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Sample records for acid tar sludges

  1. Tar water digestion in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibsted Mogensen, A.; Angelidaki, I.; Schmidt, J.E.; Ahring, B.K. [Technical Univ., Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    The water from the gasification and wet oxidised tar water has been digested anaerobically in UASB reactors and were digested in respectively 10 and 50% in batches. Though the tar water show inhibition at very low concentrations to aerobic microorganisms, the granular sludge used in UASB reactors degrades tar water in concentrations that reveal total inhibition of e.g. bacteria conducting the nitrification process. The value of waste waters are determined, showing that the tar water produces more biogas in the anaerobic digestion. A wide range of xenobiotics, especially phenolic compounds can be transformed in the anaerobic digestion process. Seven phenolic are followed in batch experiments and UASB reactor experiments, and their particular fate in the anaerobic systems embody large differences in the transformation pattern. (au) 24 refs.

  2. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, R.W. [SOUND Environmental Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Grajczak, P. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wilcoxson, J.C. [ARCO, Plano, TX (United States); Webster, S.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  3. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  4. Receiving demulsifying agent from the acid tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, A.A.; Belyaeva, A.S.; Kunakova, R.V. [FGBIHE ' Ufa State Academy of Economics and Services' , Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [FGBIHE ' Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ.' , Ufa (Russian Federation); Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    The processing of wastes of petrochemical production makes it possible to reduce the price of produced commodity of petroleum products substantially. Bitumen, fuel oils, tars and other mixture of heavy organic compounds are widely used in road construction, in paint and cable industries, manufacture of roofing materials, are used as boiler and furnace fuel, fuel for marine diesel engines, raw material for the production of modifying additives, fillers, surfaceactive substances, etc. (orig.)

  5. Structure and Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarS, the Wall Teichoic Acid β-glycosyltransferase Involved in Methicillin Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Sobhanifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in teichoic acids as targets for antibiotic drug design against major clinical pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, reflecting the disquieting increase in antibiotic resistance and the historical success of bacterial cell wall components as drug targets. It is now becoming clear that β-O-GlcNAcylation of S. aureus wall teichoic acids plays a major role in both pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. Here we present the first structure of S. aureus TarS, the enzyme responsible for polyribitol phosphate β-O-GlcNAcylation. Using a divide and conquer strategy, we obtained crystal structures of various TarS constructs, mapping high resolution overlapping N-terminal and C-terminal structures onto a lower resolution full-length structure that resulted in a high resolution view of the entire enzyme. Using the N-terminal structure that encapsulates the catalytic domain, we furthermore captured several snapshots of TarS, including the native structure, the UDP-GlcNAc donor complex, and the UDP product complex. These structures along with structure-guided mutants allowed us to elucidate various catalytic features and identify key active site residues and catalytic loop rearrangements that provide a valuable platform for anti-MRSA drug design. We furthermore observed for the first time the presence of a trimerization domain composed of stacked carbohydrate binding modules, commonly observed in starch active enzymes, but adapted here for a poly sugar-phosphate glycosyltransferase.

  6. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  7. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor [La Trobe University, Vic. (Australia). Environmental Geoscience

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  9. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of acid tar waste from crude benzol refining: A thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihobo, Chido H; Chowdhury, Arindrajit; Kuipa, Pardon K; Simbi, David J

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min(-1) The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons. The kinetic parameters were evaluated using the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. A variation in the activation energy with conversion revealed that the pyrolysis of the acid tar waste progresses through complex multi-step kinetics. Mass spectrometry results revealed a predominance of gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide, implying that the pyrolysis of acid tar waste is potentially an energy source. Thus the pyrolysis of acid tar waste may present a viable option for its environmental treatment. There are however, some limitations imposed by the co-evolution of corrosive gaseous components for which appropriate considerations must be provided in both pyrolysis reactor design and selection of construction materials. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. [Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (Paes) in municipal sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Wen; Lin, Qing-Qi; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Cai, Xin-De; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties, are widely present in municipal sludge. Study of PAEs biodegradation under different anaerobic biological treatment processes of sludge is, therefore, essential for a safe use of sludge in agricultural practice. In this study, we selected two major sludge PAEs, i.e. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-enthylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), to investigate their biodegradation behaviors in an anaerobic sludge digestion system and a fermentative hydrogen production system. The possible factors influencing PAEs biodegradation in relation to changes of sludge properties were also discussed. The results showed that the biodegradation of DBP reached 99.6% within 6 days, while that of DEHP was 46.1% during a 14-day incubation period in the anaerobic digestion system. By comparison, only 19.5% of DBP was degraded within 14 days in the fermentative hydrogen production system, while no degradation was detected for DEHP. The strong inhibition of the degradation of both PAEs in the fermentative hydrogen production system was ascribed to the decreases in microbial biomass and ratios of gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria and fungi/ bacteria, and the increase of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (e. g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) during the fermentative hydrogen-producing process.

  11. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid

  12. Physical characteristics of cold cured anthracite/coke breeze briquettes prepared from a coal tar acid resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, L.J.; Snape, C.E.; Taylor, D. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Phenolic resins were synthesised using the whole coal tar acid fraction of the oil from a low temperature carbonisation process. A series of briquettes were prepared using a number of coal tar acid concentrations, cured at ambient temperature with various concentrations of sulphuric acid and were subjected to a variety of physical tests. Excellent briquettes, in terms of mechanical strength, water-proofing characteristics and thermal degradation, were produced with both nominally 10 and 9% w/w resole solution and acid concentrations down to 1.8 M, corresponding to sulphur addition in the briquettes of ca. 0.2% w/w. Briquettes bound with 8% w/w resole solution, however, required stronger acid concentrations to satisfy the test conditions. When the briquettes were combusted up to 850{degree}C, they retained their core shape after 70% weight loss. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Chromium Extraction from Sewage Sludge Using Polyepoxysuccinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Hua; ZHU Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    An environmentally benign biodegradable chelant,polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA),was used to separate heavy metals from sewage sludge from the Shanghai Taopu Wastewater Treatment Plant,China,based on chemical extraction technology.The extraction of chromium (Cr) from sewage sludge with an aqueous solution of PESA was studied under various conditions.It was found that the extraction of Cr using PESA was more efficient than that using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) under similar conditions.PESA was capable of extracting Cr from the sewage sludge,and the extraction efficiency was obviously dependent on both the pH and the concentration of the chelating reagent.The extraction efficiency decreased gradually with increasing pH,and the dependence on pH decreased as the concentration of PESA increased.The extraction efficiency reached 58% under conditions of pH =4 and a ratio of PESA to total heavy metals of 10∶1.The extraction efficiency was maintained above 40% within the pH range from 1 to 7 at the high ratio of PESA to total heavy metals of 10∶1.Comparing the contents of heavy metals in the sewage sludge before and after the extraction,it was found that the extracted Cr came mainly from the reducible and oxidizable fractions.

  14. Leaching of basic oxygen furnace sludge with sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Miškufová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the hydrometallurgical processing of BOF sludge in the sulphuric acid solutions under atmospheric pressureand temperatures up to 100 °C is investigated on a laboratory scale. The influence of sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, timeand liquid to solid ratio (L:S on the leaching process was studied. The main aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions whenthe maximum amount of zinc passes into the solution.

  15. Extraction of Cadmium from Sewage Sludge Using Polyepoxysuccinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-Liang; ZHANG Li-Hua; ZHANG Hua; QIU Yan-Ling; ZHANG Rong-Hua; ZHAO Jian-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA),as an environmental benign biodegradable chelant,was used to remove heavy metals from the sewage sludge of Shanghai Taopu Wastewater Treatment Plant.The extraction of cadmium (Cd) from sewage sludge using aqueous solution of PESA was studied.It was found that PESA was capable of extracting Cd from the sludge,and the extraction efficiency was dependent on both pH and the concentration of the chelating reagent.The extraction efficiency decreased gradually with increasing of pH,whereas the dependency on pH decreased as the concentration of PESA increased.In the case of the high PESA to total metal ratio,e.g.,10:1,the extraction efficiency reached above 70% within the pH range from 1 to 7.The highest extraction efficiency obtained in the experiment was 78%.By comparing the contents of the heavy metals in sewage sludge before and after the extraction,it was found that the extracted Cd came mainly from the four fractious:acid-soluble,reducible,oxidizable,and water-soluble fractions.

  16. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Recovery of heavy metals from industrial sludge using various acid extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C H; Kuo, C Y; Lo, S L

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals were removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction approaches. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio on copper-extraction efficiency were assessed. Leaching with increased acid concentrations increased the yield of heavy metals from the industrial sludge. In microwave-assisted acid extraction, reducing the S/L ratio and sludge particle size increased copper-extraction efficiency. These experimental findings indicate that S/L ratio most strongly influenced microwave-assisted acid extraction. Both traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction demonstrate that sulfuric acid was an effective extractant, and the copper fraction in extracted sludge shifted from being primarily bound to Fe-Mn oxides and organic-matter partition, to being mostly bound to organic matter, remaining as a residue during acid extraction.

  18. Acid and alkaline treatments for enhancing the growth of rhizobia in sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebah, F. B.; Tyagi, R. D. [Quebec Univ., Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Prevost, D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur les sols et les grandes cultures, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Wastewater treatment processes produce large amounts of sludge. The application of sludge to agricultural soils improves the soil's physical and biological properties because it contains organic matter and plant nutrients. Wastewater sludge has been used for producing certain bacteria. It has also been proposed as an effective method for the production of rhizobia. Although the amount of sludge required for the production of bacterial inoculum is low, this new application constitutes an additional and suitable alternative for wastewater sludge recycling. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of using acid or alkaline pre-treatments in sludges having different solid concentrations, to increase the biodegradability of organic material, thereby to enhance the growth of rhizobia, while using sludge as a culture medium. Results of the experiment show that both acid and alkaline treatments improved the rhizobial cell count and reduced mean generation time in primary and secondary sludges, but the efficiency of the treatment was also dependent on the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. The highest cell count was obtained with primary sludge at 0.65 per cent TSS under alkaline treatment. For secondary sludge, the highest cell count was reached under acid hydrolysis. The mean generation time was reduced by both pre-treatments, with best values obtained for alkaline treatment in primary sludge. 31 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. [Extraction of heavy metals from sewage sludge using aspartic acid and citric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Li-Hua; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2008-03-01

    Aspartic acid, as a biodegradable natural amino acid, was used to separate and remove the heavy metals from the sewage sludge based on chemical extraction technology. Under various conditions, the extraction processes were carried out for the sewage sludge from Shanghai Taopu Municipal Wastewater Plant. The comparison of extraction between aspartic acid and citric acid was also discussed for the separation of three heavy metals from sewage sludge. The results showed that pH and the dosage of aspartic acid or citric acid had a significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Zn, Ni and Cu can be apart extracted for more than 85% by aspartic acid at low pH. With the increment of pH value, the extraction ration decreased gradually for both two systems. Within the whole pH range, aspartic acid showed higher extraction efficiency for Ni, Cu than citric acid and the extraction efficiencies of aspartic acid for Ni, Cu were found to respectively be more than 50%, 40%. For the situation of Zn, citric acid had a higher extraction efficiency at pH > or = 3.0.

  20. Biological hydrolysis and acidification of sludge under anaerobic conditions: The effect of sludge type and origin on the production and composition of olatile fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    that fermentation of primary sludge produced the highest amount of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and generated significantly higher COD- and VFA-yields compared to the other sludge types regardless of which WWTP the sludge originated from. Fermentation of activated and primary sludge resulted in 1.9–5.6% and 8....... In this study, the feasibility of implementing biological hydrolysis and acidification process on different types of municipal sludge was investigated by batch and semi-continuous experiments. The municipal sludge originated from six major treatment plants located in Denmark were used. The results showed...... of fermentation for full-scale application was roughly estimated based on the experiments performed in semi-continuous reactors. The results revealed that even though the VFA production of primary sludge was higher compared to activated sludge, substantial amounts of VFA could be produced by fermentation...

  1. Novel technology for sewage sludge utilization: preparation of amino acids chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Kong, Sifang; Li, Yaqiong; Zeng, Hui

    2009-11-15

    This study developed a novel technology for sewage sludge utilization. The bacteria proteins in the sewage sludge were extracted to produce the amino acid chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer by virtue of several chemical processes. Firstly, the sewage sludge was hydrolyzed under hot hydrochloric acid solution to obtain protein solution. The effects of hydrolysis temperature, reaction time and pH on the extraction ratio of protein from the sewage sludge were investigated. Secondly, the protein solution was further hydrolyzed into amino acids under hot acid condition. The effects of the HCl dosage, hydrolysis temperature and reaction time on the yields of amino acids were investigated in detail. Thirdly, the raw amino acids solution was purified by activated carbon decolorization and glacial acetic acid dissolution. Finally, the purified amino acids were used to produce the AACTE fertilizer by chelating with trace elements. Results showed that, under optimum hydrolysis conditions, 78.5% of protein was extracted from the sewage sludge and the amino acids yield was 10-13 g per 100g of dry sludge. The AACTE fertilizer produced was in accordance with China Standard for Amino Acids Foliar Fertilizer. This novel technology is more environmentally friendly compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  2. Effects of waste activated sludge and surfactant addition on primary sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Guanlan; Chen, Yinguang

    2010-05-01

    This paper focused on the effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) addition on primary sludge (PS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) accumulation in fermentation. The results showed that sludge hydrolysis, SCFA accumulation, NH(4)(+)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P release, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction were increased by WAS addition to PS, which were further increased by the addition of SDBS to the mixture of PS and WAS. Acetic, propionic and valeric acids were the top three SCFA in all experiments. Also, the fermentation liquids of PS, PS+WAS, and PS+WAS+SDBS were added, respectively, to municipal wastewater to examine their effects on biological municipal wastewater treatment, and the enhancement of both wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removals was observed compared with no fermentation liquid addition.

  3. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change.

  4. Structural and enzymatic analysis of TarM glycosyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus reveals an oligomeric protein specific for the glycosylation of wall teichoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Cengiz; Gerlach, David; Beck, Sebastian; Peschel, Andreas; Xia, Guoqing; Stehle, Thilo

    2015-04-10

    Anionic glycopolymers known as wall teichoic acids (WTAs) functionalize the peptidoglycan layers of many Gram-positive bacteria. WTAs play central roles in many fundamental aspects of bacterial physiology, and they are important determinants of pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. A number of enzymes that glycosylate WTA in Staphylococcus aureus have recently been identified. Among these is the glycosyltransferase TarM, a component of the WTA de novo biosynthesis pathway. TarM performs the synthesis of α-O-N-acetylglycosylated poly-5'-phosphoribitol in the WTA structure. We have solved the crystal structure of TarM at 2.4 Å resolution, and we have also determined a structure of the enzyme in complex with its substrate UDP-GlcNAc at 2.8 Å resolution. The protein assembles into a propeller-like homotrimer in which each blade contains a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase domain with a typical Rossmann fold. The enzymatic reaction retains the stereochemistry of the anomeric center of the transferred GlcNAc-moiety on the polyribitol backbone. TarM assembles into a trimer using a novel trimerization domain, here termed the HUB domain. Structure-guided mutagenesis experiments of TarM identify residues critical for enzyme activity, assign a putative role for the HUB in TarM function, and allow us to propose a likely reaction mechanism.

  5. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  6. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lim

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  8. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  9. Recovery of wastewater sludge components by acid hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recktenwald, Michael; Karlsson, Ingemar

    2003-07-01

    Municipal waste water sludge is a complex product containing both valuable products and contaminants. The valuable products are phosphorus, organic matter and precipitants. The contaminants include heavy metals and organic micro pollutants. Consumers, farmers and their organisations are restrictive to utilisation of sludge on arable land. Disposal of organic waste will be prohibited in 2005. Thus the sludge treatment process, KREPRO, has been developed. From the waste water sludge, different fractions can be separated and reused such as organic fraction, phosphate, precipitants and carbon source. (author)

  10. Characterization of sulfur oxidizing bacteria related to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Bettina;Herzog, Bastian;Drewes, Jörg E.;Koch, Konrad;Müller, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Background Biogenic sulfuric acid (BSA) corrosion damages sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities but is not well investigated in sludge digesters. Sulfur/sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB) oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid, inducing BSA corrosion. To obtain more information on BSA corrosion in sludge digesters, microbial communities from six different, BSA-damaged, digesters were analyzed using culture dependent methods and subsequent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient ...

  11. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  12. A novel method for recovery of acidic sludge of used-motor oil reprocessing industries to bitumen using bentonite and SBS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; malek hassanpour; Mitra Gholam; Mehdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acidic sludge is a by-product from used motor oil reprocessing industries, which thousand tons of this sludge are disposed into the environment as a hazardous waste material daily. The acidic sludge contains unsaturated compounds that are polar and asphaltene. The bitumen under certain conditions is produced from mixing of bentonite, polymer styrene – butadiene – styrene (SBS), and acidic sludge. Context and purpose: The objective of this study was the recovery of acidic sludge...

  13. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  14. Getting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Hanna; Freier, Korbinian P; Gierig, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be a relevant source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the environment. In order to reduce emissions from this source, Bavarian authorities enforced in 2008 an analysis of PFAAs from sewage sludge derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 4981 sludge samples from 1165 different WWTPs were analyzed between 2008 and 2013 for 11 PFAAs compounds. During this period, 71 WWTPs exceeded the precautionary limit of 125 μg kg(-1) dm of total PFAAs in sludge samples at least once with a decreasing tendency. The yearly exceedances of the investigated WWTPs decreased from 6% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2013. At the same time, the percentage of uncontaminated WWTPs increased from 33% to 65%. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound found in 41% of all sludge samples. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was detected in 19% and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 7%. Very high PFAAs concentrations (>500 μg kg(-1) dm) in sewage sludge were generally caused by firefighting foams containing PFAAs or emissions from PFAAs-using industries including metal plating, textile, leather or paper industries. Trend analyses of the six year period show that PFAAs contamination in sewage sludge clearly decreased for 47% of the WWTPs. However, for 16% of the WWTPs an increasing trend was detected, even though the concentration levels were below the precautionary limit. During the six years of investigation the load of total PFAAs in sewage sludge was reduced by more than 90%, from 17 t a(-1) in 2008 to 1.5 t a(-1) in 2013.

  15. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  16. Effect of humic acid in leachate on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengfei; Xian, Ping; Yang, Longhui; Liu, Xi; Zhan, Longhui; Bu, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of humic acid (HA) in anaerobic-treated landfill leachate on granular sludge, the anaerobic biodegradability of HA as well as the influences of HA on the total cumulative methane production, the anaerobic methanization process and the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of granular sludge are studied in this paper. Experimental results show that as a non-biodegradable organic pollutant, HA is also difficult to be decomposed by microbes in the anaerobic reaction process. Presence of HA and changes in the concentration have no significant influences on the total cumulative methane production and the anaerobic methanization process of granular sludge. Besides, the total cumulative methane production cannot reflect the inhibition of toxics on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge on the premise of sufficient reaction time. Results also show that HA plays a promoting role on SMA of granular sludge. Without buffering agent the SMA value increased by 19.2% on average due to the buffering and regulating ability of HA, while with buffering agent the SMA value increased by 5.4% on average due to the retaining effect of HA on the morphology of the sludge particles. However, in the presence of leachate the SMA value decreased by 27.6% on average, because the toxic effect of the toxics in the leachate on granular sludge is much larger than the promoting effect of HA.

  17. Characterization of the transcriptional regulation of the tarIJKL locus involved in ribitol-containing wall teichoic acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, S; Lee, I-C; van Swam, I I; Boeren, S; Vervoort, J; Bron, P A; Kleerebezem, M

    2016-02-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strains produce either glycerol (Gro)- or ribitol (Rbo)-backbone wall teichoic acid (WTA) (Gro-WTA and Rbo-WTA, respectively). The strain WCFS1 has been shown to be able to activate the tarIJKL locus involved in Rbo-WTA synthesis when the tagD1F1F2 locus for Gro-WTA synthesis was mutated, resulting in switching of the native Gro-WTA into Rbo-WTA. Here, we identify a regulator involved in the WTA backbone alditol switching and activation of the tarIJKL locus. Promoter reporter assays of the tarI promoter (Ptar) demonstrated its activity in the Rbo-WTA-producing mutant derivative (ΔtagF1-2) but not in the parental strain WCFS1. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay using a Ptar nucleotide fragment showed that this fragment bound to Ptar-binding protein(s) in a cell-free extract of WCFS1. Three proteins were subsequently isolated using Ptar bound to magnetic beads. These proteins were isolated efficiently from the lysate of WCFS1 but not from the lysate of its ΔtagF1-2 derivative, and were identified as redox-sensitive transcription regulator (Lp_0725), catabolite control protein A (Lp_2256) and TetR family transcriptional regulator (Lp_1153). The role of these proteins in Ptar regulation was investigated by knockout mutagenesis, showing that the Δlp_1153 mutant expressed the tarI gene at a significantly higher level, supporting its role as a repressor of the tarIJKL locus. Notably, the Δlp_1153 mutation also led to reduced expression of the tagF1 gene. These results show that Lp_1153 is a regulatory factor that plays a role in WTA alditol switching in Lb. plantarum WCFS1 and we propose to rename this gene/protein wasR/WasR, for WTA alditol switch regulator.

  18. Sludge batch 9 simulant runs using the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brandenburg, C. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Luther, M. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Woodham, W. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Testing was completed to develop a Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) nitric-glycolic acid chemical process flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility’s (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC simulations were completed using SB9 sludge simulant, Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT) simulant and Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) simulant. Ten sludge-only Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four SRAT/Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles, and one actual SB9 sludge (SRAT/SME cycle) were completed. As has been demonstrated in over 100 simulations, the replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid virtually eliminates the CPC’s largest flammability hazards, hydrogen and ammonia. Recommended processing conditions are summarized in section 3.5.1. Testing demonstrated that the interim chemistry and Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equations are sufficient to predict the composition of DWPF SRAT product and SME product. Additional reports will finalize the chemistry and REDOX equations. Additional testing developed an antifoam strategy to minimize the hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) peak at boiling, while controlling foam based on testing with simulant and actual waste. Implementation of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in DWPF is recommended. This flowsheet not only eliminates the hydrogen and ammonia hazards but will lead to shorter processing times, higher elemental mercury recovery, and more concentrated SRAT and SME products. The steady pH profile is expected to provide flexibility in processing the high volume of strip effluent expected once the Salt Waste Processing Facility starts up.

  19. Characterization of sulfur oxidizing bacteria related to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bettina; Herzog, Bastian; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad; Müller, Elisabeth

    2016-07-18

    Biogenic sulfuric acid (BSA) corrosion damages sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities but is not well investigated in sludge digesters. Sulfur/sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB) oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid, inducing BSA corrosion. To obtain more information on BSA corrosion in sludge digesters, microbial communities from six different, BSA-damaged, digesters were analyzed using culture dependent methods and subsequent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). BSA production was determined in laboratory scale systems with mixed and pure cultures, and in-situ with concrete specimens from the digester headspace and sludge zones. The SOB Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia, and Thiomonas perometabolis were cultivated and compared to PCR-DGGE results, revealing the presence of additional acidophilic and neutrophilic SOB. Sulfate concentrations of 10-87 mmol/L after 6-21 days of incubation (final pH 1.0-2.0) in mixed cultures, and up to 433 mmol/L after 42 days (final pH sulfuric acid production potentials. Additionally, elevated sulfate concentrations in the corroded concrete of the digester headspace in contrast to the concrete of the sludge zone indicated biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation. The presence of SOB and confirmation of their sulfuric acid production under laboratory conditions reveal that these organisms might contribute to BSA corrosion within sludge digesters. Elevated sulfate concentrations on the corroded concrete wall in the digester headspace (compared to the sludge zone) further indicate biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation in-situ. For the first time, SOB presence and activity is directly relatable to BSA corrosion in sludge digesters.

  20. REMOVING SLUDGE HEELS FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANKS BY OXALIC ACID DISSOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Fernando Fondeur, F; John Pareizs, J; Michael Hay, M; Bruce Wiersma, B; Kim Crapse, K; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S; Donald Thaxton, D

    2009-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will remove sludge as part of waste tank closure operations. Typically the bulk sludge is removed by mixing it with supernate to produce a slurry, and transporting the slurry to a downstream tank for processing. Experience shows that a residual heel may remain in the tank that cannot be removed by this conventional technique. In the past, SRS used oxalic acid solutions to disperse or dissolve the sludge heel to complete the waste removal. To better understand the actual conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of waste from carbon steel tanks, the authors developed and conducted an experimental program to determine its effectiveness in dissolving sludge, the hydrogen generation rate, the generation rate of other gases, the carbon steel corrosion rate, the impact of mixing on chemical cleaning, the impact of temperature, and the types of precipitates formed during the neutralization process. The test samples included actual SRS sludge and simulated SRS sludge. The authors performed the simulated waste tests at 25, 50, and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge over seven days. They conducted the actual waste tests at 50 and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge as a single batch. Following the testing, SRS conducted chemical cleaning with oxalic acid in two waste tanks. In Tank 5F, the oxalic acid (8 wt %) addition occurred over seven days, followed by inhibited water to ensure the tank contained enough liquid to operate the mixer pumps. The tank temperature during oxalic acid addition and dissolution was approximately 45 C. The authors analyzed samples from the chemical cleaning process and compared it with test data. The conclusions from the work are: (1) Oxalic acid addition proved effective in dissolving sludge heels in the simulant demonstration, the actual waste demonstration, and in SRS Tank 5F. (2) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 100% of the iron, and {approx} 40% of the manganese

  1. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  2. Immobilization of heavy metals in sludge using phosphoric acid and monobasic calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping TANG; Yong-chao ZHOU; Zhen-miao XIE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential ofpre-treatment with phosphoric acid (PA) and monobasic calcium phosphate (MCP) for the stabilization of heavy metals in sludge and its bottom ash.The tannery sludge samples were collected in Wenzhou,China and heavily contaminated with heavy metals,such as Pb,Cr and so on.The samples were pre-treated with PA or MCP.Then XRD and TCLP tests were adopted as the evaluating methods to characterize the Pb,Cr,Cu,Zn and Cd immobilization in the pre-treated sludge and its bottom ash.The results showed that this treatment effectively immobilized Pb and Cd in the sludge,lightly stabilized the metal Cu,and adversely,enhanced the leachability of Zn.After incineration at 900 ℃,Pb and Cr in the bottom ash of pre-treated sludge were significantly stabilized due to the formation of their highly thermostable phosphates and pyromorphite-like minerals during the incineration process.However,an increase of Cu and Zn solubility was observed which might be attributable to the acidification of sludge due to the addition of PA or MCP.

