  20. Inspection of heat transfer tubes after mock-up tests of miniaturized apparatus for the acid recovery evaporator. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demonstration test for the acid recovery evaporator and the dissolver used in the major equipment of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), has been carried out. The mock-up miniature equipment has been employed to it. This test had been performed from April in 1998. The total time of demonstration test using the mock-up equipment is about two and half years, which corresponds to about 20,000 hours. After that, four of the seven heat transfer tubes used in the evaporator were drawn out and the corrosion level and the mechanical properties were evaluated for one of them. As a result, intergranular corrosion was recognized in the inner surface of the heat transfer tube and the corrosion depth at the grain boundary was statistically shown to be about one grain from the inner surface. Further, no change in mechanical properties was observed and growth of intergranular cracks in the inner surface of the specimen was found after flattering test. (author)

  1. Coffee and tea consumption, genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity and colorectal cancer risk—Results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, V.K.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Oijen, van M.G.C.T.; Siersema, P.D.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Gils, van C.H.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and tea contain numerous antimutagenic and antioxidant components and high levels of caffeine that may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the association between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk and studied potential effect modification by CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotype

  2. Assessment of U(nat) and 226Ra level in bore well water adjoining the newly constructed uranium mill tailings pond at Turamdih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of uranium ore leaves behind large quantity of low specific activity waste called tailings. In the absence of appropriate control measures such waste disposal may lead to contamination of adjoining ground water sources. Ten bore wells have been constructed across the earthen bund of the tailings pond to evaluate the migration characteristics of radionuclides and chemical toxicants. Present study is based on the monitoring results of significant radionuclides U(nat) and 226Ra of these bore well water during the last two years. The highest concentration of U(nat) and 226Ra was found 2.4 mg m-3 and 22.1 Bq m-3 respectively. These levels are comparable with the ground water sources situated in the vicinity of the tailings pond and adjacent areas within the same geological formation. The levels reflect the natural distribution of U(nat) and 226Ra in ground water sources of this region and impact of discharges at tailings pond has not been observed so far. The study reveal that the design features of tailings pond is able to restrict these radionuclides within the tailings pile. Moreover, the levels are well below the recommended standards of U(nat) and 226Ra for drinking water i.e. 60 mg m-3 and 300 Bq m-3. (author)

  3. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Testing on Unplated and Electroless Gold-Plated Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) remediation requires that almost 40 kg of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) be converted to uranium oxide (UO). In the process of this conversion, six moles of hydrofluoric acid (HP) are produced for each mole of UF6 converted

  4. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for rosmarinic acid ocular delivery--In vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sara Baptista; Ferreira, Domingos; Pintado, Manuela; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were used to encapsulate antioxidant rosmarinic acid, Salvia officinalis (sage) and Satureja montana (savory) extracts as rosmarinic acid natural vehicles. The nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) in a mass ratio of 7:1, at pH 5.8. Particle size distribution analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the size ranging from 200 to 300 nm, while surface charge of nanoparticles ranged from 20 to 30 mV. Nanoparticles demonstrate to be safe without relevant cytotoxicity against retina pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) and human cornea cell line (HCE-T). The permeability study in HCE monolayer cell line showed an apparent permeability coefficient Papp of 3.41±0.99×10(-5) and 3.24±0.79×10(-5) cm/s for rosmarinic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles and free in solution, respectively. In ARPE-19 monolayer cell line the Papp was 3.39±0.18×10(-5) and 3.60±0.05×10(-5) cm/s for rosmarinic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles and free in solution, respectively. Considering the mucin interaction method, nanoparticles indicate mucoadhesive proprieties suggesting an increased retention time over the ocular mucosa after instillation. These nanoparticles may be promising drug delivery systems for ocular application in oxidative eye conditions.

  5. Excitation functions of the natTa(p,x)178m2Hf and natW(p,x)178m2Hf reactions at energies up to 2600 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarenko, Yu. E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Batyaev, V. F. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Pavlov, K. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Titarenko, A. Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Zhivun, V. M. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russia); Chauzova, M. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Ignatyuk, A. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russia); Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leray, S. [CEA, Saclay (France); Boudard, A. [CEA, Saclay (France); David, J. -C. [CEA, Saclay (France); Mancusi, D. [CEA, Saclay (France); Cugnon, J. [Univ. of Liege (Belgium); Yariv, Y. [Soreq NRC (Israel); Nishihara, K. [JAERI, Tokai (Japan); Matsuda, N. [JAERI, Tokai (Japan); Kumawat, H. [BARC, Mumbai (India); Stankovskiy, A. Yu. [SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2015-04-29

    Due to potential level of energy intensity 178m2Hf is an extremely interesting isomer. One possible way to produce this isomer is irradiation of natTa or natW samples with high energy protons. Irradiation of natTa or natW samples performed for other purposes provides an opportunity to study the corresponding reactions. This paper presents the 178m2Hf independent production cross sections for both targets measured by the gamma-ray spectrometry method. The reaction excitation functions have been obtained for the proton energies from 40 up to 2600 MeV. The experimental results were compared with calculations by various versions of the intranuclear cascade model in the well-known codes: ISABEL, Bertini, INCL4.5+ABLA07, PHITS, CASCADE07 and CEM03.02. The isomer ratio for the natTa(p,x) 178m2Hf reaction is evaluated on the basis of the available data.

  6. Implication of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme gene (CYP2E1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, mEH and NAT2 Polymorphisms in Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbouj Sallouha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes (XMEs contribute to the detoxification of numerous cancer therapy-induced products. This study investigated the susceptibility and prognostic implications of the CYP2E1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, mEH and NAT2 gene polymorphisms in breast carcinoma patients. Methods The authors used polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion to characterize the variation of the CYP2E1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, mEH and NAT2 gene in a total of 560 unrelated subjects (246 controls and 314 patients. Results The mEH (C/C mutant and the NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes were significantly associated with breast carcinoma risk (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively. For NAT2 the association was more pronounced among postmenopausal patients (p = 0.006. A significant association was found between CYP2D6 (G/G wild type and breast carcinoma risk only in postmenopausal patients (p = 0.04. Association studies of genetic markers with the rates of breast carcinoma specific overall survival (OVS and the disease-free survival (DFS revealed among all breast carcinoma patients no association to DFS but significant differences in OVS only with the mEH gene polymorphisms (p = 0.02. In addition, the mEH wild genotype showed a significant association with decreased OVS in patients with axillary lymph node-negative patients (p = 0.03 and with decreasesd DFS in patients with axillary lymph node-positive patients (p = 0.001. However, the NAT2 intermediate acetylator genotype was associated with decreased DFS in axillary lymph node-negative patients. Conclusion The present study may prove that polymorphisms of some XME genes may predict the onset of breast carcinoma as well as survival after treatment.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... the quality of stored blood. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  8. The serum 14C-triolein/3H-oleic acid assimilation test for differential diagnosis of maldigestion and malabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 125 consecutive patients the measurement of serum radioactivities after simultaneous ingestion of 14C-triolein and 3H-oleic acid was investigated as a test of lipid assimilation. The sum of the 2-h and 4-h concentrations of 14C in serum (se(2+4)14C) was most useful as an index of lipid assimilation, and the 2-h serum 3H/14C ratio (se-3H/14C) reflected lipid digestion. Normal values were se(2+4)14C >= 1.0% of the dose ingested per litre serum and se-3H/14C14C correlated significantly with faecal fat (r = -0.56, P 7 g/day. False-negative values appeared mainly in the patients with moderate steatorrhoea and gastrointestinal anastomoses. Only one false-positive se(2+4)14C value was found. Se-3H/14C was abnormal in 24 of the 34 patients with maldigestion with two false-positive results. When the results of se(2+4)14C and se-3H/14C were combined, the predictive value of the test result '' normal lipid assimilation'' was 0.75, that of the test result ''maldigestion'' was 0.93 and that of ''malabsorption'' 0.71. It is concluded that the serum 14C-triolein/3H-oleic acid assimilation test is convenient and inexpensive and may be useful when quantitative faecal collections are not available

  9. Visual test for melamine using silver nanoparticles modified with chromotropic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and low-cost assay for melamine is introduced that is making use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) functionalized with chromotropic acid (CTA). The surface of the AgNPs was capped with chromotropic acid which warrants the NPs to remain in stable and dispersed form. The presence of melamine induces the aggregation of the CTA-AgNPs due to the hydrogen bond interaction between CTA and melamine. This is accompanied by a color change from yellow to orange which can be observed with bare eyes. The method allows melamine to be quantified by absorptiometry with a linear response in the concentration range from 0.10 to 1.5 μM (R = 0.9996) and a detection limit of 36 nM which was much lower than the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC review for melamine in liquid infant formula). The assay displays high selectivity to melamine over its structural analogs such as cyanuric acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,5-triazine, and phloro glucinol owing to the fact that only melamine can act as the hydrogen donor to form hydrogen bonds with the sulfo groups of the CTA-capped AgNPs. The method was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in spiked liquid milk and the average recovery was 99 %. Most amino acids and a high content of calcium do not interfere in this assay. (author)

  10. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis induced by hydrofluoric acid exposure during fire extinguisher testing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yujin; Shin, JiYoung; Kang, ShinMyung; Kyung, SunYoung; Park, Jeong-woong; Lee, SangPyo; Lee, Sangmin; Jeong, Sung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Automatic fire suppression systems use hydrofluorocarbons (HF) to extinguish fires chemically. At high temperatures, HF can release hydrofluoric acid (HFA), a toxic, potentially lethal gas. Case report A 52-year-old male visited our Pulmonary Division with dyspnea of 8-months duration. He had been working at a facility that manufactured fire extinguishers. Bronchoscopy was performed and a transbronchial lung biopsy was taken from the right lower lobe. After the patient was diagno...

  11. Sensitivity during the forced swim test is a key factor in evaluating the antidepressant effects of abscisic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cong-Cong; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Fang-Han; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a crucial phytohormone, is distributed in the brains of mammals and has been shown to have antidepressant effects in the chronic unpredictable mild stress test. The forced swim test (FST) is another animal model that can be used to assess antidepressant-like behavior in rodents. Here, we report that the antidepressant effects of ABA are associated with sensitivities to the FST in mice. Based on mean immobility in the 5-min forced swim pre-test, ICR mice were divided into short immobility mice (SIM) and long immobility mice (LIM) substrains. FST was carried out 8 days after drug administration. Learned helplessness, as shown by increased immobility, was only observed in SIM substrain and could be prevented by an 8-day ABA treatment. Our results show that ABA has antidepressant effects in SIM substrain and suggest that mice with learned helplessness might be more suitable for screening potential antidepressant drugs.

  12. Handheld and portable test systems for immunodiagnostics, nucleic acid detection and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulstich, Konrad; Haberstroh, Klaus; Gruler, Roman; Eberhard, Michael; Wiest, Thomas; Lentzsch, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    Emergency Diagnostics, Homeland Security, Epidemiological Preparedness and the high cost of the Health Care Systems have increased demand for affordable and mobile point of care (POC) devices with highest sensitivity, specificity and rapid time to result. We have developed pocket sized systems for point of care and field based tests based on fluorescence read-out. The core consists of battery operated, 90 gram electro-optical units with optional wireless data transfer, which have been optimized to achieve highest accuracy and sensitivity paired with simplicity of use. The robust systems have been applied to molecular diagnostics such as DNA based testing, immunodiagnostics as well as environmental monitoring and agricultural testing. We will show examples of DNA testing, testing of drugs and toxins, cell based assays and water monitoring. We will discuss drivers and rationale for mobile testing platforms and address critical points such as sample preparation and sampling problems e.g. target delivery in small volumes. ESE's battery-operated handheld and mobile testing platforms have been shown to provide sensitive, accurate, and specific results, as well as rapid turnaround. The stand-alone devices demonstrate operational and physical robustness, and they can be manufactured to be affordable. Some underlying assays work directly from clinical samples such as urine or blood.

  13. External Quality Assessment Program for Chlamydia trachomatis Diagnostic Testing by Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Land, Sally; Tabrizi, Sepehr; Gust, Anthony; Johnson, Elizabeth; Garland, Susan; Dax, Elizabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results from 57 Australian diagnostic laboratories testing two external quality assessment panels using either the Roche Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test (R-PCR) or the Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay (A-ligase chain reaction [LCR]). Panel samples were either normal urine spiked with Chlamydia trachomatis antigen or clinical urine specimens. There was no significant difference between laboratories or between assays in detection of C. trachomatis-positive clinical sampl...

  14. Acid phosphatase test proves superior to standard phenotypic identification procedure for Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzinska-Paier, G.; Sommer, R.; Haider, J.M.; Knetsch, S.; Frick, C.; Kirschner, A.K.T.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is used as an indicator for persistent faecal pollution as well as to monitor the efficacy of water treatment processes. For these purposes, differentiation between C. perfringens and other Clostridia is essential and is routinely carried out by phenotypic standard tests as proposed in the ISO/CD 6461-2:2002 (ISO_LGMN: lactose fermentation, gelatine liquidation, motility and nitrate reduction). Because the ISO_LGMN procedure is time consuming and labour intensive, the acid phosphatase test was investigated as a possible and much more rapid alternative method for confirmation. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare confirmation results obtained by these two phenotypic methods using genotypically identified strains, what to our knowledge has not been accomplished before. For this purpose, a species specific PCR method was selected based on the results received for type strains and genotypically characterised environmental strains. For the comparative investigation type strains as well as presumptive C. perfringens isolates from water and faeces samples were used. The acid phosphatase test revealed higher percentage (92%) of correctly identified environmental strains (n = 127) than the ISO_LGMN procedure (83%) and proved to be a sensitive and reliable confirmation method. PMID:21872622

  15. Screening methods for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals: comparison of ther european union Four-Plate Test, the Nouws Antibiotic Test and the Premi Test (applied to muscle and kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Rapallini, M.L.B.A.; Zuidema, T.; Elferink, J.W.A.; Oostra, S.; Driessen, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial growth inhibition tests are widely used as the primary screening approach for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals. In this study we evaluated and compared the performance of the European Union Four-Plate Test (EU4pt), the Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT), and a commercial

  16. Metastable Nitric Acid Trihydrate in Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fabian; Kubel, Frank; Gálvez, Oscar; Hölzel, Markus; Parker, Stewart F.; Baloh, Philipp; Iannarelli, Riccardo; Rossi, Michel J.; Grothe, Hinrich

    2016-04-01

    The composition of high altitude ice clouds is still a matter of intense discussion. The constituents in question are ice and nitric acid hydrates. The identification and formation mechanisms, however, are still unknown but are essential to understand atmospheric processing such as the seasonal ozone depletion in the lower polar stratosphere or the radiation balance of planet Earth. We found conclusive evidence for a long-predicted phase, which has been named alpha nitric acid trihydrate (alpha-NAT). This phase has been proven by combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments allowing a convincing structure solution. Additionally, vibrational spectra (infrared and inelastic neutron scattering) were recorded and compared with theoretical calculations. A strong affinity between water ice and alpha-NAT has been found, which explains the experimental spectra and the phase transition kinetics essential for identification in the atmosphere. On the basis of our results, we propose a new three-step mechanism for NAT-formation in high altitude ice clouds. F. Weiss et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2016, accepted, DOI:10.1002/anie.201510841

  17. Second-tier test for quantification of underivatized amino acids in dry blood spot for metabolic diseases in newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Wenyan; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of amino acids (AAs) in single dry blood spot (DBS) samples is an important issue for metabolic diseases as a second-tier test in newborn screening. An analytical method for quantifying underivatized AAs in DBS was developed by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation in this method is simple and ion-pairing agent is not used in the mobile phase that could avoid ion suppression, which happens in mass spectrometry and avoids damage to the column. Through chromatographic separation, some isomeric compounds could be identified and quantified, which cannot be solved through only appropriate multiple reactions monitoring transitions by MS/MS. The concentrations of the different AAs were determined using non-deuterated internal standard. All calibration curves showed excellent linearity within test ranges. For most of the amino acids the accuracy of extraction recovery was between 85.3 and 115 %, and the precision of relative standard deviation was <7.0 %. The 35 AAs could be identified in DBS specimens by the developed LC-MS/MS method in 17-19 min, and eventually 24 AAs in DBS were quantified. The results of the present study prove that this method as a second-tier test in newborn screening for metabolic diseases could be performed by the quantification of free AAs in DBS using the LC-MS/MS method. The assay has advantages of high sensitive, specific, and inexpensive merits because non-deuterated internal standard and acetic acid instead of ion-pairing agent in mobile phase are used in this protocol.

  18. From arylamine N-acetyltransferase to folate-dependent acetyl CoA hydrolase: impact of folic acid on the activity of (HUMAN)NAT1 and its homologue (MOUSE)NAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurieri, Nicola; Dairou, Julien; Egleton, James E; Stanley, Lesley A; Russell, Angela J; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Sim, Edith; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Acetyl Coenzyme A-dependent N-, O- and N,O-acetylation of aromatic amines and hydrazines by arylamine N-acetyltransferases is well characterised. Here, we describe experiments demonstrating that human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 and its murine homologue (Type 2) can also catalyse the direct hydrolysis of acetyl Coenzyme A in the presence of folate. This folate-dependent activity is exclusive to these two isoforms; no acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis was found when murine arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 or recombinant bacterial arylamine N-acetyltransferases were incubated with folate. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed chemical modifications occurring during the catalytic reaction to be analysed in real time, revealing that the disappearance of acetyl CH3 from acetyl Coenzyme A occurred concomitantly with the appearance of a CH3 peak corresponding to that of free acetate and suggesting that folate is not acetylated during the reaction. We propose that folate is a cofactor for this reaction and suggest it as an endogenous function of this widespread enzyme. Furthermore, in silico docking of folate within the active site of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 suggests that folate may bind at the enzyme's active site, and facilitate acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis. The evidence presented in this paper adds to our growing understanding of the endogenous roles of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 and its mouse homologue and expands the catalytic repertoire of these enzymes, demonstrating that they are by no means just xenobiotic metabolising enzymes but probably also play an important role in cellular metabolism. These data, together with the characterisation of a naphthoquinone inhibitor of folate-dependent acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis by human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1/murine arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 2, open up a range of future avenues of exploration, both for elucidating the developmental role of these enzymes and for improving chemotherapeutic approaches to pathological conditions including estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

  19. Development and testing of radio and enzyme immunoassays for acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor from bovine brain stimulate growth in a variety of tissues in several species. Despite the 55% amino acid sequence homology of the two forms of FGF, a specific immunoassay of aFGF has been developed using a polyclonal antibody raised in a rabbit. Two immunoassays were compared: a radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I aFGF and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using aFGF coupled to the tetrameric form of acetylcholinesterase (aFGF-AchE) as tracer. With EIA, the detection limit was 1.5 ng/ml, versus 2.2 ng/ml with RIA, while the dose at 50% was 5.9 ng/ml for EIA and 9.6 ng/ml for RIA. Using a modified EIA procedure where aFGF-AchE was added 2 h after the other reagents, the dose at 50% binding was 1.5 ng/ml. Examples of the performance of both immunoassays are presented for various brain extracts of different species including human. The aFGF content obtained by these methods correlates (CR = 0.987) with the values obtained by biological assay

  20. Nucleic-acid testing, new platforms and nanotechnology for point-of-decision diagnosis of animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Fernando; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis in animals is crucial for animal well-being but also for preventing zoonosis transmission to humans. In particular, livestock diseases may constitute severe threats to humans due to the particularly high physical contact and exposure and, also, be the cause of important economic losses, even in non-endemic countries, where they often arise in the form of rapid and devastating epidemics. Rapid diagnostic tests have been used for a long time in field situations, particularly during outbreaks. However, they mostly rely on serological approaches, which may confirm the exposure to a particular pathogen but may be inappropriate for point-of-decision (point-of-care) settings when emergency responses supported on early and accurate diagnosis are required. Moreover, they often exhibit modest sensitivity and hence significantly depend on later result confirmation in central or reference laboratories. The impressive advances observed in recent years in materials sciences and in nanotechnology, as well as in nucleic-acid synthesis and engineering, have led to an outburst of new in-the-bench and prototype tests for nucleic-acid testing towards point-of-care diagnosis of genetic and infectious diseases. Manufacturing, commercial, regulatory, and technical nature issues for field applicability more likely have hindered their wider entrance into veterinary medicine and practice than have fundamental science gaps. This chapter begins by outlining the current situation, requirements, difficulties, and perspectives of point-of-care tests for diagnosing diseases of veterinary interest. Nucleic-acid testing, particularly for the point of care, is addressed subsequently. A range of valuable signal transduction mechanisms commonly employed in proof-of-concept schemes and techniques born on the analytical chemistry laboratories are also described. As the essential core of this chapter, sections dedicated to the principles and applications of microfluidics, lab

  1. Evaluation of two forms of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl p-aminobenzoic acid in pancreatic function testing of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, C F; Orfely, C

    1989-01-01

    Plasma para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) concentrations were compared in 12 dogs after oral administration of either a powdered suspension or a solution of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-PABA. Peak PABA plasma concentrations were significantly higher at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the solution (P less than 0.05). As the solution may now be used as a clinical test, interpretation of the results by comparison with normal absorption curves obtained after administration of the suspension could contribute to a failure to diagnose canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. PMID:2784215

  2. Implementation of Oral and Rectal Gonococcal and Chlamydial Nucleic Acid Amplification-Based Testing as a Component of Local Health Department Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Jennifer; Barr, Breona; McNeil, Candice J; Bachmann, Laura H

    2016-10-01

    From January 1, 2014, to May 31, 2015, 452 individuals received extragenital nucleic acid amplification-based Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis testing through public health venues. Seventy-four individuals (16%) tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis at an extragenital site and 40 (54%) would not have been effectively diagnosed and treated in the absence of extragenital testing.