  3. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  4. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3

  5. Effect of nonylphenol on volatile fatty acids accumulation during anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Xie, Jing; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-11-15

    Most of the reported studies on anaerobic fermentation of sludge focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods, and its characteristics, and little attention was paid to those of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which widespreadly appeared in sludge. In this study, the effect of nonylphenol, a typical POPs in waste activated sludge (WAS), on anaerobic fermentation for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was investigated. The concentration of VFAs during WAS anaerobic fermentation was found to be affected positively from 2856 mg COD/L in the control (without NP) to 5620 mg COD/L with NP of 200 mg/kg dry sludge. Mechanism exploration exhibited that the main reason for the enhanced VFAs accumulation in the presence of NP was that more acetic acid was generated during the acidification of WAS, which was increased by almost three times (3790 versus 1310 mg COD/L). In WAS fermentation systems, the abundance of anaerobic functional microorganisms was advantageous to the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation by the pure acetogen revealed that both the viability and activity of Proteiniphilum acetatigenes were improved by NP during anaerobic fermentation, resulting in more production of acetic acid and showing good agreement with that in the real WAS fermentation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dissolution of sludges containing uranium dioxide and metallic uranium in nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-08-25

    The dissolution in nitric acid of sludges containing uranium oxide and uranium has been modeled. That study has shown that it was necessary to continuously feed the dissolver to have an appropriate control of the reaction. If a unique procedure is deemed preferable, NH03 6M has been used.

  7. Anaerobic biodegradation of oleic and palmitic acids: evidence of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acid accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2005-10-05

    Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also the main LCFA that accumulated onto the sludge. The way of palmitic acid accumulation was different in the oleic and in the palmitic acid fed reactors. When oleic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (83% as palmitic acid) were mainly adsorbed and entrapped in the sludge that became "encapsulated" by an LCFA layer. However, when palmitic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (the totality as palmitic acid) was mainly precipitated in white spots like precipitates in between the sludge, which remained "non-encapsulated." The two sludges were compared in terms of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in the presence of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and H(2)CO(2), before and after the mineralization of similar amounts of biomass-associated LCFA (4.6 and 5.2 g COD-LCFA/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), for the oleic and palmitic acid fed sludge, respectively). The "non-encapsulated," sludge exhibited a considerable initial methanogenic activity on all the tested substrates, with the single exception of butyrate. However, with the "encapsulated" sludge only methane production from ethanol and H(2)/CO(2) was detected, after a lag phase of about 50 h. After mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA, both sludges exhibited activities of similar order of magnitude in the presence of the same individual substrates and significantly higher than before. The results evidenced that LCFA accumulation onto the sludge can create a physical barrier and hinder the transfer of substrates and products, inducing a delay on the initial methane production. Whatever the mechanism, metabolic or physical, that is behind this inhibition, it is reversible, being eliminated after the

  8. Soil stabilisation using AMD sludge, compost and lignite: TCLP leachability and continuous acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A; Yip, Alex C K

    2013-11-01

    Utilising locally available industrial by-products for in situ metal stabilisation presents a low-cost remediation approach for contaminated soil. This study explored the potential use of inorganic (acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge and zero-valent iron) and carbonaceous materials (green waste compost, manure compost, and lignite) for minimising the environmental risks of As and Cu at a timber treatment site. After 9-month soil incubation, significant sequestration of As and Cu in soil solution was accomplished by AMD sludge, on which adsorption and co-precipitation could take place. The efficacy of AMD sludge was comparable to that of zero-valent iron. There was marginal benefit of adding carbonaceous materials. However, in a moderately aggressive environment (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), AMD sludge only suppressed the leachability of As but not Cu. Therefore, the provision of compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of Cu leachability, probably via surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups. Under continuous acid leaching in column experiments, combined application of AMD sludge with compost proved more effective than AMD sludge with lignite. This was possibly attributed to the larger amount of dissolved organic matter with aromatic moieties from lignite, which may enhance Cu and As mobility. Nevertheless, care should be taken to mitigate ecological impact associated with short-term substantial Ca release and continuous release of Al at a moderate level under acid leaching. This study also articulated the engineering implications and provided recommendations for field deployment, material processing, and assessment framework to ensure an environmentally sound application of reactive materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequencing adsorption and degradation cycles towards the methanization of long chain fatty acids : comparison between granular and suspended sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O. C.; Mota, M.; Alves, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the maximum potential methane production in batch assays of sludge samples taken along the operation of two EGSB reactors (RI inoculated with granular sludge and RII inoculated with suspended sludge) fed with increasing oleic acid concentrations between 2 and 8 gCOD/l (HRT=1 day). After removing the residual substrate, the sludge was incubated in batch vials without any added carbon source. A maximum methane production rate of 152±21 mlCH4(...

  10. Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatello, S; Tong, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge ash samples obtained from 7 operating sludge incinerators in the UK using a sulfuric acid washing procedure to produce a technical grade phosphoric acid product has been investigated. The influences of reaction time, sulfuric acid concentration, liquid to solid ratio and source of ISSA on P recovery have been examined. The optimised conditions were the minimum stoichiometric acid requirement, a reaction time of 120 min and a liquid to solid ratio of 20. Under these conditions, average recoveries of between 72% and 91% of total phosphorus were obtained. Product filtrate was purified by passing through a cation exchange column, concentrated to 80% H(3)PO(4) and compared with technical grade H(3)PO(4) specifications. The economics of phosphate recovery by this method are briefly discussed.

  11. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  12. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology.

  13. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  14. Study of kinetics of degradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid by acclimated activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Shi, Shuian; Chen, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge contains complex microorganisms, which are highly effective biodegrading agents. In this study, the kinetics of biodegradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) by an acclimated aerobic activated sludge were investigated. The results showed that after 180 days of acclimation, the activated sludge could steadily degrade >90% of the CHCA in 120 h. The degradation of CHCA by the acclimated activated sludge could be modeled using a first-order kinetics equation. The equations for the degradation kinetics for different initial CHCA concentrations were also obtained. The kinetics constant, kd, decreased with an increase in the CHCA concentration, indicating that, at high concentrations, CHCA had an inhibiting effect on the microorganisms in the activated sludge. The effects of pH on the degradation kinetics of CHCA were also investigated. The results showed that a pH of 10 afforded the highest degradation rate, indicating that basic conditions significantly promoted the degradation of CHCA. Moreover, it was found that the degradation efficiency for CHCA increased with an increase in temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen under the experimental conditions.

  15. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  16. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acids and Trimethylamine on Nitrification in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilersen, Ann Marie; Henze, Mogens; Kløft, Lene

    1994-01-01

    The effect of volatile fatty acids and trimethylamine on the nitrification activity of activated sludge was studied in laboratory batch experiments. The critical concentration of inhibitor IK at which the activity ceases was determined by modelling. IK values for ammonia oxidation were found...... wastewater stripped of sulphide showed that volatile fatty acids and trimethylamine alone cannot account for the inhibition of the nitrification activity, indicating that other factors are also involved....

  17. Effects of Composted and Thermally Dried Sewage Sludges on Soil and Soil Humic Acid Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M.FERN(A)NDEZ; N.SENESI; C.PLAZA; G.BRUNETTI; A.POLO

    2009-01-01

    The effect of annual additions of composted sewage sludge (CS) and thermally dried sewage sludge (TS) at 80 t ha-1 on soil chemical properties was investigated for three years in a field experiment under semiarid conditions.Humie acids (HAs) isolated by conventional procedures from CS,TS,and unamended (SO) and sludge amended soils were analysed for elemental (C,H,N,S and O) and acidic functional groups (carboxylic and phenolic) and by ultraviolet-visible,Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies.With respect to CS,TS had similar pH and total P and K contents,larger dry matter,total organic C,total N.and C/N ratio and smaller ash content and electrical conductivity.Amendment with both CS and TS induced a number of modifications in soil properties,including an increase of pH,electrical conductivity,total organic C,total N,and available P.The CS-HA had greater O,total acidity,carboxyl,and phenolic OH group contents and smaller C and H contents than TS-HA.The CS-HA and TS-HA had larger N and S contents,smaller C,O and acidic functional group contents,and lower aromatic polycondensation and humification degrees than SO-HA.Amended soil-HAs showed C,H,N and S contents larger than SO-HA,suggesting that sludge HAs were partially incorporated into soil HAs.These effects were more evident with increasing number of sludge applications.

  18. Recovery of volatile fatty acids from fermentation of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, S; Katsou, E; Malamis, S; Frison, N; Renzi, D; Fatone, F

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the pilot scale production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from sewage sludge through alkaline fermentation and the subsequent membrane filtration. Furthermore, the impact of the fermentation liquid on nutrient bioremoval was examined. The addition of wollastonite in the fermenter to buffer the pH affected the composition of the carbon source produced during fermentation, resulting in higher COD/NH4-N and COD/PO4-P ratios in the liquid phase and higher content of propionic acid. The addition of wollastonite decreased the capillary suction time (CST) and the time to filter (TTF), resulting in favorable dewatering characteristics. The sludge dewatering characteristics and the separation process were adversely affected from the use of caustic soda. When wollastonite was added, the permeate flux increased by 32%, compared to the use of caustic soda. When fermentation liquid was added as carbon source for nutrient removal, higher removal rates were obtained compared to the use of acetic acid.

  19. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125 mol/L, respectively.

  20. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the fate of C-14-labelled phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene applied to the soil by the way of contaminated sewage sludge in model ecosystems allowing the simultaneous assessment of physicochemical and biological descriptors. Here we show that the mineralisation of phthalic acid is highe......[a]pyrene is recalcitrant to biodegradation whatever the type of soil contamination. We show also that the chemicals present in the sludge are poorly transferred to soil leachates and plant seedlings....

  1. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the

  2. Metabolic analysis of the removal of formic acid by unacclimated activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Dionisi, Davide; Miccheli, Alfredo; Valerio, Mariacristina; Majone, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates the removal of formic acid by unacclimated biomass from a municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The biomass was initially able to remove formic acid, but its removal rate and Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) decreased with time, until formic acid removal stopped before the formic acid had been exhausted. Formaldehyde was removed in a similar way, whereas the same biomass was simultaneously able to grow and store PHAs when acetic acid was used as substrate. Batch tests with glycine and (13)C NMR analysis were performed, showing that unacclimated biomass was not able to synthesize all the metabolic intermediates from formic acid alone. At least glycine needed to be externally supplemented, in order to activate the serine synthesis pathway. A small amount of formic acid removal in the absence of growth was also possible through formaldehyde formation and its further conversion to formalin (1,2-formaldehyde dimer), whereas no PHAs were formed.

  3. Change of pH during excess sludge fermentation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Ye; Jin, Baodan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2014-12-01

    The change in pH during excess sludge (ES) fermentation of varying sludge concentrations was investigated in a series of reactors at alkaline, acidic, and neutral pHs. The results showed that the changes were significantly affected by fermentative conditions. Under different conditions, pH exhibited changing profiles. When ES was fermented under alkaline conditions, pH decreased in a range of (10±1). At the beginning of alkaline fermentation, pH dropped significantly, at intervals of 4h, 4h, and 5h with sludge concentrations of 8665.6mg/L, 6498.8mg/L, and 4332.5mg/L, then it would become moderate. However, under acidic conditions, pH increased from 4 to 5. Finally, under neutral conditions pH exhibited a decrease then an increase throughout entire fermentation process. Further study showed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia nitrogen and cations contributed to pH change under various fermentation conditions. This study presents a novel strategy based on pH change to predict whether SCFAs reach their stable stage.

  4. Evaluation Of Sludge Heel Dissolution Efficiency With Oxalic Acid Cleaning At Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, Christie; Vitali, Jason; Keefer, Mark

    2014-01-08

    The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements. These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July 2013. The Tank 12 radiological removal results were similar to previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning campaigns despite the fact that Tank 12 contained higher rheological yield stress sludge that would make removal more difficult than the sludge treated in previous cleaning campaigns. No appreciable oxalate precipitation occurred during the cleaning process in Tank 12 compared to previous campaigns, which aided in the net volume reduction of 75-80%. Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process.

  5. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  6. Pyrosequencing reveals the key microorganisms involved in sludge alkaline fermentation for efficient short-chain fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Li, Xiang; Xiao, Naidong; Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Yinguang

    2013-05-07

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been regarded as the excellent carbon source of wastewater biological nutrient removal, and sludge alkaline (pH 10) fermentation has been reported to achieve highly efficient SCFAs production. In this study, the underlying mechanisms for the improved SCFAs production at pH 10 were investigated by using 454 pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyze the microbial community structures in sludge fermentation reactors. It was found that sludge fermentation at pH 10 increased the abundances of Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp., which were able to excrete extracellular proteases and depolymerases, and thus enhanced the hydrolysis of insoluble sludge protein and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Meanwhile, the abundance of acid-producing bacteria (such as Clostridium sp.) in the reactor of pH 10 was also higher than that of uncontrolled pH, which benefited the acidification of soluble organic substrates. Further study indicated that sludge fermentation at pH 10 significantly decreased the number of methanogenic archaea, resulting in lower SCFAs consumption and lower methane production. Therefore, anaerobic sludge fermentation under alkaline conditions increased the abundances of bacteria involved in sludge hydrolysis and acidification, and decreased the abundance of methanogenic archaea, which favored the competition of bacteria over methanogens and resulted in the efficient production of SCFAs.

  7. Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2014-06-01

    Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

  8. ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACID FROM PALM OIL WASTE (SLUDGE OIL BY USING ALUM CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamrin Usman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of fatty acids from palm oil waste (sludge oil as biodiesel liquid base has been done by using alum [Al2(SO43.14H2O] catalyst. Some reaction variables like reaction time, catalyst quantity, and molar ratio of sample-reactant was applied for optimal reaction. Yield of 94.66% was obtained at reaction condition 65 °C, 5 h, sample-reactant ratio 1:20, and catalyst quantity 3% (w/w. GC-MS analysis request showed that composition of methyl esters biodiesel are methyl caproic (0.67%, methyl lauric (0.21%, methyl miristic (1.96%, methyl palmitic (49.52%, methyl oleic (41.51%, and methyl stearic (6.13%. Physical properties of synthesized product (viscosity, refraction index and density are similar with those of commercial product.   Keywords: alum, biodiesel, esterification, sludge oil

  9. Removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by adsorption on acid activated water treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Kositchaiyong, Sriwilai; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the use of a pellet of adsorbent made from water treatment sludge (S) and acid activated water treatment sludge (SH) for removal of fluoride in the batch equilibration technique. The influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and effect of other ions were employed to find out the feasibility of acid activated adsorbent to remove fluoride to the permissible concentration of 0.7 mg/L. The results from the adsorption isotherm followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models and the highest fluoride removal was found for adsorbent activated with acetic acid at 2.0 mol/L. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found at 40 g/L, 0.01 mol/L acid activated adsorbent which was able to adsorb fluoride from 10 down to 0.11 mg/L. The adsorption capacity was decreased when the temperature increased. This revealed that the adsorption of fluoride on SH was exothermic. In the presence of nitrate and carbonate ions in the aqueous solution, fluoride removal efficiency of SH decreased from 94.4% to 86.6% and 90.8%, respectively. However, there is no significant effect in the presence of sulfate and chloride ions.

  10. Buckwheat in Tibet (TAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine Scheucher

    2004-01-01

    The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is one of the poorest provinces in China. Buckwheat is mostly cultivated in areas with sloping infertile land on which other crops cannot be grown. It is a valuable crop in remote and food deficient mountain areas, and the potential of enhanced buckwheat utilization in TAR is high and diverse.

  11. Removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge by extraction with organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water treatment in activated sludge plants results in the production of large amounts of surplus sludge. After composting the sludge can be reused as fertiliser and soil conditioner in agriculture. Compared to landfilling and incineration, utilisation of sludge-compost is a more sustainable

  12. Removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge by extraction with organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water treatment in activated sludge plants results in the production of large amounts of surplus sludge. After composting the sludge can be reused as fertiliser and soil conditioner in agriculture. Compared to landfilling and incineration, utilisation of sludge-compost is a more sustainable tr

  13. Removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge by extraction with organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water treatment in activated sludge plants results in the production of large amounts of surplus sludge. After composting the sludge can be reused as fertiliser and soil conditioner in agriculture. Compared to landfilling and incineration, utilisation of sludge-compost is a more sustainable tr

  14. Heavy metal removal from sludge with organic chelators: Comparative study of N, N-bis(carboxymethyl) glutamic acid and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanon, Fidèle; Sun, Qian; Dimon, Biaou; Mama, Daouda; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The applicability and performance of a new generation of biodegradable chelator, N, N-Bis(carboxymethyl) glutamic acid (GLDA), for extracting heavy metals from sewage sludge was carried out and compared with citric acid (CA). Targeted metals included Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, and their contents in the raw sludge were 63.1, 73.4, 1103.2, 2060.3, 483.9 and 604.1 mg kg(-1) (dry sludge basis), respectively. Metals were divided into six fractions including water soluble, exchangeable, carbonates bound, Fe-Mn bound, organic matters bound and residual fraction via chemical fractionation. Washing results showed that in general GLDA exhibited better performance compared with CA, with removal efficiency of 83.9, 87.3, 81.2, 85.6, 89.3 and 90.2% for Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, respectively at equilibrium pH = 3.3. Residual metals were better stabilized in the GLAD-washed sludge than in the CA-washed sludge, and were mostly tightly bonded to the residual fraction. Furthermore, CA promoted phosphorus (P) release while GLDA had an opposite effect and tended to retain P within sludge, which could be beneficial for further application in agricultural use. Findings from this study suggested that GLDA could be a potential replacement for refractory and less environmentally-friendly chelators in the extraction of metals from sludge.

  15. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production.

  16. ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF A MCU ACID STREAM PIPE IN NEAR PROXIMITY TO A SLUDGE STREAM PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Effluent streams from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) will transfer to the tank farms and to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These streams will contain entrained solvent. A significant portion of the Strip Effluent (SE) pipeline (i.e., acid stream containing Isopar{reg_sign} L residues) length is within one inch of a sludge stream. Personnel envisioned the sludge stream temperature may reach 100 C during operation. The nearby SE stream may receive heat from the sludge stream and reach temperatures that may lead to flammability issues once the contents of the SE stream discharge into a larger reservoir. To this end, personnel used correlations from the literature to estimate the maximum temperature rise the SE stream may experience if the nearby sludge stream reaches boiling temperature. Several calculation methods were used to determine the temperature rise of the SE stream. One method considered a heat balance equation under steady state that employed correlation functions to estimate heat transfer rate. This method showed the maximum temperature of the acid stream (SE) may exceed 45 C when the nearby sludge stream is 80 C or higher. A second method used an effectiveness calculation used to predict the heat transfer rate in single pass heat exchanger. By envisioning the acid and sludge pipes as a parallel flow pipe-to-pipe heat exchanger, this method provides a conservative estimation of the maximum temperature rise. Assuming the contact area (i.e., the area over which the heat transfer occurs) is the whole pipe area, the results found by this method nearly matched the results found with the previous calculation method. It is recommended that the sludge stream be maintained below 80 C to minimize a flammable vapor hazard from occurring.

  17. An open label prospective randomized trial to compare the efficacy of coal tar-salicylic acid ointment versus calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in the treatment of limited chronic plaque psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Khandpur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic plaque psoriasis is a common papulosquamous skin disorder, for which a number of topical agents are being used including coal tar, topical steroids and more recently topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate. There is no study comparing purified coal tar preparation with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Aims and Objectives: A prospective randomized open label controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of topical application of coal tar-salicylic acid ointment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment applied once at night for 12 weeks for the treatment of limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 patients of limited chronic plaque psoriasis (body surface area <10% were randomized into two treatment groups: Group A received topical application of 6% coal tar with 3% salicylic acid ointment and Group B received calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, once at night for 12 weeks. Results were assessed based on psoriasis area severity index (PASI scores and patient global assessment (PGA at each visit. Results: Mean PASI was significantly lower at week 2 (P = 0.01 and week 4 follow-up (P = 0.05 and the mean reduction in PASI was significantly higher at week 2 (P = 0.02 with calcipotriol/betamethasone than coal tar-salicylic acid, but this difference was not sustained at subsequent follow-up visits. Similarly, PGA scores at weeks 2 and 4 were significantly lower with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment (P = 0.003 and P = 0.007 respectively. There was no significant difference in any parameter during subsequent follow-up visits or at the end of the treatment phase (12 weeks. Conclusion: Topical nightly application of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment leads to an initial, more rapid reduction in disease severity, but the overall outcome parameters are comparable in the two treatment groups.

  18. Removal of heavy metal species from industrial sludge with the aid of biodegradable iminodisuccinic acid as the chelating ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Duan, Gaoqi; Cui, Yanrui; Sun, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    High level of heavy metals in industrial sludge was the obstacle of sludge disposal and resource recycling. In this study, iminodisuccinic acid (IDS), a biodegradable chelating ligand, was used to remove heavy metals from industrial sludge generated from battery industry. The extraction of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc from battery sludge with aqueous solution of IDS was studied under various conditions. It was found that removal efficiency greatly depends on pH, chelating agent's concentration, as well as species distribution of metals. The results showed that mildly acidic and neutral systems were not beneficial to remove cadmium. About 68 % of cadmium in the sample was extracted at the molar ratio of IDS to heavy metals 7:1 without pH adjustment (pH 11.5). Copper of 91.3 % and nickel of 90.7 % could be removed by IDS (molar ratio, IDS: metals = 1:1) with 1.2 % phosphoric acid effectively. Removal efficiency of zinc was very low throughout the experiment. Based on the experimental results, IDS could be a potentially useful chelant for heavy metal removal from battery industry sludge.

  19. Treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 52 using ozonation and completed-mixed activated sludge process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, C. Z. A.; Fahmi; Ong, S. A.; Ahmad, R.; Sabri, S. N.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the characteristic of colour and COD removal of azo dye Acid Orange 52 (AO52) by ozonation, in combination with complete-mixed activated sludge process (CMAS) was evaluated. The experimentation was arranged in two phases: during the first one, only ozonation was performed, while, during the second phase, it was integrated with CMAS. The performance of colour and COD concentration of AO52 with and without CMAS treatment, is compared and evaluated. From the results, it is obvious that high decolourization from the start of CMAS was contributed from the pre-treatments. The colour removal was due to the fact that ozonation able to cleave the azo bonds that represent colour. Thus, CMAS without pre-treatment are unable to decolourize the dyes sufficiently. 59.6% COD was removed from the first-stage, while merely 9.8% COD fraction removed from the subsequence second-stage CMAS. It is suggested that the rapid COD removal without ozonation are due to activated sludge adsorption processes. The decreased of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) affected the CMAS performances, as the biomass decreased due to lack of nutrient for activated sludge microorganisms to multiply. Results from pre-ozonation alone contributed more than 50% of total COD removal, which indicated that at higher ozone dosage, tend to mineralize azo dye. Thus, ozonation not oxidized the dye though complete mineralization that produce carbon dioxide and water. However, it is a potential process for enhancing colour removal and biodegradability of dye-containing wastewater, once the appropriate ozonation time is determined. Therefore, the role of ozonation seems to break down the dye molecules and created ozonation by-product that is easily biodegraded in the subsequent biological treatment.

  20. A novel method for recovery of acidic sludge of used-motor oil reprocessing industries to bitumen using bentonite and SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acidic sludge is a by-product from used motor oil reprocessing industries, which thousand tons of this sludge are disposed into the environment as a hazardous waste material daily. The acidic sludge contains unsaturated compounds that are polar and asphaltene. The bitumen under certain conditions is produced from mixing of bentonite, polymer styrene – butadiene – styrene (SBS, and acidic sludge. Context and purpose: The objective of this study was the recovery of acidic sludge to bitumen using additives such as bentonite and SBS. Also, the effect of additives with different weight percentages (wt%(on the performance parameters of bitumen was evaluated. At first, spilled oil was separated from the acidic sludge by a centrifugal concentrator. Then, concentrated acidic sludge and additives were mixed in together. Finally, the performance tests were carried out to compare the quality of acidic sludge with the obtained products.The results indicated that performance parameters such as softening point (SP, weight loss, penetration degree, PI, Frass breaking point, and temperature susceptibility (TS were promoted from 37°C, 1.3%, 230 dmm, -0.07854, -5°C and 0.0451 to 54°C, 1%, 130 dmm, 2.7094, -11°C , 0.02721, respectively. According to the paired sample t-test analysis, a significant difference was found between the bentonite dosage and the improved performance parameters from concentrated acidic sludge and obtained products (pvalue ≤.001. The bentonite and SBS with 2 and 4 wt%, respectively were determined as the suitable additives in the recovery of acidic sludge to bitumen.

  1. Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.

    2002-04-23

    This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).

  2. Characteristic of wet method of phosphorus recovery from polish sewage sludge ash with nitric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazda Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA is a concentrated source of phosphorus and can be successfully recycled via a number of different routes. This paper presents research results on phosphorus recovery from differently combusted sewage sludge with the use of nitric acid extraction. Different SSA forms from Polish thermal utilization stations were compared. It was revealed that sewage treatment technology as well as combustion technology influence many physical and chemical parameters of ashes that are crucial for further phosphorus recovery from such waste according to the proposed method. Presented research defines extraction efficiency, characterized extracts composition and verifies the possibility of using SSA as cheaper and alternative sources of phosphorus compounds. Gdynia, Kielce and Kraków SSA have the best properties for the proposed technology of phosphorus recovery with high extraction efficiency greater than 86%. Unsuitable results were obtained for Bydgoszcz, Szczecin Slag and Warszawa SSA. Extraction process for Łódź and Szczecin Dust SSA need to be improved for a higher phosphorus extraction efficiency greater than 80%.

  3. Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xue-Fei, E-mail: xfsun06@gmail.com [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Shu-Guang, E-mail: wsg@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng, Wen [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan, Maohong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Tian, Bing-Hui [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Bao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced a large number of amino groups on the surface of sludge, and the amino groups played an important role in the adsorption of dye molecule. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the film diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The equilibrium data were well fitted Langmuir model, with a maximum AR18 uptake of 520.52 mg/g. Removal of AR18 decreased with the increasing pH and the maximum color removal was observed at pH 2.0. The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was found to be less than 8 for the biosorption of AR 18, which suggested that the biosorption processes of dye molecule onto modified anaerobic granules could be taken place by physical adsorption. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as {Delta}G{sup 0}, {Delta}H{sup 0} and {Delta}S{sup 0}, were also calculated, which indicated that the present system was spontaneous and endothermic process.

  4. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrol, L.; Urra, J.; Rosenkranz, F.; Kroff, P.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Lesty, Y.; Chamy, R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale

  5. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrol, L.; Urra, J.; Rosenkranz, F.; Kroff, P.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Lesty, Y.; Chamy, R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale mu

  6. Biodegradable polymers from organic acids by using activated sludge enriched by aerobic periodic feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, Davide; Majone, Mauro; Papa, Viviana; Beccari, Mario

    2004-03-20

    This article describes a new process for the production of biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs) based on the aerobic enrichment of activated sludge to obtain mixed cultures able to store PHAs at high rates and yields. Enrichment was obtained through the selective pressure established by feeding the carbon source in a periodic mode (feast and famine regime) in a sequencing batch reactor. A concentrated mixture of acetic, lactic, and propionic acids (overall concentration of 8.5 gCOD L(-1)) was fed every 2 h at 1 day(-1) overall dilution rate. Even at such high organic load (8.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)), the selective pressure due to periodic feeding was effective in obtaining a biomass with a storage ability much higher than activated sludges. The immediate biomass response to substrate excess (as determined thorough short-term batch tests) was characterized by a storage rate and yield of 649 mgPHA (as COD) g biomass (as COD)(-1) h(-1) and 0.45 mgPHA (as COD) mg removed substrates (as COD(-1)), respectively. When the substrate excess was present for more than 2 h (long-term batch tests), the storage rate and yield decreased, whereas growth rate and yield significantly increased due to biomass adaptation. A maximum polymer fraction in the biomass was therefore obtained at about 50% (on COD basis). As for the PHA composition, the copolymer poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate/beta-hydroxyvalerate) with 31% of hydroxyvalerate monomer was produced from the substrate mixture. Comparison of the tests with individual and mixed substrates seemed to indicate that, on removing the substrate mixture for copolymer production, propionic acid was fully utilized to produce propionylCoA, whereas the acetylCoA was fully provided by acetic and lactic acid. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis.

  8. [Extraction of Heavy Metals from Sludge Using Biodegradable Chelating Agent N,N-bis(carboxymethyl) Glutamic Acid Tetrasodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cui, Yan-rui; Tang, Xiao-xiao; Yang, Hui-juan; Sun, Jian-hui

    2015-05-01

    N, N-bis (carboxymethyl) glutamic acid tetrasodium (GLDA), a novel biodegradable and green chelating agent, has excellent metal chelating ability. Batch experiment was conducted to study the extraction process of Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn in industrial sludge using GLDA. The effects of contact time, pH of the system, content of chelating agent were investigated, and the forms of heavy metals in sludge pre- and post-extraction using the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure were studied. The results showed that GLDA was effective for cadmium extraction in sludge. Several heavy metals could be effectively extracted under the condition of pH 4 and molar ratio of chelating agent to total heavy metal 3:1. Residual fraction took the largest fraction in Zn, which caused the low extraction efficiency of this metal. Chelating properties were related not only to contact time, pH, chelating agent's concentration, and stability constant but also to species distribution of metals.

  9. Simulation Analysis of Sludge Disposal and Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Gravity Pressure Reactor via Wet Air Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gwon Woo [Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, KIER, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Wan; Lee, Hong-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju [Environmental and Plant Engineering Research Institute, KICT, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Efficacious wastewater treatment is essential for increasing sewage sludge volume and implementing strict environmental regulations. The operation cost of sludge treatment amounts up to 50% of the total costs for wastewater treatment plants, therefore, an economical sludge destruction method is crucially needed. Amid several destruction methods, wet air oxidation (WAO) can efficiently treat wastewater containing organic pollutants. It can be used not only for sludge destruction but also for useful by-product production. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), one of many byproducts, is considered to be an important precursor of biofuel and chemical materials. Its high reaction condition has instituted the study of gravity pressure reactor (GPR) for an economical process of WAO to reduce operation cost. Simulation of subcritical condition was conducted using Aspen Plus with predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong (PSRK) equation of state. Conjointly, simulation analysis for GPR depth, oxidizer type, sludge flow rate and oxidizer injection position was carried out. At GPR depth of 1000m and flow rate of 2 ton/h, the conversion and yield of VFAs were 92.02% and 0.17g/g, respectively.

  10. Improving volatile fatty acids production by exploiting the residual substrates in post-fermented sludge: Protease catalysis of refractory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Bai, Jie; Liu, He; Fu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    The real cause to the low yield of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), from inhibition or low biodegradation, is uncertain in sludge anaerobic fermentation. In this study, poor biodegradability of proteins and fast decrease of the indigenous hydrolase activity in the residual post-fermented sludge were found to be the major reasons. With the addition of trypsin or alkaline protease in residual post-fermented sludge after primary alkaline fermentation, degradation efficiency of refractory protein increased by 33.6% and 34.8%, respectively. Accordingly, the VFAs yields were improved by 69.7% and 106.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of added trypsin and alkaline protease could maintain at 13.52 U/mL and 19.11 U/mL in the alkaline fermentation process. This study demonstrated that exploiting the refractory proteins in residual post-fermented sludge by protease addition seems to be a very promising way for improving VFAs yield of conventional alkaline fermentations with waste activated sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion.

  12. Volatile fatty acids produced by co-fermentation of waste activated sludge and henna plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingang; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Jianjun; Han, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) and henna plant biomass (HPB) for the enhanced production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was investigated. The results indicated that VFAs was the main constituents of the released organics; the accumulation of VFAs was much higher than that of soluble carbohydrates and proteins. HPB was an advantageous substrate compared to WAS for VFAs production; and the maximum VFAs concentration in an HPB mono-fermentation system was about 2.6-fold that in a WAS mono-fermentation system. In co-fermentation systems, VFAs accumulation was positively related to the proportion of HPB in the mixed substrate, and the accumulated VFAs concentrations doubled when HPB was increased from 25% to 75%. HPB not only adjust the C/N ratio; the associated and/or released lawsone might also have a positive electron-shuttling effect on VFAs production.

  13. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as hydrolases activities, microbial communities, and homoacetogens, of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge anaerobic fermentation were investigated to reveal the microbial responses to different fermentation temperatures. Thermophilic fermentation led to 10-fold more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. α-glucosidase and protease had much higher activities in thermophilic reactor, especially protease. Illumina sequencing manifested that raising fermentation temperature increased the abundances of Clostridiaceae, Microthrixaceae and Thermotogaceae, which could facilitate either hydrolysis or acidification. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that under thermophilic condition the relative abundance of homoacetogens increased in batch tests and reached higher level at stable fermentation, whereas under mesophilic condition it only increased slightly in batch tests. Therefore, higher fermentation temperature increased the activities of key hydrolases, raised the proportions of bacteria involved in hydrolysis and acidification, and promoted the relative abundance of homoacetogens, which all resulted in higher VFAs production.

  14. Effects of operational conditions on sludge degradation and organic acids formation in low-critical wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Lee, Mikyung; Ahn, Jaehwan; Bae, Wookeun; Lee, Yong-Woo; Shim, Hojae

    2009-02-15

    Wet air oxidation processes are to treat highly concentrated organic compounds including refractory materials, sludge, and night soil, and usually operated at supercritical water conditions of high temperature and pressure. In this study, the effects of operational conditions including temperature, pressure, and oxidant dose on sludge degradation and conversion into subsequent intermediates such as organic acids were investigated at low critical wet oxidation conditions. The reaction time and temperature in the wet air oxidation process was shown an important factor affecting the liquefaction of volatile solids, with more significant effect on the thermal hydrolysis reaction rather than the oxidation reaction. The degradation efficiency of sludge and the formation of organic acids were improved with longer reaction time and higher reaction temperature. For the sludge reduction and the organic acids formation under the wet air oxidation, the optimal conditions for reaction temperature, time, pressure, and oxidant dose were shown approximately 240 degrees C, 30min, 60atm, and 2.0L/min, respectively.

  15. Acid Fermentation Process Combined with Post Denitrification for the Treatment of Primary Sludge and Wastewater with High Strength Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kurniawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, combined with a post denitrification process, was applied to treat primary sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and wastewater with a high concentration of nitrate. The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs was maximized with a short hydraulic retention time in the acid fermentation of the ABR process, and then the produced VFAs were supplied as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process. The laboratory scale experiment was operated for 160 days to evaluate the VFAs’ production rate, sludge reduction in the ABR type-acid fermentation process, and the specific denitrification rate of the post denitrification process. As results, the overall removal rate of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, total suspended solids (TSS, and total nitrogen (TN were found to be 97%, 92%, 73%, respectively, when considering the influent into ABR type-acid fermentation and effluent from post denitrification. We observed the specific VFAs production rate of 0.074 gVFAs/gVSS/day for the ABR type-acid fermentation, and an average specific denitrification rate of 0.166 gNO3−-N/gVSS/day for the post denitrification. Consequently, we observed that a high production of VFAs from a primary sludge, using application of the ABR type acid fermentation process and the produced VFAs were then successfully utilized as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process, with a high removal rate of nitrogen.

  16. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  17. Production of biodegradable plastics from volatile fatty acids using activated sludge; Kassei odei wo mochiiru kihatsuei teikyu shibosan kara no seibunkaisei plastic no seisan to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Soejima, T.; Tomozawa, T. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Doi, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Kiya, F. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-21

    The production of biodegradable plastics, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from volatile fatty acids (VFA) by aerobic or anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge was investigated. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyesters composed of 2-4 monomer units from VFA(C 2-C 5), and that the contents in dried sludge were as high as 7.8. -18.2wt%. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyester composed of [R]-hydroxybuyrate (3HB), [R]-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), [R]-3-hydroxynonanoate(3HN), and [R]-3-hydroxydecanoate (3HD) with high yield of 40 wt% from acetic acid as the sole carbon source in nitrogen-free wastewater for 6-12 h. It was suggested that PHA production from wastewater treatment was possible by using the anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge. 9 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Léa; Urra, Johana; Rosenkranz, Francisca; Kroff, Pablo Araya; Plugge, Caroline M; Lesty, Yves; Chamy, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale municipal WWTP in Santiago de Chile, and fed with either primary or mixed sewage sludge. AD performance was evaluated by volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production monitoring. Archaeal community structure was characterized by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing. In the primary sludge digester, a single PAA pulse at 200 mg L(-1) was sufficient to affect AD performance and archaeal community structure, resulting in long-term VFA accumulation, reduced biogas production and community shift from dominant acetoclastic (Methanosaeta concilii) to hydrogenotrophic (Methanospirillum hungatei) methanogens. By contrast, AD performance and archaeal community structure in the mixed sludge digester were stable and resistant to repeated PAA pulses at 200 and 600 mg L(-1). This work demonstrated that the effect of PAA pulses on methanogenic activity and archaeal community structure differed according to AD substrate, and suggests that better insights of the correlations between archaeal population dynamics and functional performance could help to better face toxic shocks in AD.

  19. A new process to improve short-chain fatty acids and bio-methane generation from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    As an important intermediate product, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be generated after hydrolysis and acidification from waste activated sludge, and then can be transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion process. In order to obtain more SCFA and methane, most studies in literatures were centered on enhancing the hydrolysis of sludge anaerobic digestion which was proved as un-efficient. Though the alkaline pretreatment in our previous study increased both the hydrolysis and acidification processes, it had a vast chemical cost which was considered uneconomical. In this paper, a low energy consumption pretreatment method, i.e. enhanced the whole three stages of the anaerobic fermentation processes at the same time, was reported, by which hydrolysis and acidification were both enhanced, and the SCFA and methane generation can be significantly improved with a small quantity of chemical input. Firstly, the effect of different pretreated temperatures and pretreatment time on sludge hydrolyzation was compared. It was found that sludge pretreated at 100°C for 60min can achieve the maximal hydrolyzation. Further, effects of different initial pHs on acidification of the thermal pretreated sludge were investigated and the highest SCFA was observed at initial pH9.0 with fermentation time of 6d, the production of which was 348.63mg COD/gVSS (6.8 times higher than the blank test) and the acetic acid was dominant acid. Then, the mechanisms for this new pretreatment significantly improving SCFA production were discussed. Finally, the effect of this low energy consumption pretreatment on methane generation was investigated.

  20. Recovery of slaughterhouse Animal Fatty Wastewater Sludge by conversion into Fatty Acid Butyl Esters by acid-catalyzed esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher; Cerny, Muriel; Lacroux, Eric; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2017-02-01

    Two types of Animal Fatty Wastewater Sludges (AFWS 1 and 2) were analyzed and fully characterized to determine their suitability for conversion into biofuel. AFWS 1 was determined to be unsuitable as it contains 68.8wt.% water and only 32.3wt.% dry material, of which only around 80% is lipids to be converted. AFWS 2 has only 15.7wt.% water and 84.3wt.% dry material of which is assumed to 100% lipids as the protein and ash contents were determined to be negligible. The 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) catalyzed esterification of AFWS with 1-butanol was performed in a novel batch reactor fitted with a drying chimney for the "in situ" removal of water and optimized using a non-conventional Doehlert surface response methodology. The optimized condition was found to be 1.66mol equivalent of 1-butanol (with respect to total fatty acid chains), 10wt.% of DBSA catalyst (with respect to AFWS) at 105°C for 3h. Fatty Acid Butyl Esters (FABEs) were isolated in good yields (95%+) as well as a blend of FABEs with 1-butanol (16%). The two potential biofuels were analyzed in comparison with current and analogous biofuels (FAME based biodiesel, and FABE products made from vegetable oils) and were found to exhibit high cetane numbers and flash point values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  2. Stimulating short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge by nano zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Naidong; Wang, Dongbo

    2014-10-10

    An efficient and green strategy, i.e. adding nano zero-valent iron into anaerobic fermentation systems to remarkably stimulate the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids from waste activated sludge via accelerating the solubilization and hydrolysis processes has been developed. In the presence of nano zero-valent iron, not only the short-chain fatty acids production was significantly improved, but also the fermentation time for maximal short-chain fatty acids was shortened compared with those in the absence of nano zero-valent iron. Mechanism investigations showed that the solubilization of sludge, hydrolysis of solubilized substances and acidification of hydrolyzed products were all enhanced by addition of nano zero-valent iron. Also, the general microbial activity of anaerobes and relative activities of key enzymes with hydrolysis and acidification of organic matters were improved than those in the control. 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis suggested that the abundance of bacteria responsible for waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids production was greatly enhanced due to nano zero-valent iron addition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation into the use of cement kiln dust in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential to replace lime with cement kiln dust (CKD) in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The bench-scale study used two water samples: AMD sampled from a lead-zinc mine with high concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) (Fe/Zn-AMD) and a synthetic AMD solution (Syn-AMD) spiked with ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3). Arsenic was found to be significantly reduced with CKD-HDS treatment of Fe/Zn-AMD compared to lime-HDS treatment, to concentrations below the stringent mine effluent discharge regulation of 0.10 mg As/L (i.e., 0.04 ± 0.02 mg/L). Both CKD- and lime-HDS treatment of the two AMD samples resulted in settled water Fe concentrations above the stringent discharge guideline of 0.3 mg Fe/L. CKD addition in the HDS process also resulted in high settled water turbidity, above typical discharge guidelines of 15 mg TSS/L. CKD-HDS treatment was found to result in significantly improved settled solids (i.e., sludge) quality compared to that generated in the lime-HDS process. HDS treatment with CKD resulted in 25-88% lower sludge volume indices, 2 to 9 times higher % wet solids, and 10 to 20 times higher % dry solids compared to lime addition. XRD and XPS testing indicated that CKD-HDS sludge consisted of mainly CaCO3 and SiO2 with Fe(3+) precipitates attached at particle surfaces. XRD and XPS testing of the lime-HDS generated sludge showed that it consisted of non-crystalline Fe oxides typical of sludge formed from precipitates with a high water concentration. Increased sedimentation rates were also found for CKD (1.3 cm/s) compared to lime (0.3 cm/s). The increased solids loading with CKD addition compared to lime addition in the HDS process was suggested to both promote surface complexation of metal precipitates with insoluble CKD particles and increase compression effects during Type IV sedimentation. These mechanisms collectively contributed to the reduced water content of

  4. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  5. Studies of Acid Activation and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Aluminosilicates in Sorption Process of Phosphorus Release from Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tleuov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the actual problems of the phosphoric industry is complex usage of all got raw materials and processing of technogenic waste with receiving products. One of the main waste of phosphoric production are the phosphorus-containing sludges which are formed on stages of condensation of vaporous phosphorus. Despite numerous researches on suppression and processing of phosphoric sludges, today the universal way of their processing meeting the requirements of phosphorus production isn't found yet. In this regard, we offer a sorption method of phosphorus release from phosphorus-containing sludges. Various alumosilicate minerals, including bentonites, vermiculites, refractory clays, etc. can act as sorbents. The specified minerals possess high sorption ability with an advanced surface. Results of thermodynamic researches of heterogeneous system phosphorus - water - solid mineral impurity are given. The thermodynamic probability of the main of reaction and systems characteristic for sorption process of phosphorus release from sludges is shown. For modifying the surface of minerals of the montmorillonite group entering into bentonites and vermiculites acid activation is used. For increase in hydrophilic surface of minerals are considered exchange cations of Al+3, H+, Na+. It is shown that hydrophilic materials can be received at normal saturation by exchange cations. At its supersaturate hydrophily can reach initial (before processing values.

  6. Compositional and functional features of humic acid-like fractions from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing Meiyan, E-mail: xmy5000@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yang Jian; Huang Zhidong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The chemical changes occurring in five different substrates of sewage sludge spiked with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 90 days were investigated. Their humic acid-like (HAL) fractions were isolated to determine the elemental and functional composition, and structural and functional characteristics using ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and fluorescence spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. After vermicomposting, the total organic C and C/N ratio decreased, and the total extractable C and humic acid (HA) C increased in all substrates. In the HAL fractions, the C and H contents, C/N and C/O and aliphatic structures, proteinaceous components and carbohydrates decreased, while the O and N and acidic functional group contents and C/H ratio, aromaticity and polycondensation structures increased. Further, the results suggest that the addition of cow dung to sewage sludge could improve the quality of organic matter humification of the substrates. The structures of HAL fractions in vermicomposts resembled those typical of soil HA, especially the vermicompost of cow dung alone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of HAL fraction in final product became close-grained and lumpy. Overall results indicate that vermicomposting was an efficient technology for promoting organic matter (OM) humification in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, improving their quality and environmental safety as a soil OM resource for utilization as soil amendments.

  7. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with gaseous hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a suitable raw material for fertilizers due to its high phosphorus (P) content. However, heavy metals must be removed before agricultural application and P should be transferred into a bioavailable form. The utilization of gaseous hydrochloric acid for thermochemical heavy metal removal from SSA at approximately 1000 °C was investigated and compared to the utilization of alkaline earth metal chlorides. The heavy metal removal efficiency increased as expected with higher gas concentration, longer retention time and higher temperature. Equivalent heavy metal removal efficiency were achieved with these different Cl-donors under comparable conditions (150 g Cl/kg SSA, 1000 °C). In contrast, the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds present in the SSA after thermal treatment with gaseous HCl was not as good as the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds formed by the utilization of magnesium chloride. This disadvantage was overcome by mixing MgCO(3) as an Mg-donor to the SSA before thermochemical treatment with the gaseous Cl-donor. A test series under systematic variation of the operational parameters showed that copper removal is more depending on the retention time than the removal of zinc. Zn-removal was declined by a decreasing ratio of the partial pressures of ZnCl(2) and water.

  8. Methane Production from Rice Straw Hydrolysate Treated with Dilute Acid by Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The traditional anaerobic digestion process of straw to biogas faces bottlenecks of long anaerobic digestion time, low digestion rate, less gas production, etc., while straw hydrolysate has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. In this study, the dilute sulphuric acid-treated hydrolysate of rice straw (DSARSH) containing high sulfate was firstly proved to be a feasible substrate for methane production under mesophilic digestion by granular sludge within a short digestion time. Batch anaerobic digestion process was operated under different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) values at temperature of 37 °C with the pH of 8.5. Among the initial COD values ranging from 3000 to 11,000 mg/L, 5000 mg/L was proved to be the most appropriate considering high COD removal efficiency (94.17 ± 1.67 %), CH4 content (65.52 ± 3.12 %), and CH4 yield (0.346 ± 0.008 LCH4/g COD removed) within 120 h. Furthermore, when the studied system operated at the initial COD of 5000 mg/L, the sulfate removal ratio could reach 56.28 %.

  9. Free nitrous acid (FNA)-based pretreatment enhances methane production from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Jiang, Guangming; Jensen, Paul D; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is currently enjoying renewed interest due to the potential for methane production. However, methane production is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pretreatment strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA or HNO2) to enhance methane production from WAS. Pretreatment of WAS for 24 h at FNA concentrations up to 2.13 mg N/L substantially enhanced WAS solubilization, with the highest solubilization (0.16 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/mg volatile solids (VS), at 2.13 mg HNO2-N/L) being six times that without FNA pretreatment (0.025 mg COD/mg VS, at 0 mg HNO2-N/L). Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated methane production increased with increased FNA concentration used in the pretreatment step. Model-based analysis indicated FNA pretreatment improved both hydrolysis rate and methane potential, with the highest improvement being approximately 50% (from 0.16 to 0.25 d(-1)) and 27% (from 201 to 255 L CH4/kg VS added), respectively, achieved at 1.78-2.13 mg HNO2-N/L. Further analysis indicated that increased hydrolysis rate and methane potential were related to an increase in rapidly biodegradable substrates, which increased with increased FNA dose, while the slowly biodegradable substrates remained relatively static.

  10. Nutrient leaching potential following application of papermill lime-sludge to an acidic clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Vettorazzo

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions with soil pots during 210 days, to evaluate the effect of calcitic papermill lime-sludge application (at the rates 0, 773, 1.547, and 2.320 mg kg-1 or respective equivalents to control, 2, 4, and 6 t ha-1, on chemical composition of soil leachate and its effects on eucalypt growth and yield. Highest soil leachate pH, SO4, and Na concentrations occurred in the 4 and 6 t ha-1 treatments. Soil leachate nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing lime-sludge rate. Soil leachate phosphate remained low (below the detection limit in all treatments until 120 days, while the concentration increased in the lime-sludge treatments at 210 days (last sampling in about 600 mg L-1. Lime-sludge decreased leachate Mg concentration, but had no significant effect among rates. Soil leachate Ca, K, B, Cu, Fe, and Zn did not change significantly for any lime-sludge application rates. The maximum NO3, Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations in the soil leachate occurred at 60 days after lime-sludge application (leaching equivalent to 1 pore volume, but for pH and SO4, the maximum occurred at 210 days (leaching equivalent to 4 pore volumes. Lime-sludge application decreased the concentration of exchangeable Al in the soil. Plant diameter growth and dry matter yield were increased with increasing lime-sludge rate. Beneficial effects on mineral nutrition (P, K, Ca, B, and Zn of eucalypts were also obtained by the application of 4 and 6 t ha-1 of lime-sludge.

  11. Acid pre-treatment of sewage anaerobic sludge to increase hydrogen producing bacteria HPB: effectiveness and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, T; Sassi, G; Ruggeri, B

    2008-01-01

    The present study is aimed to test the effectiveness and the reproducibility of the acid pre-treatment of sewage sludge to suppress the methanogenic bacteria activity, in order to increase the hydrogen forming bacteria activity, mainly Clostridium species. The treated sludge has been tested on glucose reach medium under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C), in batch mode to quantify the biological fermentative hydrogen production. In the whole series of experiments, the main components of biogas are hydrogen (52-60%) and carbon dioxide (40-48%); no methane and hydrogen sulphide were present in it. The rate of biogas production reached a maximum of 75 ml/lh. An overall mean hydrogen conversion efficiency was 11.20% on the assumption of maximum of 3 mol H2/mol glucose. Clostridium spp. multiplied ten times after 10 h of fermentation and over that thousand times at the end of fermentation.

  12. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A.; Katja Dittmar; Stöckel, Frank S.; Hermann Müller; Krüger, Monika E.

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. Thi...

  13. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  14. Recovery of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt by precipitation from the acidic leachate of a mineral sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Comte, S; Guibaud, G; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the recovery potential of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) from synthetic and real acidic leachate of a mineral sludge from a metal recycling plant by sulfide precipitation. The operational parameters (metal sulfide (M/S) ratio 0.1-1, agitation speed 0-100 rpm, contact time 15-120 min and pH 1-5) were optimized in batch conditions on synthetic metal leachate (0.5 M HNO3, Mo = 101.6 mg L(-1), Ni = 70.8 mg L(-1), Co = 27.1 mg L(-1)) with a 0.1 M Na2S solution. Additionally, recovery of the target metals was theoretically simulated with a chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ 3.0). The optimized Na2S precipitation of metals from the synthetic leachate resulted in the potential selective recovery of Mo at pH 1 (98% by modeling, 95% experimental), after simultaneous precipitation of Ni and Co as sulfide at pH 4 (100% by modeling, 98% experimental). Metal precipitation from the real leachate (18 M H2SO4, Mo = 10,160 mg L(-1), Ni = 7,080 mg L(-1), Co = 2,710 mg L(-1)) was performed with 1 M Na2S, and resulted in a maximal Mo recovery at pH 2 (50%), while maximal recoveries of Ni and Co were observed at pH 4 (56% and 60%, respectively). Real leachate gave a lower metals recovery efficiency compared with synthetic leachate, which can be attributed to changes in the pH, nature of leachant, co-precipitation of Zn and competition for S(2-) ions.

  15. Selectively leaching Cu(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) from acid mine drainage sludge by using ethylenediamine-ammonium sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method based on controlling the complexation-precipitation equilibrium of metal ions was proposed to selectively recover nickel and copper from hydroxide sludge formed by lime neutralization of acid mine drainage(AMD). Ethylenediamine(EDA) and ammonium sulfate were chosen as complex reagent and precipitating reagent, respectively, to dissolve target metal hydroxides from sludge and limit useless metal ions in the pregnant solution. Results from both synthetic and natural samples show the excellent selectivity for the target metals(copper and nickel) against Fe(Ⅲ), Ca(Ⅱ) and Mg(Ⅱ), 99% recovery of Cu(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) and shorter leaching time can be reached by this process, and the resultant solution can be used for direct electrowinning. The optimum operating conditions are: pH=9~11, ρ(EDA)=40g/L, ammonium sulfate 50g/L, leaching time 5h(for natural sample) and 2.5h(for synthetic sludge), liquid to solid ratio being 4 with mechanical stirring at room temperature.

  16. Influence of wastewater sludge treatment using combined peroxyacetic acid oxidation and inorganic coagulants re-flocculation on characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijun; Cao, Bingdi; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Teng; Xia, Hua; Yu, Dehong

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are highly hydrated biopolymers and play important roles in bioflocculation, floc stability, and solid-water separation processes. Destroying EPS structure will result in sludge reduction and release of trapped water. In this study, the effects of combined process of peracetic acid (PAA) pre-oxidation and chemical re-flocculation on morphological properties and distribution and composition of EPS of the resultant sludge flocs were investigated in detail to gain insights into the mechanism involved in sludge treatment. It was found that sludge particles were effectively solubilized and protein-like substances were degraded into small molecules after PAA oxidation. A higher degradation of protein-like substances was observed at acid environments under PAA oxidation. Microscopic analysis revealed that no integral sludge floc was observed after oxidation with PAA at high doses. The floc was reconstructed with addition of inorganic coagulants (polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and PACl performed better in flocculation due to its higher charge neutralization and bridging ability. Combined oxidative lysis and chemical re-flocculation provide a novel solution for sludge treatment.