  3. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  4. Tests for mutagencity of free radicals formed in irradiated sugars and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicals formed in gamma-irradiated crystals of galactose and glycine were found, upon dissolution, to cause mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA-98 and TA-100. Although the reproducibility of the results has not been adequately determined, they suggest the possibility of developing a test to measure the mutagenic-carcinogenic potential of radiation-induced free radicals with a microbial system

  5. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  6. Power Shortage: clinical trials testing the "homocysteine hypothesis" against a background of folic acid-fortified cereal grain flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostom, A G; Selhub, J; Jacques, P F; Rosenberg, I H

    2001-07-17

    Large randomized, controlled trials of total homocysteine-lowering therapy for the potential reduction of cardiovascular disease outcomes are ongoing in the United States and Canada. These trials are the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Disease Study (WACS), and the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE-2). However, the dramatic effect of policies mandating fortification of cereal grain flour products with folic acid may reduce the statistical power of these trials. All three trials assume that the active treatment groups will achieve the same mean effects of total homocysteine-lowering therapy as those reported in the absence of folic acid-fortified cereal grain flour. This paper examines this assumption using data from studies of total homocysteine-lowering therapy in U.S. and Canadian patients with cardiovascular disease who were exposed to products made with folic acid-fortified cereal grain flour. These data showed that the VISP trial, HOPE-2, and WACS will probably achieve only approximately 20% to 25% of the projected treatment effects of mean total homocysteine-lowering therapy (1.0 to 1.5 micromol/L vs. 4.0 to 6.0 micromol/L). As a result, all three trials will be substantially underpowered to test the specific hypotheses of total homocysteine-lowering therapy identified a priori. In contrast, renal transplant recipients have a persistent excess prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in the era of fortification but remain very responsive to supraphysiologic doses of folic acid-based supplementation (mean reduction in total homocysteine level, 5.0 to 6.0 micromol/L). Therefore, unlike other populations with normal renal function that are at high risk for cardiovascular disease but are profoundly affected by fortification efforts, renal transplant recipients continue to merit serious consideration for a controlled trial of the "homocysteine hypothesis." PMID:11453713

  7. Spallation and fission products in the (p+{sup 179}Hf) and (p+{sup nat}Hf) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, S.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ur, C.A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)], E-mail: ur@pd.infn.it; Adam, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez, Prague CZ-25068 (Czech Republic); Kalinnikov, V.G.; Lebedev, N.A.; Vostokin, G.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Collins, C.B. [Center for Quantum Electronics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Popescu, I.I. [Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)

    2009-03-01

    Production of Hf and Lu high-spin isomers has been experimentally studied in spallation reactions induced by intermediate energy protons. Targets of enriched {sup 179}Hf (91%) and {sup nat}Hf were bombarded with protons of energy in the range from 90 to 650 MeV provided by the internal beam of the Dubna Phasotron synchrocyclotron. The activation yields of the reaction products were measured by using the {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and radiochemistry methods. The production cross-sections obtained for the {sup 179m2}Hf, {sup 178m2}Hf and {sup 177m}Lu isomers are similar to the previously measured values from the spallation of Ta, Re and W targets. Therefore, the reactions involving emission of only a few nucleons, like (p,p'), (p,p'n) and (p,2pn), can transfer high enough angular momentum to the final residual nuclei with reasonable large cross-sections. A significant gain in the isomeric yields was obtained when enriched {sup 179}Hf targets were used. The mass distribution of the residual nuclei was measured over a wide range of masses and the fission-to-spallation ratio could be deduced as a function of the projectile energy. Features of the reaction mechanism are briefly discussed.

  8. NAT原理实验的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of NAT Principle Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向东; 李志洁; 王德高; 焉德军

    2012-01-01

    In order to quickly and easily build the campus news website of the college,this paper proposed an enterprise-level design program of news management system based on. NET and N-architecture. It described the structure and function of the system as well as the application of interface technology in the data layer. In view of the features of the system,it also expounded on the details of key technologies in four areas such as news gathering,static pages publishing of tag + style + template,management of system permissions and security as well as system' s application process.%通过分析网络地址转换(NAT)会话信息,并结合对比协议分析的方法,跟踪IP数据报文在NAT两端的变化,直观、详细地展现了静态、动态及端口3类地址转换的工作原理.该实验不仅可以使学生直观、深入地理解NAT的原理,同时也增强了学生对各类协议原理及其工作过程的自我研究能力,提高了网络实验的教学质量.

  9. Infrared studies of sulfuric acid and its impact on polar and global ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, Laura Tracy

    Sulfuric acid aerosols are present throughout the lower stratosphere and play an important role in both polar and global ozone depletion. In the polar regions, stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs) act as nuclei for the growth of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Heterogeneous reactions can occur on these PSCs, leading to chlorine activation and catalytic ozone destruction. This thesis addresses the issue of polar ozone depletion through laboratory studies which examine the nucleation of PSCs on sulfuric acid. In addition, chemistry which occurs directly on sulfate aerosols may impact ozone at midlatitudes, and studies describing one such reaction are presented as well. To study the growth of type I PSCs on sulfuric acid, thin H2SO4 films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors at stratospheric temperatures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films which condensed. Supercooled liquid sulfuric acid films showed uptake of HNO3 to form ternary solutions, followed by crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). When crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films were exposed to nitric acid and water, condensation of a supercooled HNO3/H2O layer was often observed. As predicted by theory, some of the SAT crystal then dissolved, creating a ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. From this solution, NAT nearly always crystallized, halting the phase change of sulfuric acid. If a supercooled nitric acid layer did not condense on frozen sulfuric acid, crystalline NAT was not deposited from the gas phase when SNAT/leq41. At significantly higher supersaturations, NAT could be forced to condense on sulfuric acid, regardless of its phase. Calculations of the contact parameter from experimental data indicate that mSAT, predicting a significant barrier to nucleation of NAT from the gas phase. While PSCs can form only in the cold polar regions of the stratosphere, sulfuric acid aerosols can

  10. An evaluation of the use of serum 7-alpha-hydroxycholestenone as a diagnostic test of bile acid malabsorption causing watery diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Brydon, W Gordon; Culbert, Pearl; Kingstone, Kathleen; Jarvie, Ann; Iacucci, Marietta; Tenhage, Merel; Ghosh, Subrata

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a recognized cause of watery diarrhea, often diagnosed empirically based on clinical response to cholestyramine. The radionuclide selenium-labelled homocholic acid-taurine whole body retention test is expensive, labour intensive and of limited availability.OBJECTIVE: To report on the clinical performance of serum 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7HCO) as a test of BAM in adult patients with unexplained diarrhea.METHODS: Patients with unexplained ...

  11. Acidic colonic microclimate--possible reason for false negative hydrogen breath tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang, H; Ferenci, P; Frotz, S; Meryn, S.; Gangl, A

    1988-01-01

    About 5% of normal subjects fail to produce increased hydrogen breath concentration after ingestion of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose (low hydrogen producers). The existence of low hydrogen producers limits the diagnostic use of hydrogen (H2) breath tests. We studied the effects of lactulose and of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) pretreatment on stool-pH and on hydrogen exhalation after oral loading with lactulose or lactose in 17 hydrogen producers and 12 low hydrogen producers. In sev...

  12. Solution of NAT training in the computer network training room%计算机网络实训室NAT实训解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余苏毅

    2011-01-01

    网络地址转换(NAT)(Network Address Translation)是一个Internet工程任务组(IETF)(Internet En-gineering Task Force,Internet)的标准,它允许一个整体机构以一个公用IP(Internet Protocol)地址出现在Inter-net上.提出了计算机网络实训室NAT实验的解决方案,以帮助学生更好的理解NAT.%Network Address Translation(NAT) is an Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF) Standard,hwich allows a whole institutions to use one public IP(Internet Protocol) address to appear on the Internet.This paper puts forward solutions of NAT experiment in the co

  13. Production of carrier-free {sup 28}Mg by 50-200 MeV protons on {sup nat}Cl: excitation function and target optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyna, G.F.; Van der Meulen, N.P.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Vermeulen, C. [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Thick-target production rates and excitation function data are presented for {sup 28}Mg formed in the proton irradiation of {sup nat}Cl up to 200 MeV. The results are compared with previous literature experimental data, where available. Various compounds were investigated for their suitability as target materials. Solid frozen chlorine is the best choice in terms of yield but it is quite unpractical as a target. The next best choice in terms of yield is BeCl{sub 2}, however, this particular salt has less favorable thermal properties than simple chlorides. In our opinion, LiCl is the target material of a choice as it has an excellent thermal stability as well as a yield of about 80% of the {sup nat}Cl + p theoretical maximum. A practical target geometry utilizing encapsulated LiCl discs is suggested.

  14. Independent isotopic yields in 25 MeV and 50 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup nat}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttilae, H.; Gorelov, D.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I.D.; Parkkonen, J.; Pohjalainen, I.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simutkin, V.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Voss, A.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskylae (Finland); Peraejaervi, K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rubchenya, V.A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskylae (Finland); V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Independent isotopic yields for elements from Zn to La in the 25 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup nat}U were determined with the JYFLTRAP facility. In addition, isotopic yields for Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pd and Xe in the 50 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup nat}U were measured. The deduced isotopic yield distributions are compared with a Rubchenya model, the GEF model with universal parameters and the semi-empirical Wahl model. Of these, the Rubchenya model gives the best overall agreement with the obtained data. Combining the isotopic yield data with mass yield data to obtain the absolute independent yields was attempted. The result depends on the mass yield distribution. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic Drusen Remodelling in Participants of the Nutritional AMD Treatment-2 (NAT-2 Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Querques

    Full Text Available To evaluate the dynamic remodeling of drusen in subjects with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD receiving a three-year course of oral docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or placebo.Institutional setting.Three hundred subjects with age-related maculopathy and neovascular AMD in the fellow eye were randomly assigned to receive either 840 mg/day DHA or placebo for 3 years. Main outcome measures of this post-hoc sub-group analysis were progression of drusen number, total diameter, and total area on fundus photography, and their association with DHA supplementation, socio-demographic and genetic characteristics.Drusen progression was analyzed in 167 subjects that did not develop CNV (87 that received DHA and 80 that received placebo. None of the drusen remodeling outcomes were significantly associated with DHA supplementation. Total drusen diameter reduction in the inner subfield was significantly associated with age (older patients: r = -0.17; p = 0.003. Women showed a tendency to decreased total drusen diameter in the inner subfield with CFH polymorphism (p = 0.03, where women with TT genotype tended to have a greater reduction in drusen diameter than other genotypes (CC and CT. Drusen area in the inner subfield was more reduced in older patients (r = -0.17 and in women (p = 0.01. Drusen number showed no significant trends.Dynamic drusen remodeling with net reduction in drusen load over three years was found in patients with exudative AMD in one eye and drusen in the other eye (study-eye. This reduction was correlated with increased age and female gender, and showed a tendency to be influenced by CFH genotype, but did not appear to be affected by DHA supplementation.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN98246501.

  16. Northern European Satellite Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster-Bruce, Alan; Lawson, James; Quinlan, Michael; McGregor, Andrew

    Satellite Based Augmentation Systems are being developed in Europe (EGNOS), the USA (WAAS), and in Japan (MSAS). As part of their support to EGNOS, NATS and Racal have developed and deployed a prototype SBAS system called the Northern European Satellite Test Bed (NEST Bed). NEST Bed uses GPS L1/L2 reference stations at: Aberdeen, Rotterdam, Ankara, Cadiz, Keflavik, and Bronnoysund. Data is sent to the Master Control Centre at NATS Gatwick Services Management Centre for processing. The resulting 250 bits-per-second message is sent to Goonhilly for up-linking by BT to the Navigation Payload of either the Inmarsat AOR-E or F5 spare satellite. NEST Bed was deployed and commissioned during summer 1998, and flight tests were successfully demonstrated at the September 1998 Farnborough Air Show where approaches were flown to Boscombe Down on the DERA BAC1-11 aircraft. In October 1998, a NATS/FAA flight trial was held in Iceland involving NEST Bed and the FAA NSTB. NEST Bed is also being used for SARPS validation.

  17. A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer

  18. A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

  19. A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Z.; Liao, Q.; Hu, Y.; You, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhao, Y. [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-10

    Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

  20. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik;

    1996-01-01

    (smokers and non-smokers). PAH-DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabelling with the butanol enrichment procedure. The bus drivers answered a comprehensive questionnaire on passive smoking, residential area, diet and other potential confounding variables. A significantly higher adduct level...... rural controls (0.074 fmol/microg DNA, n = 60, P smoking and diet. The effect of the metabolizing enzymes, GSTM1 and NAT2, on adduct levels was investigated. No statistically significant effects...

  1. Identification of 100Sn and other proton drip-line nuclei in the reaction 112Sn + natNi at 63 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doubly-magic nucleus 100Sn and six new neutron-deficient nuclei in the A∼100 region were identified in the reaction 112Sn + natNi at 63 MeV/nucleon. The experiment was carried out using the high acceptance device SISSI and the Alpha and LISE3 spectrometers at GANIL. The identification of the reaction products (A, Z and Q) was made using the measurements of time-of-flight, energy-loss and kinetic energy. (author)

  2. Influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2012-01-24

    Previous studies have revealed that organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticides-exposed workers. Present study was designed to determine the influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 268 subjects including 134 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase activity were found to be significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects which were analyzed as biomarkers of toxicity due to OPs exposure (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) compared to control subjects (14.32±2.17 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail % DNA, p<0.001). GSTM1 null genotype was found to influence DNA TM in workers (p<0.05). DNA TM was also found to be increased with concomitant presence of NAT2 slow acetylation and CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes (p<0.05). DNA TM was found increased in NAT2 slow acetylators with mild and heavy smoking habits in control subjects and workers, respectively (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that GSTM1 null genotypes, and an association of NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes with CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes may modulate DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

  3. Untersuchungen zum Einfluss exogener und endogener Faktoren auf den Pilocarpingehalt von Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth unter natürlichen Bedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Scheerer, Jochen

    2002-01-01

    Mit dieser Arbeit sollten, vor anwendungsbezogenem Hintergrund, die Einflüsse endogener und exogener Faktoren auf den Pilocarpingehalt von P. microphyllus Stapf unter natürlichen Bedingungen untersucht werden. Die Bestimmung der Pilocarpingehalte der entsprechenden Proben erfolgte mit Hilfe von HPLC –Analysen der, zuvor durch Festphasenextraktion aufgereinigten, Pflanzenextrakte. Mit dem Ziel, Pflanzenmaterial gleicher genetischer Herkunft untersuchen zu können, wurde versucht, die Pflanzen ü...

  4. 基于端口映射NAT网络方案分析与实施%Analysis and Realize of the NAT Network Scheme Based on Port Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 万丽

    2015-01-01

    当前信息网络飞速发展,网络地址转换(NAT,Network Address Translation)在计算机网络中的作用非常重要。NAT技术的应用,能够有助于减缓可用IP地址空间严重不足的问题。本文针对某一局域网连接到Internet的案例,论述了当前应用较多的基于端口映射的PAT技术,分析了当ISP分配的公用IP地址池和路由器的广域网口IP不在同一网段的情况下,NAT的配置方式。实现了让内部网用户通过PAT转换为公用IP地址,访问Internet。%At present,information network is developing very fast,network address translation(NAT,NetworkAddressT ranslation)in computer networks play a very important role.The application of NAT technology,can help slow available IP address space of the problem of insufficient.Aiming at a certain local area network connected to the case of internet,discusses the port mapping based on PAT technology currently used frequently,analyses that ISP distribution of public IP address pool and the router WAN port IP is not on the same segment of the case,the configuration mode of NAT.The internal network users through the PAT conversion for the public IP address,access to Internet.

  5. Nuclear facility licensing, doucumentation and reviews, and the SP-100 test site experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Bruce C.; Deobald, Ted L.; Bitten, Ernest J.

    1992-01-01

    The required approvals and permits to test a nuclear facility are extensive. Numerous regulatory requirements result in the preparation of documentation to support the approval process. The principal regulations for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) include the National Environmental Policy Act, Clean Air Act, and Atomic Energy Act. The documentation prepared for the SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) included an Environmental Assessment, state permit applications, and Safety Analysis Reports. This paper discusses the regulation documentation requirements and SP-100 NAT Test Site experience.

  6. Pooled Nucleic Acid Testing to Detect Antiretroviral Treatment Failure in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Myres W.; Guerena, Don Diego; Licea, Alexei; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Richman, Douglas D.; May, Susanne; Smith, Davey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Similar to other resource-limited settings, cost restricts availability of viral load monitoring for most patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Tijuana, Mexico. We evaluated if a pooling method could improve efficiency and reduce costs while maintaining accuracy. Methods We evaluated 700 patient blood plasma specimens at a reference laboratory in Tijuana for detectable viremia, individually and in 10 × 10 matrix pools. Thresholds for virologic failure were set at ≥500, ≥1000 and ≥1500 HIV RNA copies per milliliter. Detectable pools were deconvoluted using pre-set algorithms. Accuracy and efficiency of the pooling method were compared with individual testing. Quality assurance (QA) measures were evaluated after 1 matrix demonstrated low efficiency relative to individual testing. Results Twenty-two percent of the cohort had detectable HIV RNA (≥50 copies/mL). Pooling methods saved approximately one third of viral load assays over individual testing, while maintaining negative predictive values of >90% to detect samples with virologic failure (≥50 copies/mL). One matrix with low relative efficiency would have been detected earlier using the developed QA measures, but its exclusion would have only increased relative efficiency from 39% to 42%. These methods would have saved between $13,223 and $14,308 for monitoring this cohort. Conclusions Despite limited clinical data, high prevalence of detectable viral loads and a contaminated matrix, pooling greatly improved efficiency of virologic monitoring while maintaining accuracy. By improving cost-effectiveness, these methods could provide sustainability of virologic monitoring in resource-limited settings, and incorporation of developed QA measures will most likely maximize pooling efficiency in future uses. PMID:21124228

  7. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Os up to 65 MeV: Experiments and comparison with results from theoretical codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1090 (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-02-15

    Activation of thin {sup nat}Os targets, electrodeposited on Ni backings, was investigated for the first time in stacked foil irradiations with 65 MeV and 34 MeV proton beams. Assessments of the produced radionuclides by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy yielded excitation functions for formation of {sup 184,} {sup 185,} {sup 186m,m+g,} {sup 187m+g,} {sup 188m+g,} {sup 189m2+m1+g,} {sup 190m2,m1+g,} {sup 192m1+g}Ir and {sup 185cum,} {sup 191m+g}Os, {sup 183m+g}Re. Where available comparisons with the reaction cross sections obtained in 2 earlier studies on enriched {sup 192}Os were made. Reduced uncertainty on cross sections is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the {sup 27}Al(p,x){sup 22,24}Na, {sup nat}Ni(p,x){sup 57}Ni and {sup nat}Ti(p,x){sup 48}V monitor reactions over wide relevant energy ranges. Confirmation of monitoring took place by assessment of excitation functions of {sup 61}Cu, {sup 56}Ni, {sup 55,56,57,58}Co and {sup 52}Mn induced in the Ni backings and comparison with a recent compilation for most of these radionuclides. Contributing reactions and overall cross sections are discussed and were evaluated in comparison with the results of the theoretical code TALYS 1.6 (values from the on-line library TENDL-2013)

  8. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  9. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eduardo Levi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  10. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs for gonorrhoea diagnosis in women: Experience of a tertiary care hospital in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Gonorrhoea is among the most frequent of the estimated bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs and has significant health implications in women. The use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs has been shown to provide enhanced diagnosis of gonorrhoea in female patients. However, it is recommended that an on-going assessment of the test assays should be performed to check for any probable sequence variation occurring in the targeted region. In this study, an in-house PCR targeting opa-gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was used in conjunction with 16S ribosomal PCR to determine the presence of gonorrhoea in female patients attending the tertiary care hospitals. Methods: Endocervical samples collected from 250 female patients with complaints of vaginal or cervical discharge or pain in lower abdomen were tested using opa and 16S ribosomal assay. The samples were also processed by conventional methods. Results: Of the 250 female patients included in the study, only one was positive by conventional methods (microscopy and culture whereas 17 patients were found to be positive based on PCR results. Interpretation & conclusions: The clinical sensitivity of conventional methods for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae in female patients was low. The gonococcal detection rates increased when molecular method was used giving 16 additional positives. Studies should be done to find out other gene targets that may be used in the screening assays to detect the presence of gonorrhoea.

  11. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  12. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.;

    2016-01-01

    investigated among Danish blood donors, and the prevalence of HEV transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) was investigated among recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 25,637 consenting donors collected during 1 month in 2015 were screened retrospectively using an individual-donation HEV RNA...... immune response could not be excluded. Phylogenetic analysis showed relatively large sequence differences between HEV from donors, symptomatic patients, and swine. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an HEV RNA prevalence of 0.04% in Danish blood donations, all HEV-positive donations carried low viral loads, and no...... nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors...

  13. The enhanced bladder cancer susceptibility of NAT2 slow acetylators towards aromatic amines: a review considering ethnic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Prior, Verena; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-03-10

    Human bladder cancer may be caused by exposure to aromatic amines. The polymorphic enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. Two classical studies on chemical workers in Europe, exposed in the past to aromatic amines like benzidine, unambiguously showed that the slow acetylator status is a genetic risk factor for arylamine-induced bladder cancer. In the former benzidine industry in Huddington, Great Britain, 22 of 23 exposed cases with bladder cancer, but only 57% of 95 local controls without bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype. In Leverkusen, Germany, 82% of 92 benzidine-exposed chemical workers with bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype, whereas only 48% of 331 chemical workers who had worked at that plant were of the slow acetylator phenotype. This is in line with several smaller studies, which also show an over-representation of the slow acetylator status in formerly arylamine-exposed subjects with bladder cancer. Some of these studies included also subjects that were exposed to aromatic amines by having applied dyes, paints and varnishes. These European findings are in contrast to a large study on Chinese workers occupationally exposed to aromatic amines. In this study, only five of 38 bladder cancer cases occupationally exposed to arylamines were of the slow acetylator genotype. This is much lower than the ratio of slow acetylators to the general population in China. This points to different mechanisms of susceptibility for bladder cancer upon exposure to aromatic amines between European (Caucasian) and Chinese populations.

  14. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS OF N- ACETYLTRANSFERASE 2 AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BREAST CANCER IN SHANDONG DISTRICT%山东地区NAT2基因多态性与乳腺癌易感性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍玉; 谢书阳; 张超; 高宗华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究NAT2基因多态性与乳腺癌易感性的关系.[方法]采用1:1配对病例-对照研究,对山东地区100例乳腺癌患者和100例健康对照者采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性分析(PCR- RFLP),检测NAT2基因多态性,分析NAT2基因多态性与乳腺癌易感性之间的关系.[结果]携带NAT2/5B等位基因者患乳腺癌 危险性增加(OR=2.38, 95%CI=1.54~3.67);幔基因型者患乳腺癌的危险性是快基因型者2.28倍(OR=2.28,95%CI=1.12~4.63);是中间基因型者2.14倍(OR=2.14,95%CI=1.08~4.24);慢型乙酰化患乳腺癌的危险性是快型乙酰化的2.11倍(OR=2.11, 95%CI=1.15-3.88).[结论]NAT2基因多态性在乳腺癌的遗传发病机制中起重要作用,携带NAT2/5B等位基因、慢基因型及慢型乙酰化能增加患乳腺癌的易感性.%[Objective] To evaluate the possible relationship between N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms and breast cancer. [Methods] In the 1: 1 matched case-control study, NAT2 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP method in 100 patients with breast cancer and 100 healthy controls. The possible relationship between NAT2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk was analyzed. [Results] NAT2*5B allele was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) 2.38 (95% confidence interval (95%Cl) 1.54-3.67; slow genotype was 2.28 times to rapid genotype (OR = 2.28, 95%CI= 1.12-4.63) and 2.14 times to intermediate genotype (OR - 2.14, 95%C/=1.08-4.24); and NAT2 slow acetylates increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 2.11, 95%C/ = 1.15-3.88). [Conclusion] These findings suggest that NAT2 genetic polymorphism may be associated with breast cancer susceptibility. People with NAT2*5B allele or NAT2 slow genotype or NAT2 slow acetylates have higher breast cancer risk.