  17. Thermal Cracking of Tars in a Continuously Fed Reactor with Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    coal and biomass ) Oxygenated compounds (phenols and acids) TAR , oil, Naptha Pyrolysis gases (CO, H2, CH4, H2O, etc.) CHAR (carbon and inorganics...Fluidized Bed using biomass 8 Tars  Mixture of organic components present in gasification product gas with high molecular weight hydrocarbons [MW...Disable sulfur removal systems FoulingPlugging [Ref. 3: Biomass Gasification – Tar and Particles in Product Gases Sampling and Analysis”, European

  18. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed.

  19. TAR syndrome with orofacial clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, A; Hubert, E; Preferansow, J; Iwaszkiewicz-Pawłowska, A

    1993-01-01

    A case of TAR syndrome with bilateral cleft lip and palate is presented. Bilateral symmetric focomelia, normal thumbs among five fingers of hands, synostosis of IVth and Vth metacarpal bones and some defects of lower limbs with associated thrombocytopenia were noted. Dysmorphic facial features included hypertelorism, epicanthus, blue sclerae, broad nasal root, micrognathia, low-set ears, sparse blond hair. To our knowledge this patient represents an unusual association of TAR syndrome with orofacial clefting. A common background of TAR and Roberts/SC syndrome is suggested.

  20. Esterification free fatty acid in sludge palm oil using ZrO2/SO42- - rice husk ash catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as sludge palm oil (SPO) from palm oil industries. The use of SPO can lower the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes SPO a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid on sludge palm oil was studied using rice husk ash as heterogeneous solid catalysts. Heterogeneous solid catalysts offer significant advantages of eliminating separation, corrosion, toxicity and environmental problems. In this paper the esterification of SPO, a by-product from palm oil industry, in the presence of modified rice husk ash catalysts was studied. The rice husk ash catalysts were synthesized by impregnating of Zirconia (Zr) on rice husk ash followed by sulfonation. The rice husk ash catalysts were characterized by using different techniques, such as FT-IR, XRD, and porous analysis. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (1 - 10%), the molar ratio of methanol to oil (4:1 - 10:1), and the reaction temperature (40 - 60°C) were studied for the conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to oil molar ratio of 10:1, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  1. A Management and Economic Survey in Implementation of Blown Bitumen Production Using Acidic Sludge Recycling (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many units of blown bitumen and used-motor oil reprocessing industries have been currently implemented and many modern technologies and additives are being developed and requested continuously. The objective of current study was a management and economic survey in implementation of blown bitumen production using acidic sludge recycling as a new additive that encompasses financial views and other success factors so carried out using a Kanji’s Business Excellence Model, empirical equations, professional experiences and observations during establishment an industry. Using acidic sludge had promoted the product quality in parallel with the TQM parameters. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of commodity unit and production costs were found to be about 44%, $ 5308605.14, $ 5252251.65, $ 1183.67 , $ 5401935.47, $ 6748064.5, $ 12150000, $ 140.93 and $ 6897748.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 2.46%, time of return on investment about 0.07, BES about 800.2 (for KBEM and 806.77 (for EFQM was represented a systematic practice so that thrift outlays and boost the strength and weakness points to improve.

  2. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  3. Adsorption of acid and basic dyes by sludge-based activated carbon:Isotherm and kinetic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 王广智; 李伟光; 王萍; 宿程远

    2015-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the adsorption of an acid dye (Acid Orange 51) and a basic dye (Safranine) from aqueous solutions by the sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC). The results show that the adsorption of Acid Orange 51 decreases at high pH values, whereas the uptake of Safranine is higher in neutral and alkaline solutions than that in acidic conditions. The adsorption time needed for Safranine to reach equilibrium is shorter than that for Acid Orange 51. The uptakes of the dyes both increase with temperature increasing, indicating that the adsorption process of the dyes onto SBAC is endothermic. The equilibrium data of the dyes are both best represented by the Redlich−Peterson model. At 25 °C, the maximum adsorption capacities of SBAC for Acid Orange 51 and Safranine are 248.70 mg/g and 525.84 mg/g, respectively. The Elovich model is found to best describe the adsorption process of both dyes, indicating that the rate-limiting step involves the chemisorption. It can be concluded that SBAC is a promising material for the removal of Acid Orange 51 and Safranine from aqueous solutions.

  4. Influence of the conditions in the sulfuric-acid washing of a crude-benzole fraction on the yield and composition of the still bottoms and the yield of acid sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitkovskaya, E.A. (Baglei Coking Plant, USSR); Epimakhov, N.M.; Shapiro, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    When the BTX fraction is washed with sulphuric acid, much of the thiophen (60 to 70 percent) is transferred to the still bottoms in the form of polymers and copolymers; the remainder consists of similar compounds in sulphonated form and is distributed between the acid sludge and the acid. It has been established that as the contact period between the BTX fraction and the sulphuric acid is prolonged, the acid-sludge yield increases and the still-bottoms yield decreases. When the acid is regenerated, a proportion of the sulphonated polymers reverts to the acid sludge because they are less soluble in the diluted acid; the remainder hydrolyses and dissolves in the benzole-hydrocarbon layer. Thiophen-containing compounds are more easily sulphonated and hydrolysed than the other products of acid-washing reactions. The adoption of piperylene additions after acid addition has reduced the yield of acid sludge to a third of the former level and transferred the reaction products formed by unsaturated compounds to the still bottoms. This has greatly reduced the percentage of inorganic matter in the latter.

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-05

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid.

  6. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based on β-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFAs are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β-cyclodextrins (β-CD pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the integrated treatment of alkaline pH 10 and β-CD addition (0.2 g/g TS performed the best enhancement on VFAs production, and the maximum VFAs production was 8631.7 mg/L which was 6.13, 1.38, and 1.57 times higher than that of control, initial pH 10, and 0.2 g β-CD/g TS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrolysis rate of protein and polysaccharides was greatly improved in integration treatment, which was 1.18–3.45 times higher than that of other tests. Though the VFAs production and hydrolysis of polymeric organics were highly enhanced, the primary bacterial communities with different treatments did not show substantial differences.

  7. Identification of sulfate reducers and Syntrophobacter sp. in anaerobic granular sludge by fatty-acid biomarkers and 16S rRNA probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Stams, A.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacterial sludge population in anaerobic bioreactors, treating different types of wastewater in the presence or absence of sulfate, was evaluated by polar-lipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, and by 16S rRNA dot-blot hybridizations using specific 16S rRNA- targeted oligonucleotide

  8. Identification of sulfate reducers and Syntrophobacter sp. in anaerobic granular sludge by fatty-acid biomarkers and 16S rRNA probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Stams, A.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacterial sludge population in anaerobic bioreactors, treating different types of wastewater in the presence or absence of sulfate, was evaluated by polar-lipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, and by 16S rRNA dot-blot hybridizations using specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide p

  9. Identification of sulfate reducers and Syntrophobacter sp. in anaerobic granular sludge by fatty-acid biomarkers and 16S rRNA probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Stams, A.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacterial sludge population in anaerobic bioreactors, treating different types of wastewater in the presence or absence of sulfate, was evaluated by polar-lipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, and by 16S rRNA dot-blot hybridizations using specific 16S rRNA- targeted oligonucleotide

  10. Identification of sulfate reducers and Syntrophobacter sp. in anaerobic granular sludge by fatty-acid biomarkers and 16S rRNA probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Stams, A.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacterial sludge population in anaerobic bioreactors, treating different types of wastewater in the presence or absence of sulfate, was evaluated by polar-lipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, and by 16S rRNA dot-blot hybridizations using specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide p

  11. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  12. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  13. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  14. Production of lactic acid from the mixture of softwood pre-hydrolysate and paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Suan; Kang, Li; Lee, Y Y

    2015-03-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material composed of pulp residues and ash generated from pulping and paper making process. The carbohydrate portion of the sludges from Kraft/Recycle paper mill has chemical and physical characteristics similar to those of commercial wood pulp. Because of its high carbohydrate content and well-dispersed structure, the sludge can be biologically converted to value-added products without pretreatment. In bioconversion of solid feedstock such as paper mill sludge, a certain amount of water must be present to attain fluidity. In this study, hemicellulose pre-hydrolysate, in place of water, was added to the sludge to increase the concentration of the final product. Pre-hydrolysate was obtained by hot-water treatment of pine wood in which the total sugar concentration reached 4 wt.%. The mixture was processed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using enzymes (cellulase and pectinase) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC-10863). Pectinase was added to hydrolyze mannose oligomers in the pre-hydrolysate to monomers. During the SSF of the mixture, calcium carbonate in the paper sludge acted as a buffer, yielding calcium lactate as the final product. External pH control was unnecessary due to the buffer action of calcium carbonate that maintained the pH near optimum for the SSF. The lactic acid yield in the range of 80-90 % of the theoretical maximum was obtained. Use of the mixed feed of pre-hydrolysate and pulp mill sludges in the SSF raised the product concentration to 60 g of lactate/L.

  15. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation.

  16. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A Scheinemann

    Full Text Available Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%, the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45% is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  17. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  18. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  19. Bioaugmentation of half-matured granular sludge with special microbial culture promoted establishment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degrading aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiangchun; Ma, Jingyun; Xiong, Weicong; Wang, Xinrui

    2015-06-01

    Aerobic granular sludge degrading recalcitrant compounds are generally hard to be cultivated. This study investigated the feasibility of cultivating 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrading aerobic granules using half-matured sludge granules pre-grown on glucose as the seeds and bioaugmentation with a 2,4-D degrading strain Achromobacter sp. QXH. Results showed that bioaugmentation promoted the steady transformation of glucose-grown granules to 2,4-D degrading sludge granules and fast establishment of 2,4-D degradation ability. The 2,4-D degradation rate of the bioaugmented granules was enhanced by 36-62 % compared to the control at 2,4-D concentrations of 144-565 mg/L on Day 18. The inoculated strain was incorporated into the half-matured granules successfully and survived till the end of operation (220 days). Sludge granules at a mean size of 420 µm and capable of utilizing 500 mg/L 2,4-D as the sole carbon source were finally obtained. Sludge microbial community shifted slightly during the whole operation and the dominant bacteria species belonged to Proteobacteria.

  20. Production of volatile fatty acids by fermentation of waste activated sludge pre-treated in full-scale thermal hydrolysis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Pratt, S; Karlsson, A; Cirne, D; Lant, P; Werker, A

    2011-02-01

    This work focuses on fermentation of pre-treated waste activated sludge (WAS) to generate volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Pre-treatment by high-pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) was shown to aid WAS fermentation. Compared to fermentation of raw WAS, pre-treatment enabled a 2-5x increase in VFA yield (gVFA(COD)gTCOD(-1)) and 4-6x increase in VFA production rate (gVFA(COD) L(-1) d(-1)). Three sludges, pre-treated in full-scale HPTH plants, were fermented. One was from a plant processing a mix of primary sludge and WAS and the other two from plants processing solely WAS. The HPTH plants solubilised suspended matter, evidenced by a 20-30% decrease in suspended solids and an increase of soluble COD : total COD from 0.04 to 0.4. Fermentation of the three sludges yielded similar VFA concentrations (15-20gVFA(COD) L(-1)). The yields were largely independent of retention time (1 d-6 d) and temperature (42°C, 55°C). Also, the product spectrum depended mostly on the composition of the sludge rather than on operating conditions.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  2. Adsorption of acid red from dye wastewater by Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs and the resource of adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Tianshan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhang, Zhang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Umar, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadumar786@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Yan, Xingru; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Zhanhu [Integrated Composites Laboratory, Dan F Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.wang.ox@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • High removal efficiency of acid red 97 from dye wastewater was achieved by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs adsorbent. • The resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) was proposed for the first time. • The thermal stability of PP was significantly improved by introducing only small amount of LDH adsorbent sludge. • The resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers is a very promising option. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we report the removal of acid red 97 (AC97) from simulated dye wastewater by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides (LDHs) adsorbent, and the resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) for the first time. The obtained Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, confirming the formation of pure and platelike LDH nanoparticles. The effects of adsorption time and initial dye concentration on the removal of AC97 from wastewater were systematically investigated, showing that the Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs is very efficient in removing AC97. The saturated adsorption capacity of water washed and acetone washed Zn{sub 2}Al-LDHs is 204.4 and 299.5 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the LDH adsorbent sludge was added into PP using a modified solvent mixing method. Thermal gravimetric analysis and ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis of PP/Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDHs nanocomposites suggested that the Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDH can significantly improve the thermal stability and UV shielding ability of PP. This data demonstrated that it is very promising to resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers.

  3. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  4. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing, E-mail: renytang@163.com; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.

  5. Characteristics of the microwave pyrolysis and microwave CO2-assisted gasification of dewatered sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Young Nam; Jeong, Byeo Ri

    2017-07-28

    Microwave drying-pyrolysis or drying-gasification characteristics were examined to convert sewage sludge into energy and resources. The gasification was carried out with carbon dioxide as a gasifying agent. The examination results were compared with those of the conventional heating-type electric furnace to compare both product characteristics. Through the pyrolysis or gasification, gas, tar, and char were generated as products. The produced gas was the largest component of each process, followed by the sludge char and the tar. During the pyrolysis process, the main components of the produced gas were hydrogen and carbon monoxide, with a small amount of hydrocarbons such as methane and ethylene. In the gasification process, however, the amount of carbon monoxide was greater than the amount of hydrogen. In microwave gasification, a large amount of heavy tar was produced. The largest amount of benzene in light tar was generated from the pyrolysis or gasification. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide, which are precursors of NOx, were also generated. In the microwave heating method, the sludge char produced by pyrolysis and gasification had pores in the mesopore range. This could be explained that the gas obtained from the microwave pyrolysis or gasification of the wet sewage sludge can be used as an alternative fuel, but the tar and NOx precursors in the produced gas should be treated. Sludge char can be used as a biomass solid fuel or as a tar removal adsorbent if necessary.

  6. Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

    2013-05-01

    A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C.

  7. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri, E-mail: swije2001@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Li Xiufen [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Jian Chen, E-mail: jchen@sytu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ({approx}1000 mg/L, {approx}2000 mg/L, {approx}3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  8. Removal of Anabaena flos-aquae in water treatment process using Moringa oleifera and assessment of fatty acid profile of generated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Livia O R; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Camacho, Franciele P; Carvalho Bongiovani, Milene; Pereira de Souza, Aloisio Henrique; Kirie Gohara, Aline; Matsushita, Makoto; Fernandes Silva, Marcela; Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder, and to analyse the profile of fatty acids present in the generated sludge after treatment. For the tests, deionized water artificially contaminated with cell cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae was used, with a cell density in the order of 10(4) cells mL(-1). C/F/DAF tests were conducted using 'Flotest' equipment. For fatty acid profile analyses, a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used. It was seen that the optimal dosage (100 mg L(-1)) of MO used in the C/F/DAF process was efficient at removing nearly all A. flos-aquae cells (96.4%). The sludge obtained after treatment contained oleic acid (61.7%) and palmitic acid (10.8%). Thus, a water treatment process using C/F/DAF linked to integral MO powder seed was found to be efficient in removing cells of cyanobacteria, and produced a sludge rich in oleic acid that is a precursor favourable for obtaining quality biodiesel, thus becoming an alternative application for the recycling of such biomass.

  9. Pyrolysis of agricultural residues. Part II. Yield and chemical composition of tars and oils produced from cotton stalks, and assessment of lignin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Y.; Mobarak, F.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The pyrolysis of cotton stalks at 400-600 degrees resulted in the production of char and tar in highest yield, and the increase of temperature within this range decreased the yield of tar and phenolic compounds in the tar but increased the ratio of neutrals to acids in the tar. On decreasing the particle size of stalks, the total yield of tar remained almost constant regardless of pyrolysis temperature but that of phenols increased while that of neutrals and acids decreased. The distribution of syringol and guaiacol in phenolic products indicated that lignin in stalks belongs to the guaiacyl-syringyl type.

  10. Continuous treatment of azo acid dyes by photo-dependent denitrifying sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous removals of dye and nitrate by photo-dependent denitrifying sludge(PDDS) have been demonstrated in a continuousflow bench-scale reactor.The best C/N for the degradation of azo dyes by PDDS was 1.5.The specific removal rate of azo dye AB92 decreased with a decrease in hydraulic retention time and increased with a decrease in solids retention time.The degradation rate of TOC decreased with a decrease in hydraulic retention time.AB92,which has nitro and hydroxyl substitutions in non-para positions,was uniquely degraded.During continuous flow treatment experiments using PDDS,complete degradation of azo dyes AB92 and AO20 at influent concentrations of 40 mg/L and 30 mg/L,respectively,was achieved with an HRT of 16.

  11. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and heat pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-15

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane production. In order to further improve methane production from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and heat pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), heat alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with heat (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or heat pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. Heat pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and heat pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and heat can be produced as by-products of anaerobic sludge digestion.

  12. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  13. Research on hospital sludge disinfection by peracetic acid%过氧乙酸用于医院污泥消毒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晗; 顾平; 朱丹; 张光辉

    2012-01-01

    为控制医院污泥的污染问题,采用过氧乙酸(PAA)消毒MBR反应池污泥及沉淀后的污泥.考察了PAA投加量和接触时间对消毒效果的影响.结果表明,在2h内,MBR污泥中粪大肠菌群的对数去除率与接触时间呈线性关系,而沉淀后的污泥中粪大肠菌群的对数去除率在接触时间超过1h后出现明显的“拖尾现象”.由于沉淀后的污泥体积显著减少,因而MBR污泥先沉淀后消毒可大幅度降低消毒费用.当PAA投加量为400 mg/L、接触时间为1h时,消毒后沉淀污泥中残余粪大肠菌群能满足《医疗机构水污染物排放标准》(GB18466-2005)的要求.%In order to control the pollution of hospital sludge, peracetic acid(PAA)was used to disinfect the sludge from MBR and the settled sludge. The dosage of PAA and the contact time on the disinfection effect were investigated. The results showed that when the contact time was less than 2 hours, the logarithm removal rate of fecal coliform in the MBR sludge exhibited a well linear relationship with contact time; while the logarithm removal rate of fecal colif orm in the settled sludge showed obvious "trailing effect" when the contact time was over 1 hour. Since sedimentation could significantly reduce the volume of the sludge from MBR, disinfection of the settled sludge could greatly decrease the cost of treatment. When the dose of PAA was 400 mg/L, the contact time was 1 hour, the residual fecal colif orm in the settled sludge could meet the requirements of Discharge standard of water pollutants for medical organization (GB 18466—2005).

  14. Quantitative Use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Examine Relationships between Mycolic Acid-Containing Actinomycetes and Foaming in Activated Sludge Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Russell J.; Curtis, Thomas P; GOODFELLOW, Michael; Stainsby, Fiona M.; Bingley, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical an...

  15. Sludge treatment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  16. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acids and Trimethylamine on Denitrification in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilersen, Ann Marie; Henze, Mogens; Kløft, Lene

    1995-01-01

    with the strongest effect, n-butyric acid has a moderate effect, while TMA only have a small effect in stimulating the rates. Propionic, isobutyric, n-valeric, isovaleric and caproic acid inhibit denitrification, nitrate reduction being more inhibited than nitrite reduction. The inhibitor concentration, KI, at which...

  17. Efficient recycling of WC-Co hardmetal sludge by oxidation followed by alkali and sulfuric acid treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-hyo; Srivastava, Rajiv Ranjan; Kim, Min-seuk; Nam, Dao Duy; Lee, Jae-chun; Huynh, Hai Trung

    2016-09-01

    We present a process to recycle strategic metals, viz. tungsten and cobalt, from a WC-Co hardmetal sludge (WCHS) via oxidation followed by a two-step hydrometallurgical treatment with alkali and acid solutions. The oxidation of WCHS was investigated in the temperature range of 500 to 1000 °C and optimized at 600 °C to transform the maximum WC into an alkali-soluble WO3. The conditions for the selective dissolution of WO3 in stage-I were optimized as follows: 4.0 M NaOH, pulp density of 175 g/L, and temperature of 100 °C for 1 h, yielding maximum efficacy. Subsequently, in the second step, the optimal conditions for cobalt leaching from the alkali-treated residue were established as follows: 2.0 M H2SO4, 25 g/L pulp density, and 75 °C temperature for 30 min. Downstream processing of the obtained metal ions in solutions was also easier, as the only impurity of dicobaltite ions with the Na2WO4 solution was precipitated as Co(OH)3 under atmospheric O2; meanwhile, the CoSO4 solution obtained through the second step of processing can be treated via electrolysis to recover the metallic cobalt. The present process is simpler in operation, and the efficient use of eco-friendly lixiviants eliminates the previously reported disadvantage.

  18. Kinetic analysis of waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids production at pH 10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Leiyu; YAN Yuanyuan; CHEN Yinguang

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a preferred carbon source for enhanced biological phosphorus removal microbes, was significantly improved when waste activated sludge (WAS) was fermented at pH 10. The kinetics of WAS hydrolysis and SCFAs production at pH 10 were investigated. It was observed that during WAS anaerobic fermentation at pH 10 the accumulation of SCFAs was limited by the hydrolysis process, and both the hydrolysis of WAS particulate COD and the accumulation of SCFAs followed first-order kinetics. The hydrolysis and SCFAs accumulation rate constants increased with a increasing of temperature from 10 to 35℃, which could be described by the Arrhenius equation. The kinetic data further indicated that SCFAs production at pH 10 was a biological process. Compared with the experiment of pH uncontrolled (blank test), both the rate constants of WAS hydrolysis and SCFAs accumulation at 20℃ were significantly improved when WAS was fermented at pH 10.

  19. Acute toxicity of peroxy sulfonated oleic acids (PSOA) to freshwater aquatic species and sludge microflora as observed in laboratory environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solloch, Stephan; Pechacek, Nathan; Peterson, Bridget; Osorio, Magdalena; Caudill, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Peroxy sulfonated oleic acids (PSOA) is a novel surfactant peracid. The commercial applications of PSOA result in the chemical primarily being disposed of via industrial waste water effluent. Given this manner of disposal, it is important to understand the aquatic hazards of the chemical to better assess the risk posed to aqueous environments. Acute aquatic toxicity laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate aquatic hazards and were conducted according to standard OECD test guidelines with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), water fleas (Daphnia magna) and algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). In addition, microbial toxicity was evaluated in activated sludge obtained from a domestic sewage treatment facility. Lethal concentration in 50 % of test species (LC50) and effect concentration in 50 % of test species (EC50) values for PSOA ranged from 0.75 to 5.44 mg/L, representing a relatively small range spanning less than an order of magnitude. No observed effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) ranges were also relatively small, with ranges of 0.25-1.66 and 0.5-3.6 mg/L, respectively. The EC50, LOEC and NOEC values for microbial toxicity were 216, 60 and 20 mg/L, respectively. Predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for aqueous media were based on the 96-h LC50 (0.75 mg/L) for O. mykiss, the organism displaying the greatest sensitivity to PSOA. These values were derived for freshwater, marine water and intermittent releases to water and ranged from 7.5 × 10(-5) to 7.5 × 10(-3) mg/L. A sewage treatment plant PNEC of 2 mg/L was derived based on an activated sludge 3-h NOEC of 20 mg/L. These values, along with the anticipated environmental fate and transport for PSOA, were considered in assessing the overall aquatic risk posed by this chemical. Despite the relatively high acute aquatic hazards for PSOA, environmental modeling suggests the overall risk of PSOA to aqueous environments is low based on its

  20. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  1. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  2. Effects of solids concentration, pH and carbon addition on the production rate and composition of volatile fatty acids in prefermenters using primary sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Yuan, Z.; Keller, J.

    2006-01-01

    in prefermenters. In this study, a series of controlled batch experiments were conducted with sludge from a full-scale prefermenter to determine the impact of solids concentration, pH and addition of molasses on prefermentation processes. It was found that an increase in solids concentration enhanced total VFA...... production with an increased propionic acid fraction. The optimal pH for prefermentation was in the range of 6-7 with significant productivity loss when pH was below 5.5. Molasses addition significantly increased the production of VFAs particularly the propionic acid. However, the fermentation rate...

  3. Nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, a harsh ratio of nitrite to ammonia in influent was demanded, and the max nitrogen removal efficiency could only achieve to 89%, both of which limited the development of Anammox. The aim of this work was to study the nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. In this study, organotrophic AAOB was successfully enriched by adding acetate and propionate with the total organic carbon to nitrogen (TOC/N) ratio of 0.1. In the condition of low substrate, the TN removal efficiency reached 90%, with the effluent TN of around 11.8 mg L(-1). After the addition of acetate and propionate, the predominant species in Anammox granular sludge transformed to Candidatus Jettenia that belonging to organotrophic AAOB from the Candidatus Kuenenia relating to general AAOB.

  4. Biomass gasification in ABFB : Tar mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Nemanova

    2014-01-01

    Biomass gasification may be an attractive alternative for meeting future energy demand. Although gasification is a mature technology, it has yet to be fully commercialised due to tar formation. This study focuses on the tar mitigation in gas produced in an atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed (ABFB) gasification system. Previous studies indicated significant tar variability along the system. In this work the experimental procedure has been improved for reliable results and better understanding ...

  5. Determining short chain fatty acids in sewage sludge hydrolysate: a comparison of three analytical methods and investigation of sample storage effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Victor; Hey, Tobias; Jönsson, Karin

    2014-04-01

    In anaerobic digestion, the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be beneficial or harmful to the overall process, depending on the concentration of accumulated acids. Therefore, the accurate determination of the SCFA concentration in both fresh and stored sludge hydrolysates is important. To select a suitable method for monitoring SCFAs during the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, the accuracy of three available analytical methods, including 5 pH point acid titration (TITRA5), gas chromatography (GC), and spectrophotometry, were compared in the present study. The results revealed that TITRA5 and GC displayed better agreement in the achieved measurements and higher precision and accuracy than the spectrophotometric assay, as supported by the application of different statistical models. TITRA5 excelled in titrating unfiltered hydrolysate while simultaneously measuring the alkalinity, whereas the GC method provided detailed information on the contribution of different fatty acids to the total acidity. In contrast, the spectrophotometric assay suffered from many forms of interference, depending on the sample's matrix. SCFA production followed the pattern of enzymatic reactions and fitted the Michaelis-Menten model. In addition to promoting TITRA5 as an accurate and robust analytical tool for routine SCFA analyses, this comparative study also demonstrated the possibility of storing hydrolysate samples at different temperatures and durations without altering the SCFA measurements.

  6. Production of high optical purity l-lactic acid from waste activated sludge by supplementing carbohydrate: effect of temperature and pretreatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Qiwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan; Pan, Yin

    2016-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that the most environmentally beneficial way to treat waste activated sludge (WAS), the byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment plant, is to recover the valuable organic acid. However, the bio-conversion of lactic acid, one of the high added-value chemical, is seldom reported from WAS fermentation. In this paper, l-lactic acid was observed dominant in the WAS fermentation liquid with carbohydrate addition at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid production was fully discussed: two isomers were rapidly produced and consumed up in one day at mesophilic condition; and almost optically pure l-lactic acid was generated at thermophilic condition, yet time-consuming with yield of l-lactic acid enhancing by 52.9% compared to that at ambient temperature. The study mechanism showed that mesophilic condition was optimal for both production and consumption of l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, while consumption of l-lactic acid and production of d-lactic acid were severely inhibited at thermophilic condition. Therefore, by maintaining thermophilic for 4 h in advance and subsequently fermenting mesophilic for 34 h, the concentration of l-lactic acid with optical activity of 98.3% was improved to 16.6 ± 0.5 g COD/L at a high specific efficiency of 0.6097/d.

  7. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.

  8. Bioaugmentation of aerobic sludge granules with a plasmid donor strain for enhanced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan Xiangchun, E-mail: xchquan@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Tang Hua; Xiong Weicong; Yang Zhifeng [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Aerobic sludge granules pre-grown on glucose were bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 carrying strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 in a fed-batch microcosm system and a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to enhance their degradation capacity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The fed-batch test results showed that the bioaugmented aerobic granule system gained 2,4-D degradation ability faster and maintained a more stable microbial community than the control in the presence of 2,4-D. 2,4-D at the initial concentration of about 160 mg/L was nearly completely removed by the bioaugmented granule system within 62 h, while the control system only removed 26% within 66 h. In the bioaugmented SBR which had been operated for 90 days, the seeded aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose successfully turned into 2,4-D degrading granules through bioaugmentation and stepwise increase of 2,4-D concentration from 8 to 385 mg/L. The granules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with the mean diameter of about 450 {mu}m. The degradation kinetics of 2,4-D by the aerobic granules can be described with the Haldane kinetics model with V{sub max} = 31.1 mg 2,4-D/gVSS h, K{sub i} = 597.9 mg/L and K{sub s} = 257.3 mg/L, respectively. This study shows that plasmid mediated bioaugmentation is a feasible strategy to cultivate aerobic granules degrading recalcitrant pollutants.

  9. Bioaugmentation of aerobic sludge granules with a plasmid donor strain for enhanced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Tang, Hua; Xiong, Wei-cong; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2010-07-15

    Aerobic sludge granules pre-grown on glucose were bioaugmented with a plasmid pJP4 carrying strain Pseudomonas putida SM1443 in a fed-batch microcosm system and a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to enhance their degradation capacity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The fed-batch test results showed that the bioaugmented aerobic granule system gained 2,4-D degradation ability faster and maintained a more stable microbial community than the control in the presence of 2,4-D. 2,4-D at the initial concentration of about 160 mg/L was nearly completely removed by the bioaugmented granule system within 62 h, while the control system only removed 26% within 66 h. In the bioaugmented SBR which had been operated for 90 days, the seeded aerobic granules pre-grown on glucose successfully turned into 2,4-D degrading granules through bioaugmentation and stepwise increase of 2,4-D concentration from 8 to 385 mg/L. The granules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with the mean diameter of about 450 microm. The degradation kinetics of 2,4-D by the aerobic granules can be described with the Haldane kinetics model with V(max)=31.1 mg 2,4-D/gVSS h, K(i)=597.9 mg/L and K(s)=257.3 mg/L, respectively. This study shows that plasmid mediated bioaugmentation is a feasible strategy to cultivate aerobic granules degrading recalcitrant pollutants. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of aqueous oxalic acid by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation with MnOx/sewage sludge-derived activated carbon as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanxing; Sun, Yaru; Xu, Zhihua; Luo, Mengyu; Zhu, Chunlei; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    MnOx/sewage sludge-derived activated carbon (MnOx/SAC) was prepared as catalysts to improve the performance of aqueous oxalic acid degradation by ozonation. The results indicated that MnOx/SAC had excellent catalytic activity in mineralization of oxalic acid during heterogeneous catalytic ozonation process. MnOx/SAC with a manganese load of 30% exhibited the strongest catalytic activity under the condition of solution pH3.5, which enhanced the oxalic acid removal from 10.3% to 92.2% in 60min compared with that treated by ozone alone. Increase of catalyst dosage and aqueous ozone concentration was advantageous for oxalic acid removal from water. On the basis of catalyst characterization analysis and the observation of inhibitory effect induced by higher pH, less catalyst dosage as well as the presence of hydroxyl radical scavenger, it was deduced that the reaction mechanism involved both hydroxyl radicals attack and surface reactions.

  11. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  12. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic.

  13. Effects of pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microbiota activity of an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating pigmanure effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moterani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic processes used for treating wastewater have been often applied mainly for optimizing treatment systems. Among many of these systems, the UASB is one of the most successfully used. This type of reactor presents a good condition for microorganisms development, and therefore, for organic matter degradation. As a result, the goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of parameters, such as: temperature, pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microorganisms consortia, acclimatized in an UASB reactor, and simultaneously, observing the sludge morphology through a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, in order to identify the response of the bacteria consortia under this environmental circumstances. The biomass operated under a mesophilic temperature, varying from 190C to 210C. The maximum concentration of volatile acids was 100 mg L-1, and the volumetric organic loading rate was 59 kgCOD m-3d-1. The total alkalinity concentration values were between 2500 and 5550 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average pH value of the sludge was 7.3. Under these conditions it was observed the development of a well acclimatized granular biomass, composed mainly of filamentous bacteria.

  14. Coal tar: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thami, G.P.; Sarkar, R. [Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Dermatology & Venerology

    2002-03-01

    Crude coal tar has been used in the treatment of dermatoses for many decades. In the last few years its use has been limited to skin diseases such as psoriasis and chronic dermatitis. Newer topical modalities for psoriasis are being used increasingly for treatment, but have failed to replace crude coal tar as a first-line treatment of psoriasis. The authors review the pharmacology, chemistry and use of crude coal tar in order to reappraise its role as a therapeutic agent in dermatology.

  15. Cancer fear over coal tar products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a report by Dutch researchers which suggests that the regular use of coal tar shampoos may significantly increase the risk of cancer due to the high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the products. The PAH exposure of volunteers using a coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo was studied by measuring the amount of hydroxypyrene, a PAH breakdown product in their urine. Volunteers who had used the shampoo excreted high levels of hydroxypyrene the day after exposure. Excretion by the control group using a non-coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo remained constant. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  16. USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2005-10-31

    This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.

  17. Deciphering structure-activity relationships in a series of Tat/TAR inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Lise; González, Alejandro López; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Gaysinski, Marc; Teixido Closa, Jordi; Tejedor, Roger Estrada; Azoulay, Stéphane; Patino, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    A series of pentameric "Polyamide Amino Acids" (PAAs) compounds derived from the same trimeric precursor have been synthesized and investigated as HIV TAR RNA ligands, in the absence and in the presence of a Tat fragment. All PAAs bind TAR with similar sub-micromolar affinities but their ability to compete efficiently with the Tat fragment strongly differs, IC50 ranging from 35 nM to >2 μM. While NMR and CD studies reveal that all PAA interact with TAR at the same site and induce globally the same RNA conformational change upon binding, a comparative thermodynamic study of PAA/TAR equilibria highlights distinct TAR binding modes for Tat competitor and non-competitor PAAs. This led us to suggest two distinct interaction modes that have been further validated by molecular modeling studies. While the binding of Tat competitor PAAs induces a contraction at the TAR bulge region, the binding of non-competitor ones widens it. This could account for the distinct PAA ability to compete with Tat fragment. Our work illustrates how comparative thermodynamic studies of a series of RNA ligands of same chemical family are of value for understanding their binding modes and for rationalizing structure-activity relationships.

  18. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  19. Steam reforming of tars at low temperature and elevated pressure for model tar component naphthalene

    OpenAIRE

    Speidel, Michael; Fischer, Holger

    2016-01-01

    A process of pressurized gasification and power generation in a hybrid system of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and gas turbine enables an efficient use of biomass. This process requires tar reforming in order to protect the SOFC from plugging. Tars must be converted at 5 bar absolute pressure (bara) while avoiding secondary steam reforming of methane in order to reduce the required heat input for the tar reformer. This can be realized at low reforming temperatures (

  20. 微波-柠檬酸浸出城市污泥中重金属%Citric acid extraction of heavy metals in municipal sludge with microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵甜; 王林; 曹珂; 车轩; 程刚

    2012-01-01

    Citric acid was used as extractant to leach heavy metals which in the municipal sludge with microwave. Effects of heating rate,pH value,mixing time on leaching efficiency were investigated. The results showed that under the condition of heating rate at 15 t/min, pH value at 3, front-mixing time 30 min,radiation time at 2. 3 min with power of 170 W and after-mixing time at 3 h,the leaching rate of Zn,Cu,Ni and Pb in municipal sludge is 47. 84% ,11. 05% ,43. 83% ,25. 59% .respectively. The average leaching rate increased 50. 7% and the reaction time decreased 8 h compared with no microwave radiation. The content of heavy metals in the municipal sludge after treatment was far lower than the standard (GB 4284-84).%采用微波辅助柠檬酸浸出城市污泥中的重金属,考察了升温速率、pH值、搅拌时间等对浸出率的影响.结果表明,升温速率为15 ℃/min,pH值调至3,前搅拌30 min,170 W功率下微波2.3 min,再反应3h,污泥中Zn、Cu、Ni与Pb的浸出率分别达到了47.84%,11.05%,43.83%,25.59%,较无微波条件下,重金属浸出率平均提升了50.7%,反应时间缩短了8h.处理后污泥中重金属含量远低于《农用污泥中污染物控制标准》(GB 4284-84).

  1. Quantitative use of fluorescent in situ hybridization to examine relationships between mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and foaming in activated sludge plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R J; Curtis, T P; Goodfellow, M; Stainsby, F M; Bingley, M

    2000-03-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical analyses showed that a lipase-based permeabilization method was quantitatively superior to previously described methods (P < 0.05). When mixed liquor and foam samples were examined, most of the mycolata present were rods or cocci, although filamentous mycolata were also observed. A nested analysis of variance showed that virtually all of the measured variance occurred between fields of view and not between samples. On this basis we determined that as few as five fields of view could be used to give a statistically meaningful sample. Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to examine the relationship between foaming and the concentration of mycolata in a 20-m(3) completely mixed activated sludge plant. Foaming occurred when the number of mycolata exceeded a certain threshold value. Baffling of the plant affected foaming without affecting the number of mycolata. We tentatively estimated that the threshold foaming concentration of mycolata was about 2 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) or 4 x 10(12) cells m(-2). We concluded that quantitative use of FISH is feasible and that quantification is a prerequisite for rational investigation of foaming in activated sludge.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  3. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  5. Improving the simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand and terephthalic acid in a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dong-Xue; Tian, Yu; Chen, Zhao-Bo; Ge, Hui; Cui, Yu-Bo; Ran, Chun-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were implemented to optimize the operational parameters for a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor (CFASR) in remedying mixed printing and dyeing wastewater (MPDW). The individual and interactive effects of three variables, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH and sludge loading rate (SLR), on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid (TA) removal rates were evaluated. For HRT of 15.3-19.8 hours, pH of 7.2-8.1 and SLR of 0.4-0.6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per kg mixed liquor suspended solids per day, COD and TA removal rates of the CFASR exceeded 85% and 90%, respectively. The check experiment revealed that the effluent from the optimized CFASR was stable below the limitation of 100 mg COD/L and the TA concentration decreased by 6.0% compared to the usual CFASR. The results verified that the RSM was useful for optimizing the operation parameters of the CFASR in remedying MPDW.

  6. Dominant role of the 5' TAR bulge in dimerization of HIV-1 genomic RNA, but no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing during in vivo virus assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalirad, Mohammad; Saadatmand, Jenan; Laughrea, Michael

    2012-05-08

    The 5' untranslated region of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) contains two stem-loop structures that appear to be equally important for gRNA dimerization: the 57-nucleotide 5' TAR, at the very 5' end, and the 35-nucleotide SL1 (nucleotides 243-277). SL1 is well-known for containing the dimerization initiation site (DIS) in its apical loop. The DIS is a six-nucleotide palindrome. Here, we investigated the mechanism of TAR-directed gRNA dimerization. We found that the trinucleotide bulge (UCU24) of the 5' TAR has dominant impacts on both formation of HIV-1 RNA dimers and maturation of the formed dimers. The ΔUCU trinucleotide deletion strongly inhibited the first process and blocked the other, thus impairing gRNA dimerization as severely as deletion of the entire 5' TAR, and more severely than deletion of the DIS, inactivation of the viral protease, or most severe mutations in the nucleocapsid protein. The apical loop of TAR contains a 10-nucleotide palindrome that has been postulated to stimulate gRNA dimerization by a TAR-TAR kissing mechanism analogous to the one used by SL1 to stimulate dimerization. Using mutations that strongly destabilize formation of the TAR palindrome duplex, as well as compensatory mutations that restore duplex formation to a wild-type-like level, we found no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing, even though mutations nullifying the kissing potential of the TAR palindrome could impair dimerization by a mechanism other than hindering of SL1. However, nullifying the kissing potential of TAR had much less severe effects than ΔUCU. By not uncovering a dimerization mechanism intrinsic to TAR, our data suggest that TAR mutations exert their effect 3' of TAR, yet not on SL1, because TAR and SL1 mutations have synergistic effects on gRNA dimerization.

  7. Influence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on heavy metal transfer in the activated-sludge process-1. At constant loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoveland, S.; Lester, J.N.; Perry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory study of the effect of NTA, a builder in synthetic detergents, on the removal of heavy metals from a synthetic sewage prepared with hard water showed that NTA was degraded by 85 to 100% after an initial acclimation period of 16 to 31 days. In a sewage prepared with soft water, there was no biodegradation after 60 days, and with the exception of a small amount of chromium, metals were not absorbed by the activated sludge. Metal absorption was increased to some extent by the addition of condensed phosphates. The implications of these results for soft-water areas where NTA is used as a detergent builder are discussed.

  8. Phenol-formaldehyde resin substitutes from biomass tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmelblau, D.A. [Biocarbons Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Approximately 320,000 tonnes of phenol and formaldehyde are currently used annually in North America to make adhesive resins that are used to make exterior-grade structural panels. The demand for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins is growing faster than the demand for panels, because more adhesive is required to join/coat the surface of wood flakes (for oriented strand board - OSB) than is required to join veneer; OSB is replacing plywood as logs large enough for veneer become scarcer. Also, competitive uses for phenol and methanol (for making formaldehyde) have increased raw materials cost and threatened availability. Production of adhesive resins from biomass to reduce reliance on raw materials derived from commodity petrochemicals and to lower resin cost looks attractive. A simple fluidized-bed reactor system can be used to produce tars that can substitute for a major portion of the phenol and formaldehyde in PF resin adhesives. This can be done in an air-fluidized, single-bed reactor; no inert gas or dual-bed system is required. The key is recognizing that optimum phenolic character in the tar is not produced at the maximum tar yield, but at reactor temperatures around 600{degrees}C and short gas-phase residence times that produce a yield of about 25 to 30 weight percent. A wide range of phenols, aldehydes and other compounds capable of polymerization are produced. Feedstock can be any wood waste larger than sander dust; low cost agricultural wastes such as bagasse are also suitable. Adhesive resin is produced from the entire tar product by shifting the pH from acidic to basic with NaOH, and combining and heating the resulting resole with phenol and formaldehyde, similarly to conventional resins. Approximately half of the phenol and formaldehyde by weight can be replaced with tar. A plant producing 13,865,000 kg (30,566,000 lb) annually from 308 tonnes (340 tons) per day of green wood chips would cost approximately $8,400,000.

  9. Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Nardos Gobena

    This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and

  10. Anaerobic Biodegradation Tests of Poly(lactic acid under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions Using a New Evaluation System for Methane Fermentation in Anaerobic Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaaki Yagi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid (PLA powder were done at the thermophilic (55 °C and mesophilic temperature (35 °C under aquatic conditions [total solid concentrations of the used sludge were 2.07% (at 55 °C and 2.24% (at 35 °C] using a newly developed evaluation system. With this system, the evolved biogas is collected in a gas sampling bag at atmospheric pressure. This method is more convenient than using a pressure transducer or inverted graduated cylinder submerged in water. PLA was degraded about 60% in 30 days, about 80% in 40 days and about 90% in 60 days at 55 °C. On the other hand, the PLA degradation started in 55 days at 35 °C and degradation rate was much slower than at 55 °C.

  11. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

  12. Determination of Heavy Metal Content of Arsenic Sludge of Sulfuric Acid Industry%硫酸工业含砷污泥中的重金属测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永文; 李成国; 毕亚凡

    2011-01-01

    以某硫酸企业含砷污泥为研究对象,采用现行的浸取方法处理该含砷污泥,并用原子荧光光谱法和火焰原子吸收分光光度法测定其浸出液中的砷和铅、镉、铜、锌等5种重金属含量.结果表明,含砷污泥中砷、铅、镉、铜4种重金属含量均存在超标现象,相对标准偏差在81.1%~103.5%之间,加标回收率在0.05%~0.64%之间.此分析方法简便、灵敏、准确,适用于硫酸工业含砷污泥等固体废物中重金属含量的测定.%The arsenic sludge taken from a sulfuric acid enterprise was treated with the current method, then contents of five kinds of heavy metal arsenic, lead, codmium, copper, zinc, which were contained in its leaching solution, were determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectro-photometry. The results showed that, contents of four heavy metals including arsenil, lead, codmium, copper were over the limit. The relative standard deviations were 0. 05%~0. 64%, and the recoveries were 81. 1%~ 103. 5%. This analysis method is simple, sensitive, accurate and suitable for determination of heavy metal content of arsenic sludge and other solid industrial wastes of sulfuric acid industry.

  13. Site-selective probing of cTAR destabilization highlights the necessary plasticity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein to chaperone the first strand transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Julien; Kenfack, Cyril; Przybilla, Frédéric; Richert, Ludovic; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first strand transfer, NCp7 is thought to destabilize cTAR, the (−)DNA copy of the TAR RNA hairpin, and subsequently direct the TAR/cTAR annealing through the zipping of their destabilized stem ends. To further characterize the destabilizing activity of NCp7, we locally probe the structure and dynamics of cTAR by steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. NC(11–55), a truncated NCp7 version corresponding to its zinc-finger domain, was found to bind all over the sequence and to preferentially destabilize the penultimate double-stranded segment in the lower part of the cTAR stem. This destabilization is achieved through zinc-finger–dependent binding of NC to the G10 and G50 residues. Sequence comparison further revealed that C•A mismatches close to the two G residues were critical for fine tuning the stability of the lower part of the cTAR stem and conferring to G10 and G50 the appropriate mobility and accessibility for specific recognition by NC. Our data also highlight the necessary plasticity of NCp7 to adapt to the sequence and structure variability of cTAR to chaperone its annealing with TAR through a specific pathway. PMID:23511968

  14. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process.

  15. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  16. Oxidative Damage to Nucleic Acids and Benzo(apyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts and Chromosomal Aberration in Children with Psoriasis Repeatedly Exposed to Crude Coal Tar Ointment and UV Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a prospective cohort study. Observed group was formed of children with plaque psoriasis (n=19 treated by Goeckerman therapy (GT. The study describes adverse (side effects associated with application of GT (combined exposure of 3% crude coal tar ointment and UV radiation. After GT we found significantly increased markers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine, significantly increased levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA, and significantly increased levels of total number of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. We found significant relationship between (1 time of UV exposure and total number of aberrated cells and (2 daily topical application of 3% crude coal tar ointment (% of body surface and level of BPDE-DNA adducts. The findings indicated increased hazard of oxidative stress and genotoxic effects related to the treatment. However, it must be noted that the oxidized guanine species and BPDE-DNA adducts also reflect individual variations in metabolic enzyme activity (different extent of bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene to BPDE and overall efficiency of DNA/RNA repair system. The study confirmed good effectiveness of the GT (significantly decreased PASI score.

  17. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  19. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaning; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Werth, Charles J.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr 2O 7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr 2O 7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr 2O 7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr 2O 7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  20. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  1. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

  2. Investigation of sewage sludge treatment using air plasma assisted gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striūgas, Nerijus; Valinčius, Vitas; Pedišius, Nerijus; Poškas, Robertas; Zakarauskas, Kęstutis

    2017-06-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation of downdraft gasification process coupled with a secondary thermal plasma reactor in order to perform experimental investigations of sewage sludge gasification, and compare process parameters running the system with and without the secondary thermal plasma reactor. The experimental investigation were performed with non-pelletized mixture of dried sewage sludge and wood pellets. To estimate the process performance, the composition of the producer gas, tars, particle matter, producer gas and char yield were measured at the exit of the gasification and plasma reactor. The research revealed the distribution of selected metals and chlorine in the process products and examined a possible formation of hexachlorobenzene. It determined that the plasma assisted processing of gaseous products changes the composition of the tars and the producer gas, mostly by destruction of hydrocarbon species, such as methane, acetylene, ethane or propane. Plasma processing of the producer gas reduces their calorific value but increases the gas yield and the total produced energy amount. The presented technology demonstrated capability both for applying to reduce the accumulation of the sewage sludge and production of substitute gas for drying of sewage sludge and electrical power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2000-03-22

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

  4. Mineralogy of the hardpan formation processes in the interface between sulfide-rich sludge and fly ash: Applications for acid mine drainage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; Alvarez-Valero, A.M.; De Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology

    2007-11-15

    In the present study, experiments in non-saturated leaching columns were conducted to characterize the neoformed phases that precipitate at the interface between two waste residues having different chemical characteristics: an acid mine drainage producer residue (i.e., pyritic sludge) and an acidity neutralizer residue (i.e., coal combustion fly ash). A heating source was placed on top of one of the columns to accelerate oxidation and precipitation of newly formed phases, and thus, to observe longer-scale processes. When both residues are deposited together, the resulting leachates are characterized by alkaline pH, and low sulfate and metal concentrations. Two mechanisms help to improve the quality of the leachates. Over short-time scales, the leaching of pyrite at high pH (as a consequence of fly ash addition) favors the precipitation of ferrihydrite, encapsulating the pyrite grains and attenuating the oxidation process. Over longer time scales, a hardpan is promoted at the interface between both residues due to the precipitation of ferrihydrite, jarosite, and a Ca phase-gypsum or aragonite, depending on carbonate ion activity. Geochemical modeling of leachates using PHREEQC software predicted supersaturation in the observed minerals. The development of a relatively rigid crust at the interface favors the isolation of the mining waste from weathering processes, helped by the cementation of fly ash owing to aragonite precipitation, which ensures total isolation and neutralization of the mine residues.

  5. The influence of acid and base waste on the activated sludge system; Influencia de vertidos acidos y basicos sobre el sistema de fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello Oviedo, M. D.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2003-07-01

    A study has been made of the effect of acid and base waste on the microorganisms in the activated sludge reactor. This effect was monitored using the classical control parameters (SVS and the percentage of organic matter eliminated) and by measuring the activity of the microorganisms (specific breathing rate and percentage of active cells). The results obtained indicate that the macrobiotic is affected at the extremes of the pH range (pH 4,5 and pH 10.5). The system's performance worsens and therefore the quality of the effluent fails to comply with European Directive 91/271/EEC. In the tests carried out with pH 6 and 9, the microorganisms activity declined at first,but the system eventually recovered and returned to levels of activity similar to those prior to the test. It was also found that deviations of the supply towards acid pH had a greater negative effect on the reactor than identical deviations towards baseness. (Author) 12 refs.

  6. Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Martynov, V.Y.; Chilachava, K.B.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900 {degree}C and contact time of 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbon, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component composition of the liquid products and pyrolysis gas were determined. The main groups of compounds in liquid products were analysed.

  7. Acid Tolerance Response of Anaerobic Sludge with Butyric Acid Stress during the Enhanced Biohydrogen Process%生物产氢过程中厌氧污泥耐酸响应的生物化学机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟影; 张光生; 王爱杰; 严群

    2012-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of biomass,large amounts of organic acids were produced. This results in an inhibitory effect on anaerobic microbiology,which in turn inhibits large-scale production of hydrogen. In this study, butyric acid was use as stress on the sludge, and it was found that the production rates of butyric acid, acetic acid and hydrogenwas reached at 400 mmol/mol, 1100 mmol/mol, 3690 mL/mol, respectively, which was higher 110%, 54% and 65% than that of the corresponding values in the control group. Moreover, glutamate acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity, dehydrogenase activity and the content of DNA was in-creased to 11. 6 ,μm/(g · TS · h), 6982. 12 μg TF/(g · TS · h) 14. 72 ng/mL, with an increment of 48%, 50%, 10.7%, respectively, and the content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have improved significantly, loose bound protein, loose bound polysaccharide, tight bound protein and tight bound polysaccharide content were 147%, 34. 8%, 35%, 21. 6% higher than that of the control. The results demonstrate that the appropriate concentration of butyric acid stress on sludge can excite acid tolerance response (Acid tolerance response, ATR) and to improve acid tolerance of sludge, and improve the efficiency of anaerobic hydrogen production.%生物质厌氧发酵产氢过程中积累的大量酸性物质,会对厌氧微生物产生抑制作用,进而制约氢气的持续产生.作者采用不同浓度丁酸对污泥进行胁迫,结果表明:当丁酸胁迫质量浓度为6 g/L时,污泥厌氧发酵过程中丁酸、乙酸以及氢气产量最高,分别达到1 071 mmol/mol,462mmol/mol和3 690 mL/mol,比对照组分别提高了110%,54%和65%;此外,产氢过程中谷氨酸脱羧酶(glutamic acid decarboxylase,GAD)、脱氢酶以及DNA总量活性最高达到11.6μmol/(g·TS·h),6 982.12 μg TF/(g·TS·h),14.72 ng/mL,相对于对照组分别提高了48%,50%,10.7%;同时,经过酸胁迫后,

  8. Effects of various pretreatments on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO BenYi; LIU JunXin

    2009-01-01

    The sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant is a kind of biomass which contains many organics,mainly carbohydrates and proteins. Four pretreatments, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment,thermal pretreatment and ultrasonic pretreatment, were used to enhance biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the four pretreatments could all increase the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge and decrease the dry solid (DS) and volatile solid(VS) because the pretreatments could disrupt the floc structure and even the microbial cells of sludge.The results of batch anaerobic fermentation experiments demonstrated that all of the four pretreat-ments could select hydrogen-producing microorganisms from the microflora of sludge and enhance the hydrogen production. The hydrogen yield of the alkaline pretreated sludge at initial pH of 11.5 was the maximal (11.68 mL H2/g VS) and that of the thermal pretreated sludge was the next (8.62 mL H2/g VS).The result showed that the hydrogen yield of pretreated sludge was correlative with its SCOD. The hydrogen yields of acid pretreated sludge and alkaline pretreated sludge were also influenced by their initial pH. No methane could be detected in the anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge and thermal pretreated sludge, which suggested that these pretreatments could fully inhibit the activity of methanogens. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) production in anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge was the maximum and the next is that of thermal pretreated sludge.