  16. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to

  17. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  18. Folic acid and congenital malformation: scientific evidence and public health strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno, Paolo; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pierini, Anna; Baldi, Francesca; Carbone, Pietro; Mantovani, Alberto; Taruscio,Domenica

    2008-01-01

    In Italy at least 3% of babies are born with some congenital malformation. The intake of folic acid (FA) prior to conception and during the early stages of pregnancy plays an important role in preventing neural tube defects, severe anomalies of brain embryogenesis, and other malformations such as cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, oro-facial clefts and limb reduction defects. The Italian Network for Folic Acid Promotion, coordinated by the National Center on Rare Diseases of the Italian Nat...

  19. Ongevallen op nat wegdek.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M. & Stoelhorst, D.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to decrease the number of accidents on wet road surfaces. Firstly the risk connected with driving on wet road surfaces is discussed. From a systematic overview of possible measures it is shown that in particular the road administrator can prevent this kind of accident.

  20. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests I. Review of Biochemical Aspects and Poor Specificity of Current Amino Acid Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine to competing amino acids resulting in loss of specificity. This could confound biochemical and behavioural findings. Compositions of current formulations are reviewed, the biochemical principles underpinning the tests are revisited and examples of unintended changes in the above ratios and their impact on monoamine function and behaviour will be demonstrated from data in the literature. The presence of excessive amounts of the 3 branched-chain amino acids Leu, Ile and Val is responsible for these unintended decreases and the consequent loss of specificity. Strategies for enhancing the specificity of the different formulations are proposed.

  1. Conductance testing compared to traditional methods of evaluating the capacity of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries and predicting state-of-health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, D.O. (Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems, Inc., Madison, NJ (United States)); Croda, T.G. (Sprint, Long Distance Div., Burlingame, CA (United States)); McShane, S.J.; Hlavac, M.J. (Midtronics, Inc., Willowbrook, IL (United States)); Champlin, K.S.

    1992-09-15

    Recently, timed discharge capacity tests were performed on 336 individual valve-regulated lead/acid cells in a telecommunications power system. The results were compared with traditional methods of determining cell health (i.e., float voltage, open-circuit voltage, and calculated specific gravity). At the same time, conductance measurements were taken, and these results were also compared to the results of the timed discharge capacity tests. Data will be presented which show that traditional methods indicate almost no correlation to timed discharge capacity testing. Conductance test data will be presented which show a very nearly linear correlation. Based on this correlation, these results indicate that conductance testing can provide users of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with a valuable predictive tool for determining the state-of-health of individual cells. (orig.).

  2. Circulating unmetabolized folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive test performance among American seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folate deficiency has serious consequences for the fetus. Folic acid fortification of food addresses this problem. However, clinical consequences of vitamin B-12 deficiency may be worsened by high folic acid intakes, perhaps as a direct result of unmetabolized folic acid, which does not occur natura...

  3. Uric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical features and treatment of gout. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al., eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 95. ...

  4. Folic acid - test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in cases of: Anemia due to folate deficiency Megaloblastic anemia ... Antony AC. Megaloblastic Anemias. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . ...

  5. Redirect Technology Based on Interest Association Rules in NAT%NAT环境下基于兴趣关联规则的重定向技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶鑫; 刘宏志; 安思

    2011-01-01

    针对IP地址资源的匮乏和网络攻击手段的多样化,NAT环境下的网络安全性要求不断提高.文章研究了在NAT环境下的安全策略,并引入入侵重定向的概念.在Apriori算法挖掘的基础上,引入关联规则兴趣度,对入侵行为进行深度挖掘,将具有威胁的网络访问重定向到特定环境中,通过访问规则数据库与防火墙规则、IDS数据库的交互,提高了网络防御的主动性,与结合NAT的防火墙技术实现了对网络的双重保护.%For the lack of resources of IP address and diversification of network attack measures, the requirement of network security in NAT environment is raised continuously. This paper research on the security policy in NAT environment, and presents the concept of intrusion redirection. Based on Apriori algorithm mining, this paper proposes Interest degree of association rules, performs deep mining of intrusion behaviors, redirects the network access with threat into a specific environment, performs interaction with firewall rules and IDS database through accessing the rule database, improving the network defense initiative, and the firewall technology combined with NAT can implement duplex protection of the network as well.

  6. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  7. Genetic polymorphisms of NAT2, CYP2E1 and GST enzymes and the occurrence of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in Brazilian TB patients

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Lima de Figueiredo Teixeira; Renata Gomes Morato; Pedro Hernan Cabello; Ligia Mayumi Kitada Muniz; Adriana da Silva Rezende Moreira; Afrânio Lineu Kritski; Fernanda Carvalho Queiroz Mello; Philip Noel Suffys; Antonio Basilio de Miranda; Adalberto Rezende Santos

    2011-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH), one of the most important drugs used in antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment, is also the major drug involved in hepatotoxicity. Differences in INH-induced toxicity have been attributed to genetic variability at several loci, such as NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1, that code for drug-metabolising enzymes. Our goal was to examine the polymorphisms in these enzymes as susceptibility factors to anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis in Brazilian individuals. In a case-control design, 167...

  8. Results of time-of-flight transmission measurements for 63,65Cu and natCu at a 50 m station of GELINA

    OpenAIRE

    KAUWENBERGHS KIM JOSEPHA; BECKER BJÖRN; DROHE Jean Claude; Guber, K.; Kopecky, Stefan; Schillebeeckx, Peter; VENDELBO Danny; WYNANTS Ruud

    2013-01-01

    Transmission measurements have been performed at the time-of-flight facility GELINA to determine neutron resonance parameters for 63Cu and 65Cu. The experiments have been carried out at a 50 m transmission station at a moderated neutron beam using a Li-glass scintillator with the accelerator operating at 800 Hz. Measurements were performed with a natCu metallic sample and metallic samples enriched in 63Cu and 65Cu. This report describes the experimental details required to deliver the experim...

  9. GST, NAT, SULT1A1, CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms, interactions with environmental exposures and bladder cancer risk in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto; Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Scotto di Carlo, Antonio; Porru, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupation are major risk factors of bladder cancer via exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, T1 and P1 are involved in the detoxification of PAH reactive metabolites. Two N-acetyltransferase isozymes, NAT2 and NAT1, have major roles in catalyzing the N-acetylation and O-acetylation of aromatic amines. Cytochrome p450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) are also involved in the metabolism of PAHs and aromatic amines. It is hypothesized that the genetic polymorphisms of these metabolic enzymes have an effect on the individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in particular by interacting with relevant environmental exposures. A hospital-based case-control study among men in Brescia, Northern Italy recruited 201 incidence cases and 214 controls from 1997-2000. Occupational exposures were blindly coded by occupational physicians. Genotyping of polymorphisms were carried out with PCR-RFLP method. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was applied to model the association between genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Effect modifications by age of onset, smoking and occupational exposures to PAHs and aromatic amines were evaluated. We also conducted an analysis of interaction between genetic factors. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype were associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-2.56) and 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02-2.95), respectively. The effect of GSTM1 null was seen particularly in heavy smokers, and there was a combined effect with occupational exposure of aromatic amines (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.08-7.10). We observed a trend (p-value < 0.01) of increasing cancer risk comparing subjects with normal GSTM1 and T1 activity to subjects with one (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.16-2.85) or both null genotypes (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.27-5.23). NAT2 slow acetylator was associated with marginally

  10. Towards limits of excitation energy in the reaction {sup 3}He(1.8 GeV) + {sup nat}Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollacco, E.C.; Brzychczyk, J.; Volant, C.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Bracken, D.S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Morley, K.B.; Foxford, E.R.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Hot nuclei are studied, where through an appropriate choice of incident channel and event selection, dynamical effects are attenuated and multifragmentation is limited. Three preparatory results are given, the {sup 3}He(1.8 GeV) + {sup nat}Ag can be described using an intranuclear cascade, INC, model; through a suitable selection of events a limit of the excitation energy that a nucleus can absorb without breaking into large pieces is given, it is shown that corresponding alpha decay is consistent with an evaporative process. (K.A.). 16 refs.

  11. Fragment charge and energy distributions in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He + {sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Kwiatkowski, K. [and others

    1995-10-01

    Moving source fits have been performed for IMFs as a function of observables related to collision violence in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He +{sup nat}Ag, {sup l97}Au reactions. The systematic behavior of the source properties and fragment charge distributions will be reviewed. The evolution of the spectral Coulomb parameters provides evidence for nuclear expansion prior to multifragmentation, suggesting a breakup density of p/p{sub o} {approximately} 1/3. The charge distributions will be examined in terms of power-law fits and moment analyses.

  12. Fragment charge and energy distributions in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3He + natAg, 197Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moving source fits have been performed for IMFs as a function of observables related to collision violence in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3He +natAg, l97Au reactions. The systematic behavior of the source properties and fragment charge distributions will be reviewed. The evolution of the spectral Coulomb parameters provides evidence for nuclear expansion prior to multifragmentation, suggesting a breakup density of p/po ∼ 1/3. The charge distributions will be examined in terms of power-law fits and moment analyses

  13. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  14. NF EN 14213. - Heating fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14213. - Fioul domestique. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). - Exigences et methodes d'essais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) to be used as heating oil solely or as a blending component for the production of heating oil. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in heating equipment designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  15. Determination of Organic Acids in Root Exudates by High Performance Liquid Chromatography:Ⅱ.Influence of Several Testing COnditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJIANBO; ZHANGFUSUO; 等

    1999-01-01

    Effects of column temperature and flow rate on separation of organic acids were studied by determining nine low-molecular-weight organic acids on reversed-phase C18 column using high performace liquid chromatography(HPLC) with a wavelength of UV(ultraviolet)214 nm and a mobile phase of 18 mmol L-1 KH2PO4 buffer solution (pH2.1).The thermal stabiltiy of organic acids was determined by comparing the recoveries of organic acids in different temperature treatments.The relationships between column temperature,flow rate or solvent pH and retention time were analyzed.At low solvent pH,separatioin efficiency of organic acids was increased by raising the flow rate of the solvent because of lowering the retention time or organic acids.High column temperature was unfavorable for the separation of organic acids.The separating effect can be enhanced through reducing column temperature in organic acid determination due to increasing retention time.High thermal stability of organic acids with low concentrations was observed at temperature of 40℃-45℃,Sensitivity and separation effect of organic acid determination by HPLC were clearly improved by a combination of raising flow rate and lowering column temperature at low solvent pH.

  16. Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain. Materials and Methods: Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay. Results: A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool. Conclusion: Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.

  17. Solubility and equilibrium vapor pressures of HC1 dissolved in polar stratospheric cloud materials - Ice and the trihydrate of nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, David; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the pressure-solubility behavior of HC1 in water ice and in the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) crystal at 200 K are reported. It was found that HC1 is about 20 times more soluble in NAT than in ice for stratospheric conditions. A relation between HC1 pressure and substrate composition based on the Gibbs-Duhem equation is developed. This relation, along with other thermodynamic data, can be used to obtain the HC1 pressure-solubility behavior at different temperatures. Implications of these results for the south polar ozone hole are discussed.

  18. Characterisation of fragments emission by azimuthal correlations using 4{pi} AMPHORA detector: study of {sup 32}S + {sup 58}Ni and {sup nat}Ag at 38 MeV per nucleon; Caracterisation de l`emission de fragments par correlations azimutales avec le detecteur 4{pi} AMPHORA: etude des systemes {sup 32}S+{sup 58}Ni et {sup nat}Ag a 38 MeV par nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchekroun, D.

    1994-05-01

    The first part of this work reports on designing and testing a detector made of a gas proportional counter coupled to a CsI(TI) crystal. It is shown that a good identification of fragments of charge ranging from 3 to 20 is achieved. The energy threshold is lower than in the case of a conventional plastic - CsI(TI) phoswich detector. The second part is devoted to the study of complex fragment production in the {sup 32}S + {sup nat}Ag and {sup 32}S + {sup 58}Ni reactions using the multidetector array AMPHORA. The total multiplicity of charged particles has been used as a criterion of centrally of the collision. The evaluation of the characteristics of fragment emission has thus been studied from peripheral to central collisions. In the case of the most violet collisions the data infer that a rotating hot source has been formed (excitation energy of the order of 500 MeV). It is demonstrated that this sources de-excites through emission of a long chain of fragments and particles. The analysis of the azimuthal correlations of fragments with the evaporation code MODGAN confirmed the hypothesis of such a source. That hot source should rotate with an angular momentum up to 120 h and the emission times would be of the order of 10{sup -21} s. (author). 80 refs.

  19. Screening and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains with Anti-inflammatory Activities through in vitro and Caenorhabditis elegans Model Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye Kyoung; Choi, Sun-Hae; Lee, Cho Rong; Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Mi Ri; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Myung-Ki; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to screen candidate probiotic strains for anti-inflammatory activity. Initially, a nitric oxide (NO) assay was used to test selected candidate probiotic strains for anti-inflammatory activity in cultures of the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Then, the in vitro probiotic properties of the strains, including bile tolerance, acid resistance, and growth in skim milk media, were investigated. We also performed an in vitro hydrophobicity test and an intestin...

  20. Detection of impaired intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids : validation studies of a novel test in a rat model of fat malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalivianakis, M; Minich, DM; Havinga, R; Kuipers, F; Stellaard, F; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: Classic fat balance studies detect fat malabsorption but do not discriminate between the potential causes of malabsorption, such as impaired intestinal lipolysis or reduced uptake of fatty acids. Objective: We aimed to validate a novel test for the specific, sensitive detection of impair

  1. Reaction and fusion cross sections for the near-symmetric system $^{129}Xe+^{nat}Sn$ from $8$ to $35$ $AMeV$

    CERN Document Server

    Manduci, L; Chbihi, A; Rivet, M F; Bougault, R; Frankland, J D; Borderie, B; Galichet, E; La Commara, M; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Pârlog, M; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Verde, G; Vient, E

    2016-01-01

    \\item[Background]Heavy-ion reactions from barrier up to Fermi energy. \\item[Purpose]Reaction and fusion cross sections determination. Fusion reactions induced by $^{129}Xe$ projectiles on $^{nat}Sn$ targets for energies ranging from $8$ A.MeV to $35$ A.MeV were measured with the INDRA $4\\pi$-array.\\\\ The evaluation of the fusion/incomplete fusion cross sections for the incident energies from 8 to 35 A.MeV is the main purpose of this paper. \\item[Method] The reaction cross sections are evaluated for each beam energy thanks to INDRA $4\\pi$-array. The events are also sorted in order to focus the study on a selected sample of events, in such a way that the fusion/fusion incomplete cross section is estimated. \\item[Results] The excitation function of reaction and fusion cross sections were measured for the heavy and nearly symmetric system $^{129}Xe + ^{nat}Sn$ from 8 to 35 A.MeV. \\item[Conclusions] The fusion-like cross-sections evaluated show a good agrement with a recent systematics for beam energies greater th...

  2. Hybrid formulations of liposomes and bioadhesive polymers improve the hypotensive effect of the melatonin analogue 5-MCA-NAT in rabbit eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Quinteros

    Full Text Available For the treatment of chronic ocular diseases such as glaucoma, continuous instillations of eye drops are needed. However, frequent administrations of hypotensive topical formulations can produce adverse ocular surface effects due to the active substance or other components of the formulation, such as preservatives or other excipients. Thus the development of unpreserved formulations that are well tolerated after frequent instillations is an important challenge to improve ophthalmic chronic topical therapies. Furthermore, several components can improve the properties of the formulation in terms of efficacy. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, we have developed formulations of liposomes (150-200 nm containing components similar to those in the tear film and loaded with the hypotensive melatonin analog 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT, 100 µM. These formulations were combined with mucoadhesive (sodium hyaluronate or carboxymethylcellulose or amphiphilic block thermosensitive (poloxamer polymers to prolong the hypotensive efficacy of the drug. In rabbit eyes, the decrease of intraocular pressure with 5-MCA-NAT-loaded liposomes that were dispersed with 0.2% sodium hyaluronate, 39.1±2.2%, was remarkably higher compared to other liposomes formulated without or with other bioadhesive polymers, and the effect lasted more than 8 hours. According to the results obtained in the present work, these technological strategies could provide an improved modality for delivering therapeutic agents in patients with glaucoma.

  3. A coupled decadal-scale air-sea interaction theory: the NAT-NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode and its global impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Observational analysis shows that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) leads the oceanic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) by 15-20 years and the latter also leads the former by around 15 years. The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 4 is employed to investigate the relevant mechanism in the linkage between the NAO and AMO. The results show that the positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) forces the strengthening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and induces a basin-wide uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming that corresponds to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The SST field exhibits a delayed response to the preceding enhanced AMOC, and shows a pattern similar to the North Atlantic tripole (NAT), with SST warming in the northern North Atlantic and cooling in the southern part. This SST pattern (negative NAT phase) may lead to an atmospheric response that resembles the negative NAO phase, and subsequently the oscillation proceeds, but in the opposite sense. This implies a NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode in decadal scale. Based on these mechanisms, a simple delayed oscillator model is established to explain the quasi-periodic multidecadal variability of the NAO. The magnitude of the NAO forcing of the AMOC/AMO and the time delay of the AMOC/AMO feedback are two key parameters of the delayed oscillator. For a given set of parameters, the quasi 60-year cycle of the NAO can be well predicted. This delayed oscillator model is useful for understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of the NAO, which has significant potential for decadal predictions as well as the interpretation of proxy data records. The NAT-NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode has important influences on global and regional climate. The twentieth century Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature (NHT) is characterized by a multidecadal warming-cooling-warming pattern followed by a flat trend since about 2000 (recent warming hiatus). Here we demonstrate that

  4. Testing the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of palaeosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity; yet there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPAM correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity-dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in a small number (n = 8) of samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1, while there is no correlation if all samples are taken into account. These findings are mirrored by alkenone-based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with low alkenone concentrations. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to low salinity and light limitation, for instance, under strong riverine discharge.

  5. Testing the D/H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Häggi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of paleosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid, water δD composition (δDH2O and salinity. Yet, there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37 and palmitic acid (δDPA as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPA correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81 and shows a salinity dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L−1 (r2 = 0.51. These findings are mirrored by alkenone based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with alkenone concentrations −1. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to very low salinity conditions. To circumvent these limitations, we suggest the complementary use of δDC37 and δDPA.

  6. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  7. Detection of sialidase (neuraminidase) activity in Actinomyces species by using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid in a filter paper spot test.

    OpenAIRE

    Moncla, B. J.; Braham, P

    1989-01-01

    A rapid method for the detection of acetylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.18 (sialidase or neuraminidase), was developed by using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid as substrate in a filter paper spot test. The method was compared to conventional assays that use 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid and bovine submaxillary mucin and was found to be in excellent agreement. Organisms with greater than 10 U of enzyme activity (in nanomoles per minute per m...

  8. Entwicklung und Validierung einer kombinierten Schnellanalysenmethode zur Bestimmung der natürlichen Radionuklide 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra, 234U und 238U in Trinkwasser

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Der Richtwert der effektiven Dosis für den Verzehr von Trinkwasser beträgt 0,1 mSv pro Jahr. Zur Berechnung der Dosis müssen die Aktivitätskonzentrationen der relevanten Radionuklide bestimmt werden. Einige Analysenmethoden zur Bestimmung dieser natürlichen Radionuklide sind bekannt, jedoch benötigt man für jedes Nuklid einen komplett anderen und zeitaufwändigen Trennungsgang. In dieser Arbeit wird eine Analysenmethode vorgestellt, mit der die natürlichen Radionuklide 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228...

  9. 3-pyrazolone analogues of the 3-isoxazolol metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptor agonist homo-AMPA. Synthesis and pharmacological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, D.; Janin, Y.L.; Brehm, L.;

    1999-01-01

    -4-(1,2-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (1) and (RS)-2-amino-4-(1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (2). At a number of steps in the reaction sequences used, the reactions took unexpected courses and provided products which could not be transformed......We have previously shown that the higher homologue of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu], (S)-a-aminoadipic acid [(S)-a-AA] is selectively recognized by the mGlu and mGlu subtypes of the family of metabotropic glutamic acid (mGlu) receptors. Furthermore, a number of analogues of (S)-a-AA, in which...... the terminal carboxyl group has been replaced by various bioisosteric groups, such as phosphonic acid or 3-isoxazolol groups, have been shown to interact selectively with different subtypes of mGlu receptors. In this paper we report the synthesis of the 3-pyrazolone bioisosteres of a-AA, compounds (RS)-2-amino...

  10. Novas cultivares de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC: UEL 3 ¾ Dominga, UEL 4 ¾ Lígia e UEL 5 ¾ Natália

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARPENTIERI-PÍPOLO VALÉRIA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O programa de melhoramento genético de acerola, na Universidade Estadual de Londrina, iniciou-se em 1992, com a implatação de um pomar clonal constituído de genótipos selecionados no Norte do Paraná. As cultivares UEL 3-Dominga , UEL 4-Lígia, UEL 5-Natália são resultados de 5 ciclos de avaliações, onde foram considerados: precocidade, produtividade, conteúdo de vitamina C nos frutos, tolerância a pragas e doenças, tamanho e aparência dos frutos. As cultivares UEL 3-Dominga e UEL 5- Natália, destacam-se pela produtividade das plantas, conteúdo de vitamina C e pelo tamanho do fruto. Em Londrina, a frutificação dessas cultivares concentra-se nos meses de novembro a março. A cultivar UEL 4-Lígia destaca-se pela precocidade e produtividade que, em Londrina, se concentra nos meses de outubro a março. A cultivar UEL 3-Dominga apresenta peso médio de frutos igual a 6,31g, Vitamina C igual a 2906 e 1250 mg/100g em frutos verdes e maduros, respectivamente, acidez igual a 694,34 mg/100g e Brix igual a 9,2º. A cultivar UEL 4-Lígia apresenta peso médio dos frutos igual a 7,85g, vitamina C igual a 3579 e 1458 mg/100g em frutos verdes e maduros, respectivamente, acidez igual a 1110 mg/100g e Brix igual a 7,85º. A cultivar UEL 5-Natália apresenta peso médio dos frutos igual a 7,47g, Vitamina C igual a 3134,5 e 1098 mg/100g em frutos verdes e maduros, respectivamente, acidez igual a 725 mg/100g e Brix igual a 7,6º. Estas três cultivares são indicadas para plantio no Norte do Estado do Paraná.