  9. Enhancing Volatile Fatty Acid by anaerobic digestion using municipal sludge combined with multiple organics%污泥联合不同有机质对厌氧发酵产酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骥延

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the process of three main organic components(carbohydrates,proteins,lipids)anaerobic digestion with municipal sludge to inhancing Volatile Fatty Acid(VFA)product. According to the text,VFA achieves maximum production when anaerobic digestion com-bined with protein,the maximum yield reaches 14. 52 g/ L and 43. 47% productivity,increasing 218% and 59% respectively compared to sludge solo anaerobic digestion. Sludge combined with lipid produce only 39% yield of VFA compared to sludge solo anaerobic digestion.%研究了城市有机垃圾的三种主要成分(碳水化合物,蛋白质,脂质)与市政污泥联合厌氧发酵产酸的过程,试验结果表明,蛋白类有机质能大幅提高厌氧发酵效率,其后期产酸量达到14.52 g/ L,挥发酸产率43.47%,分别比污泥单独厌氧发酵提高218%和59%;污泥联合脂质厌氧发酵产酸量最低,仅为单独厌氧发酵产酸量的39%。

  10. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  11. pTAR-encoded proteins in plasmid partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnin, K; Stegalkina, S; Yarmolinsky, M

    2000-04-01

    Partition cassettes, essential for the segregational stability of low-copy-number bacterial plasmids, typically encode two autoregulated proteins and an adjacent cis-acting centromere analog to which one or perhaps both proteins bind. The diminutive partition region of pTAR of Agrobacterium spp. was reported to be exceptional, encoding only a single protein, ParA (D. R. Gallie and C. I. Kado, J. Mol. Biol. 193:465-478, 1987). However, resequencing of the region revealed two small downstream genes, parB and orf-84, of which only parB was found to be essential for partitioning in A. tumefaciens. Purified ParA exhibited a weak ATPase activity that was modestly increased by nonspecific DNA. ParB bound in vitro to repeated sequences present in a region, parS, that possesses centromere and operator functions and within which we identified the primary transcription start site by primer extension. In certain respects the Par proteins behave normally in the foreign host Escherichia coli. In E. coli, as in A. tumefaciens, ParB repressed the partition operon; ParA, inactive alone, augmented this repression. Functional similarities between the partition system of pTAR and those of other plasmids and bacteria are prominent, despite differences in size, organization, and amino acid sequence.

  12. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits.

  13. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock.

  14. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant......The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...

  15. Distributions of 14 elements into 10 liquid extractants from simulated acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate solutions of Hanford high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The distributions of 14 elements into ten extractants were measured from simulant solutions that represent acidic dissolved sludge and acidified supernate from Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY. The extractants: LIX{sup TM}-26, LIX{sup TM}-54, LIX{sup TM}-84, LIX{sup TM}-1010, Cyanex{sup TM} 272, Cyanex{sup TM} 923, Aliquat{sup TM} 336, DHDECMP, DHDECMP-DIPB, and CMPO-DIPB, were sorbed on porous carbon beads to provide dry-appearing beads that would be suitable for column operations. The selected elements, which represent fission products: Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y; actinides: U, Pu, and Am; and matrix elements: Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr; were traced by radionuclides and measured by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of 280 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours to provide sorption kinetics information for the selected elements from these complex media. The resulting 840 measured distribution coefficients are presented.

  16. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Feng, Sha; Bai, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jingchan; Xia, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.

  17. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  18. Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Rozental, D.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group composition of the liquid products were determined. The total analysis of the major groups of compounds present in the liquid products was performed, and the optimal conditions of pyrolysis, from the viewpoint of preparation of particular compounds, were recommended.

  19. Analysis on characteristics of biomass tar and enhancing quality%生物质焦油的特性分析及提质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛建; 齐国利; 董芃

    2012-01-01

    Physical and chemical characteristics of tar that was produced by biomass gasification were studied, including flash point, ignition point, density, viscosity and acidity. And typical biomass tar was studied by industrial analysis and elemental analysis. Focusing on changes that composition of biomass tar before and after in the distillation. Results showed that: physical and chemical characteristics of birch tar, straw tar and rice husk tar that was distilled were not significant different; heating value, moisture and ash content of three kinds of tar were similar, but the percent of element content was different; tar components increased by distillation from 45 species to 147 kinds of species, components of known major compounds in fraction of biomass pyrolysis tar were increased, and availbility of fraction of tar were enhanced.%对生物质气化过程中产生的焦油进行了理化特性的研究,包括闪点、燃点、密度、黏度和酸度的分析,并对典型生物质焦油进行了工业分析和元素分析,重点研究了生物质焦油蒸馏前后成分的变化,结果表明,蒸馏后的桦木屑焦油、秸秆焦油和稻壳焦油的理化特性无明显差别;三类焦油的发热量、水分和灰分相近,但是元素组成的百分比有差异;焦油经过蒸馏后成分种类从45种增加到147种,馏分中可辨识的成分种类增加,可利用性增强.

  20. [Adsorption of a dye by sludges and the roles of extracellular polymeric substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wang-sheng; Liu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigated the adsorption of a dye, acid turquoise blue A, by four kinds of sludges including activated sludge, anaerobic sludge, dried activated sludge, and dried anaerobic sludge, respectively. The roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including the soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) for the biosorption of activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were further studied. Results show that the relation between four kinds of sludge adsorption amount and remained concentration of the dye fitted well both Freundlich model (R2: 0.921-0.995) and Langmuir model (R2: 0.958-0.993), but not quite fitted BET model (R2: 0.07-0.863). The adsorption capability of dried anaerobic sludge ranked the highest, and dried activated sludge was the lowest. According to Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption amount of dried anaerobic, anaerobic, activated, and dried activated sludge was 104 mg/g, 86 mg/g, 65 mg/g, 20 mg/g, respectively. The amount of the dye found in EPS for both activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were over 50%, illustrating that EPS adsorption was predominant in adsorption of the dye by sludge. The amount of adsorbed dye by BEPS was greater than that by SEPS for anaerobic sludge, but for activated sludge the result was quite opposite. The amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was much higher than the corresponding values of BEPS for both sludges. The average amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was 52 times of the corresponding value of BEPS for activated sludge, and 10 times for anaerobic sludge. The relation between adsorption amount of dye by BEPS from anaerobic sludge and remained concentration of the dye in mixed liquor was best fitted to Langmuir model (R2: 0.9986).

  1. Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems.

  2. Prostaglandin precursors in plasma phospholipids of patients with psoriasis: effects of treatment with coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A M; Horrobin, D F; Manku, M S; Huang, Y S

    1984-05-01

    Plasma phospholipids of patients with psoriasis have significantly reduced levels of dihomogammalinolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and adrenic acid (22:4n-6), the precursors of the 1, 2 and homo-2 series of prostaglandins (PGs). Concentrations of the 3 series PG precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were normal. Hospital treatment with a coal tar regime produced a rise in 20:3n-6 to levels which were significantly above normal.

  3. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  4. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  5. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  6. 盐酸法提取污泥中蛋白质过程的研究%Study on the Processes of Protein Extraction from Sludge by Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓; 刘勇

    2012-01-01

    为了探索剩余污泥中蛋白质的提取方法,采用盐酸和氢氧化钠对污泥中蛋白质进行了提取,并对提取液进行了紫外光谱分析.结果证明盐酸提取法更有利于污泥中蛋白质的提取操作,并可以保证蛋白质质量.随后,实验考察了温度、污泥浓度、盐酸浓度以及操作时间对提取液中蛋白质浓度的影响情况.结果表明:蛋白质浓缩随温度呈先慢后快的增加趋势,随污泥浓度呈线性增加趋势,随盐酸浓度呈先快后慢增加趋势,适当延长时间有利于提升提取液中的蛋白质浓度.%In order to explore the methods of protein extraction from sludge, firstly, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide were used to extract protein in this paper, and then the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrum. The results showed that hydrochloric acid extraction method was more conducive to the protein extraction and could ensure the protein quality. Subsequently, the effects of temperature, sludge concentration, hydrochloric acid concentration and operating time on protein concentration in the extract were experimentally investigated in detail. The results show that: the change trend of the protein concentration in the extract with temperature is slow after fast, with sludge concentration is linear, with hydrochloric acid is fast before slow, and appropriate extension of time will help to enhance the protein concentration in the extract.

  7. Illumina sequencing-based analyses of bacterial communities during short-chain fatty-acid production from food waste and sewage sludge fermentation at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Yan, ShuHai; Su, Jianqiang

    2014-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be produced by primary and waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation. The yield and product spectrum distribution of SCFAs can be significantly affected by different initial pH values. However, most studies have focused on the physical and chemical aspects of SCFA production by waste activated sludge fermentation at different pH values. Information on the bacterial community structures during acidogenic fermentation is limited. In this study, comparisons of the bacterial communities during the co-substrate fermentation of food wastes and sewage sludge at different pH values were performed using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method. The results showed that different pH environments harbored a characteristic bacterial community, including sequences related to Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Mitsuokella, Treponema, Clostridium, and Ureibacillus. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the different pH environments were those related to carbohydrate-degrading bacteria, which are associated with constituents of co-substrate fermentation. Further analyses showed that during organic matter fermentation, a core microbiota composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes existed. Comparison analyses revealed that the bacterial community during fermentation was significantly affected by the pH, and that the diverse product distribution was related to the shift in bacterial communities.

  8. Enhanced Lipid and Biodiesel Production from Glucose-Fed Activated Sludge: Kinetics an Microbial Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative approach to increase biofuel feedstock lipid yields from municipal sewage sludge via manipulation of carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio and glucose loading in activated sludge bioreactors was investigated. Sludge lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) yields (% cel...

  9. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael; Zhang, Etuan; Marino, Marian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Ryan, Robert Charles; Beer, Gary Lee; Dombrowski, Robert James; Jaiswal, Namit

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Síndrome TAR con tetrafocomelia

    OpenAIRE

    Miscione, H.; Primono, C.

    1997-01-01

    El síndrome TAR es un estigma genético recesivo de baja incidencia dentro de la patología ortopédica infantil general. El objetivo de este trabajo es la presentación de aquellos pacientes en donde la impregnación del síndrome es completa. Estos niños tienen en común la trombocitopenia intensa durante los primeros años de la vida, la amelia bilateral de sus miembros superiores, la fusión femorotibial y la agenesia de tibia de distinto grado. A estos síntomas se suman algunas otr...

  13. Mixture for removing tar and paraffin deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kamenshchikov, F.A.; Frolov, M.A.; Golovin, I.N.; Khusainov, Z.M.; Smirnov, Ya.L.; Suchkov, B.M.

    1981-05-23

    Mixture is claimed for removing tar and paraffin deposits (TPD) on the basis of the butyl-benzene fraction (BBF), which is intended to more efficiently remove TPD from the surface of refinery equipment, additionally has piperylene, isoprene and isoamine with the following ratio of the components: piperylene, 19-31%; isoprene, 8-12%; isoamines, 8-12%, while BBF, the rest. The efficiency of the given compositions was assessed by the rate at which the plates were cleaned of TPD and pure commercial paraffin. It has been shown that BBF dissolves 4-6 times faster in the given mixture than in BBF and pyperylene.

  14. SLUDGE BATCH 6 PHASE II FLOWSHEET SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.; Best, D.

    2010-03-30

    Two Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were used to demonstrate that a fairly wide window of acid stoichiometry was available for processing SB6 Phase II flowsheet simulant (Tank 40 simulant) while still meeting the dual goals of acceptable nitrate destruction and controlled hydrogen generation. Phase II was an intermediate flowsheet study for the projected composition of Tank 40 after transfer of SB6/Tank 51 sludge to the heel of SB5. The composition was based on August 2009 projections. A window of about 50% in total acid was found between acceptable nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation.

  15. Characterization and performance of carbonaceous materials obtained from exhausted sludges for the anaerobic biodecolorization of the azo dye Acid Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalathil, S.; Stüber, F.; Bengoa, C.; Font, J. [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEQ, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalunya (Spain); Fortuny, A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Catalunya (Spain); Fabregat, A., E-mail: azael.fabregat@urv.cat [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEQ, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carbonaceous materials were prepared from exhausted sludge materials. • High surface area and good physicochemical properties were achieved. • Utilization of waste sludge materials and mixed anaerobic cultures were used in a continuous anaerobic UPBR system (upflow packed bed biological reactor). • Effective treatment of dye contaminated wastewater in a cheapest and environmental friendly method was demonstrated. - Abstract: This work presents the preliminary study of new carbonaceous materials (CMs) obtained from exhausted sludge, their use in the heterogeneous anaerobic process of biodecolorization of azo dyes and the comparison of their performance with one commercial active carbon. The preparation of carbonaceous materials was conducted through chemical activation and carbonization. Chemical activation was carried out through impregnation of sludge-exhausted materials with ZnCl{sub 2} and the activation by means of carbonization at different temperatures (400, 600 and 800 °C). Their physicochemical and surface characteristics were also investigated. Sludge based carbonaceous (SBC) materials SBC400, SBC600 and SBC800 present values of 13.0, 111.3 and 202.0 m{sup 2}/g of surface area. Biodecolorization levels of 76% were achieved for SBC600 and 86% for SBC800 at space time (τ) of 1.0 min, similar to that obtained with commercial activated carbons in the continuous anaerobic up-flow packed bed reactor (UPBR). The experimental data fit well to the first order kinetic model and equilibrium data are well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. Carbonaceous materials show high level of biodecolorization even at very short space times. Results indicate that carbonaceous materials prepared from sludge-exhausted materials have outstanding textural properties and significant degradation capacity for treating textile effluents.

  16. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  17. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  18. Phototoxic keratoconjunctivitis from coal-tar pitch volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, E A; Stetzer, L; Taphorn, B

    1977-11-25

    Roofers working with coal-tar pitch develop burning eyes and conjunctivitis which they subjectively associate with sun exposure. A coal-tar pitch distillate instilled in the conjunctivae of rabbits produced minimal or mild irritation in the absence of ultraviolet radiation, but irradiation with long-ultraviolet produced marked photophobia and severe keratoconjunctivitis.

  19. Evaluation of Gravimetric Tar Determination in Particle Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles.......A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles....

  20. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  1. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jie Hu; Chao-bo Tang; Mo-tang Tang; Yong-ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead–acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows:T = 880°C;t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The re-sults suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic cal-culations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  2. Predicting bioavailability of metals from sludge-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golui, Debasis; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2014-12-01

    We attempted to develop a protocol for fixing the maximum permissible limit of sludge in agricultural lands based on transfer of metals from sludge-amended soils to human food chain. For this purpose, spinach was grown as a test crop on acid and alkaline soils with graded doses of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142 and 285 g kg(-1) of soil) in a pot experiment. Biomass yield of spinach was increased due to sludge application in both acid and alkaline soils. Among the chemical extractants, EDTA extracted the highest amount of metals from sludge-amended soil followed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and CaCl2. Elevated levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb in spinach were observed due to sludge application over control. Application of sludge was more effective in increasing metal content in spinach grown on acid soil than alkaline soil. Solubility-free ion activity model as a function of pH, organic carbon and extractable metal was far more effective in predicting metal uptake by spinach grown on sludge-amended soils as compared to that of chemical extractants. Risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of metals through consumption of spinach by humans grown on sludge-treated soils was computed for different metals separately. In a 90-day pot experiment, safe rates of sludge application were worked out as 4.48 and 71.6 g kg(-1) for acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  3. DECOMPOSITION OF TARS IN MICROWAVE PLASMA – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wnukowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the main problem connected with biomass gasification - a presence of tar in a product gas. This paper presents preliminary results of tar decomposition in a microwave plasma reactor. It gives a basic insight into the construction and work of the plasma reactor. During the experiment, researches were carried out on toluene as a tar surrogate. As a carrier gas for toluene and as a plasma agent, nitrogen was used. Flow rates of the gases and the microwave generator’s power were constant during the whole experiment. Results of the experiment showed that the decomposition process of toluene was effective because the decomposition efficiency attained above 95%. The main products of tar decomposition were light hydrocarbons and soot. The article also gives plans for further research in a matter of tar removal from the product gas.

  4. Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

    In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

  5. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  6. Recovery of copper from galvanic sludge by reductive roasting combined with acid leaching%还原焙烧-酸浸回收电镀污泥中的铜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娴; 程洁红; 顾冬梅

    2011-01-01

    采用还原焙烧—酸浸工艺处理电镀污泥,可以实现对铜的选择性回收.研究了不同焙烧条件下,电镀污泥的失重率和金属含量,并探索了焙烧温度、焙烧时间、煤粉用量、CaCO3投加量对金属浸出率的影响.结果表明,还原焙烧有利于污泥减量和金属富集;并且经还原焙烧污泥中金属的浸出效果明显优于直接焙烧;在电镀污泥中添加10%(质量分数)的煤粉和0.5%(质量分数)的CaCO3,于700℃焙烧20 min后,在焙烧底渣投加量为20 g/L(每升10%(质量分数)的硫酸溶液投加20 g焙烧底渣)、振荡速度为112 r/min、浸出时间为60 min、室温条件下进行酸浸,Cu浸出率高达98.73%,而Ni、Zn、Cr的浸出率较低,从而使目标金属Cu和其他金属初步分离.%The experiments of reductive roasting and acid leaching the galvanic sludge were preformed to selective recovery the copper from sludge. The weight decreasing rate and metals concentration of galvanic sludge under various roasting conditions were detected and the effect of roasting temperature, roasting time, dosage of fine coal and CaCO3 on leaching rate of metals was investigated. The results showed that reductive roasting was more excellent than direct roasting in both sludge quantity reduction and heavy metal enrichment, and metal leaching efficiency of reductive roasting treated sludge was better than that of direct roasted sludge. The leaching rate of Cu reached 98. 73% after the galvanic sludge treated by the following conditions: reductive roast at 700 ℃ for 20 min with the presence of 10% (mass ratio) fine coal and 0. 5% (mass ratio) CaCO3, and then acid leaching by 10% of H2SO4 for 60 min at room temperature with liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 g/L and stirring speed of 112 r/min. Simultaneously, leaching quantity of Ni, Zn, Cr were much less, so the target metal Cu was finally separated from other metals.

  7. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst.

  8. Effect of proteins, polysaccharides, and particle sizes on sludge dewaterability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Liming; HE Peipei; YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing

    2009-01-01

    Four batch experiments of hydrolysis and acidification were carried out to investigate the distributions of proteins (PN) and polysaccharides (PS) in the sludge, the PN/PS ratio, the particle sizes, and their relationship with sludge dewaterability (as determined by capillary suction time, CST). The sludge flocs were stratified through centrifugation- and ultrasound-based method into four layers: (1) slime, (2) loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), (3) tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), and (4) pellet. The results showed that PN was mainly partitioned in the pellet (80.7%) and TB-EPS (9.6%) layers, while PS distributed evenly in the four layers. During hydrolysis and acidification, PN was transferred from the pellet and TB-EPS layers to the slime layer, but PS had no significant transfer trends. The mean particle sizes of the sludge flocs decreased with hydrolysis and acidification. The pH had a more significant influence on the dewaterability of sludge flocs than temperature. Sludge dewaterability during hydrolysis and acidification processes greatly deteriorated from 9.7 s at raw sludge to 340--450 s under alkaline conditions. However, it was just slightly increased under acidic conditions. Further investigation suggested that CST was affected by soluble PN, soluble PN/PS, and particle sizes of sludge flocs, but was affected slightly by total PN, PS, or PN/PS in the whole sludge flocs and other layers (except slime).

  9. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  10. Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Dev P

    2011-08-15

    A series of neomycin dimers have been synthesized using 'click chemistry' with varying linker functionality and length to target the TAR RNA region of HIV virus. TAR (trans activation response) RNA region, a 59 base pair stem loop structure located at 5'-end of all nascent HIV-1 transcripts interacts with a key regulatory protein, Tat, and necessitates the replication of HIV-1 virus. Neomycin, an aminosugar, has been shown to exhibit more than one binding site with HIV TAR RNA. Multiple TAR binding sites of neomycin prompted us to design and synthesize a small library of neomycin dimers using click chemistry. The binding between neomycin dimers and HIV TAR RNA was characterized using spectroscopic techniques including FID (Fluorescent Intercalator Displacement) titration and UV-thermal denaturation. UV thermal denaturation studies demonstrate that neomycin dimer binding increase the melting temperature (T(m)) of the HIV TAR RNA up to 10°C. Ethidium bromide displacement titrations revealed nanomolar IC(50) between neomycin dimers and HIV TAR RNA, whereas with neomycin, a much higher IC(50) in the micromolar range is observed.

  11. Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

  12. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...

  13. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  14. Hot balls dry sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2004-01-01

    Each year some 25 million m3 of mineral sludge are dredged from rivers, canals and harbours in the Netherlands alone, twenty percent of which is polluted. The unpolluted sludge is usually dumped at sea. The remaining five million m3 may only be dumped in a few selected landfill locations, at conside

  15. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthesis by Activated Sludge Microbes Using Acetic Acid as Carbon Source%活性污泥微生物以乙酸为碳源合成聚羟基烷酸酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈银广

    2009-01-01

    聚羟基烷酸酯(polyhydroxyalkanoate,PHA)是一种生物可降解塑料,利用活性污泥合成PHA具有操作方便的优点.本研究对长期驯化的厌氧-好氧活性污泥工艺在厌氧条件下及好氧活性污泥工艺在好氧条件下利用乙酸合成PHA进行了比较分析,发现好氧活性污泥可以合成较多的PHA.在此基础上,研究了好氧条件下乙酸加入次数、乙酸浓度及硝化抑制剂(丙烯基硫脲,ATU)对PHA合成的影响,结果表明,将乙酸分3次加入到反应器、乙酸浓度为2 925 mg/L及加入6.74 mg/L ATU时,可以使污泥挥发性悬浮固体物中PHA的含量达到56.3%.%Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a type of biodegradable plastics. The synthesis of PHA by activated sludge has the advantage of easy operation. With acetic acid as the carbon source, the anaerobic synthesis of PHA in the anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge system was compared with the aerobic one in the aerobic sludge system. It was observed that the aerobic PHA synthesis was greater than the anaerobic one. The influences of acetic acid addition frequency, acetic acid concentration and allyl thiourea (ATU) on aerobic PHA synthesis were further investigated. The results showed that the PHA content accounting for volatile suspended solids reached 56.3 % under conditions of acetic acid addition with frequency of 3, acetic acid concentration of 2 925 mg/L, and ATU concentration of 6.74 mg/L.

  16. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  17. Consideration of Sludge Formation in HFC-134a / Polyol Ester oil Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Tethuya; Simizu, Yasuhiko; Nakayama, Yoshinori; Takizawa, Kikuo

    A refrigeration test employing HFC-134a and polyol ester oil was carried out in order to make clear the causes of the sludge formation in the capillary tube. Compressors used were two types: a hermetic reciprocating compressor and a rotary compressor. Installed dryer contained desiccant of the compound zeolite type. The results showed that the amount of capillary sludge increased as the compressor temperature rose. The capillary sludge was determined to consist of desiccant and metal dust for the reciprocating compressor, and of tar-like substance for the rotary compressor. Thermal stability test which was used to check the degree of deterioration of the ester oil, suggested that the presence of desiccant and high compressor temperature might produce tar-like substance by the break down and polymerization of the ester oil. In addition, it was confirmed that factors affecting the sludge formation were the dirtiness of the refrigeration circuit for the reciprocating compressor, and the presence of desiccant, for the rotary compressor.

  18. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage...

  19. Sulfur Transformation during Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Chen, Lin; Yin, Linlin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-03

    The sulfur distributions and evolution of sulfur-containing compounds in the char, tar and gas fractions were investigated during the microwave and conventional pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Increased accumulation of sulfur in the char and less production of H2S were obtained from microwave pyrolysis at higher temperatures (500-800 °C). Three similar conversion pathways were identified for the formation of H2S during microwave and conventional pyrolysis. The cracking of unstable mercaptan structure in the sludge contributed to the release of H2S below 300 °C. The decomposition of aliphatic-S compounds in the tars led to the formation of H2S (300-500 °C). The thermal decomposition of aromatic-S compounds in the tars generated H2S from 500 to 800 °C. However, the secondary decomposition of thiophene-S compounds took place only in conventional pyrolysis above 700 °C. Comparing the H2S contributions from microwave and conventional pyrolysis, the significant increase of H2S yields in conventional pyrolysis was mainly attributed to the decomposition of aromatic-S (increasing by 10.4%) and thiophene-S compounds (11.3%). Further investigation on the inhibition mechanism of H2S formation during microwave pyrolysis confirmed that, with the special heating characteristics and relative shorter residence time, microwave pyrolysis promoted the retention of H2S on CaO and inhibited the secondary cracking of thiophene-S compounds at higher temperatures.

  20. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  1. Screening method for solvent selection used in tar removal by the absorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masurel, Eve; Authier, Olivier; Castel, Christophe; Roizard, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the treatment of flue gas issued from a process of biomass gasification in fluidized bed. The flue gas contains tar which should be selectively removed from the fuel components of interest (e.g. H2, CO and light hydrocarbons) to avoid condensation and deposits in internal combustion engine. The chosen flue gas treatment is the gas-liquid absorption using solvents, which present specific physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, viscosity, volatility and chemical and thermal stability) in order to optimize the unit on energetic, technico-economic and environmental criteria. The rational choice of the proper solvent is essential for solving the tar issue. The preselection of the solvents is made using a Hansen parameter in order to evaluate the tar solubility and the saturation vapour pressure of the solvent is obtained using Antoine law. Among the nine families of screened solvents (alcohols, amines, ketones, halogenates, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, sulphured and chlorinates), acids methyl esters arise as solvents of interest. Methyl oleate has then been selected and studied furthermore. Experimental liquid-vapour equilibrium data using bubbling point and absorption cell measurements and theoretical results obtained by the UNIFAC-Dortmund model confirm the high potential of this solvent and the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  2. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  3. Cyclic PNA-based compound directed against HIV-1 TAR RNA: modelling, liquid-phase synthesis and TAR binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depecker, Geoffrey; Patino, Nadia; Di Giorgio, Christophe; Terreux, Raphael; Cabrol-Bass, Daniel; Bailly, Christian; Aubertin, Anne-Marie; Condom, Roger

    2004-01-07

    A cyclic molecule including a hexameric PNA sequence has been designed and synthesized in order to target the TAR RNA loop of HIV-1 through the formation of a "kissing complex". For comparison, its linear analogue has also been investigated. The synthesis of the cyclic and linear PNA has been accomplished following a liquid-phase strategy using mixed PNA and fully N-protected (aminoethylglycinamide) fragments. The interactions of this cyclic PNA and its linear analogue with TAR RNA have been studied and the results indicate clearly that no interaction occurs between the cyclic antisense PNA and TAR RNA, whereas a tenuous interaction has been detected with its linear PNA analogue.

  4. Activated sewage sludge, a potential animal foodstuff. Part I. Nutritional characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacon, A.G.J.