  11. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their

  12. Standard test method for determining the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of 5XXX series Aluminum alloys by mass loss after exposure to nitric acid (NAMLT Test)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for constant immersion intergranular corrosion testing of 5XXX series aluminum alloys. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to wrought products. 1.3 This test method covers type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px as well as catalase (CAT also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

  14. Effect on morphology, oxidative stress and energy metabolism enzymes in the testes of mice after a 13-week oral administration of melamine and cyanuric acid combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingjun; Liu, Zhijun; Tian, Yujie; Chen, Hongbo

    2013-03-01

    Cases of pet poisoning and infant renal calculus have attracted much attention to the toxicity of melamine and its derivatives, such as cyanuric acid. Although individually melamine and cyanuric acid have low toxicity, their simultaneous presence can cause severe damage. Little is known about their adverse effects on the reproductive system. In this study, mice were orally administrated 1, 5 or 25 mg/kg/d of both melamine and cyanuric acid for 13 weeks. Lethargy, rough hair, and reduction of food and water intake and of body and testis weight were found after exposure to the combination, and pathological changes were found in the morphology of the testes, such as disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, decrease of the spermatogenic cell series and coagulation necrosis. Total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione concentration was lower and malondialdehyde concentration was higher than in control mice. The activities of malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were also lower in combination treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that the combined exposure to both melamine and cyanuric acid damaged testes in mice by either a direct or indirect effect, which may be related to renal failure and secondary anorexia. Oxidative stress and lower energy production levels both contributed to the testicular damage.

  15. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  16. First measurement of the radionuclide purity of the therapeutic isotope 67Cu produced by 68Zn(n,x) reaction using natC(d,n) neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have for the first time studied the radionuclide purity of the therapeutic isotope 67Cu produced by the 68Zn(n,x)67Cu reaction. The neutrons were obtained by the natC(d,n) reaction using 40 MeV deuterons. We measured the γ-ray spectra of the reaction products produced by bombarding an enriched 68ZnO sample with the neutrons with a high-purity Ge detector. We found that the relative production yields of the impurity radionuclides 64Cu, 65Zn, and 69mZn to 67Cu are extremely low. The result indicates that the 68Zn(n,x)67Cu reaction is the most promising among those proposed routes until now for producing high-quality 67Cu, and could solve a longstanding problem of establishing an appropriate production method for 67Cu. (author)

  17. Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on $^{nat}$Sm for production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Csikai, J; Ignatyuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    At present, targeted radiotherapy (TR) is acknowledged to have great potential in oncology. A large list of interesting radionuclides is identified, including several radioisotopes of lanthanides, amongst them $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm. In this work the possibility of their production at a cyclotron was investigated using a deuteron beam and a samarium target. The excitation functions of the $^{nat}$Sm(d,x)$^{145153}$Sm reactions were determined for deuteron energies up to 50 MeV using the stacked-foil technique and high-resolution $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry. The measured cross sections and the contributing reactions were analyzed by comparison with results of the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS nuclear reaction codes. A short overview and comparison of possible production routes is given.

  18. Production of scandium-43 and -47 from a powdery calcium oxide target via the (nat/44)Ca(α,x)-channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Fukada, Masami; Suzuki, Hisashi; Ohya, Tomoyuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2016-10-01

    We produced (43)Sc and (47)Sc via the (nat/44)Ca(α,x)-channel using a vertical beam coupled with a ceramic target box. After activation, the powdery CaO target material was dissolved in HCl in the target box in situ and remotely recovered as a radio-Sc solution. The respective yields of (43)Sc and (47)Sc following isolation via a precipitation method with a typical 0.22µm sterile filter were 54.8MBq/µAh (1.48mCi/µAh) and 780kBq/µAh (21.1µCi/µAh) at the end of separation (approximately 1.5h from the EOB). In addition, we discuss the recycling of target Ca.

  19. Translate als kognitive Entitäten oder die Natürlichkeitstheorie im Kontext der sprachlichen und psychosozialen Paradigmata der mehrsprachlichen Kommunikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Teržan Kopecky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Jahrtausende alt ist das Gefiihl bzw. - gepaart mit Überlegungen und Reflexionen die spatere Überzeugung von Philosophen, Literaten und Denkern, dass der ins Wort gefasste Gedanke den Gedanken selbst beeinflusst, värandert, ihm zu einer neuen, wenn auch vergleichbaren Existenz verhilft, aber dennoch den intendierten Sinn in entsprechender Kombination mit alien möglichen - auch nichtsprachlichen - Faktoren zu vermitteln und an Menschen zu transportieren vermag, die uns schon dadurch mehr oder weniger nahe stehen, dass sie die natürliche, soziale und kulturelle Umwelt mit uns teilen, aber unter gewissen Voraussetzungen auch an jene, die anderen Kulturkreisen, Religionen, ja Welten (und sei es nur im Sinne von Generationen angehören.

  20. Refractive index spectral dependence, Raman and transmission spectra of high-purity $^{28}$Si, $^{29}$Si, $^{30}$Si, and $^{nat}$Si single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Plotnichenko, V G; Kryukova, E B; Koltashev, V V; Sokolov, V O; Dianov, E M; Gusev, A V; Gavva, V A; Kotereva, T V; Churbanov, M F

    2011-01-01

    Precise measurement of the refractive index of stable silicon isotopes $^{28}$Si, $^{29}$Si, $^{30}$Si single crystals with enrichments above 99.9 at.% and a silicon single crystal $^{nat}$Si of natural isotopic composition is performed with the Fourier-transform interference refractometry method from 1.06 to more than 80 mkm with 0.1 cm$^{-1}$ resolution and accuracy of $2 \\times 10^{-5} ... 1 \\times 10^{-4}$. The oxygen and carbon concentrations in all crystals are within $5 \\times 10^{15}$ cm$^{-3}$ and the content of metal impurities is $10^{-5} ... 10^{-6}$ at.%. The peculiar changes of the refractive index in the phonon absorption region of all silicon single crystals are shown. The coefficients of generalized Cauchy dispersion function approximating the experimental refractive index values all over the measuring range are given. The transmission and Raman spectra are also studied.

  1. Production of scandium-43 and -47 from a powdery calcium oxide target via the (nat/44)Ca(α,x)-channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Fukada, Masami; Suzuki, Hisashi; Ohya, Tomoyuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2016-10-01

    We produced (43)Sc and (47)Sc via the (nat/44)Ca(α,x)-channel using a vertical beam coupled with a ceramic target box. After activation, the powdery CaO target material was dissolved in HCl in the target box in situ and remotely recovered as a radio-Sc solution. The respective yields of (43)Sc and (47)Sc following isolation via a precipitation method with a typical 0.22µm sterile filter were 54.8MBq/µAh (1.48mCi/µAh) and 780kBq/µAh (21.1µCi/µAh) at the end of separation (approximately 1.5h from the EOB). In addition, we discuss the recycling of target Ca. PMID:27472825

  2. 4π studies of the 1.8 endash 4.8 GeV 3He+natAg, 197Au reactions. II. Multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifragmentation of natAg and 197Au nuclei induced by 1.8 endash 4.8 GeV 3He ions has been studied with the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4π detector array. Rapidity, moving source, and sphericity-coplanarity analyses are consistent with near-simultaneous emission from a source in approximate kinetic equilibrium. For the most dissipative collisions, the spectral peaks are broadened and shifted to very low energies, indicative of emission from an extended nuclear system with ρ/ρ0∼1/3. Predictions of an intranuclear cascade/expanding, emitting source model compare well with experimental multiplicity distributions and the evolution of fragment spectral shapes. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Production cross sections of products in the proton induced reactions on natNd in the energy region up to 45 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Kim, Kwangsoo; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk; Kim, Guinyun

    2015-11-01

    The production cross sections of 141,143,144,146,148m,148g,149,150Pm, 139m,147,149Nd, 138m,142gPr, and 139gCe in the natNd(p,x) reactions were determined by a stacked-foil activation technique for the proton energy range up to 45 MeV using the MC-50 cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured cross sections were compared with literature data as well as data from the TENDL-2014 library based on TALYS 1.6. The production cross sections of the above radionuclides are slightly higher than the literature data but are in general agreement with values in TENDL-2014 library except for 148mPm, 148gPm, 139mNd, and 142gPr. The thick target integral yields of the produced radionuclides were also deducted from the measured cross sections.

  4. Neutron-induced fission cross section of (nat)Pb and (209)Bi from threshold to 1 GeV: An improved parametrization

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrio, D; Audouin, L; Berthier, B; Duran, I; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Le Naour, C; Paradela, C; Stephan, C; Trubert, D; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calvino, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Carrillo de Albornoz, A; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Koelbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lampoudis, C; Leeb, H; Lederer, C; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Losito, R; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marques, L; Marrone, S; Martinez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P.M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Oshima, M; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M.T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Sarmento, R; Savvidis, I; Tagliente, G; Tain, J.L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for (nat)Pb and (209)Bi were measured with a white-spectrum neutron source at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n\\_TOF) facility. The experiment, using neutrons from threshold up to 1 GeV, provides the first results for these nuclei above 200 MeV. The cross sections were measured relative to (235)U and (238)U in a dedicated fission chamber with parallel plate avalanche counter detectors. Results are compared with previous experimental data. Upgraded parametrizations of the cross sections are presented, from threshold energy up to 1 GeV. The proposed new sets of fitting parameters improve former results along the whole energy range.

  5. Measurement of delayed neutron yields and time spectra from 1 GeV protons interacting with thick {sup nat}Pb targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridikas, D.; Blideanu, V.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Prevost, A. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Barzakh, A.; Fedorov, D.; Moroz, F.; Panteleev, V.; Shcherbakov, O.; Vorobyev, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Ledoux, X. [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, DPTA/SPN, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A. [Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2007-04-15

    In this paper we present for the first time the measured delayed neutron (DN) yields and time spectra from high-energy protons interacting with thick {sup nat}Pb targets. The 1GeV protons from the accelerator impinged on targets of different thicknesses producing a huge number of spallation-fission products, some of which can be DN precursors. After the beam is switched off, the DNs were detected with optimized {sup 3}He counter. The production yields of light DN precursors as {sup 17}N and ''usual'' fission products as {sup 87}Br and {sup 88}Br, which dominate the total DN activity, are obtained both for thin and thick targets. These new data are of great interest for the new generation high-power spallation targets based on liquid-metal technologies. Our findings also should help to constrain the physics models within the simulations codes. (orig.)

  6. Genotipagem do NAT2 : implicações na terapêutica da tuberculose com isonizida na população portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nuno Filipe Namora Leitão

    2011-01-01

    A farmacogenómica, que engloba actualmente o domínio da farmacogenética, constitui um importante avanço para a personalização da Medicina, possibilitando a selecção do fármaco e dose adequadas ao genótipo de cada indivíduo, o que contribui para aumentar a eficácia terapêutica e diminuir a toxicidade. Os objectivos deste artigo de revisão consistem, em primeiro lugar, na análise das implicações da genotipagem do gene NAT2 na terapêutica da tuberculose com isoniazida, em segundo lugar, na de...

  7. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine samples by nucleic acid tests: comparison with culture and enzyme immunoassay of genital swab specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Schepetiuk, S.; Kok, T.; Martin, L; Waddell, R; Higgins, G

    1997-01-01

    Two commercially available nucleic acid-based tests, ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott Laboratories) and PCR (Roche Diagnostics), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male and female urine samples were compared with culture and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Microtrak; Syva) for C. trachomatis detection in genital samples. The samples were collected from 1,005 patients who attended a sexually transmitted disease clinic. In this study population, the prevalence of the infection was 4%. Sp...

  8. Phosphoric acid doped membranes based on Nafion®, PBI and their blends – Membrane preparation, characterization and steam electrolysis testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Pan, Chao;

    2011-01-01

    . An MEA based on phosphoric acid doped Nafion® was operated at 130 °C at ambient pressure with a current density of 300 mA cm−2 at 1.75 V, with no membrane degradation observed during a test of 90 h. The PBI based MEAs showed better polarization curves (500 mA cm−2 at 1.75 V) but poor durability....

  9. Wet and dry accelerated aging tests in a spray chamber to understand the effects of acid rain frequencies on bronze corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni, Liliana; Cavallini, Mauro; Natali, Stefano; Adriaens, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted controlled laboratory experiments using a series of bronze alloys exposed to frequent, repeated wet and dry cycles, to simulate frequent acid rain exposure and study the resultant corrosion processes in bronze artifacts exposed to an outdoor urban environment. To simulate rainwater and condensation, a spray chamber for the corrosion tests was assembled, which delivered homogeneous vapor diffusion and drop deposition. Three bi-component bronzes, with 3%, 7% and 20% tin conten...

  10. Acetylator genotype-dependent formation of 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adducts in rapid and slow acetylator Syrian hamsters congenic at the NAT2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Rustan, T D; Ferguson, R J; Doll, M A; Hein, D W

    1994-01-01

    Arylamine-hemoglobin adducts are a valuable dosimeter for assessing arylamine exposures and carcinogenic risk. The effects of age, sex, time-course, dose, and acetylator genotype on levels of 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adducts were investigated in homozygous rapid (Bio. 82.73/H-Patr) and slow (Bio. 82.73/H-Pats) acetylator hamsters congenic at the polymorphic (NAT2) acetylator locus. Following administration of a single ip dose of [3H]2-aminofluorene, peak 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels were achieved at 12-18 hr and retained a plateau up to 72 hr postinjection in both rapid and slow acetylator congenic hamsters. 2-Aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels did not differ significantly between young (5-6 weeks) and old (32-49 weeks) hamsters or between male and female hamsters within either acetylator genotype. 2-Aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.95, p = 0.0001) and were consistently higher in slow versus rapid acetylator congenic hamsters in studies of both time-course and dose-effect. The magnitude of the acetylator genotype-dependent difference was a function of dose; 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels were 1.5-fold higher in slow acetylator congenic hamsters following a 60 mg/kg 2-aminofluorene dose (p = 0.0013) but 2-fold higher following a 100 mg/kg 2-aminofluorene dose (p < 0.0001). These results show a specific and significant role for NAT2 acetylator genotype in formation of arylamine-hemoglobin adducts, which may reflect the relationship between acetylator genotype and the incidence of different cancers from arylamine exposures. PMID:8291051

  11. Implementation of Solving IP Address Shorting Problem by NAT Technique%NAT技术解决IP地址短缺问题的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中廷

    2013-01-01

    With the popularization of information technology and network, the IP address shorting has increasingly become a problem in development. By analysis of the technical principle of network address translate (NAT), the static and dynamic NAT address translation technologies are introduced briefly. In order to the translation process from private address to public address implemented by using the address translation technologies is described in detail from three aspects in order to provide three common implementation models for multiple computers sharing a public address. Aiming at the appearing problems of IP address overlapping, the solutions are presented, in order to provide the effective solutions for IP address shorting problems.%随着信息技术及网络的普及,IP地址短缺问题越来越成为发展中的一个问题。通过对网络地址转换(NAT)技术原理的分析,对静态NAT地址转换技术及动态NAT地址转换技术做了简要介绍;从3个层面详细阐述了运用地址转换技术实现私有地址向公有地址的转换的过程,为多台计算机共享一个公有地址提供3个通用实现模型,并针对出现的IP地址重叠问题给出了解决的方案,为IP地址短缺问题提供了有效的解决方法。

  12. Comparison of an rRNA‐based and DNA‐based nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jon L; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne; Habte, Dereje; Zerihun, Mulat; House, Jenafir I; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Hong, Kevin C; Maxey, Kathryn; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim The World Health Organisation (WHO) hopes to achieve global elimination of trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, in part through mass antibiotic treatment. DNA‐based nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are currently used to evaluate the success of treatment programmes by measuring the prevalence of C trachomatis infection. Some believe that newer ribosomal RNA (rRNA)‐based tests may be much more sensitive since bacterial rRNA is present in amounts up to 10 000 times that of genomic DNA. Others believe that rRNA‐based tests are instead less sensitive but more specific, due to the presence of dead or subviable organisms that the test may not detect. This study compares an rRNA‐based test to a DNA‐based test for the detection of ocular C trachomatis infection in children living in trachoma‐endemic villages. Methods An rRNA‐based amplification test and DNA‐based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on swab specimens taken from the right upper tarsal conjunctiva of 56 children aged 0–10 years living in two villages in Amhara, Ethiopia. Results The rRNA‐based test detected ocular C trachomatis infection in 35 (63%) subjects compared with 22 (39%) detected by PCR (McNemar's test, p = 0.0002). The rRNA‐based test gave positive results for all subjects that were positive by PCR, and also detected infection in 13 (23%) additional subjects. Conclusion The rRNA‐based test appears to have significantly greater sensitivity than PCR for the detection of ocular chlamydial infection in children in trachoma‐endemic villages. Using the rRNA‐based test, we may be able to detect infection that was previously missed with PCR. Past studies using DNA‐based tests to assess prevalence of infectious trachoma following antibiotic treatment may have underestimated the true prevalence of infection. PMID:17050583

  13. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: Laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Seubert, Erica L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  14. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, Erica L; Trussell, Shane; Eagleton, John; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetinić, Ivona; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton H; Caron, David A

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  15. Reduction in patient burdens with graphical computerized adaptive testing on the ADL scale: tool development and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weng-Chung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness and efficacy of saving time and reducing burden for patients, nurses, and even occupational therapists through computer adaptive testing (CAT. Methods Based on an item bank of the Barthel Index (BI and the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI for assessing comprehensive activities of daily living (ADL function in stroke patients, we developed a visual basic application (VBA-Excel CAT module, and (1 investigated whether the averaged test length via CAT is shorter than that of the traditional all-item-answered non-adaptive testing (NAT approach through simulation, (2 illustrated the CAT multimedia on a tablet PC showing data collection and response errors of ADL clinical functional measures in stroke patients, and (3 demonstrated the quality control of endorsing scale with fit statistics to detect responding errors, which will be further immediately reconfirmed by technicians once patient ends the CAT assessment. Results The results show that endorsed items could be shorter on CAT (M = 13.42 than on NAT (M = 23 at 41.64% efficiency in test length. However, averaged ability estimations reveal insignificant differences between CAT and NAT. Conclusion This study found that mobile nursing services, placed at the bedsides of patients could, through the programmed VBA-Excel CAT module, reduce the burden to patients and save time, more so than the traditional NAT paper-and-pencil testing appraisals.

  16. In vitro effects of steroid hormones on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal of fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanthan, L; Gupta, B B P

    2007-08-01

    In vitro effects of gonadal hormones (testosterone, 17beta-estradiol estriol and estrone) and corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) were studied on arylalklyamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during quiescent, progressive, breeding and regressive phases of its annual breeding cycle. The pineals were collected under dim red light, maintained in organ culture for 7 hr and incubated with three concentrations (10(-6), 10(-5) and 10(-4) M) of hormones for 6 hr. The treatments with gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones inhibited pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases of the breeding cycle. AA-NAT activity was comparatively more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the gonadal hormones during the regressive phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. Further, the enzyme activity was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) during the breeding phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. These findings seem to suggest that gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones have direct inhibitory influence on AA-NAT activity and, hence melatonin synthesis in the photoreceptive pineal organ of C. gariepinus.

  17. Testing models of fatty acid transfer and lipid synthesis in spinach leaf using in vivo oxygen-18 labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, M.; Ohlrogge, J.

    1999-12-01

    Oxygen-18 labeling has been applied to the study of plant lipid biosynthesis for the first time. [{sup 13}C{sub 2}{sup 18}O{sub 2}]Acetate was incubated with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves and the {sup 18}O content in fatty acid methyl esters isolated from different lipid classes measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids isolated from lipids synthesized within the plastid, such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, show an {sup 18}O content consistent with the exogenous acetate undergoing a single activation step and with the direct utilization of acyl-acyl carrier protein by the acyl transferases of the chloroplast. In contrast, fatty acids isolated from lipids assembled in the cytosol, such as phosphatidylcholine, show a 50% reduction in the {sup 18}O content. This is indicative of export of the fatty acyl groups from the plastid via a free carboxylate anion, and is consistent with the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase:acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase mediated export mechanism. If this were not the case and the acyl group was transferred directly from acyl-acyl carrier protein to an acyl acceptor on the cytosolic side, there would be either complete retention of {sup 18}O or, less likely, complete loss of {sup 18}O, but not a 50% loss of {sup 18}O. Thus, existing models for fatty acid transfer from the plastid and for spatially separate synthesis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic lipids have both been confirmed.

  18. Testing Models of Fatty Acid Transfer and Lipid Synthesis in Spinach Leaf Using in Vivo Oxygen-18 Labeling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    1999-01-01

    Oxygen-18 labeling has been applied to the study of plant lipid biosynthesis for the first time. [13C218O2]Acetate was incubated with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves and the 18O content in fatty acid methyl esters isolated from different lipid classes measured by gas chromatography-mass spectometry. Fatty acids isolated from lipids synthesized within the plastid, such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, show an 18O content consistent with the exogenous acetate undergoing a single activation step and with the direct utilization of acyl-acyl carrier protein by the acyl transferases of the chloroplast. In contrast, fatty acids isolated from lipids assembled in the cytosol, such as phosphatidylcholine, show a 50% reduction in the 18O content. This is indicative of export of the fatty acyl groups from the plastid via a free carboxylate anion, and is consistent with the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase:acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase mediated export mechanism. If this were not the case and the acyl group was transferred directly from acyl-acyl carrier protein to an acyl acceptor on the cytosolic side, there would be either complete retention of 18O or, less likely, complete loss of 18O, but not a 50% loss of 18O. Thus, existing models for fatty acid transfer from the plastid and for spatially separate synthesis of “prokaryotic” and “eukaryotic” lipids have both been confirmed. PMID:10594108

  19. Testing models of fatty acid transfer and lipid synthesis in spinach leaf using in vivo oxygen-18 labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, M; Ohlrogge, J

    1999-12-01

    Oxygen-18 labeling has been applied to the study of plant lipid biosynthesis for the first time. [(13)C(2)(18)O(2)]Acetate was incubated with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves and the (18)O content in fatty acid methyl esters isolated from different lipid classes measured by gas chromatography-mass spectometry. Fatty acids isolated from lipids synthesized within the plastid, such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, show an (18)O content consistent with the exogenous acetate undergoing a single activation step and with the direct utilization of acyl-acyl carrier protein by the acyl transferases of the chloroplast. In contrast, fatty acids isolated from lipids assembled in the cytosol, such as phosphatidylcholine, show a 50% reduction in the (18)O content. This is indicative of export of the fatty acyl groups from the plastid via a free carboxylate anion, and is consistent with the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase:acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase mediated export mechanism. If this were not the case and the acyl group was transferred directly from acyl-acyl carrier protein to an acyl acceptor on the cytosolic side, there would be either complete retention of (18)O or, less likely, complete loss of (18)O, but not a 50% loss of (18)O. Thus, existing models for fatty acid transfer from the plastid and for spatially separate synthesis of "prokaryotic" and "eukaryotic" lipids have both been confirmed. PMID:10594108

  20. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  1. Determining a Robust D-Optimal Design for Testing for Departure from Additivity in a Mixture of Four Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...