    1979-08-01

    The nutritive value of activated sewage sludge is discussed in terms of its amino acid N, non-amino acid N, carbohydrate, fat, mineral, vitamin and microbial content. Processed activated sewage sludge is described as a stable dark brown material of relatively uniform quality, having a nutritive value broadly equivalent to brewers yeast or a protein-rich cereal. The potential hazards associated with the use of activated sewage sludge as a feed ingredient are discussed. 29 references

  5. Immobilization of activated sludge using improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microbial immobilization method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel as an immobilizing material was improved and used for entrapment of activated sludge. The OUR (oxygen uptake rate) was used to characterize the biological activity of immobilized activated sludge. Three kinds of PVA-immobilized particles of activated sludge, that is, PVA-boric acid beads, PVA-sodium nitrate beads and PVA-orthophosphate beads was prepared, and their biological activity was compared by measuring the OUR value. The bioactivity of both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms of activated sludge was determined using different synthetic wastewater media (containing 250 mg/L COD and 25 mg/L NH4+-N). The experimental results showed that the bioactivity and stability of the three kinds of immobilized activated sludge was greatly improved after activation. With respect of the bioactivity and the mechanical stability, the PVA-orthophosphate method may be a promising and economical technique for microbial immobilization.

  6. Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

  7. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  8. Biomass Gasification — Primary Methods for Eliminating Tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals with primary methods for reducing tar in biomass gasification, namely by feeding a natural catalyst into a fluidized bed. This method is verified using an experimental pilot plant.

  9. UTILIZATION OF AQUEOUS-TAR CONDENSATES FORMED DURING GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of solid fuels is an alternative process for energy production using conventional and renewable fuels. Apart from desired compounds, i.e. carbon oxide, hydrogen and methane, the produced gas contains complex organic (tars and inorganic (carbonizate, ammonia contaminants. Those substances, together with water vapor, condensate during cooling of the process gas, what results in the formation of aqueous-tar condensate, which requires proper methods of utilization. The management of this stream is crucial for commercialization and application of the gasification technology. In the paper the treatment of aqueous-tar condensates formed during biomass gasification process is discussed. The removal of tars from the stream was based on their spontaneous separation. The aqueous stream was subjected to ultrafiltration operated at different pressures. Such a treatment configuration enabled to obtain highly concentrated retentate, which could be recycled to the gasifier, and filtrate, which could be subjected to further treatment.

  10. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  11. Recovery of phosphorus from sewerage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuilova, Anastasia

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a review of the current state of technologies for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater and sludge, and the recovery and re-use of phosphorus. It explains the need for phosphorus removal and describes the current removal processes. Focus is given to phosphorus crystallisation processes and to the processes which treat sewage treatment sludges into potential sources of phosphorus. An interesting possibility to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge by use of Psenner fractionation is also discussed. By this method, the following phosphate fractions of technological significance may be distinguished: (1) redox sensitive phosphates, mainly bound to Fe(OH){sub 3}; (2) phosphate adsorbed to surfaces (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), exchangeable against OH{sup -}, and alkali-soluble phosphate; (3) phosphate bound to CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3} and in apatite; and (4) organically bound phosphate. The basic removal mechanisms, process schemes and treatment results are described. Two experiments with three different types of sludges from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant in Stockholm were performed in the laboratory. It was shown that the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid cause the significant release of phosphate (about 80%) for all types of sludges. If a whole Psenner fractionation was performed the phosphate release is approximately 100%.

  12. Environmentally Friendly Cleaners for Removing Tar from Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    800.544.0133 Phone: 269.382.0133 Fax: 269.382.0214 email: sales@beaverresearch.com 57A Degreaser Diethanolamine, Aliphatic (D-60) Solvent Naphtha , Medium...Fax: (718) 748-3425 General Information Email: info@kleenallplus.com #408 Tar & Asphalt Remover #141 Vehicle wash Petroleum naphtha , Ethylene...Xylene-ortho Solvent, Light aromatic, Naphtha (petroleum) Removes tar from metal surfaces. 19 Sentinel Products, Inc. 51 NE 77th Ave Minneapolis

  13. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  14. Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

    2002-09-19

    The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

  15. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  16. Biogeochemical gradients above a coal tar DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherr, Kerstin E., E-mail: kerstin.brandstaetter-scherr@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Backes, Diana [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Scarlett, Alan G. [University of Plymouth, Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lantschbauer, Wolfgang [Government of Upper Austria, Directorate for Environment and Water Management, Division for Environmental Protection, Kärntner Strasse 10-12, 4021 Linz (Austria); Nahold, Manfred [GUT Gruppe Umwelt und Technik GmbH, Ingenieurbüro für Technischen Umweltschutz, Plesching 15, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Naturally occurring distribution and attenuation processes can keep hydrocarbon emissions from dense non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) into the adjacent groundwater at a minimum. In a historically coal tar DNAPL-impacted site, the de facto absence of a plume sparked investigations regarding the character of natural attenuation and DNAPL resolubilization processes at the site. Steep vertical gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial community composition, secondary water quality and redox-parameters were found to occur between the DNAPL-proximal and shallow waters. While methanogenic and mixed-electron acceptor conditions prevailed close to the DNAPL, aerobic conditions and very low dissolved contaminant concentrations were identified in three meters vertical distance from the phase. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS) proved to be an efficient tool to characterize the behavior of the present complex contaminant mixture. Medium to low bioavailability of ferric iron and manganese oxides of aquifer samples was detected via incubation with Shewanella alga and evidence for iron and manganese reduction was collected. In contrast, 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis revealed the absence of common iron reducing bacteria. Aerobic hydrocarbon degraders were abundant in shallow horizons, while nitrate reducers were dominating in deeper aquifer regions, in addition to a low relative abundance of methanogenic archaea. Partial Least Squares – Canonical Correspondence Analysis (PLS-CCA) suggested that nitrate and oxygen concentrations had the greatest impact on aquifer community structure in on- and offsite wells, which had a similarly high biodiversity (H’ and Chao1). Overall, slow hydrocarbon dissolution from the DNAPL appears to dominate natural attenuation processes. This site may serve as a model for developing legal and technical strategies for the treatment of DNAPL-impacted sites where contaminant plumes are

  17. Wastewater treatment sludge as a raw material for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, M D; Tyagi, R D; Valero, J R

    2001-11-01

    Seven wastewater sludges of different origins and types were used as an alternate culture medium for producing Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki HD-1. The sludge samples were used under three different preparations: without pre-treatment, with acid treatment (hydrolysed sludge) and the supernatant obtained after centrifugation of the hydrolysed sludge. The sludge composition varied widely with origin and the type of sludge. Growth and sporulation were evaluated by the total viable cell count and spore count of the preparations. Growth, sporulation and endotoxin production were affected by the sludge origin. Hydrolysed sludge gave the highest viable cell and spore counts while the liquid phase (supernatant) gave the lowest. Non-hydrolysed primary sludge from Valcartier was unable to sustain bacterial growth because of its low pH. Bioassays were conducted against larvae of spruce budworm to evaluate entomotoxic potential of the preparations obtained. In general, sludge hydrolysis increased the entomotoxicity yields. Similar entomotoxicity was observed in Black Lake secondary sludge (4100 IU/microL) as that obtained in the reference soya medium (3800 IU/microL). The use of the sludge supernatant (liquid phase) was not recommended due to the low entomotoxic potential obtained.

  18. [Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal.

  19. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena

    2016-10-01

    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues.

  20. Depuration sludges in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, F.; Nappi, P.; Onofrio, M.; Barberis, R. (Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica)

    The study examines 5 sludges coming from different scale municipal waste treatment plants and some other 8 produced by waste treatment of as many different industrial plants. The studied sludges were characterized both through chemical and microbiological analyses. Biological assays were made to evaluate phytotoxicity and pot cultivation assays using Lepidium Sativum as test plant. Toxic metals transfer from the soil to the plant was found to take place in the following decreasing order: Zn Cr Cd Ni Cu Pb. Metal transfer coefficient is lower for sludge-soil mixtures than tor soil alone probably because of the metals different chemical form.

  1. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  2. Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósfai, MiháLy; GelencséR, AndráS.; Simonics, RenáTa; Arató, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    "Tar balls" are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (˜90 mol % carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  3. pH dependency of hydrogen fermentation from alkali-pretreated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Batch tests were carried out to study the possibility of hydrogen production from alkali-pre- treated sludge without seed and the pH dependency of hydrogen fermentation from alkali-pretreated sludge. Experimental results showed that the sewage sludge with alkali-pretreatment could be successfully applied to biologically producing hydrogen without seed and extra-feed. The results also showed that the initial pH value of sewage sludge was an important factor throughout the hydrogen fermentation of alkali-pretreated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained at initial pH value of 11.0 (14.4 mL·g VS-1). The hydrogen yield of alkali-pretreated sludge at alkaline initial pH value was much higher than that of acidic or neutral initial pH value. The optimal pH value of hydrogen production from alkali- pretreated sludge was approximately 9.5. The consumption of hydrogen could be inhibited when the pH value of sludge was above 8.5. The change of hydrogen yield at various initial pH values was similar to that of sludge SCOD. The change of sludge pH value was slow and acetate was the major component of volatile fatty acids produced in the process of hydrogen production. The yield and the constitution of volatile fatty acids were sensitive to the initial pH value.

  4. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  5. SLUDGE BATCH 5 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; David Best, D; David Koopman, D

    2008-10-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing to Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in early fiscal year 2009. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB5 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2007-0007, Rev. 1 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB5 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB5 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the washing plan to prepare SB5 and the estimated SB4 heel mass. Nine DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using both a batch simulant (Tank 51 simulant after washing is complete) and a blend simulant (Tank 40 simulant after Tank 51 transfer is complete). Each simulant had a set of four SRAT and SME simulations at varying acid stoichiometry levels (115%, 130%, 145% and 160%). One additional run was made using blend simulant at 130% acid that included additions of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) waste prior to acid addition and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) waste following SRAT dewatering. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB5 sludge: (1) This is the first batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution. (2) The sludge is high in mercury

  6. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part A. Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. Different manufacturing processes have resulted in the production of distinctly different tar compositions. This study presents a comprehensive database of compounds produced using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS), analysing 16 tar samples produced by five distinct production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 16 tar samples originating from five different production processes: Low Temperature Horizontal Retorts, Horizontal Retorts, Vertical Retorts, Carbureted Water Gas and Coke Ovens, were analysed. A total of 2369 unique compounds were detected with 948 aromatic compounds, 196 aliphatic compounds, 380 sulfur-containing compounds, 209 oxygen-containing compounds, 262 nitrogen-containing compounds and 15 mixed heterocycles. Derivatisation allowed the detection of 359 unique compounds, the majority in the form of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, many of which would not have been detected without derivatisation. Of the 2369 unique compounds detected, 173 were found to be present within all samples. A unique comprehensive database of compounds detected within 16 tar samples from five different production processes was produced. The 173 compounds identified within every sample may be of particular importance from a regulatory standpoint. This initial study indicates that different production processes produce tars with different chemical signatures and it can be further expanded upon by in-depth analysis of the different compound

  7. TBT and TPhT persistence in a sludged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcic, Christophe; Le Hecho, Isabelle; Denaix, Laurence; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2006-12-01

    The persistence of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in soils was studied, taking into consideration the quantity of sewage sludge, TBT and TPhT concentrations in soil as well as the soil pH. The organotin compounds (OTC) were introduced into the soil via a spiked urban sludge, simulating agricultural practise. OTC speciation was achieved after acidic extraction of soil samples followed by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric analysis (GC-PFPD). Leaching tests conducted on a spiked sludge showed that more than 98% of TBT are sorbed on the sludge. TBT persistence in soil appeared to depend on its initial concentration in sludge. Thus, it was more important when concentration is over 1000 microg(Sn) kg(-1) of sludge. More than 50% of the initial TBT added into the soil were still present after 2 months, whatever the experimental conditions. The main degradation product appeared to be dibutyltin. About 90% of TPhT were initially sorbed on sludge, whatever the spiking concentration in sludge was. However, TPhT seemed to be quantitatively exchangeable at the solid/liquid interface, according to the leaching tests. It was also significantly degraded in sludged soil as only about 20% of TPhT remain present after 2 months, the monophenyltin being the main degradation product. pH had a significant positive effect on TBT and particularly TPhT persistence, according to the initial amounts introduced into the soil. Thus, at pH over 7 and triorganotin concentration over 100 microg(Sn) kg(-1), less than 10% of TBT but about 60% of TPhT were degraded. When the sludge was moderately contaminated by triorganotins (typically 50 microg(Sn) kg(-1) in our conditions) the pH had no effect on TBT and TPhT persistence.

  8. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Katherine D.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria known to be associated with sludges carrying out EBPR. These organisms comprised approximately 80% of total bacteria in the sludge, as assessed by FISH. Degenerate PCR primers were designed to retrieve fragments of putative ppk genes from a pure culture of Rhodocyclus tenuis and from organisms in the sludge. Four novel ppk homologs were found in the sludge, and two of these (types I and II) shared a high degree of amino acid similarity with R. tenuis PPK (86 and 87% similarity, respectively). Dot blot analysis of total RNA extracted from sludge demonstrated that the Type I ppk mRNA was present, indicating that this gene is expressed during EBPR. Inverse PCR was used to obtain the full Type I sequence from sludge DNA, and a full-length PPK was cloned, overexpressed, and purified to near homogeneity. The purified PPK has a specific activity comparable to that of other PPKs, has a requirement for Mg2+, and does not appear to operate in reverse. PPK activity was found mainly in the particulate fraction of lysed sludge microorganisms. PMID:12324346

  9. Research on the Technology of Producing CaF2 with Fluoride Sludge and Fluoride Sulfuric Acid%用含氟污泥和含氟硫酸生产氟化钙的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明; 马小华

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride sludge generated in the process of treating F -containing wastewater by lime chemical sediment , and much waste liquid generated in the other process of decomposing tantalum and niobium ore , which was fluoride sulfuric acid.A new technology that producing CaF 2 with fluoride sludge and fluoride sulfuric acid was studied , which included five processes of the atmospheric distillation , the first acidification , precipitation transformation , secondary acidification and drying calcination.There was no secondary pollution to environment that caused by waste water , waste gas and waste residue.What's more, the process was simple and easy to control , and the quality of CaF 2 had completely met the requirement of enterprises that producing hydrofluoric acid with fluorite.The yield of CaF 2 and the mass fraction was greater than 97%and 91%respectively , meanwhile , the mass fraction of silicon dioxide was lesser than 1.0%.Not only much load of treating F -containing wastewater tremendously reduced , but also solved the fluoride sludge covering problem and the secondary pollution for the underground water which caused by fluoride sludge deposited in the open air , and fluorine got fully recycling of resources.%含氟污泥,指的是用石灰化学沉淀法处理含氟废水后产生的底泥。含氟硫酸,指的是分解钽、铌矿石后排出的废液。研究了以含氟污泥和含氟硫酸为原料生产氟化钙的新工艺。该工艺由常压蒸馏、一次酸化、沉淀转化、二次酸化和烘干煅烧五个工序组成。工艺流程简单,生产易于控制。工艺过程中没有废水、废气和废渣对环境的二次污染。产品氟化钙的收率可达97%以上,氟化钙的质量分数在91%以上,二氧化硅的质量分数在1.0%以下。产品的质量完全可以满足生产氢氟酸等以萤石作原料的企业的要求。该工艺不但减轻了生产钽、铌企业处理含氟废水的负荷,而且有效的解

  10. Probing interaction of a fluorescent ligand with HIV TAR RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liang; Zhang, Jing; He, Tian; Huo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2017-02-01

    Trans-activator of Transcription (Tat) antagonists could block the interaction between Tat protein and its target, trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA, to inhibit Tat function and prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. For the first time, a small fluorescence ligand, ICR 191, was found to interact with TAR RNA at the Tat binding site and compete with Tat. It was also observed that the fluorescence of ICR 191 could be quenched when binding to TAR RNA and recovered when discharged via competition with Tat peptide or a well-known Tat inhibitor, neomycin B. The binding parameters of ICR 191 to TAR RNA were determined through theoretical calculations. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and molecular docking were used to further confirm the interaction of ICR 191 with TAR RNA. Inspired by these discoveries, a primary fluorescence model for the discovery of Tat antagonists was built using ICR 191 as a fluorescence indicator and the feasibility of this model was evaluated. This ligand-RNA interaction could provide a new strategy for research aimed at discovering Tat antagonists.

  11. Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-02-07

    Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

  12. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  13. Batch system for study of Cr(VI) Bio sorption by dried waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzadkia, M.; Gholami, M.; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R.; Yaghmaeian, K.; Shams Khorramabadi, G.

    2009-07-01

    Activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems contains both bacteria and protozoa. The cell wall of bacteria essentially consists of various compounds, such as carboxyl, acidic polysaccharides,lipids, amino acids and other components. (Author)

  14. Effects of FeCl3 on propionic acid ratio in products of acidogenic fermentation of sludge%FeCl3对污泥酸性发酵产物中丙酸比率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀兰; 李亚新

    2011-01-01

    Effects of ferric chloride (FeCl3) concentration on the product distribution of acidogenic fermentation of sludge, expressed by propionic acid ratio, was investigated in sequencing batch reactor with semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that under these conditions: temperature 32℃,HRT 6.6 d, feed VS 20.43 g · L 1, pH 5.5-6.0, ORP of fermentation liquid increases gradually while propionic acid ratio in fermentation products changes a little, although FeCl3 concentration varying from 0 to 232 mg · L-1. When the concentration of FeCl3 is at 464-928 mg · L-1 range, ORP increases significantly and at the same time propionic acid ratio goes up from 25.82% to 49.57%. One feasible startup modes are proposed with aerobic activated sludge for sludge acid-type fermentation using conditions of temperature 32℃, HRT 6.6 d, pH 5.5-6.0, FeCl3 464 mg · L-1. With this start-up mode, acid-type fermentation can run smoothly after 6 day and propionic acid ratio can reach 50%.%采用半连续运行的序批式反应器进行污泥酸性发酵试验,研究了发酵液中FeCl3浓度对污泥发酵产物中丙酸比率的影响.实验表明:在温度32℃、HRT 6.6 d、进泥VS浓度 20.43 g·L-1、pH5.5~6.0的条件下,FeCl3浓度由0增加到232 mg·L-1时,发酵液中ORP逐渐提高,丙酸比率变化不大;FeCl3浓度为464~928 mg·L-1时,发酵液中ORP上升较明显,丙酸比率由25.82%上升到49.57%.提出了一种可行的污泥丙酸型发酵的启动方式:接种好氧活性污泥、温度32℃、HRT 6.6 d、pH5.5~6.0和FeCl3浓度464 mg·L-1,6 d后丙酸比率达50%以上,形成了稳定的丙酸型发酵.

  15. Leaching techniques to remove metals and potentially hazardous nutrients from trout farm sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I S; Lovitt, R W

    2011-11-15

    A fish farm sludge high in P (2-6% w/w as dry matter), Fe (5-7%), C (40-50%) and N (0.8-4%) was subjected to a series of acid leaching treatments using HCl, organic acids, and biologically mediated acid production. Additions of biodegradable organic acid solubilized heavy metals better than HCl, while additions of 1.5% w/v glucose followed by 7 day incubation stabilized the sludge releasing 92% P, 100% Fe. The use of homo-lactic Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures were more effective than hetero-lactic Lactobacillus buchneri, solubilizing 81.9% P, 92.2% Fe, 93.0% Zn and 96.4% Ca in the sludge. The anaerobic sludge-glucose fermentation using L. plantarum produced a leached sludge that has low heavy metal and nutrient content while affording the recovery of nutrients. The potential of these methods for practical application are briefly discussed.

  16. Fractional Distribution of Lead and Cadmium in Sludge and Soil Amended with Sludge Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Yong; BIAN Wei; SHAN Dexin; ZHANG Di; FU Chunlei

    2006-01-01

    The modified three-step sequential extraction procedure proposed by the BCR was used to predict Pb and Cd fractional distribution in sewage sludge and tomato soil amended with sludge compost. There was no significant increasing of Pb and Cd contents in the soil with sludge application as compared with that in the reference soil. The Pb contents were much lower for the soil samples than for the National Soil Standards of Environmental Quality, but Cd contents in soil were much more than background mean Cd contents. Pb content in soil fractions was followed with residual Pb > reducible Pb > exchangeable and weak acid soluble Pb > oxidizable Pb. In all soil samples, the partitioning of Cd had the same extractability in the first two steps of the procedure and the residual fraction. Only a small fraction or almost zero extractability was observed at the oxidation step for Pb and Cd.

  17. Groundwater and contaminant transport modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M. [Groundwater Insight Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada); Check, G. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada); Carey, G. [Environmental Inst. for Continuing Education, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Abbey, D. [Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Baechler, F. [ADI Ltd., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The Muggah Creek Watershed, a tidal estuary located in Sydney, Nova Scotia, is known locally as the Tar Ponds. Over the past century, the Tar Ponds have accumulated contaminants in the contributing watershed from the iron, steel and coke manufacturing. There are sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A groundwater modelling program was developed to estimate current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, through groundwater. Attempts were made to incorporate a complex stratigraphic profile, where groundwater flow and contaminant transport is strongly controlled by shallow fractured bedrock, into the conceptual model developed for the site. This conceptual model for groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Sydney Tar Ponds site was presented. The complex flow patterns between bedrock and overburden, and between the bedrock units and surface water bodies were illustrated with model simulations. It was found that groundwater flow was dominated by discharge to the streams and the estuary. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

  19. Design and synthesis of á,á-trehalose derivatives bearing guanidino groups as inhibitors for the Tat Protein-TAR RNA interaction of HIV-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Xu Zhidong; Tu Pengfei; Xiao Sulong; Yu Xiaolin; Yang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires specific interactions of Tat protein with the transactivation responsive region (TAR) RNA. Disruption of Tat-TAR RNA interaction could inhibit HIV-1 replication. Here four target compounds were designed and synthesized to bind to TAR RNA for blocking the interaction of Tat-TAR RNA. The core molecule 6,6′-diamino-6,6′ -dideoxy-á,á-trehalose was obtained from selective bromination of a,a-trehalose at C-6,6′, followed by acetylation, azide displacement, deacetylation and reduction.Coupling of the core molecule with the protected amino acid, then deprotection and guanidinylation generated 6,6′-bis(L-arginylamino)-6,6′-dideoxy-á,á-trehalose,6,6′-bisguanidino-6,6′-dideoxy-á ,á-trehalose, 6,6′-bis [((a)-guanidinobutyryl)amino]-6,6′-dideoxy-á,á-trehalose and 6,6′-bis(guanidinoacetylamino)-6,6′-dideoxy-á,á-trehalose, respectively.Their abilities to inhibit Tat-TAR RNA interaction were determined by a Tat-dependent HIV-1LTR-driven CAT assays.

  20. Is dermatologic usage of coal tar carcinogenic? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pion, I.A.; Koenig, K.L.; Lim, H.W. [New York VA Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Coal tar ointments have been used for decades in the treatment of various dermatoses, most notably eczema and psoriasis. Occupational exposure to coal tar poses an increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancies. The evidence of an increased risk of skin cancer in humans, as a result of dermatologic usage of tar, however, is conflicting. A consensus on the carcinogenicity of tar was sought. The existing literature (in vitro, animal and human studies) on this subject was reviewed. The carcinogenicity of coal tar was clearly demonstrated by in vitro and animal studies, and appears to be potentiated by concomitant use of ultraviolet radiation. Systemic absorption of mutagens from topically applied tar has been demonstrated in humans. Epidemiologic studies in humans, however, have not definitively shown an increase in skin cancer with therapeutic use of tar. Conclusive evidence for the carcinogenicity of tar used in dermatologic practice is lacking. Further controlled studies are necessary. 49 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sontro, Tonya S; Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce P; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2007-09-01

    A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m(2) survey area was well resolved spatially by recording tar mass along twelve transects segmented into 4-m(2) blocks and then integrating over the survey area. A seasonal trend was apparent in total tar in which summer accumulations were an order of magnitude higher than winter accumulations. Based on multiple regression analyses between environmental data and tar accumulation, 34% of tar variability is explained by a combination of onshore advection via wind and low swell height inhibiting slick dispersion.

  2. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1980-09-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

  3. Biotreatment of oily sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, J. [Biogenie Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a biotreatment process used at a petrochemical plant near Montreal, Quebec. The plant used a sedimentation pond that contained oily sludge with a total polycyclic hydrocarbon (TPH) content averaging 170,000 mg/kg. The aim of the remediation project was to remove the oily sludge and impacted clay at the bottom of the pond, and redesign the pond to meet current provincial regulations. Studies were conducted to evaluate bulking agents, estimate performance and determine the presence of potential inhibitors. Organic and inorganic nutrients were tested as a means of amending the sludge. An ex-situ biopile was used to treat the impacted waste. After a period of 5 months, concentrations were below the applicable criteria for Montreal urban community and provincial guidelines. A drainage system and membrane was then added to the pond. tabs., figs.

  4. Ebullition-facilitated transport of manufactured gas plant tar from contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinn, Eugene L; Stolzenburg, Thomas R

    2009-11-01

    Manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar and wastewater solids historically were discharged into the Penobscot River, Maine,USA, via a sewer at the Bangor Landing site. The tar and wastewater solids accumulated in riverbed sediment over a 5-hectare area downstream from the sewer outfall. Much of the tarry sediment is a hardened mass at the bottom of the river, but in part of the tar deposit (the active zone), the tar remains unhardened. In the active zone, anaerobic biodegradation of organic matter generates methane and carbon dioxide; as gas accumulates and migrates upward, it entrains tar, eventually dragging the tar from the sediment to surface water. Understanding the migration mechanisms in different portions of the tar deposit is critical for modeling the risk posed by the tar at the Bangor Landing site, because during gas-facilitated tar migration, the tar is brought to the water surface, instead of remaining in the sediment. Tar migration from sediment poses a potential human health risk because of the high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the tar. Migration from sediment to the water surface greatly increases the potential exposure of human and ecological receptors to tar that reaches the water surface. In order for tar to migrate from sediment to surface water, three conditions are necessary: the sediment must contain liquid tar, the sediment must produce gas bubbles, and the gas must come into contact with the tarry sediment. Failure to consider facilitated transport of MGP tar from sediment can cause underestimation of site risk and can lead to failure of remedial measures.