  2. A high intake of conjugated linoleic acid does not affect liver and kidney function tests in healthy human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Leder, L.; Banga, J.R.; Katan, M.B.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CIA) is consumed widely as a supplement. It Causes hepatomegaly in animals, but toxicological data in humans are limited We therefore studied the effect of a high daily intake of CIA on liver and kidney function in healthy subjects. Twenty Subjects received 14 6 g cis-9,tra

  3. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  4. Detection of KPC Carbapenemase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From Clinical Samples Using Modified Hodge Test and Boronic Acid Phenotypic Methods and Their Comparison With the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, Saeed; Shojapour, Mana; Sadeghi, Abdorrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a major source of concern for public health. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are important opportunistic pathogens. These bacteria have a high resistance to a wide range of existing antimicrobials and antibiotics. Objectives The present study was performed to evaluate the frequency of KPC in P. aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples of educational hospitals of Arak University of Medical Sciences, using the mentioned phenotypic and genotypic methods. Materials and Methods One hundred and eight non-duplicate clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from hospitals of Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method. KPC production was confirmed by the Modified Hodge Test (MHT), which is a phenotypic test, and combined-disk test with boronic acid and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results In the present study, 13 isolates (12%) of P. aeruginosa were positive for KPC, using PCR. Comparison of the two phenotypic methods used in this study showed that boronic acid is more sensitive than MHT in identification of KPC-producing strains (84.6% vs. 77%). Conclusions Utilization of reliable methods for identifying carbapenemase-producing strains and determining their antibiotic resistance pattern could have a very important role in treatment of infections caused by these strains. A substantial amount of P. aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples of hospitals in Arak (Iran) produce KPC carbapenemase. Due to their low specificity, MHT and boronic acid phenotypic methods could not completely identify KPC-producing P. aeruginosa. However, the sensitivity of boronic acid phenotypic method in detection of KPC was higher than MHT.

  5. Manganese and zinc in acidic agricultural soils from Central Spain: Distribution and phytoavailability prediction with chemical extraction tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rico Selas, M.Isabel; Álvarez Álvarez, José Manuel; López Valdivia, Luis Manuel; Novillo Carmona, Jesus; Obrador Pérez, Ana Francisca

    2009-01-01

    The extractability and distribution of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in acidic agricultural soils from Central Spain. Both single (0.1 M hydrochloride [HCl] and 0.05 M ethylenediaminetetraacetate [EDTA]) and sequential extraction procedures (SEP) (modified Tessier procedure and Community Bureau of Reference [BCR] protocol) were applied to 29 representative soils that belong to the Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Entisol orders. Average relative Mn extractabilities with respect to the t...

  6. Millisecond Timescale Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Testing of Its Relevance to the Ligand Entry Process

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Dong; Yang, Daiwen

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, scientists have been attempting to know more about the conformational dynamics of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), to answer the puzzling question of how ligands could access the internalized binding site(s). Conformational exchange of FABPs on the microsecond to millisecond timescales has been found in many FABPs and offers an important hypothesis for the ligand entry mechanism. Despite the potential significance, the validity of this hypothesis has not been verified y...

  7. Testing the interactive effects of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids on ejaculate traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Gasparini, C; Turchini, G M; Evans, J P

    2015-05-01

    Using the polyandrous livebearing guppy Poecilia reticulata, this study revealed no main effects of carotenoids in the diet on ejaculate traits, but significant main effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sperm viability and weak but significant interacting effects of both nutrients on sperm length. Collectively, these findings not only add evidence that PUFAs are critical determinants of sperm quality, but also provide tentative evidence that for some traits these effects may be moderated by carotenoid intake.

  8. 对硫糖铝制酸力检查方法的改进建议%Improvement of Acid-neutralizing Capacity Test for Sucralfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 申兰慧; 陈国清

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To improve the acid-neutralizing capacity test for sucralfate and sucralfate tablets. Methods: Combined with the pharmacopeia standard of the acid-neutralizing rate of sucrelfate, the effects of the time and speed of vibration, methods of end-point indication on the acid-neutralizing capacity test were discussed. Results: The vibration time was shorten to 20 min at the speed of 150r·min-1. And the potentiometric method was recommended to indicate the end-point. Conclusion: This modified method is accurate, reliable and can control the quality of this product more effectively.%目的:改进硫糖铝的制酸力检查法.方法:结合硫糖铝制酸速度的研究,探讨《中国药典》2010年版硫糖铝制酸力检查的振摇时间、振摇频率和终点指示方式对检测结果的影响.结果:将原标准硫酸铝制酸力检查的振摇时间缩短为20 min,振摇频率改为150次/min,且用电位法指示终点.结论:改进后的方法准确、可靠,可更有效地控制产品质量.

  9. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Monfort-Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether the content of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs, in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 hours, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 hours a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95%CI −4.16, −0.41 and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95%CI −1.82, 0.04 were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 hours may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation.

  10. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort-Pires, Milena; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, José; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea

    2016-01-01

    Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation. PMID:27657122

  11. The Protective Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Supplementation against Damage Caused by Lead in the Testes of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang SHAN; Tian TANG; Xiaobin ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant that may have toxic effects on the male.Vitamins may protect against toxic effects of lead in the liver and reproductive system,which is confirmed by our initial research.The aim of this study was to further investigate the protec-tive effects of vitamins (ascorbic acid combined with thiamine) on lead acetate (Pb)-induced repro-ductive toxicities in mice and study the possible mechanisms underlying these effects.Forty-five male mice were randomly divided into 3 groups,15 mice in each and received daily intragastric ad-ministration with control,Pb (20 mg/kg),and Pb+vitamins (ascorbic acid of 420 mg/kg+thiamine of 30 mg/kg) for 6 weeks,respectively.The Pb-treated animals showed significant decreases in the epididymal sperm count and motility compared to the control group,while the Pb+vitamins group had significant increases for these variables.Moreover,an increasing apoptosis of germinal cells in-duced by Pb was reduced by vitamin treatment.Pb induced the activation of Caspase-3,Fas/Fas-L and Bcl-2 with elevated levels,and the adaptor protein primarily regulated signaling through Fas and required for Fas-induced apoptosis.In conclusion,ascorbic acid combined with thiamine exhibited protective effect on reproductive system by inhibiting Pb-induced excessive cell apoptosis.

  12. Impact of gestational bisphenol A on oxidative stress and free fatty acids: Human association and interspecies animal testing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zeng, Lixia; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health. PMID:25603046

  13. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  14. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  15. A Research on the Determınatıon of Sowing Performance of Pneumatic Precision Drill for Cereals Sowing

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ulger; B. Kayisoglu; Y. Bayhan; B. Akdemir

    2009-01-01

    In this research, sowing rate and seed distribution of furrow openers of pneumatic seed drills were determined. In addition, sowing rates given in the machine catalogue were compared with test results. Coefficient of variation of the seed distribution of the furrow openers were less than that 4% given in the literature as maximum value for evaluating of seed drills. Amount of distributed seed from the furrow openers varied between 3% and 12%. Test results of sowing rates were less than that t...

  16. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  17. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  18. A-train CALIOP and MLS observations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds and nitric acid in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lambert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A-train Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS observations are used to investigate the development of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs and the gas-phase nitric acid distribution in the early 2008 Antarctic winter. Observational evidence of gravity-wave activity is provided by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS radiances and infrared spectroscopic detection of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT in PSCs is obtained from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 DAS analyses are used to derive Lagrangian trajectories and to determine temperature-time histories of air parcels. We use CALIOP backscatter and depolarization measurements to classify PSCs and the MLS measurements to determine the corresponding gas-phase HNO3 as a function of temperature. For liquid PSCs the uptake of HNO3 follows the theoretical equilibrium curve for supercooled ternary solutions (STS, but at temperatures about 1 K lower as determined from GEOS-5. In the presence of solid phase PSCs, above the ice frost-point, the HNO3 depletion occurs over a wider range of temperatures (+2 to −7 K distributed about the NAT equilibrium curve. Rapid gas-phase HNO3 depletion is first seen by MLS from from 23–25 May 2008, consisting of a decrease in the volume mixing ratio from 14 ppbv (parts per billion by volume to 7 ppbv on the 46–32 hPa (hectopascal pressure levels and accompanied by a 2–3 ppbv increase by renitrification at the 68 hPa pressure level. The observed region of depleted HNO3 is substantially smaller than the region bounded by the NAT existence temperature threshold. Temperature-time histories of air parcels demonstrate that the depletion is more clearly correlated with prior exposure to temperatures a few kelvin above the frost-point. From the combined data we infer the presence

  19. A-train CALIOP and MLS observations of early winter antarctic polar stratospheric clouds and nitric acid in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lambert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A-train Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS observations are used to investigate the development of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs and the gas phase nitric acid distribution in the early 2008 Antarctic winter. Observational evidence of gravity-wave activity is provided by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS radiances and infrared spectroscopic detection of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT in PSCs is obtained from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 DAS analyses are used to derive Lagrangian trajectories and to determine temperature-time histories of air parcels. We use CALIOP backscatter and depolarization measurements to classify PSCs and the MLS measurements to determine the corresponding gas phase HNO3 as a function of temperature. For liquid PSCs the uptake of HNO3 follows the theoretical equilibrium curve for supercooled ternary solutions (STS, but at temperatures about 1 K lower as determined from GEOS-5. In the presence of solid phase PSCs, above the ice frost-point, the HNO3 depletion occurs over a wider range of temperatures (+2 to −7 K distributed about the NAT equilibrium curve. Rapid gas phase HNO3 depletion is first seen by MLS from from 23–25 May 2008, consisting of a decrease in the volume mixing ratio (parts per billion by volume from 14 ppbv to 7 ppbv on the 46–32 hPa (hectopascal pressure levels and accompanied by a 2–3 ppbv increase by renitrification at the 68 hPa pressure level. Temperature-time histories of air parcels demonstrate that the depleted HNO3 region is more clearly correlated with prior low temperature exposure of a few kelvin above the frost-point than with either the region bounded by the NAT existence temperature threshold or the region of minimum temperatures. From the combined data we infer the

  20. Investigation on used oil and engine components of vehicles road test using twenty percent Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (B20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Haryono, Muhammad Ma’ruf, Hari Setiapraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government has mandated to utilize biodiesel at the Indonesian market with blend ratio of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel (B20. This policy bring car manufacturers concerning in using B20 effect on the engine life time. To evaluate the effect of using B20 on engine components, vehicles road test has been done along 40,000 KM. The test was using three brands of vehicles, in which each brand was composed of two identical vehicles fuelled by B20 FAME fuel and pure diesel fuel (B0 (solar. During the road test at certain intervals in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance recommendations, the vehicles lubricating oil replacement and other routine maintenance were required. At the completion of the test all test vehicles to be dismantled and the engine components inspected. The test results show that the most parameter of used oil lubricants still in the limits. Likewise, the condition of the vehicles engine components did not show significant difference between using the pure diesel or B20.

  1. Diagnosis of tuberculosis by using a nucleic acid amplification test in an urban population with high HIV prevalence in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwako Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB has been recommended on respiratory specimens submitted for acid-fast bacilli (AFB testing. It also helps distinguish between TB and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM species in a setting where NTM rates are relatively high. The purposes of this study are to describe the trend and characteristics of all AFB smear-positive respiratory samples that underwent amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct (MTD testing, a type of NAAT, and to evaluate the clinical utility and necessity of the test for diagnosis of TB in a population with high-HIV prevalence. METHODS: Prospective diagnostic testing and retrospective data analyses were conducted on all AFB smear-positive respiratory samples that underwent MTD testing from 2001 to 2011 at Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH, Atlanta, USA. The test performance was compared to culture. RESULTS: A total of 2,240 AFB smear-positive specimens from 1,412 patients were tested and analyzed in the study. The proportion of specimens that were culture-positive for TB was 28.5%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the MTD were 99.0%, 98.0%, 95.3% and 99.6%, respectively. A downward trend was observed in the yearly numbers as well as the proportions of MTD-positive specimens during the study period (p<0.01. There were 2,027 (90.5% specimens from patients with known HIV status, of which 70.6% was HIV positive and the majority of them (81.8% had CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/µL. HIV-positives were more likely to have NTM compared to HIV negatives (67.7% vs. 35.4%, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Despite the decrease in the incidence of TB, NAAT continues to be an accurate and important diagnostic test in a population with high HIV prevalence, and it differentiates TB and NTM organisms.

  2. A Research on the Determınatıon of Sowing Performance of Pneumatic Precision Drill for Cereals Sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ulger

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, sowing rate and seed distribution of furrow openers of pneumatic seed drills were determined. In addition, sowing rates given in the machine catalogue were compared with test results. Coefficient of variation of the seed distribution of the furrow openers were less than that 4% given in the literature as maximum value for evaluating of seed drills. Amount of distributed seed from the furrow openers varied between 3% and 12%. Test results of sowing rates were less than that the catalogue value of sowing machine but differences were not significant statistically.

  3. Application of bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for testing the biocompatibility of metal-based biomaterials functionalized with ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, metal-based biomaterials were functionalized with ascorbic acid (LAA). Two types of substrates were used: austenitic steel 316L and titanium Ti6Al4V. Coatings were prepared with the sol–gel method and applied on metal surfaces using the dip-coating technique. Ascorbic acid was delivered with SiO2-coating at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.4 M. The morphology of the surfaces and coatings was determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), whereas their elemental composition by SEM-EDX. Immobilization of ascorbic acid in the coatings was confirmed with Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the materials obtained was tested in vitro using both bone marrow- and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC and ADMSC, respectively). Proliferation rate and morphology of cells cultured in the presence of designed biomaterials were monitored after 24, 48, 120 and 168 h of propagation. The results obtained indicated that silica coatings doped with 0.4 M LAA had a positive effect on the proliferation rate of investigated cells, and in some cases on the growth pattern of culture. (paper)

  4. Standard test method for the determination of impurities in plutonium metal: acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This Test Method covers the determination of 58 trace elements in plutonium (Pu) metal. The Pu sample is dissolved in acid, and the concentration of the trace impurities are determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). 1.2 This Test Method is specific for the determination of trace impurities in Pu metal. It may be applied to other types of Pu materials, such as Pu oxides, if the samples are dissolved and oxidized to the Pu(IV) state. However, it is the responsibility of the user to evaluate the performance of other matrices. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use of this standard.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency does not alter the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on central serotonin turnover or behavior in the forced swim test in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W

    2013-12-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group was administered FLX (10mg/kg/day) for 30days (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (-28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic

  6. Measurement of hepatic functional mass by means of 13C-methacetin and 13C-phenylalanine breath tests in chronic liver disease: Comparison with Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Festi; P. Portincasa; E. Roda; A. Colecchia; S. Capodicasa; L. Sandri; L. Colaiocco-Ferrante; T. Staniscia; E. Vitacolonna; A. Vestito; P. Simoni; G. Mazzella

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate and compare the clinical usefulness of 13C-phenylalanine and 13C-methacetin breath tests in quantitating functional hepatic mass in patients with chronic liver disease and to further compare these results with those of conventional tests, Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels.METHODS: One hundred and forty patients (50 HCV-related chronic hepatitis, 90 liver cirrhosis patients) and 40 matched healthy controls were studied. Both breath test and routine liver test, serum levels of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid conjugates were evaluated.RESULTS: Methacetin breath test, expressed as 60 min cumulative percent of oxidation, discriminated the hepatic functional capacity not only between controls and liver disease patients, but also between different categories of chronic liver disease patients. Methacetin breath test was correlated with liver function tests and serum bile acids.Furthermore, methacetin breath test, as well as serum bile acids, were highly predictive of Child-Pugh scores. The diagnostic power of phenylalanine breath test was always less than that of methacetin breath test.CONCLUSION: Methacetin breath test represents a safe and accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hepatic functional mass in chronic liver disease patients.

  7. Summary Report on Gamma Radiolysis of TBP/n-dodecane in the Presence of Nitric Acid Using the Radiolysis/Hydrolysis Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean R. Peterman; Bruce J. Mincher; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2010-08-01

    Design and installation has been completed for a state-of-the-art radiolysis/hydrolysis test loop system. The system is used to evaluate the effects of gamma radiolysis and acid hydrolysis on the stability and performance of solvent extraction process solvents. The test loop is comprised of two main sections; the solvent irradiation and hydrolysis loop and the solvent reconditioning loop. In the solvent irradiation and hydrolysis loop, aqueous and organic phases are mixed and circulated through a gamma irradiator until the desired absorbed dose is achieved. Irradiation of the mixed phases is more representative of actual conditions in a solvent extraction process. Additionally, the contact of the organic phase with the aqueous phase will subject the solvent components to hydrolysis. This hydrolysis can be accelerated by controlling the system at an elevated temperature. At defined intervals, the organic from the irradiation/hydrolysis loop will be transferred to the solvent reconditioning loop where the solvent is contacted with scrub, strip, and solvent wash solutions which simulate process flowsheet conditions. These two processes are repeated until the total desired dose is achieved. Since all viable solvent extraction components in an advanced fuel cycle must exhibit high radiolytic and hydrolytic stability, this test loop is not limited to any one solvent system but is applicable to all systems of interest. Also, the test loop is not limited to testing of process flowsheets. It is also a valuable tool in support of fundamental research on newly identified extractants/modifiers and the impact of gamma radiation on their stability in a dynamic environment. The investigation of the radiolysis of a TBP/n-dodecane process solvent in contact with aqueous nitric acid has been performed. These studies were intended to confirm/optimize the operability of the test loop system. Additionally, these data are directly applicable to numerous other solvent extraction

  8. Production of (28)Mg by bombardment of (nat)Cl with 200MeV protons: Proof-of-concept study for a stacked LiCl target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, N P; Steyn, G F; Vermeulen, C; van Rooyen, T J

    2016-09-01

    A stacked target consisting of ten Al-encapsulated LiCl discs, for producing (28)Mg via the (nat)Cl(p,X)(28)Mg process in the energy region 50-200MeV, is described. This target was irradiated with a 200MeV beam at an intensity of 100nA, providing information on both yield and outscattering losses. Results of a Monte Carlo modelling of the beam and target, by means of the code MCNPX, are also presented. Similar Al-encapsulated LiCl discs were individually irradiated with 66MeV proton beams of 65 and 90μA, respectively, to study their behaviour under high-intensity bombardment. Once removed from the Al encapsulation, the (28)Mg can be separated from the LiCl target material efficiently, using a 12.5cm x 1cm(2) column containing Purolite S950 chelating resin. The eluate contains (7)Be but no other measurable radio-contaminants. The removal of the (7)Be contaminant is performed by cation exchange chromatography in malate media, with (28)Mg being retained by the resin and (7)Be eluted. PMID:27372806

  9. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine. PMID:27070740

  10. Implementation of Autonomous Extensible Internet(AEIP NAT)%自治可扩展互联网(AEIP NAT)的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁玉平; 刁永平; 廖铭

    2012-01-01

    The two key issues of Internet are autonomy and extension. Autonomous Internet technology is able to break the monopolistic power of Internet and can have independent DNS root server as need. And here provides a technology implementation of Automonous Extensible Internet. It mainly adopts local network address based on per Autonomous IP network and uses bilateral NAT with global network address between Autonomous IP networks to solve IP address deficient problem.%互联网日益突出的两个关键问题是自治问题和可扩展问题。采用互联网自治技术可以打破互联网的垄断控制权,按需拥有独立的根域名服务器;可以进而提出在自治互联网的基础上,采用本地网络地址为主、全局网络地址转换的方法解决IP地址匮乏的问题,从而实现互联网的自治可扩展。

  11. N-Acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine in primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells and in the human urothelial cell line 5637.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmann, Wolfram; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Behm, Claudia; Degen, Gisela H; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NAT) are important enzymes in the metabolism of certain carcinogenic arylamines, as N-acetylation decreases or prevents their bioactivation via N-hydroxylation. To study such processes in the bladder, cell culture models may be used, but metabolic competence needs to be characterized. This study focused on the N-acetylation capacity of two urothelial cell systems, using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and the hair dye precursor p-phenylenediamine (PPD), two well-known substrates of the enzyme NAT1. The constitutive NAT1 activity was investigated using primary cultures of porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) and in the human urothelial cell line 5637 to assess their suitability for further in vitro studies on PABA and PPD-induced toxicity. N-Acetylation of PABA and PPD was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis in cytosols of the two cell systems upon incubation with various substrate levels for up to 60 min. The primary PUBEC revealed higher N-acetylation rates (2.5-fold for PABA, 5-fold for PPD) compared to the 5637 cell line, based on both PABA conversion to its acetylated metabolite and formation of mono- and diacetylated PPD. The urothelial cell systems may thus be useful as a tool for further studies on the N-acetylation of aromatic amines via NAT1.

  12. Alpha particle induced reactions on natCr up to 39 MeV: Experimental cross-sections, comparison with theoretical calculations and thick target yields for medically relevant 52gFe production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin natCr targets were obtained by electroplating, using 23.75 μm Cu foils as backings. In five stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross sections for production of 52gFe, 49,51cumCr, 52cum,54,56cumMn and 48cumV in Cr and 61Cu,68Ga in Cu were measured up to 39 MeV incident α-particle energy. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the natCu(α,x)67,66Ga monitor reactions over the whole energy range. Comparisons with the scarce literature values and results from the TENDL-2013 on-line library, based on the theoretical code family TALYS-1.6, were made. A discussion of the production routes for 52gFe with achievable yields and contamination rates was made

  13. The test freezing temperature of C2-C6 dicarboxylic acid: The important indicator for ice nucleation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rui; P. A. ARIYA

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic compounds as significant constituents of atmospheric aerosols, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as well as players influencing the tropospheric oxidation and atmospheric energy budget, have been increasingly recognized. Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (LMW-DCAs) are significant identified portions of atmospheric condensed matter including aerosols, fog and clouds. Besides the photochemical transformation of DCA, the implication of organic matter in ice nucleation processes has been considered. In this study, we investigated the freezing temperature of pure and mixed (C2-C6) DCA solutions in ultra-pure water and tap water solution droplets using a freezing nucleus counter at different pH, and in different water ionic conditions. The mean freezing temperature of different mixture of LMW-DCA in ultra-pure and tap water solution droplets ranged from -24.1±2.8 to-21.3±3.9℃ and -10.2±2.2 to -9.5±2.2℃, respectively. The mean freezing temperature of the control (ultra-pure and tap) water droplets (-22.6±3.5℃, 11.2±2.4℃) was also measured. The results, and their implications in atmospheric chemistry and physics of the atmosphere will be discussed.

  14. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  15. Utility of the SeHCAT test in the investigation of different types of bile acid malabsorption; SeHCAT-scanning ved galdesyremalabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornshoej Thomsen, Lars; Arveschough, Anne Kirstine; Gustenhoff, Peter; Qvist, Peter

    1998-09-01

    Chronic diarrhoea caused by bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is usually divided into three groups. Type 1 is associated with ileal disease or ileal resection; type 2 is idiopathic, and type 3 is BAM associated with certain predisposing conditions. We evaluated the applicability of the SeHCAT test as a routine investigation of different types of suspected BAM. Detailed information about 298 patients were obtained from retrospective review of patient records. All 68 patients with ileal resections had abnormal SeHCAT retention (median 0.6%; range 0-13%). Of 42 patients with non-resected Crohn`s disease or radiation injury, BAM was found in 28 cases. A diagnosis of BAM type 2 was established in 33 of 150 patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea. For patients tested for possible BAM type 3, the SeHCAT values were significantly lower compared to type 2 patients. For BAM type 1, the SeHCAT test is only recommended in non-resected patients. Idiopathic BAM seems to be more common than recognized. The presence of certain predisposing conditions might strenghten the indication for SeHCAT testing. (au) 20 refs.

  16. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  17. Photo-neutron reaction cross-sections for natMo in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12-16 and 45-70 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G. N.; Kapote Noy, R.; Schwengner, R.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Shin, S. G.; Gey, Y.; Massarczyk, R.; John, R.; Junghans, A.; Wagner, A.; Cho, M.-H.

    2016-07-01

    The natMo( γ, xn)90, 91, 99Mo reaction cross-sections were experimentally determined for the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12, 14, 16, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 70MeV by activation and off-line γ -ray spectrometric technique and using the 20MeV electron linac (ELBE) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany, and the 100MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The natMo( γ, xn)88, 89, 90, 91, 99Mo reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.6. The flux-weighted average cross-sections were obtained from the literature data and the calculated values of TALYS based on mono-energetic photons and are found to be in general agreement with the present results. The flux-weighted average experimental and theoretical cross-sections for the natMo( γ, xn)88, 89, 90, 91, 99Mo reactions increase with the bremsstrahlung end-point energy, which indicates the role of excitation energy. After a certain energy, the individual natMo( γ, xn) reaction cross-sections decrease with the increase of bremsstrahlung energy due to opening of other reactions, which indicates sharing of energy in different reaction channels. The 100Mo( γ, n) reaction cross-section is important for the production of 99Mo , which is a probable alternative to the 98Mo(n, γ) and 235U(n, f ) reactions.

  18. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 14C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used 14C-breath tests: 14C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low 14C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform 14C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of 14C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: 14C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, 14C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, 14C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and 14C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the 14C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  19. 4{pi} studies of the 1.8{endash}4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. I. Energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, K.B.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Renshaw Foxford, E.; Viola, V.E.; Woo, L.W.; Yoder, N.R. [Departments of Chemistry and Physics and Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Legrain, R.; Pollacco, E.C.; Volant, C. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, DAPNIA Service de Physique Nucleaire, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gir-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Korteling, R.G. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Breuer, H. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Brzychczyk, J. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} detector has been used to measure light-charged particles and intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) emitted in the 18{endash}4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. Ejectile multiplicity and total event kinetic energy distributions scale systematically with projectile energy and target mass, except for the {sup nat}Ag target at 3.6 and 4.8 GeV. For this system, a saturation in deposition energy is indicated by the data, suggesting the upper projectile energy for stopping has been reached. Maximum deposition energies of {approximately}950 MeV for the {sup nat}Ag target and {approximately}1600 MeV for the {sup 197}Au target are inferred from the data. The results also demonstrate the importance of accounting for fast cascade processes in defining the excitation energy of the targetlike residue. Correlations between various observables and the average IMF multiplicity indicate that the total thermal energy and total observed charge provide useful gauges of the excitation energy of the fragmenting system. Comparison of the experimental distributions with intranuclear cascade predictions shows qualitative agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. The use of ELISA and nucleic acid hybridization tests in research and diagnosis of bovine leukosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a disease that affects adult cattle although animals can carry the virus without showing any clinical symptoms. An initial survey in Cuba using the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) revealed that only 15% of the animals on the island were infected and it was therefore decided to undertake a control and eradication campaign. However, prior to the onset of this campaign it was felt necessary to examine a variety of more modern diagnostic procedures to determine which might be most applicable. For the detection of antibodies an ELISA system based on the use of SUMA (a micro-analytical system developed in Cuba) was compared with the AGID and syncytia inhibition test and found to be more sensitive than AGID and far more suitable for large-scale use than either of the other two. For detection of viral proteins the ELISA was compared with a reverse transcriptase assay and the use of immunoperoxidase staining. The latter two methods detected viral proteins in over 50% more samples than the ELISA and although the ELISA is more simple than either of the other to assays when used routinely, its low sensitivity would preclude its use in an eradication programme. (author). 10 refs, 4 tabs

  1. Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and a nucleic acid amplification test for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea at a university hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the known importance of Clostridium difficile as a nosocomial pathogen, few studies regarding Clostridium difficile infection (CDI in Brazil have been conducted. To date, the diagnostic tests that are available on the Brazilian market for the diagnosis of CDI have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of four commercial methods for the diagnosis of CDI in patients from a university hospital in Brazil. Methods Three enzyme immunoassays (EIAs and one nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT were evaluated against a cytotoxicity assay (CTA and toxigenic culture (TC. Stool samples from 92 patients with suspected CDI were used in this study. Results Twenty-five (27.2% of 92 samples were positive according to the CTA, and 23 (25% were positive according to the TC. All EIAs and the NAAT test demonstrated sensitivities between 59 and 68% and specificities greater than 91%. Conclusions All four methods exhibited low sensitivities for the diagnosis of CDI, which could lead to a large number of false-negative results, an increased risk of cross-infection to other patients, and overtreatment with empirical antibiotics.

  2. Design, characterization, teratogenicity testing, antibacterial, antifungal and DNA interaction of few high spin Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; El-Khatib, Rafat M.; Nassr, Lobna A. E.; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.; Lashin, Fakhr El-Din

    2013-07-01

    In this study, new Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid chelates derived from the condensation of o-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-histidine and L-arginine were synthesized and characterized via elemental, thermogravimetric analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, mass spectra and magnetic moment measurements. The stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. Correlation of all spectroscopic data suggested that Schiff bases ligands exhibited tridentate with ONO sites coordinating to the metal ions via protonated phenolic-OH, azomethine-N and carboxylate-O with the general formulae [Fe(HL)2]·nH2O. But in case of L-histidine, the ligand acts as tetradentate via deprotonated phenolic-OH, azomethine-N, carboxylate-O and N-imidazole ring ([FeL(H2O)2]·2H2O), where HL = mono anion and L = dianion of the ligand. The structure of the prepared complexes is suggested to be octahedral. The prepared complexes were tested for their teratogenicity on chick embryos and found to be safe until a concentration of 100 μg/egg with full embryos formation. Moreover, the interaction between CT-DNA and the investigated complexes were followed by spectrophotometric and viscosity measurements. It was found that, the prepared complexes bind to DNA via classical intercalative mode and showed a different DNA activity with the sequence: nhi > nari > nali > nasi > nphali. Furthermore, the free ligands and their complexes are screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and three types of anti fungal cultures, Penicillium purpurogenium, Aspergillus flavus and Trichotheium rosium in order to assess their antimicrobial potential. The results show that the metal complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base amino acid ligands.

  3. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption produces neurobiological effects associated with prevention of depression in rats after the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon; Moon, Hyoun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Hyeon

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological data and clinical trials suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have preventive and therapeutic effects on depression; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study aimed to examine the behavioral effects and antidepressant mechanism of n-3 PUFA using a forced swimming test. Eleven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0%, 0.5% or 1% EPA and DHA relative to the total energy intake in their diet for 12 weeks (n=8 per group). Total dietary intake, body weight and hippocampus weights were not significantly different among groups. The groups administered 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA diets had significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFA in their brain phospholipids compared to those in the control group. The immobility time was significantly decreased and the climbing time was significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Plasma serotonin concentration and hippocampus c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) expression were significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Conversely, interleukin (IL)-6 expression was significantly reduced in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with that in the 0% EPA+DHA group. However, there were no dose-dependent effects of n-3 PUFA and no significant differences in expressions of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphorylated CREB. In conclusion, long-term intake of EPA+DHA induced antidepressant-like effects in rats and overexpression of CREB via decreased IL-6 expression.

  4. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  5. Presence of UV filters in surface water and the effects of phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabicova, Katerina; Fedorova, Ganna; Burkina, Viktoriia; Steinbach, Christoph; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Zlabek, Vladimir; Kocour Kroupova, Hana; Grabic, Roman; Randak, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    UV filters belong to a group of compounds that are used by humans and are present in municipal waste-waters, effluents from sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Current information regarding UV filters and their effects on fish is limited. In this study, the occurrence of three commonly used UV filters - 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (benzophenone-3, BP-3) and 5-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonic acid (benzophenone-4, BP-4) - in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) surface waters is presented. PBSA concentrations (up to 13μgL(-1)) were significantly greater than BP-3 or BP-4 concentrations (up to 620 and 390ngL(-1), respectively). On the basis of these results, PBSA was selected for use in a toxicity test utilizing the common model organism rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to three concentrations of PBSA (1, 10 and 1000µgL(-1)) for 21 and 42 days. The PBSA concentrations in the fish plasma, liver and kidneys were elevated after 21 and 42 days of exposure. PBSA increased activity of certain P450 cytochromes. Exposure to PBSA also changed various biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in the fish plasma. However, no pathological changes were obvious in the liver or gonads.

  6. Study on a Single-Dose Toxicity Test of D-Amino Acid Oxidase (DAAO Extracts Injected into the Tail Vein of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jungue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose toxicity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO extracts. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of DAAO extracts, 0.1 to 0.3 cc, were administered to the experimental group, and the same doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: In all 4 groups, no deaths occurred, and the LD50 of DAAO extracts administered by IV was over 0.3 ml/kg. No significant changes in the weight between the control group and the experimental group were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ, the results showed no significant differences in any organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with D-amino acid oxidase extracts is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  7. Assessment of the potential irritation and photoirritation of novel amino acid-based surfactants by in vitro methods as alternative to the animal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultraviolet-A radiation damage effects on skin and eyes will be increased by phototoxic compounds which could be present in pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. Great efforts have been made in the last years to find surfactants to replace those with phototoxic potential in commercial use. Series of different in vitro models for phototoxicity, included to validated neutral red uptake (NRU) 3T3 phototoxicity assay are useful screening tools. The phototoxic effects of a novel family of glycerol amino acid-based surfactant compounds were examined via these assays. Human red blood cells and two immortalised cell lines, murine fibroblast cell line 3T3, and one human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were the in vitro models employed to predict potential photoirritation. The phototoxic end-points assessed were hemolysis (human red blood cell test) and resazurin transformation to resorufin and NRU in cell culture methods. The results suggest that no phototoxic effects by any new amino acid derived-surfactants, could be identified

  8. COBAS S201核酸检测系统在献血者血液筛查中的应用%Use of COBAS S201 nucleic acid detection system in screening blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车嘉琳; 黄志森; 王德文; 梁兵; 师玲玲; 许惠芯; 朱毅瑜

    2010-01-01

    目的 采用罗氏COBAS S201核酸检测系统,调查东莞市现行血液筛查系统的残余风险,以评估开展核酸检测(nucleic acid amplification technique,NAT)的必要性和可行性.方法 对2008年7月31日至2009年3月31日期间经ELISA检测阴性的40 018份献血者血液样本,采用罗氏COBAS S201检测系统进行HBV DNA,HCV RNA,HIV RNA检测.COBAS S201检测为阳性的献血者样本,分别采用COBAS Ampliprep/Taqman平台做核酸定量检测和罗氏ECL电化学发光检测系统作乙肝"两对半"实验,以帮助分析判定样本的感染状态.结果 发现31例核酸反应性样本,阳性率为0.77‰,其中有17例为HBV核酸反应性,残余风险为1/2354~1/1291,COBAS S201核酸检测系统的临床特异性为99.97%.结论 现行的血液筛查策略为两遍ELISA检测,但仍然存在输血传播疾病的风险.COBAS S201系统操作安全简便,包含罗氏专利技术的防污染技术,可确保检测结果准确可靠,适合于对献血者血液常规筛查.%Objective To investigate the residual risk in the current blood screening system in Dongguan City by Roche COBAS S201 nucleic acid detection system, in order to assess the necessity and feasibility of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT). Methods 40 018 ELISA-negative samples were detected for HBV DNA, HCV RNA as well as HIV RNA by Roche COBAS S201 detection system from July 31,2008 to March 31, 2009. Positive samples were under quantitative detection of nucleic acid by COBAS Ampliprep/Taqman platform as well as "two pairs of semi "-experiments of hepatitis B by Roche ECL electrochemiluminescence detection system, aiming at helping to analyze the infection status of samples.Results 31 NAT-reactive samples were found, and the positive rate was 0.77‰. 17 of 31 samples were HBV DNA-reactive, and the residual risk was 1/2354-1/1291. The clinical specificity of COBAS S201 nucleic acid detection system was 99.97%. Conclusions The current blood screening strategy

  9. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  10. Evaluation of a rapid differentiation test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis from other mycobacteria by selective inhibition with p-nitrobenzoic acid using MGIT 960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb as well as Non-tubercular mycobacterium (NTM with similar clinical presentation. Infections due to NTM are reported to have increased in the past few years. Growth of M.tb is inhibited by p-Nitrobenzoic acid (PNB, whereas, NTM are resistant. One hundred and nine isolates from various clinical samples were identified up to species level by their growth rate, pigmentation, and a battery of biochemical tests, including niacin accumulation, nitrate reduction, and heat-stable catalase (68°C reactions. Para-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB inhibition test was performed to differentiate between M.tb and NTM. PNB was added to the Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ medium and BACTEC TM MIGIT (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube960 medium to a final concentration of 500 μg/ml. All the M.tb isolates, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (standard strain, were inhibited by PNB on both LJ and MGIT 960. Of the NTM isolates, all were resistant to PNB on MGIT 960 and on LJ PNB, except one isolate of Mycobacterium marinum that was resistant to MGIT 960 PNB, but was susceptible to LJ PNB. The reporting time for M.tb ranged from 4-11 days (median 5.9 days by MGIT 960 and for NTM it was 2-10 days with an average of 4.5 days. This study was carried out to establish the accuracy and efficiency of MGIT 960 PNB and to differentiate between M.tb and NTM.

  11. A laboratory study of the nucleation kinetics of nitric acid hydrates under stratospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alexander D.; Murray, Benjamin J.; Plane, John M. C.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the kinetics of crystallisation of ternary H2O-H2SO4-HNO3 mixtures to produce nitric acid hydrate phases, as occurs in the lower stratosphere, have been a long-standing challenge for investigators in the laboratory. Understanding polar stratospheric chlorine chemistry and thereby ozone depletion is increasingly limited by descriptions of nucleation processes. Meteoric smoke particles have been considered in the past as heterogeneous nuclei, however recent studies suggest that these particles will largely dissolve, leaving mainly silica and alumina as solid inclusions. In this study the nucleation kinetics of nitric acid hydrate phases have been measured in microliter droplets at polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) temperatures, using a droplet freezing assay. A clear heterogeneous effect was observed when silica particles were added. A parameterisation based on the number of droplets activated per nuclei surface area (ns) has been developed and compared to global model data. Nucleation experiments on identical droplets have been performed in an X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) to determine the nature of the phase which formed. β-Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT) was observed alongside a mixture of Nitric Acid Dihydrate (NAD) phases. It is not possible to determine whether NAT nucleates directly or is formed by a phase transition from NAD (likely requiring the presence of a mediating liquid phase). Regardless, these results demonstrate the possibility of forming NAT on laboratory timescales. In the polar stratosphere, sulfuric acid (present at several weight percent of the liquid under equilibrium conditions) could provide such a liquid phase. This study therefor provides insight into previous discrepancies between phases formed in the laboratory and those observed in the atmosphere. It also provides a basis for future studies into atmospheric nucleation of solid PSCs.

  12. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  13. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge Arslan, Harika; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a lack of knowledge from a misconception, a certainty response index is added as a third tier to each item. Based on propositional knowledge statements, related literature, and the identified misconceptions gathered initially from 157 pre-service teachers, the AREPDiT was constructed and administered to 256 pre-service teachers. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the pre-service teachers' scores was estimated to be 0.74. Content and face validations were established by senior experts. A moderate positive correlation between the participants' both-tiers scores and their certainty scores indicated evidence for construct validity. Therefore, the AREPDiT is a reliable and valid instrument not only to identify pre-service teachers' misconceptions about GW, GE, OLD, and AR but also to differentiate these misconceptions from lack of knowledge. The results also reveal that a majority of the respondents demonstrated limited understandings about atmosphere-related environmental problems and held six common misconceptions. Future studies could test the AREPDiT as a tool for assessing the misconceptions held by pre-service teachers from different programs as well as in-service teachers and high school students.

  14. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  15. Screening Donated Blood for Transfusion Transmitted Infections by Serology along with NAT and Response Rate to Notification of Reactive Results: An Indian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Zaman, Shamsuz; Das, Bankim; Chatterjee, Kabita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transfusion safety begins with healthy donors. A fundamental part of preventing transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) is to notify and counsel reactive donors. Donor notification and counselling protect the health of the donor and prevent secondary transmission of infectious diseases. Methods. 113,014 donations were screened for TTIs, namely, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis, by serology and nucleic acid testing. All reactive donors were retested (wherever possible) and notified of their status by telephone or letter. All initial reactive screens were followed over six months. Results. We evaluated 2,838 (2.51%) cases with reactive screening test results (1.38% HBV, 0.54% HCV, 0.27% HIV, and 0.32% syphilis). Only 23.3% of donors (662) responded to notification. The response among voluntary donors was better as compared to the replacement donors (43.6% versus 21.2%). Only 373 (56.3%) responsive donors followed their first attendance at referral specialties. Over six months, only 176 of 662 (26.6%) reactive donors received treatment. Conclusion. Our study shed light on the importance of proper donor counselling and notification of TTI status to all reactive donors who opt to receive this information. There is also an urgent need to formulate the nationally acceptable guidelines for notification and follow-up of reactive donors. PMID:25485163

  16. Screening Donated Blood for Transfusion Transmitted Infections by Serology along with NAT and Response Rate to Notification of Reactive Results: An Indian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transfusion safety begins with healthy donors. A fundamental part of preventing transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs is to notify and counsel reactive donors. Donor notification and counselling protect the health of the donor and prevent secondary transmission of infectious diseases. Methods. 113,014 donations were screened for TTIs, namely, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis, by serology and nucleic acid testing. All reactive donors were retested (wherever possible and notified of their status by telephone or letter. All initial reactive screens were followed over six months. Results. We evaluated 2,838 (2.51% cases with reactive screening test results (1.38% HBV, 0.54% HCV, 0.27% HIV, and 0.32% syphilis. Only 23.3% of donors (662 responded to notification. The response among voluntary donors was better as compared to the replacement donors (43.6% versus 21.2%. Only 373 (56.3% responsive donors followed their first attendance at referral specialties. Over six months, only 176 of 662 (26.6% reactive donors received treatment. Conclusion. Our study shed light on the importance of proper donor counselling and notification of TTI status to all reactive donors who opt to receive this information. There is also an urgent need to formulate the nationally acceptable guidelines for notification and follow-up of reactive donors.

  17. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Liver Function of Piglets as Evaluated by the 13C-Methacetin and 13C-α-Ketoisocaproic Acid Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Diers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual ergot alkaloids are termed as total alkaloids, TA are produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infests cereal grains commonly used as feedstuffs. Ergot alkaloids potentially modulate microsomal and mitochondrial hepatic enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to assess their effects on microsomal and mitochondrial liver function using the 13C-Methacetin (MC and 13C-α-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA breath test, respectively. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets, resulting in 11 and 22 mg (Ergot 5-low and Ergot 5-high, 9 and 14 mg TA/kg (Ergot 15-low and Ergot 15-high and compared to an ergot-free control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p < 0.001. Feeding the Ergot 5-high diet tended to decrease the 60-min-cumulative 13CO2 percentage of the dose recovery (cPDR60 by 26% and 28% in the MC and KICA breath test, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.065. Therefore, both microsomal and mitochondrial liver function was slightly affected by ergot alkaloids.

  18. Design and Testing of Lab-scale Red Fuming Nitric Acid/Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene Hybrid Rocket Motor for Studying Regression Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a hybrid rocket motor and the experiments carried out for investigation of hybrid combustion and regression rates for a combination of liquid oxidiser red fuming nitric acid with solid fuel hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene. The regression rate is enhanced with the addition of small quantity of solid oxidiser ammonium perchlorate in the fuel. The characteristics of the combustion products were calculated using the NASA CEA Code and were used in a ballistic code developed for predicting the performance of the hybrid rocket motor. A lab-scale motor was designed and the oxidiser mass flow requirements of the hybrid motor for the above combination of fuel and oxidiser have been calculated using the developed ballistic code. A static rocket motor testing facility has been realised for conducting the hybrid experiments. A series of tests were conducted and proper ignition with stable combustion in the hybrid mode has been established. The regression rate correlations were obtained as a function of the oxidiser mass flux and chamber pressure from the experiments for the various combinations.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(6, pp.515-522, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.873

  19. The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison between Li-ion and valve regulated lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, Ernst; Rossouw, Claire; Loyson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    For electric vehicles, a supercapacitor can be coupled to the electrical system in order to increase and optimize the energy and power densities of the drive system during acceleration and regenerative breaking. This study looked at the charge acceptance and maximum discharge ability of a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) and a Li-ion battery connected in parallel to supercapacitors. The test procedure evaluated the advantage of using a supercapacitor at a 2 F:1 Ah ratio with the battery types at various states of charge (SoC). The results showed that about 7% of extra charge was achieved over a 5-s test time for a Li-ion hybrid system at 20% SoC, whereas at the 80% SoC the additional capacity was approximately 16%. While for the VRLA battery hybrid system, an additional charge of up to 20% was achieved when the battery was at 80% SoC, with little or no benefit at the 20% SoC. The advantage of the supercapacitor in parallel with a VRLA battery was noticeable on its discharge ability, where significant extra capacity was achieved for short periods of time for a battery at the 60% and 40% SoC when compared to the Li-ion hybrid system. The study also made use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with a suitable equivalent circuit model to explain, in particular, the internal resistance and capacitance differences observed between the different battery chemistries with and without a supercapacitor.

  20. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  1. Ongevallen op nat wegdek (1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M. & Doornekamp, J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of rain on traffic safety can be measured off the number of injured or killed road users. The chance to got involved in an accident is twice when it is raining. Recommendations are given for the highway administrator for given priorities to the creation of specifications and the detect

  2. Aquaplaning : ongevallen op nat wegdek.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    If the road surface is wet a vehicle does not always immediately react to the driver's actions such as braking and steering, because there is a film of water between tyre and road surface. If this water cannot be expelled fast enough, the direct contact between tyre and surface is lost with the cons

  3. Ongevallen op nat wegdek (2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    Specific measures in the field of road design and construction are dealt with. Characteristics of different road textures are discussed. Regular inspection of road surface and road markings is essential. Investigation is necessary on the ways road-tyre contact can be improved. For part I see PB 1568

  4. Structure of the oxide film on Ti–6Ta alloy after immersion test in 8 mol/L boiling nitric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Dizi, E-mail: diziguo@126.com; Yang, Yingli; Wu, Jinping; Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Hengzhang; Su, Hangbiao; Lu, Yafeng

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Structure of the oxide film on Ti–6Ta alloy is studied by depth profile XPS. •TiO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are found in the top layer of the oxide film. •High valence oxide evolutes form Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TaO. •Shielding effect of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} leads to the enhanced corrosion resistance of Ti–Ta alloy. -- Abstract: By using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we investigate the corrosion behavior and the structure of the oxide film of Ti–6Ta alloy that is subjected to the immersion corrosion test in 8 mol/L boiling nitric acid for 432 h. Based on the phase constitution indentified by depth profile XPS, the oxide film could be divided into three sub-layers along its thickness direction: the chemical stable TiO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are present in layer I; the sub-oxide Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TaO are present in the layer II and layer III, and the high valence oxide evolutes from their sub-oxide gradually. Owing to the shielding effect of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the corrosion rate of the Ti–6Ta alloy decreases from 0.051 mm/y to 0.014 mm/y with increasing immersion time, showing an excellent corrosion resistance in 8 mol/L boiling nitric acid.

  5. Design and performance testing of a DNA extraction assay for sensitive and reliable quantification of acetic acid bacteria directly in red wine using real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eLONGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR. Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP at 1% (v/v during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 mL to 10 mL. Thus the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage.

  6. Design and Performance Testing of a DNA Extraction Assay for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Directly in Red Wine Using Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence, there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR). Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) at 1% (v/v) during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 to 10 mL. Thus, the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage. PMID:27313572

  7. 24 h-corrosion tests combined with electrochemical potential measurements of CrNi-steel DIN W.Nr. 1.4306 (AISI Type 304 L) in 7 molar nitric acid containing oxidizing metal ions at 90deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion experiments - combined with measurements of the free corrosion potential of the steels under test and the redox potential of the corrosive nitric acid media - have been performed. Three different versions of the austenitic CrNi steel DIN W.Nr. 1.4306 (AISI Type 304 L) in the solution annealed condition were tested at 90deg C during 24 h in nitric acid and nitric acid solutions containing single or combined additions of Fe(III)-, Cr(VI)- and Ce(IV)-ions. The relationship between the rate of metal loss and the free corrosion potential of the corroding steels was confirmed to be an exponential one. Furthermore, it was shown that these short-term tests could reveal within a narrow band of free corrosion potentials (1150-1250 mV) an extent of surface corrosion which is specific for small compositional or microstructural differences of these steels. (orig.)

  8. An experimental test of stroke recovery by implanting a hyaluronic acid hydrogel carrying a Nogo receptor antibody in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jun [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tian Weiming [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hou Shaoping [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Xu Qunyuan [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Spector, Myron [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cui Fuzhai [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a hyaluronic-acid-based (HA-based) hydrogel implant, carrying a polyclonal antibody to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR), on adult rats that underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Behavioral tests of a forelimb-reaching task suggested that the disabled function of the impaired forelimb in this stroke model was ameliorated by the implant to a certain extent. These behavioral findings were correlated with immunohistochemical results of investigating the distribution of NgR antibody, neurofilaments (NF) and neuron-specific class III {beta}-tubulin (TuJ1) in the brain sections. The porous hydrogel functioned as a scaffold to deliver the NgR antibody, support cell migration and development. In addition, it was found NF-positive and TuJ1-positive expressions were distributed in the implanted hydrogel. Collectively, the results demonstrate the promise of the HA hydrogel as a scaffold material and the delivery vehicle of the NgR antibody for the repair of defects and the support of neural regeneration in the brain.

  9. Gradient Acid Dissolving Test Study and Identification of Geopolymer and Cement Hydration Products%梯度酸溶法区分地聚合物与水泥水化产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓潞; 施惠生; 林茂松

    2013-01-01

    Gradient acid dissolving tests were made to divide geopolymer and hydration product quantificationally.The feasibility of gradient acid dissolving test was investigated on the basis of the dissolution rates of geopolymer/hydration product and X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) analyses.The results show the behaviors of dissolution of the geopolymer and the hydration product in the same gradient acid are different, and the acid point to divide geopolymer and hydration product is pH = 3.The gradient acid dissolving test is an effective method to divide geopolymer and hydration product.%采用梯度酸溶解试验方法来定量区分地聚合物与普通水化产物,结合产物溶解率与残渣微观分析验证了该方法的可行性.研究结果表明,地聚合物与普通水化产物在梯度酸中的酸溶性存在较大差异,区分地聚合物与普通水化产物的酸临界点为pH=3,梯度酸溶解试验能较好地区分两者.

  10. Preparation and toxicity test of chitosan-polylactic acid film%壳聚糖聚乳酸膜的制备和毒性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈康; 李瑛; 谢良宪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To manufacture a biomembrane for the primary repair of colonic fistula, and to evaluate its acute general toxicity and cytotoxicity. Methods After the preparation of polylactic acid film( PAF )and chitosan - polylactic acid film ( CPAF ), acute general toxicity and cytotoxicity examinations were performed with trypanblau cytoactive count and MTT reduction assay according to pharmacopeia for CPAF. Results A method for the preparation of CPAF was successfully established. There were no significant differences in physical performances between PAF and CPAF. No death and paradoxical reaction in mice were found by acute general toxicity test. Trypanblau cytoactive count and MTT reduction assay showed no significant differences between the two biofilms.Conclusion CPAF meets physic requirement of pharmacopeia with no acute general toxicity and cytotoxicity. Its biocompatibility is good according to preliminary assessment.%目的 研制结肠瘘的一期修复生物膜,并进行相关急性毒性和细胞毒性试验.方法 制备聚乳酸膜和壳聚糖聚乳酸膜,按照药典要求进行壳聚糖聚乳酸膜的小鼠急性全身毒性试验和细胞毒性试验(台盼蓝计数细胞活性和MTT法检测细胞活性).结果 建立了壳聚糖聚乳酸膜的制备方法,聚乳酸膜与壳聚糖聚乳酸膜的物理性能比较无统计学差异;小鼠急性全身毒性试验无动物死亡和异常反应;细胞毒性试验显示,两膜比较无统计学差异.结论 壳聚糖聚乳酸膜的物理指标达到药典要求,无急性全身毒性反应和细胞毒性反应,初步评价生物相容性好.

  11. Experimental Test of L- and D-Amino Acid Binding to L- and D-Codons Suggests that Homochirality and Codon Directionality Emerged with the Genetic Code

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Root-Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    L-amino acids bind preferentially to their D-codons, but almost nothing is known about whether D-amino acids correspondingly prefer L-codons, or how codon directionality affects amino acid binding. To investigate these issues, two D-RNA-oligonucleotides having inverse base sequences (D-CGUA and D-AUGC) and their corresponding L-RNA-oligonucleotides (L-CGUA and L-AUGC) were synthesized and their affinity determined for Gly and eleven pairs of L- and D-amino acids. The data support the hypothes...

  12. Research and Application on Improved Index Algorithm of Mass NAT Log Search%海量NAT日志检索优化索引算法的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧斐; 杨志军

    2012-01-01

    设计高效搜索算法往往需要使用hash链表,常数级的查找速度是任何别的算法都无法比拟的.根据海量NAT日志的文本结构特点,将hash链表的思想应用到海量NAT文本数据的检索、统计与分析中,并从提高执行效率、改善空间利用率方面提出了hash链表树和双精度hash表的改进优化索引算法,将其应用到具体的NAT日志检索,实现了快速搜索定位的目标.%Design of efficient algorithm often requires the use of Hash table, as the search speed of constant level is unmatched by any other algorithm. At this article, the mind set of hash list is applied to the massive NAT text data in the specific search and Statistical analysis,according to the Structure of the massive NAT log text data. In considering of improving the execution efficiency and the utilization rate of the space, a double precision hash thought and hash list-tree is put forward,aim to the implementation of fast searching and positioning.

  13. Measurement of isomeric yield ratios in the photo-production of 133m,g;137m,gCe from natCe using 55-, 60-, and 65-MeV bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isomeric yield ratios of 133m,gCe and 137m,gCe produced from the natCe(γ,xn) reactions were determined by using the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique with the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 55-, 60-, and 65-MeV at 100-MeV electron linac of the Pohang accelerator laboratory. The induced activities in the irradiated foils were measured by using an energy- and efficiency-calibrated HPGe detector coupled to a PC based multi-channel analyzer. The necessary corrections were made to improve the accuracy of the experimental results. The experimental results at bremsstrahlung energies of 55-, 60-, and 65-MeV were 0.324 ± 0.089, 0.331 ± 0.086, and 0.403 ± 0.089 for the 133m,gCe, and 0.210 ± 0.062, 0.221 ± 0.061, and 0.262 ± 0.061 for the 137m,gCe, respectively. The present results for natCe(γ,xn)133m,g;137m,gCe in this energy region were obtained for the first time which has no comparable literature data. The obtained isomeric yield ratios are compared with the calculated values based on the statistical model code TALYS 1.6

  14. Cloning of AA-NAT gene and its association with reproductive performance in Small Tail Han Sheep%小尾寒羊AA-NAT基因克隆及其与繁殖性能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓笛; 储明星; 王永娟; 黄冬维; 王金玉; 狄冉; 方丽

    2012-01-01

    According to Bos taurus AA-NAT DNA sequence and sheep AA-NAT mRNA sequence, five pairs of primers (P1 to P5) were designed to amplify the whole DNA sequence of the AA-NAT gene in eight randomly selected individuals from Small Tail Han sheep. Through DNA sequencing and sequence assembly, a 2 138 bp DNA sequence was obtained. Meanwhile, one nucleotide transition (C617T) was identified in AA-NAT gene of Small Tail Han sheep. According to the obtained DNA sequence of the AA-NAT gene in Small Tail Han sheep, primer P6 was designed to detect C617T mutation of AA-NAT gene in year-round estrous sheep breeds (Small Tail Han and White Dorper sheep) and seasonal estrous sheep breeds (Tan, Suffolk and Texel sheep) by PCR-RFLP. The results showed that three genotypes (CC, CT and TT) were detected in Tan, Suffolk and Texel sheep and only two genotypes (CC and CT) were detected in Small Tail Han and White Dorper sheep. There were significant differences (P0.05) in genotype distribution between year-round estrus and seasonal estrus sheep breeds. In Small Tail Han sheep, genotype frequency of CC and CT was 0.24 and 0.76, respectively. And the Small Tail Han ewes with genotype CC had 0.48 (P<0.01) lambs more than those with genotype CT. The present study preliminarily indicated that there may be some association between the 617 locus of AA-NAT gene and year-round estrus in sheep, and allele C of AA-NAT gene is a potential marker for improving litter size in sheep.%根据牛AA-NAT基因DNA序列和绵羊该基因mRNA序列,设计5对引物(P1 ~P5),每对引物分别扩增随机选取的8只小尾寒羊,PCR产物克隆测序,序列拼接获得小尾寒羊AA-NAT的DNA序列,总长为2 138 bp.序列比对发现P3的扩增产物中存在C617T的沉默突变.根据获得的小尾寒羊AA-NAT基因的DNA序列设计引物P6,利用PCR-RFLP技术分别在常年发情绵羊品种(小尾寒羊、白杜泊)和季节性友情绵羊品种(滩羊、萨福克和特克塞尔)中检测该位点的

  15. Measurements of {sup 67}Ga production cross section induced by protons on {sup nat}Zn in the low energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, J.A., E-mail: javier.wachter@utem.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Correa, R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    The experimental production cross section for the reaction {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga has been measured in the energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV. The methodology used in this work is based on characteristic X-ray emitted after irradiation by the daughter nuclei that decays by electron capture (EC) and the use of a complementary PIXE experiment. By doing so, expressions needed to determine cross section values are simplified since experimental factors such as geometric setup and an detector efficiency are avoided. {sup 67}Ga is a radionuclide particularly suited for this method since it decays by electron capture in 100% and the subsequent characteristic X-ray emission is easily detected. Natural zinc targets were fabricated by PVD technique and afterwards their thicknesses were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Cross sections measurements were carried out by using the Van de Graaff accelerator located at Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile. It was found that our data for the {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga reaction are, in general, in good agreement when compared to existing experimental data and to those calculated ALICE/ASH nuclear code. On the other hand, values predicted by Talys-1.6 are showing systematically lower magnitudes than our measured data.

  16. The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV, Cairo/Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, March 3–7, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV was recently (from March 3rd through 7th, 2015 convened in Cairo and Sharm El-Sheikh along the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Overall, the meeting provided a platform for scientists from different nations to discuss emerging ideas that focused on cell signaling in cancer; the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; the identification and use of natural products as well as novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of cancer, arthritis, diabetes, tuberculosis, fungal infection, etc.; and untapped or unconventional sources for natural products. This fourth in a row conference tried to bridge the gap not only between basic research and clinical applications, but also between developed nations and developing countries. With the continuing success of these past meetings, the fifth Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery (BioNat-V is slated to be in February 2017.

  17. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia: Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Koopmans; M.G. van Pampus; H. Groen; J.G. Aarnoudse; P.P. van den Berg; B.W.J. Mol

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed w

  18. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia : Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; van Pampus, Maria; Groen, H.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, P.P.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed w

  19. Cost analysis of a nucleic acid amplification test in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis at an urban hospital with a high prevalence of TB/HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max W Adelman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB but there is a lack of data on NAAT cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study that included all patients with an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA between January 2002 and June 2008. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of a commercially available and FDA-approved NAAT (amplified MTD, Gen-Probe compared to the gold standard of culture. A cost analysis was performed and included costs related to laboratory tests, hospital charges, anti-TB medications, and contact investigations. Average cost per patient was calculated under two conditions: (1 using a NAAT on all AFB smear-postive respiratory specimens and (2 not using a NAAT. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine sensitivity of cost difference to reasonable ranges of model inputs. RESULTS: During a 6 1/2 year study period, there were 1,009 patients with an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen at our public urban hospital. We found the NAAT to be highly sensitive (99.6% and specific (99.1% on AFB smear-positive specimens compared to culture. Overall, the positive predictive value (PPV of an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen for culture-confirmed TB was 27%. The PPV of an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen for culture-confirmed TB was significantly higher for HIV-uninfected persons compared to those who were HIV-seropositive (152/271 [56%] vs. 85/445 [19%]; RR = 2.94, 95% CI 2.36-3.65, p<0.001. The cost savings of using the NAAT was $2,003 per AFB smear-positive case. CONCLUSIONS: Routine use of the NAAT on AFB smear-positive respiratory specimens was highly cost-saving in our setting at a U.S. urban public hospital with a high prevalence of TB and HIV because of the low

  20. 迷迭香酸对几株食品污染菌的抑菌作用%The bacteriostasis function of Rosmary acid test on the corrupt microorganism of food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永波; 邓功成; 李静

    2011-01-01

    This article experimented the bacteriostasis function of the rosemary acid to the putrefactive bacterias which is isolated from food.Using filter paper diffusion process determinates the bacteriostasis activeness of rosemary acid.By two times of dilution method of test tube determinates rosemary acid bacteriostasis potency,with the single factor variance analytic method determines the bacteriostasis potency of rosemary acid to be whether remarkable.The test result indicated: When the rosemary acid's density is 0.25%,it has certain bacteriostasis activeness for the three testing strains.When the rosemary acid density is ≥0.5%,it has the obvious bacteriostasis activeness.After the variance analysis,the rosemary acid has widespread bacteriostasis function.So it can be used as natural antiseptic on food.%本文试验了迷迭香酸对食品中常见污染菌的抑菌作用。采用滤纸片扩散法测定迷迭香酸的抑菌活性,试管二倍稀释法测定迷迭香酸的抑菌效力,用单因素方差分析法来测定迷迭香酸的抑菌效力试验结果表明:迷迭香酸的浓度为0.25%时,对三种供试菌株就有一定的抑菌活性,迷迭香酸的浓度为≥0.5%时,对三种供试菌株都有明显的抑菌活性.经方差分析,迷迭香酸具有广谱的抑菌作用,可以作为食品中的天然防腐剂。

  1. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name: Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) Other ways to measure: Vitamin B6 functional test, Urine 4-pyridoxic acid, urine xanthurenic acid B7, Biotin Also known as: Vitamin H, Vitamin B-w Role: B7 is a ...

  2. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  3. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  4. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  5. Safety test of a supplement, 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate with sodium ferrous citrate, in diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamashita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate (5-ALA with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC in diabetic patients treated with one or more oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs. Background: Recent intervention studies performed in the USA and Japan have shown that a nutritional supplement of 5-ALA with SFC efficiently reduced blood glucose levels in pre-diabetic population without any adverse events. Thus, it was anticipated that 5-ALA with SFC may potentially be taken as a beneficial supplement by diabetic patients who were being treated with OHA therapy. Nevertheless, it is important to examine its safety and efficacy in diabetic population. Methods: This study was a prospective single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled and parallel-group comparison study. Medically treated diabetic patients between the ages of 30 and 75 were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan and 45 subjects were selected after screening. These subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: daily intake of 15mg 5-ALA, 50mg 5-ALA, and a placebo (n=15, respectively. The supplement or placebo was administered for 12 weeks followed by a four week washout period. The primary endpoint was safety and occurrence of hypoglycemic attack, while the secondary endpoint was changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Results: Adverse events related to 5-ALA with SFC were not observed in all the groups. Abnormalities in blood and urine tests were not observed either. Significant decrease in FBG was not detected in all the groups. However, there was a small but significant decrease in HbA1c at 4 and 8 week in the 15 mg 5-ALA group. Significant decrease in HbA1c was not observed in the 50 mg 5-ALA group, although a tendency to decrease after 4 weeks was apparent. Conclusion: 5-ALA with SFC is a safe and potentially beneficial supplement if taken by diabetic patients treated with OHAs.

  6. Methotrexate Dosing Regimen for Plaque-type Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of the Use of Test-dose, Start-dose, Dosing Scheme, Dose Adjustments, Maximum Dose and Folic Acid Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Stef P; Dekker, Paul M; Limpens, Jacqueline; Hooft, Lotty; Spuls, Phyllis I

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of methotrexate dosing regimens for psoriasis. This review summarizes the evidence for test-dose, start-dose, dosing scheme, dose adjustments, maximum dose and use of folic acid. A literature search for randomized controlled trials and guidelines was performed. Twenty-three randomized controlled trials (29 treatment groups) and 10 guidelines were included. Two treatment groups used a test-dose, 5 guidelines recommend it. The methotrexate start-dose in randomized controlled trials varied from 5 to 25 mg/week, most commonly being either 7.5 mg or 15 mg. Guidelines vary from 5 to 15 mg/week. Methotrexate was administered as a single dose or in a Weinstein schedule in 15 and 11 treatment-groups, respectively; both recommended equally in guidelines. A fixed dose (n = 18), predefined dose (n = 3), or dose adjusted on clinical improvement (n = 8) was used, the last also being recommended in guidelines. Ten treatment groups used folic acid; in 2 it was allowed, in 14 not mentioned, and in 3 no folic acid was used. Most guidelines recommend the use of folic acid. Authors' suggestions for methotrexate dosing are given.

  7. 4{pi} studies of the 1.8{endash}4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. II. Multifragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw Foxford, E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Morley, K.B.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R. [Departments of Chemistry and Physics and Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Volant, C.; Pollacco, E.C.; Legrain, R. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, DAPNIA Service de Physique Nucleaire, C. E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Korteling, R.G. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Friedman, W.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Brzychczyk, J. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Breuer, H. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Multifragmentation of {sup nat}Ag and {sup 197}Au nuclei induced by 1.8{endash}4.8 GeV {sup 3}He ions has been studied with the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} detector array. Rapidity, moving source, and sphericity-coplanarity analyses are consistent with near-simultaneous emission from a source in approximate kinetic equilibrium. For the most dissipative collisions, the spectral peaks are broadened and shifted to very low energies, indicative of emission from an extended nuclear system with {rho}/{rho}{sub 0}{approximately}1/3. Predictions of an intranuclear cascade/expanding, emitting source model compare well with experimental multiplicity distributions and the evolution of fragment spectral shapes. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Study of {sup nat}Mg(d,d{sub 0}) reaction at detector angles between 90° and 170°, for the energy range E{sub d,lab}=1660–1990 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patronis, N., E-mail: npatronis@uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Aslanoglou, X. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Axiotis, M. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Georgiadou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kokkoris, M. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Lagoyannis, A. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Misaelides, P. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paneta, V. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    In the present work, the study of the {sup nat}Mg(d,d{sub 0}) is presented for the energy range E{sub d,lab} = 1660–1990 keV (in steps of 5 keV), for detector angles between 90° and 170°. Elastic scattering data for two forward angles (55° and 70°) were also obtained. In order to validate the obtained experimental results a thick Mg sample with Au evaporated on top was fabricated and benchmarking measurements were performed at various deuteron beam energies. The results of the present work are complementary to the recently published {sup 24}Mg(d,p{sub 0,1,2}) reaction cross section data, thus facilitating the simultaneous depth profiling study of magnesium by both the d-NRA and EBS techniques.

  9. Effects of a mixture of fatty acids from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and mice tail test of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledón, N; Casacó, A; Remirez, D; González, A; Cruz, J; González, R; Capote, A; Tolón, Z; Rojas, E; Rodríguez, V J; Merino, N; Rodríguez, S; Ancheta, O; Cano, M C

    2007-10-01

    A mixture of fatty acids obtained from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax oil (FAM), in which the main constituents are palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, was evaluated in two models of inflammation: zymosan-induced arthritis and in the tail test for psoriasis, both on mice. In the first model, FAM significantly reduced zymozan-induced increase of beta glucuronidase (DE(50) 90+/-7 mg/kg). Histopathological studies showed inhibition in cellular infiltration and reduction of synovial hyperplasia and synovitis, whereas in the second test, histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that topical application of FAM induced orthokeratosis with the presence of keratohyalin granules in the previously parakeratotic adult mouse tail, and without effects on epidermal thickness. The ED(50) of FAM in this model was 155+/-10 mg. The results of our studies showed that topical application of FAM exerts an important anti-inflammatory activity in both tests without evidence of irritant effects. The anti-inflamatory effects exerted by FAM may be due to its inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effect of sugar cane by-products in experimental models of arthritis and psoriasis.

  10. Mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves from human breath tests using [1-13C]-amino acids as oral substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Krawielitzki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A [13CO2]-breath test examines the expiration of [13CO2] as function of time after oral intake of a [13C]-labelled test substrate (single dose). In clinical settings, breath test studies are often used as a simple and non-invasive tool to diagnose the activity of metabolic functions. From a nutritio

  11. 21 Octobre 2008 - Le Premier Ministre de la République francaise François Fillon visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5. Sont également présents V. Pécresse, Ministre de l'éducation supérieure et de la recherche et B. Accoyer, President du Sénat.

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    21 Octobre 2008 - Le Premier Ministre de la République francaise François Fillon visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5. Sont également présents V. Pécresse, Ministre de l'éducation supérieure et de la recherche et B. Accoyer, President du Sénat.

  12. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain (P recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  13. Performance of visual inspection with acetic acid and human papillomavirus testing for detection of high-grade cervical lesions in HIV positive and HIV negative Tanzanian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Iftner, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV positive and HIV negative women who underwent cervical cancer screening, and to examine the ability of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), the standard detection method in Tanzania...

  14. Whole body retention of Se-75-homotaurocholic acid (SeBCAT) using a Gamma Camera: A new test in chronic diarrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, H.; Palma, R.; Pfau, J.; Coudeu, I.; Bauer, K.

    1985-05-01

    Bile acid malabsorption has been recognized as an important cause of chronic diarrhea. Se-75HCAT, a bile acid, is absorbed in the terminal ileum. Therefore, measurement of its body retention indicate ileal function not requiring fecal collections. The authors studied 8 normal volunteers presenting with chronic recurrent diarrhea for more than 2 years. Each received orally a 10 ..mu..Ci capsule of SeHCAT (Amersham Intl.) and 3 hours later anterior and posterior whole body activity was measured using a digital camera without collimator. Measurements were repeated daily for 7 days and expressed as % of retention. Three patients had normal retention (1 celiac disease, 1 inactive Crohn disease and 1 functional diarrhea), another was borderline (an immunodeficiency) and 4 patients presented abnormal bile acid absorption (2 had vagotomy, 1 Crohn disease and 1 idiopathic diarrhea). This last group was treated with cholestyramine showing improvement of the diarrhea, and relapse on drug withdrawal. These findings demonstrate that this technique can identify bile acid malabsorption as the cause of chronic diarrhea by external counting.

  15. Role of 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the antinociception produced by ergotamine and valerenic acid in the rat formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Cantú, Guadalupe C; Jiménez-Hernández, Mildred; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Villalón, Carlos M; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta

    2016-06-15

    Sumatriptan, dihydroergotamine and methysergide inhibit 1% formalin-induced nociception by activation of peripheral 5-HT1B/1D receptors. This study set out to investigate the pharmacological profile of the antinociception produced by intrathecal and intraplantar administration of ergotamine (a 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT5A/5B receptor agonist) and valerenic acid (a partial agonist at 5-HT5A receptors). Intraplantar injection of 1% formalin in the right hind paw resulted in spontaneous flinching behavior of the injected hindpaw of female Wistar rats. Intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1 nmol) blocked in a dose dependent manner formalin-induced nociception. The antinociception by intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1nmol) was partly or completely blocked by intrathecal administration of the antagonists: (i) methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT5A/5B; 0.01-0.1nmol); (ii) SB-699551 (selective 5-HT5A; up to 10nmol); (iii) anti-5-HT5A antibody; (iv) SB-224289 (selective 5-HT1B; 0.1-1nmol); or (v) BRL-15572 (selective 5-HT1D; 0.1-1nmol). Likewise, antinociception by intraplantar ergotamine (15nmol) and valerenic acid (10nmol) was: (i) partially blocked by methiothepin (1nmol), SB-699551 (10nmol) or SB-224289 (1nmol); and (ii) abolished by BRL-15572 (1nmol). The above doses of antagonists (which did not affect per se the formalin-induced nociception) were high enough to completely block their respective receptors. Our results suggest that ergotamine and valerenic acid produce antinociception via 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors located at both spinal and peripheral sites. This provides new evidence for understanding the modulation of nociceptive pathways in inflammatory pain. PMID:27068146

  16. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  17. 聚乳酸纤维的定性鉴别及性能测试%Qualitative identification and performance test of polylactic acid fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉利梅

    2012-01-01

    采用燃烧法、显微镜观察法、熔点法、溶解法和红外吸收光谱法对聚乳酸纤维进行了试验研究,并与普通涤纶纤维进行了比较分析.结果表明:聚乳酸纤维离开火焰燃烧时有独特的透明蓝色火焰,并有熔液连续下滴,其残渣为极少量淡黄色胶状物;纵向形态呈现较深的横向沟槽,截面形态为近似圆形,有明显的孔洞和裂缝;熔点范围为171~178℃;在煮沸后的88%甲酸、65%~68%硝酸溶液中立即溶解;在1 300~1 470 cm-1和1 030~1 210 cm-1指纹区的峰位和峰的数目与涤纶纤维有较大的差异;其制品与涤纶纤维制品同样具有较好的挺括性、韧性和耐疲劳性;抱合力、残留卷曲率优于涤纶纤维,但平滑性、卷曲的恢复能力比涤纶纤维差.%Polylactic acid fiber was studied by combustion method,microscopic observation method,melting point method,dissolution method and infrared absorption spectroscopy,and compared with the com-mon polyester fiber. The results showed that: polylactic acid fiber had a unique transparent blue burning flame when it left the flame,and a molten liquid continuous dropped,the residues were a very small amount of pale yellow jelly. The longitudinal morphology of polylactic acid fiber presented deep transverse grooves,the cross sectional shape was approximately circular,and had apparent pores and cracks. The melting point range of polylactic acid fiber was 171~178 ℃,and the fiber dissolved in the boiled 88% formic acid and 65% ~68% of nitric acid immediately. The polylactic acid fiber had big difference from polyester fiber in peak position and the peak numbers at 1 300~1 470 cm-1 and 1 030~1 210 cm-1 fingerprint area. Polylactic acid fiber product had similar good shape stability,tenacity and fatigue endurance with polyester fiber,the hold force and the residual crimp percentage of polylactic acid fiber were better than polyester fiber,but the smoothness and crimp recovery

  18. Uric acid - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  19. 医用乳酸菌对常用中草药的耐药性试验%Drug resistance test of medicinal lactic acid bacteria to common Chinese herbal medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世荣; 杨丙田; 宋青楠; 王延秋; 王霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究医用乳酸菌对几种常用中草药的耐药性,为医用乳酸菌与中草药的临床合并应用提供理论依据.方法 将中草药制成煎剂,通过琼脂扩散方法进行耐药性试验.结果 5种医用乳酸菌对黄连均表现出中度敏感,对黄芩表现微弱敏感.结论 5种医用乳酸菌对大部分中草药(包括有抗菌和抑菌作用的中草药)不敏感.%Objective To study (he drug resistance of medicinal lactic acid bacteria to several common Chinese herbal medicines, and provide theoretical basis for clinical application of the combinations of herbs and lactic acid bacteria. Methods Drug resistance was detected by using agar diffusion test. Results The five kinds of medicinal lactic acid bacteria were all moderately sensitive to Rhizoma Coptidis and slightly sensitive to Scutellaria Baicalensis. Conclusion The five kinds of medicinal lactic acid bacteria are not sensitive to most Chinese herbal medicines including the herbs with have antimicrobial effect and antibacterial effects.

  20. VRLA铅酸蓄电池充电技术与内阻测量%Research on Charging Technology and Internal Resistance Testing of Lead-Acid Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 颜湘武

    2012-01-01

    研究了铅酸蓄电池的反应原理和特点,充电过程中的极化现象,分析了蓄电池常规充电、快速充电、智能充电的原理和特点,阐述了蓄电池内阻的不同测量方法。%This paper researches on the reaction principle and characteristics of lead-acid batteries, and the polarization phenomenon of the battery charging process, analyzs the principles and characteristics of conventional charging, fast char ging, intelligent charging methods of lead-acid batteries, finally descrihs different measurement methods of the internal re sistance in the process of charging.

  1. NF EN 14214. - Automotive fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14214. - Carburants pour automobiles. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs Diesel. - Exigences et methodes d'essais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used either as automotive fuel for diesel engines, at 100% concentration, or as an extender for automotive fuel for diesel engines, in accordance with the requirements of EN 590. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  2. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  3. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  4. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... salt from cane sugar or molasses. It may be synthesized by sulfuric acid dehydration of citric acid.... 102-103, test for citric acid, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a... carbonizable substances. Passes the test for citric acid of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 4th ed. (1996), pp....

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats.

  7. Relative developmental toxicity of glycol ether alkoxy acid metabolites in the embryonic stem cell test as compared with the in vivo potency of their parent compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    E. DE JONG; Louisse, J.; Verwei, M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; van de Sandt, J.J.M.; Woutersen, R. A.; I.M.C.M. Rietjens; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been proposed as an in vitro assay that might reduce animal experimentation in regulatory developmental toxicology. So far, evaluation of the EST was not performed using compounds within distinct chemical classes. Evaluation within a distinct class of chemically related compounds can define the usefulness of the assay for the chemical class tested. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative sensitivity of the EST for a selected series of h...

  8. Standard test method for uranium by Iron (II) reduction in phosphoric acid followed by chromium (VI) titration in the presence of vanadium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method, commonly referred to as the Modified Davies and Gray technique, covers the titration of uranium in product, fuel, and scrap materials after the material is dissolved. The test method is versatile and has been ruggedness tested. With appropriate sample preparation, this test method can give precise and unbiased uranium assays over a wide variety of material types (1, 2). Details of the titration procedure in the presence of plutonium with appropriate modifications are given in Test Method C1204. 1.2 Uranium levels titrated are usually 20 to 50 mg, but up to 200 mg uranium can be titrated using the reagent volumes stated in this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determ...

  9. A Facile Approach for the Mass Production of Submicro/Micro Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibrous Mats and Their Cytotoxicity Test towards Neural Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite many of the studies being conducted, the electrospinning of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), dissolved in its common solvents, is difficult to be continuously processed for mass production. This is due to the polymer solution droplet drying. Besides, the poor stretching capability of the polymer solution limits the production of small diameter fibers. To address these issues, we have examined the two following objectives: first, using an appropriate solvent system for the mass production of fibrous mats with fine-tunable fiber diameters; second, nontoxicity of the mats towards Neural Stem Cell (NSC). To this aim, TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) was used as a cosolvent, in a mixture with DCM (dichloromethane), and the solution viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, and the continuity of the electrospinning process were compared with the solutions prepared with common single solvents. The binary solvent facilitated PLA electrospinning, resulting in a long lasting, stable electrospinning condition, due to the low surface tension and high conductivity of the binary-solvent system. The fiber diameter was tailored from nano to micro by varying effective parameters and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image-processing software. Laminin-coated electrospun mats supported NSC expansion and spreading, as examined using AlamarBlue assay and fluorescent microscopy, respectively.

  10. Nucleic acid detection technology used in blood screening of blood donors%核酸检测技术在献血者血液筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启忠; 程玉根

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of nucleic acid test for donors blood screening .Methods From July 1 ,2011 to December 31 ,2014 ,a total of 170 316 blood samples which were negative in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)and qualified in aianine aminotransferase detection ,were selected in this study stochastically .All the samples were detected hepatitis B virus(HBV) ,hepatitis C virus(HCV) ,human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) .NAT positive samples were reconfirmed in National Center for Clinical Laboratories(NCCL) .Results A total of 160 cases of nucleic acid reactive samples were found out ,the total response rate was 0 .09% ,The response rate of Roche nucleic acid detec-tion system was 0 .10% ,response rate of David nucleic acid detection system was 0 .08% ,there was no significant difference be-tween the two methods(P>0 .05) .In 27 cases of specimens ,14 cases were confirmed as HBV DNA positive ,no HCV RNA and HIV RNA were detected ,the confirmed positive rate was 51 .85% .There were 2 samples detected by chemiluminescence HBsAg reactivity .Conclusion ELISA screening of blood donors has missing phenomenon ,nucleic acid detection method could be used as an effective supplement of the ELISA ,could improve the safety of blood for clinical use ,detection sensitivity is better than ELISA .%目的:探讨核酸检测技术应用于献血者血液筛查的必要性和可行性。方法对2011年7月1日至2014年12月31日经ELISA检测均合格的献血者标本170316份,再采用核酸检测技术联合检测乙型肝炎病毒、丙型肝炎病毒、人类免疫缺陷病毒核酸,对筛查呈反应性的部分标本再送卫计委临床检验中心进行确证。结果共筛查出160份核酸反应性标本,总反应性率为0.09%,其中罗氏核酸检测系统反应性率为0.10%,达安核酸检测系统反应性率为0.08%,两者差异无统计学意义( P>0.05

  11. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    -negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  12. Determination of fatty acid oxidation in premature infants by means of 13CO2 expiratory tests with simultaneous, continuous infusion of 13C-triolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the purpose of this long-term test to develop a method of determining the parameters of metabolism in isotopic flow equilibrium adapted to the specific conditions of intravenous feeding. The most important requirement to be met for this 13CO2 expiratory test is constant supply of the substrate, and this condition is fulfilled by the parenteral alimentation of premature infants or newborn babies, so that the study was carried out on this group of patients. (orig./MG) With 37 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Long-chain fatty acids inhibition and adaptation process in anaerobic thermophilic digestion: Batch tests, microbial community structure and mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltsi, Jordi; Illa, J.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F.X.;

    2010-01-01

    . Population profiles of eubacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA genes revealed that no significant shift on microbial community composition took place upon biomass exposure to LCFA. DNA sequencing of predominant DGGE bands showed close phylogenetic affinity to ribotypes characteristic from specific beta......Biomass samples taken during the continuous operation of thermophilic anaerobic digestors fed with manure and exposed to successive inhibitory pulses of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) were characterized in terms of specific metabolic activities and 16S rDNA DGGE profiling of the microbial community...... structure. Improvement of hydrogenotrophic and acidogenic (beta-oxidation) activity rates was detected upon successive LCFA pulses, while different inhibition effects over specific anaerobic trophic groups were observed. Bioreactor recovery capacity and biomass adaptation to LCFA inhibition were verified...

  14. Relative developmental toxicity of glycol ether alkoxy acid metabolites in the embryonic stem cell test as compared with the in vivo potency of their parent compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Louisse, J.; Verwei, M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been proposed as an in vitro assay that might reduce animal experimentation in regulatory developmental toxicology. So far, evaluation of the EST was not performed using compounds within distinct chemical classes. Evaluation within a distinct class of chemicall

  15. Relative developmental toxicity of glycol ether alkoxy acid metabolites in the embryonic stem cell test as compared to the in vivo potency of their parent compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de E.; Louisse, J.; Verwei, M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Sandt, van de J.J.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been proposed as an in vitro assay that might reduce animal experimentation in regulatory developmental toxicology. So far, evaluation of the EST was not performed using compounds within distinct chemical classes. Evaluation within a distinct class of chemicall

  16. Relative developmental toxicity of glycol ether alkoxy acid metabolites in the embryonic stem cell test as compared with the in vivo potency of their parent compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.; Louisse, J.; Verwei, M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; van de Sandt, J.J.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been proposed as an in vitro assay that might reduce animal experimentation in regulatory developmental toxicology. So far, evaluation of the EST was not performed using compounds within distinct chemical classes. Evaluation within a distinct class of chemicall

  17. Study of effectiveness of combined test Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugols iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedhitha V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study concludes that the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening can be improved by a combination test of Pap, VILI and VIA, even in tertiary centers in India. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 725-729

  18. 异型乳酸菌2种常用鉴定方法的比较%The Comparative Studies Between Two Common Tests for Detecting the Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于颖; 刘杰; 陈学玺; 王志萍; 李广海; 刘全兰

    2011-01-01

    To find a better way of identifying the homo- or heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria ( LAB), advantages and disadvantages of two common tests for detecting heterofermentative LAB were studied in the present study.The results are compared for 19 isolates and showed that: ( 1 ) the test of the acid and gas produced by the metabolization of glucose or gluconate showed the tested isolates had different ability to produce acid; also the test detected 7 heterofermentative LAB, which indicated that only 36.8% of the isolates was positive; (2) the hot-loop test showed the tested isolates formed gas evolution or a small stream of bubbles; also the test detected 13 heterofermentative LAB,which indicated that only 68.4% of the isolates was positive; (3) strains of L-6, L-14,L-15 ,L -16,L-18, and L-19 were identified as heterofermentative LAB by both of these two tests; L-5 strain was identified as heterofermentative LAB only by the acid and gas production by the metabolization of glucose or gluconate test; strains of L-l, L-2 ,L-3,L-7, L-8, L-9, and -17 were identified as heterofermentative LAB only by the hot-loop test. Therefore, the results showed that the hot-loop test was more sensitive. However, the test of the acid and gas produced by the metabolization of glucose or gluconate had the superiority to estimate the acid production of isolates, and this test was found to be more observable. Thus, it is better to combine these two methods together in the process of detecting the heterofermentative LAB.%选用18株乳酸菌和1株标准菌株植物乳杆菌1.2158(Lactobacillus plantarum 1.2158)进行葡萄糖产酸产气实验和hot-loop实验,以探讨异型乳酸菌两种常用鉴定方法的异同.结果如下:(1)葡萄糖产酸产气法的检测结果表明,实验菌株产酸能力不同.实验菌株中有7个形成明显的琼脂柱位移,鉴定为异型乳酸菌,占总菌株量的36.8%;(2)hot-loop法检测结果表明有13个菌株形成气泡或柱状泡泡,

  19. 龙葵碱对HepG2细胞NAT1酶活性及动力学影响的研究%Study on the Effect of Solanine on N-acetyltransferase 1 Activity in HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世勇; 苏怡君; 季宇彬

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨龙葵碱诱导HepG2细胞凋亡的芳香胺Ⅳ-乙酰化转移酶(NAT)1的影响.方法 采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),以对氨基笨甲酸(PABA)为底物,以PABA被NAT1乙酰化为乙酰对氨基苯甲酸(Ac-PABA)的量反应NAT1酶的活性.观察不同浓度、不同时间龙葵碱对完整HepG2细胞NAT1酶活性的影响;龙葵碱对HepG2细胞细胞质中NAT1酶活性的影响;通过改变底物PABA浓度,采用双倒数作图法,以底物PABA浓度的倒数(1/S)对NAT1反应速率的倒数(1/V)作直线,得出回归方程,计算K和.结果 在NAT1酶活性测定中,龙葵碱能显著降低HepG2完整细胞NAT1的活性;龙葵碱能够降低HepG2细胞质内NAT1的活性;随着作用时间的增加Ac-PABA生成的量逐渐增加,但在相同作用时间段龙葵碱能显著降低Ac-PABA生成的量.动力学研究表明,以PABA为底物,对于HepG2完整细胞,阴性对照组的K和V分别为(1.04 x 10±8.36×10-5)mmol·L、(1.64×10±9.57×10)nmol·10cells,龙葵碱组的K和K分别为(1.06×10±6.97×10)mmol·L和(1.48×10±4.28×10)nmol·10cells·h.对于HepG2细胞质,阴性对照组的K和V分别为(3.32×10±2.35×10)mmol·L、(2.60×10±6.79×10)nmol·h·mg pro,龙葵碱组的K和K分别为(3.35×10±1.66×10)mmol·L和(2.22x10±8.12×10)nmol·h·mg(Pro),经统计学处理表明,对于HepG2完整细胞和细胞质,阴性对照组和龙葵碱组的K没有差异,而V差异显著结论 龙葵碱是HepG2细胞NAT1酶的非竞争性抑制剂.龙葵碱通过作用于NAT1与PABA结合位点以外的其他位点抑制NAT1酶的活性而诱导HepG2细胞凋亡.%OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between N-acetyltransferase 1 activity and apoptosis inducing by solanine in HepG2 cell. METHODS The speed of PABA acetylation reaction mediated by NAT1 was teken as the indicator of the activity of NAT1 in intact HepG2 cells and their cytoplasm. HPLC was employed to determine the concentration of AC-PABA, the effects of different concentrations of

  20. Preparation of Sulfuric Acid Sulfonated Modified Starch and Testing Study of Its Scale Inhibition Properties%硫酸磺化改性淀粉制备及阻垢性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉玲; 高升; 刘利

    2011-01-01

    为了减轻和避免目前阻垢剂排放对环境造成的污染,本实验利用浓硫酸氧化淀粉制备改性淀粉,其颜色为棕红色;在不同浓度、温度、Ca2+浓度、pH值下,对硫酸磺化改性淀粉的阻垢性能进行测试.实验结果表明,硫酸磺化改性淀粉高效阻垢的最佳浓度为0.61 mg/L,最佳温度为80℃,对应的阻垢效率为84.7%.其阻垢效率随着Ca2+浓度及pH值的增加而减小,因此Ca2+浓度、pH值是影响阻垢剂阻垢效率的重要因素.对硫酸磺化改性淀粉与其它氧化改性淀粉的阻垢性能进行的比较实验结果表明,硫酸磺化改性淀粉的阻垢性能优于其它改性淀粉.%In order to mitigate and avoid current scale inhibitor pollution emissions on the environment, in this lab, the concentrated sulfuric acid oxidized starch is used to prepare the modified starch, whose color is brown-red.Sulfuric acid sulfonated modified starch is tested in case of different concentrations, temperatures, Ca2+ concentrations, pH values.It has been found that the best concentration of efficient scale of sulfuric acid sulfocated modified starch is 0.61 mg/L, and that the best temperature is 80 ℃, and that under this best concentration and temperature the corresponding inhibition rate is 84.7 %.The inhibition rate of sulfuric acid sulfonated modified starch decreases with an increase in Ca2+ concentration and pH value, thus, indicating that Ca2+ concentration and pH are the important factors that can affect the inhibition rate of scale inhibitor.Finally, the comparison is made of scale performance between sulfuric acid sulfonated modified starch and other oxidized modified starch, with the results showing that the scale inhibition of sulfuric acid sulfonated modified starch is superior to other oxidized modified starch.