  5. Recovery of Valuable Metal Elements from Acid Mine Drainage Sludge%用浸出工艺回收酸性矿山废水沉淀渣中金属元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓亮; 麦戈; 陈涛; 晏波; 肖贤明

    2016-01-01

    酸性矿山废水沉淀渣的处置一直是废水处理工程面临的难题。以广东省大宝山矿槽对坑尾矿库外排废水处理厂产生的沉淀渣为例,开展沉淀渣中有价金属元素酸浸与回收试验。淀渣铁、锰、铜、锌、镍、铅品位分别为40919.6,14320.6,4681.4,7557.4,149.3,360.9 g/t,杂质成分主要为石英、方解石。在硫酸浓度为20%、固液比为0.33 g/mL、浸出时间为8 h、浸出温度为30℃条件下,铜、锌、镍、铅、锰和铁的浸出率分别为99.49%、21.41%、51.21%、4.45%、55.86%、34.25%。采用硫酸浸出工艺回收沉淀渣中有价金属元素在技术经济上可行,同时可缓解废水处理厂的环保压力。%The disposition of Acid Mine Drainage ( AMD) sludge has become a serious problem in wastewater treatment industry for a long period. An AMD sludge sample was taken from the wastewater treatment plant of the Duikeng tailings reser-voir,Dabaoshan Mine,Guangdong Province,and an experiment was conducted to recover valuable metals from the sludge by sulfuric acid leaching method. There is 40 919. 6 g/t Fe,14 320. 6 g/t Mn,4 681. 4 g/t Cu,7 557. 4 g/t Zn,149. 3 g/t Ni, 360. 9 g/t Pb,the impurity components are mainly quartz,calcite. In sulfuric acid concentration is 20%,solid-liquid ratio is 0. 33 g/mL,the leaching time of 8 h,leaching temperature 30 ℃,the copper,zinc,nickel,lead,manganese and iron leaching rate were 99. 49%,21. 41%,51. 21%,4. 45%,55. 86% and 34. 25%. Using sulfuric acid leaching process recycling valuable metals element in precipitation slag economically feasible in technology,at the same time,the pressure of the wastewater treat-ment plant of environmental protection was alleviated.

  6. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  7. 4-(2-吡啶偶氮)间苯二酚分光光度法测定酸泥中铌%Determination of niobium in acid sludge by 4- (2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华

    2012-01-01

    The conditions for color reaction of 4-(2-pyridineazo)-resorcinol (PAR) with niobium was investigated, and a method for the determination of niobium in acid sludge (which was expressed as niobium pentoxide) by spectrophotometry was developed. The results showed that in the solution at pH 5. 6-6. 0, a red ternary complex was formed by PAR with the complex anion of niobium tartrate in the presence of beryllium salt and tartaric acid, and its maximum absorption wavelength was 550 nm with apparent molar absorptivity (ε) of 2. 6×104 L · mol-1 · cm-1. Under the optimum experimental conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the niobium pentoxide concentration within the range of 0. 02 to 0. 8 μg/mL and its corresponding absorbance, the correlation coefficient (r) was 0. 998 8 and the detection limit was 0. 004 8 μg/mL. The method was used for the determination of niobium in acid sludge. The results were in accordance with those obtained by chlorosulphophenol S spectrophotometry, and the relative standard deviations were 2. l%-2. 5%.%研究了4-(2-吡啶偶氮)间苯二酚(PAR)与铌的显色条件,建立了测定酸泥中铌(以五氧化二铌来表示)含量的分光光度法.结果表明,在pH5.6~6.0的溶液中,在铍盐和酒石酸存在下,PAR与酒石酸铌的络阴离子形成红色三元络合物.该络合物最大吸收波长为550nm,表观摩尔吸光系数ε=2.6×104 L·mol-1·cm-1,在最佳实验条件下,五氧化二铌的浓度与其对应的吸光度在0.02~0.8 μg/mL范围内呈良好的线性关系,相关系数r=0.998 8,检出限为0.004 8μg/mL.方法用于酸泥中铌的测定,结果与氯代磺酚S光度法一致,相对标准偏差为2.1%~2.5%.

  8. Hydraulic conductivity and soil-sewage sludge interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero de Melo Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems faced by humanity is pollution caused by residues resulting from the production and use of goods, e.g, sewage sludge. Among the various alternatives for its disposal, the agricultural use seems promising. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity and interaction of soil with sandy-silty texture, classified as Spodosols, from the Experimental Station Itapirema - IPA, in Goiana, state of Pernambuco, in mixtures with sewage sludge from the Mangueira Sewage Treatment Station, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco at rates of 25, 50 and 75 Mg ha-1. Tests were conducted to let water percolate the natural saturated soil and soil-sludge mixtures to characterize their physical, chemical, and microstructural properties as well as hydraulic conductivity. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of sewage sludge in soils leads to an increase of the < 0.005 mm fraction, reduction in real specific weight and variation in optimum moisture content from 11.60 to 12.90 % and apparent specific dry weight from 17.10 and 17.50 kN m-3. In the sludge-soil mixture, the quartz grains were covered by sludge and filling of the empty soil macropores between grains. There were changes in the chemical characteristics of soil and effluent due to sewage sludge addition and a small decrease in hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate the possibility that soil acidity influenced the concentrations of the elements found in the leachate, showing higher levels at higher sludge doses. It can be concluded that the leaching degree of potentially toxic elements from the sewage sludge treatments does not harm the environment.

  9. Modelling of a falling sludge bed reactor using AQUASIM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... Acid mine drainage (AMD) characteristically consists of high concentrations ... in the form of sulphide, and allowing the precipitation of the heavy ...... ratios, there is less of the high density sludge being mixed with the feed, resulting in a lower ..... organic carbon during the acid phase of anaerobic digestion.

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  11. Experimental comparison of biomass chars with other catalysts for tar reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu El-Rub, Z.; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the potential of using biomass char as a catalyst for tar reduction is discussed. Biomass char is compared with other known catalysts used for tar conversion. Model tar compounds, phenol and naphthalene, were used to test char and other catalysts. Tests were carried out in a fixed bed

  12. Uptake of pyrene in a breast-fed child of a mother treated with coal tar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Houtum, J.L.M. van; Anzion, R.B.M.; Harder, R.; Bos, R.P.; Valk, P.G.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    A woman was treated for atopic dermatitis with coal tar containing ointments. Coal tar containing ointments contain genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Over a period of 50 days the accumulated dose of different coal tar containing ointments treatments corresponded to 993 mg of pyrene and 464

  13. Research on bio-production of short-chain fatty acids from excess sludge during anaerobic digestion%污水厂污泥厌氧消化产短链脂肪酸研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 张栋; 贾舒婷; 董滨; 戴晓虎

    2013-01-01

    Bio-production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) under anaerobic digestion can be an important way to recycle excess sludge. SCFAs could be used to generate methane,to remove nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater as carbon sources added in wastewater treatment plants(WWTP), and to make valuable products,such as PHA etc. This paper reviewed the mechanism of acidogenesis process during sludge anaerobic digestion,focusing on the most important impact factors such as the sludge characteristics,fermentative temperature,pH value,carbon to nitrogen ratio(C/N),hydraulic retention time(HRT) and the solids retention time(SRT). These impact factors could affect the SCFAs production by changing the substrates characteristics,microbial activities and the reaction time between substrates and microbes. Temperature and pH value obtained more attention in recent research and it was reported that higher fermentation temperatures and alkaline conditions were more suitable for the acidogenesis process. It is important to investigate the suitable fermentative conditions for excess sludge to maximize SCFAs production under anaerobic digestion. The relationship among the impact factors and adjusting the impact factors to control of SCFs production can become a promising research direction in future.%污泥厌氧消化产短链脂肪酸是实现污泥资源化的重要途径,短链脂肪酸不仅是产甲烷的底物、污水脱氮除磷的碳源,而且可以作为原料产生一系列高附加值的产品。本文介绍了污泥厌氧消化产有机酸的机理,重点阐述了污泥性质、温度、pH 值、碳氮比(C/N)、水力停留时间(HRT)和固体停留时间(SRT)等影响污泥厌氧消化产酸的主要因素及研究进展,指出这些因素通过改变底物性质、微生物活性及二者接触反应时间等对产酸过程产生影响,其中温度和pH值是研究热点,目前大多数研究者认为高温和碱性条件更有利于污泥产

  14. Effects of Long-china Fatty Acids on Methanogenic Activity of Granular Sludge and the Interactions%长链脂肪酸对厌氧颗粒污泥产甲烷活性的影响及其相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪波; 陈坚; 任洪强; 周琪; 赵由才

    2001-01-01

    采用间歇培养实验研究了辛酸、癸酸和月桂酸等三种长链脂肪酸对UASB反应器厌氧颗粒污泥产甲烷活性的毒性,以及癸酸对辛酸和月桂酸抑制作用的影响。结果表明,辛酸、癸酸和月桂酸对UASB反应器厌氧颗粒污泥的产甲烷活性有严重抑制,对厌氧颗粒污泥最大比产甲烷活性产生50%抑制的浓度(IC50)分别是5.6,1.9,4.6mmol.L-1,其中癸酸的毒性最大。癸酸的存在能够增强辛酸和月桂酸对厌氧颗粒污泥产甲烷活性的抑制。癸酸和辛酸,癸酸和月桂酸之间表现出协同作用。辛酸和月桂酸IC50值因为癸酸的存在而明显降低。%The toxicity of caprylic acid,capric acid and lauric acid toanaerobic granular sludge as well as the influence of capric acid on toxicity of caprylic acid and lauric acid were studied in batch assays.The results showed that caprylic acid,capric acid and lauric acid had strong inhibition on methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge.The concentrations of three long-chain fatty acids(LCFA)which inhibited 50 % of maximum specific methanogenic activity(IC50)of anaerobic granular sludge were 5.6, 1.9, 4.6 mmol.L-1 respectively,among which carpic acid was the most toxic.The presence of capric acid enhanced the inhibitory effects of caprylic acid and lauric acid.The synergistic action of capric acid was found when combined with caprylic acid and lauric acid.With the presence of capric acid,the IC50 values of caprylic and lauric acid deceased obviously.

  15. Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenyu; Yang, Jiakuan; Yao, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process.

  16. Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe official Chinese press recently came out with a series of articles reporting the latest statistics on the phenomenally rapid economic growth that has been taking place in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) since the mid-1990s through sheer force of Central Government subsidies. Given

  17. Kinetic features of pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Rozental, D.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    The kinetic features of accumulation of the main gaseous and some liquid products in pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900{degree}C (contact time 0.5-6.0 s) were studied. The overall reaction order of accumulation of certain compounds was determined, and possible pathways for their formation were suggested.

  18. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  19. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. K. Chakrabarty; H. Moosmuller; L.-W. A. Chen; K. Lewis; W. P. Arnott; C. Mazzoleni; M. K. Dubey; C. E. Wold; W. M. Hao; S. M. Kreidenweis

    2010-01-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Angstrom coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent...

  20. Literature Review on Possible Alternatives to Tar for Antiskid Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In airports, there are different areas such as runways, taxiways, aprons and parking areas. For runways, good skid resistance and water drainage of the surface layer is necessary. Tar, because of its good adhesion properties and other advantages as mentioned above, is widely used in thin, high skid

  1. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  2. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  3. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material. Casagra......Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material....... Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis...

  5. Effect and behaviour of different substrates in relation to the formation of aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, M.; Abbas, B.; Al-zuhairy, S.H.K.; Kraan, R.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    When aerobic granular sludge is applied for industrial wastewater treatment, different soluble substrates can be present. For stable granular sludge formation on volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate), production of storage polymers under anaerobic feeding conditions has been shown to be important. Thi

  6. Biodegradation of phthalate esters during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.

    2003-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAE) are commonly found in the sludge generated in the wastewater treatment plants. Anaerobic digestion followed by land application is a common treatment and disposal practice of sludge. To date, many studies exist on the anaerobic biodegradation rates of PAE, especially...

  7. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies.

  8. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  9. Efficient anaerobic treatment of synthetic textile wastewater in a UASB reactor with granular sludge enriched with humic acids supported on alumina nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Francisco J; Gómez, Rafael; Alvarez, Luis H; Martinez, Claudia M; Hernandez-Montoya, Virginia

    2015-07-01

    A novel technique to co-immobilize humus-reducing microorganisms and humic substances (HS), supported on γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles (NP), by a granulation process in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor is reported in the present work. Larger granules (predominantly between 1 and 1.7 mm) were produced using NP coated with HS compared to those obtained with uncoated NP (mostly between 0.25 and 0.5 mm). The HS-enriched granular biomass was then tested for its capacity to achieve the reductive decolorization of the recalcitrant azo dye, reactive red 2 (RR2), in the same UASB reactor operated with a hydraulic residence time of 12 h and with glucose as electron donor. HS-enriched granules achieved higher decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, as compared to the control reactor operated in the absence of HS, in long term operation and applying high concentrations of RR2 (40-400 mg/L). This co-immobilizing technique could be attractive for its application in UASB reactors for the reductive biotransformation of several contaminants, such as nitroaromatics, poly-halogenated compounds, metalloids, among others.

  10. Sewage sludge treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  11. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  12. Ensamblajes urbanos: la TAR y el examen de la ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farías

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta nuevas perspectivas de investigación y desafíos analíticos que la teoría del actor-red (TAR abre para los estudios urbanos. En primer lugar, se revisan cómo los principios de relacionalidad híbrida y asociatividad plana de la TAR están siendo adoptados en los estudios urbanos para ampliar simétricamente la ecología urbana a no-humanos e impugnar concepciones escalares del espacio y economías urbanas. A continuación, se propone que la TAR trae consigo un desafío más fundamental relativo a la concepción de la ciudad como objeto de estudio. Mientras su comprensión habitual como objeto espacial, entidad político-económica y/o forma sociocultural subraya su carácter singular, estable y delimitado, la TAR permite pensar la ciudad como un objeto múltiple y decentrado. La noción de ensamblajes urbanos se introduce entonces para dar cuenta de la circulación y devenir de la ciudad en múltiples redes híbridas y translocales. El artículo concluye sopesando algunas de las consecuencias de este exámen de la ciudad, especialmente el reposicionamiento del problema de la complejidad, urbana en este caso, como punto, si no de partida, entonces al menos de llegada para la TAR.

  13. Monitoring of tar contents in gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Finn [ChimneyLab Europe ApS, Hadsten (Denmark); Houmann Jakobsen, H. [BioSynergi Proces ApS, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test a relative cheap and simple online tar measuring method, which can monitor the tar content in product gas from thermal gasification. The measuring principle is absorption of tar from sample gas in Isopropanol (IPA), and measuring on this solution by UV-spectrophotometer. Continuous sampling of tar containing producer gas turned out to be a larger problem than earlier foreseen. The best solution was decided to be sampling with higher flows, and afterwards cleaning the IPA in activated carbon. The ambitions for continuous sampling had to be decreased to 1 week, where the IPA and the activated carbon is contaminated by tar and has to be replaced. However this requires larger amounts of IPA and activated carbon. For IPA the weekly consumption was 12-15 Litres and for activated carbon 10 Litres. The whole analyzer unit turned out to be more complex than first projected, mainly because of the increased amounts of IPA. The best mist filter, with respect to pressure drop, efficiency and retention time is a combination of glass wool and quarts wool. The unit has been tested on gas; 20 kW pellets burner for 116 hours. Harbooere updraft gasifier for 519 hours. Skive fluid bed gasifier for 879 hours. There have during the project period been several simple practical problems such as bubbles in the IPA, increasing pressure drop over the activated carbon bed, dropout of UV data acquisition program and increasing baseline. The principle showed from the beginning some good results, with the limitation of 1 week continuous operation, but at the 5. period in Skive the baseline was increasing all the time, and it was not possible to solve this problem. (LN)

  14. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  15. Modeling organic carbon dynamics and cadmium fate in long-term sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, Petra; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    A model is described that may help to resolve uncertainty and controversy over the long-term consequences of sludge applications to arable land, especially with regard to the effects of sludge adsorption characteristics on trace metal solubility and bioavailability (e.g., the sludge "time bomb" or sludge "protection" hypotheses). Mass balances of organic and inorganic material derived from sludge and crop residues are simulated. Each pool has a potentially different adsorption affinity for trace metals, and this leads to changes in the adsorption capacity of sludge-amended soil that influence leaching and crop uptake. Model simulations were compared with measured changes in organic carbon and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-extractable cadmium contents in a clay loam soil following 41 years of sludge applications. The model adequately reproduced the data, although discrepancies in the vertical distribution of Cd were attributed to the effects of macropore transport and root-uptake driven recirculation. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the most important parameters affecting leaching and crop uptake were the Cd loading and parameters controlling adsorption, especially the partition coefficient for sludge-derived inorganic material and the exponent regulating the effect of pH on sorption. Scenario simulations show that no general conclusions can be drawn with respect to the validity of the sludge "time bomb" and sludge "protection" hypotheses. Either may occur, or neither, depending on three key system parameters: the ratio of sludge adsorption capacity to the initial adsorption capacity of the soil, the proportion of the sludge adsorption capacity contributed by the inorganic fraction, and the sludge Cd loading.

  16. Relationship between organic matter humification and bioavailability of sludge-borne copper and cadmium during long-term sludge amendment to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht@igsnrr.ac.cn

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of sludge as soil amendment poses certain risk of heavy metals contamination. This study investigated the relationship between organic matter in composted sludge and its heavy metals bioavailability over 7 years. Periodic monitoring indicated a gradual increase in organic matter degradation, accompanied by changing degrees of polymerization, i.e., ratio of humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) coupled with incremental exchangeable fraction of copper (Cu) in sludge, with a growing rate of 74.7%, rather than that in soil. However, cadmium (Cd) in composted sludge exhibited an independent manner. Linear-regression analysis revealed that the total proportion of the Cu active fraction (exchangeable plus carbonate bound) was better correlated with the degree of polymerization (DP) and humification ratio (HR) than the degradation ratio of organic matter. Overall, amount of uptaken Cu was more dependent on the humification degree of organic matter, especially the proportion of HA in humus. - Highlights: • Organic matter in sludge degraded with time goes after sludge was recycled to soil. • DP in sludge is well coupled with incremental uptaken fraction of its borne copper. • Profiles of Cadmium fractions in sludge exhibit an independent manner.

  17. Microstructural investigations of carbon foams derived from modified coal-tar pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkov, George; Tsyntsarski, Boyko; Balashev, Konstantin; Spassov, Tony

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the microstructural evaluation of carbon foams derived from coal-tar pitch precursors treated with H2SO4 and HNO3 and finally annealed at 1000°C and 2000°C. Our experimental investigations combine scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-spot near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-NEXAFS) spectroscopy. This set of complementary techniques provides detailed structural and chemical information of the surface and the bulk of the carbon foams. The high-resolution microscopy data indicate the formation of carbonaceous amorphous microspheres (average diameters of 0.28±0.01μm) embedded in the partially graphitized carbon foam matrix at 1000°C. The microspheres are enriched with sp-bonded species and their microstructural characteristics depend on the reagent (nitric vs. sulfuric acid) used for pitch treatment. A complete chemical transformation of the microspheres at temperatures >1000°C occurs and at 2000°C they are spectroscopically identical with the bulk material (sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridised forms of carbon). The microstructure-property relationship is exemplified by the compressive strength measurements. These results allow a better description of coal-tar pitch-derived carbon foams at the atomic level, and may account for a better understanding of the processes during graphitization step.

  18. 生物质焦油催化裂解过程中二次焦油成分%Secondary tar components in the catalytic cracking process of biomass tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永玲; 吴占松

    2015-01-01

    以秸秆热解产生的焦油为原料,在固定床反应器实验台上进行了催化裂解实验,研究了反应温度和催化剂种类对生物质焦油的裂解反应产物———二次焦油成分的影响规律。在高铝砖作为催化剂作用下,随着温度的升高,二次焦油构成有芳香化的趋势,多环芳烃的种类和含量都在增加。反应温度的提高有利于焦油的深度转化,二次焦油产率降低;但是高温下生成的二次焦油芳化程度更高,更容易引起催化剂积炭失活。当反应温度为900℃时,碱性催化剂白云石和石灰岩作用下二次焦油成分相似,以复杂的大分子环烃为主,而且焦油成分种类减少到10种左右;酸性催化剂高铝砖作用下焦油成分仍然很复杂,有将近30种,除了含有大分子环烃外,还含有部分石蜡烃,芳香族种类很多,多以双环、三环以及四环的形式存在。%Catalytic cracking experiments were carried out on biomass tar in a fixed-bed reactor to study the influence of reaction temperature and catalyst type on the cracking reaction product, secondary tar. The experimental results show that there is an aromatic trend in the secondary tar components, and the types and content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs) both increase with the increase of reaction temperature when using the high-alumina brick as an acid catalyst. The rise of reaction temperature can not only improve the deep conversion of biomass tar and reduce the production rate of secondary tar, but also increase the aromatization degree of secondary tar, which is more likely to cause the catalyst deactivation with carbon deposition. When the reaction temperature is 900℃, the secondary tar components are similar with alkaline catalysts (dolomite or limestone), and their types reduce to about 10, which mainly include complex macromolecular hydrocarbon. However, the secondary tar components are still very complex

  19. Effects of solids concentration, pH and carbon addition on the production rate and composition of volatile fatty acids in prefermenters using primary sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Yuan, Z.; Keller, J.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence is emerging that the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems relies on not only the total amount but also the composition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Domestic wastewater often contains limited amounts of VFAs with acetic acid typically being...

  20. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  1. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  2. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in a simultaneous fermentation, denitrification and phosphate removal reactor using primary sludge as internal carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Shujun; Wang, Shuying; Wu, Chengcheng; Chen, Yinguang; Wang, Yayi; Peng, Yongzhen

    2013-04-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from primary sludge and the subsequent application to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, a novel approach of using primary sludge as an additional carbon source was conducted in batch tests. The nitritation effluent was directly injected into the sludge fermentation reactor to achieve nitrogen removal. Complete denitrification could be realized in the combined reactor. Moreover, injecting nitrite not only promoted the sludge stabilization process, but also reduced the release of phosphate and ammonium during sludge stabilization. The novel process was further evaluated in a continuous system by treating sludge dewatering liquors. Under optimum conditions, 85% removal of ammonium and 75% of total nitrogen could be obtained using primary sludge, resulting in the suitable effluent for recycling into the inlet of the wastewater treatment plant.

  3. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  4. Activated sludge inhibition capacity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Surerus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic compounds in sewage or industrial wastewater may inhibit the biological activity of activated sludge impairing the treatment process. This paper evaluates the Inhibition Capacity Index (ICI for the assessment of activated sludge in the presence of toxicants. In this study, activated sludge was obtained from industrial treatment plants and was also synthetically produced. Continuous respirometric measurements were carried out in a reactor, and the oxygen uptake rate profile obtained was used to evaluate the impact of inhibiting toxicants, such as dissolved copper, phenol, sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate and amoxicillin, on activated sludge. The results indicate that ICI is an efficient tool to quantify the intoxication capacity. The activated sludge from the pharmaceutical industry showed higher resistance than the sludge from other sources, since toxicants are widely discharged in the biological treatment system. The ICI range was from 58 to 81% when compared to the synthetic effluent with no toxic substances.

  5. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low-tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low-tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low-tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low-tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low-tar theme and was included in the analysis. Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low-tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low-tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low-tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low-tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low-tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low-tar alternative brands. Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low-tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low-tar brands in the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low-tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low-tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low-tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low-tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher-tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands

  6. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low‐tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low‐tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low‐tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low‐tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low‐tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low‐tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low‐tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low‐tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low‐tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low‐tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low‐tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low‐tar brands in the mid‐1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low‐tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low‐tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low‐tar

  7. Enhancement of dewatering performance of digested paper mill sludge by chemical pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. Q.; Zeng, C.; Wu, H. H.; Zeng, B. X.

    2016-08-01

    The wide application of anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste sludge results in a huge amount of digested sludge, while the appropriate reuse of digested sludge depends on effective solid-liquid separation. Thus, chemical (acid/alkali) pretreatment effects on dewaterability of digested paper mill sludge (DPMS) for better downstream reuse based on enhanced solid- liquid separation were investigated in this research. The dewatering properties of paper mill sludge (PMS) were also investigated to elucidate the impact of AD on sludge dewaterability. The results indicated that a higher DPMS dewaterability was noted with acid pretreatment (pH5). A 41.37% moisture content and 74.41% dewatering efficiency were determined for DPMS after acid (pH5) pretreatment within 25 min. In addition, a 7.13 mg•g-1 VSS of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 101.50 μm of average particle size were observed. It was also observed that both EPS concentrations and particle sizes were key parameters influencing DPMS dewaterability. Lower EPS concentrations with larger average particle sizes contributed to enhanced sludge dewaterability. Moreover, dewaterability of PMS was higher than that of DPMS, which illustrated that AD would decrease the sludge dewaterability.

  8. [Technology of sewage sludge hygienization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, U

    1983-09-01

    That the use of modern technology against the laws of Nature must fail, has been clearly demonstrated again some years ago when sewage sludge postpasteurization was rashly introduced. Although many attempts were made to improve this procedure, it had to be abandoned because of unavoidable massive regrowth of pathogens which invaded the germ-free postpasteurized sludge. In contrast of postpasteurization, long-term large-scale tests with the pasteurization of fresh sludge (prepasteurization) have demonstrated that this procedure where methane digestion with its pathogen displacing effect constitutes the final stage, is basically able to function. With respect to the Swiss Sewage Sludge Decree which came into force in May 1981, and which imposes sludge hygienization for most applications throughout the year, various thermal prepasteurization methods have been offered on the market ready for application to meet the legally prescribed requirements. However, some of them still need selective improvements in order to ensure the desired hygienisation effect permanently. For some time now, attention has been focussed on a novel biological 2-stage procedure based on partial aerobic thermophilic fermentation followed by anaerobic sludge digestion which in addition to good hygienisation promises improved sludge thickening, reduced digestion time, more favourable energy consumption and added process stability etc. Although it has already been offered on the market, this interesting process is being thouroughly tested and optimized in parallel pilot tests plant at the WWTP Altenrhein. Finally, reference is made to further sludge treatment processes such as sludge drying and sludge composting which mostly comprise efficent sludge hygienisation although they may not entirely prevent pathogenic regrowth. Moreover, some unconventional and less popular processes such as liquid sludge irradiation and chemical methods are also mentioned.

  9. Sewage sludge gasification in fluidized bed: influence of temperature and the stoichiometric relation; Gasificacion de fangos de depuradora en lecho fluidizado: influencia de la temperatura y de la relacion estequiometrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manya, J.J.; Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion en Ingenieria. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI)

    2004-07-01

    The gasification of a dry granular sewage sludge has been experimentally studied. The gasification was carried out in a bench scale BFB facility, operated at steady state. The attention was focused on the presence of tar in the produced gas which affect the process efficiency and give negative drawbacks in the utilization in motors. The influence of two operating variables (bed temperature and equivalence ratio) on the gasification performances has been explored. Results show that the composition of produced gas is quite dependent of the variables analyzed. However, the results of tar yield show an unexpected behaviour. (author)

  10. Novel resource utilization of refloated algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Li, Rong; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Chenmin; Shen, Qirong

    2014-08-01

    Without further management, large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake to retrieve nitrogen and phosphorus resources may result in serious secondary environmental pollution. The possibility of utilization of algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer was investigated in this study. Variations of physicochemical properties, germination index (GI) and microcystin (MC) content were analysed during the composting process. The results showed that the addition of algal sludge improved the contents of nutrients, common free amino acids and total common amino acids in the novel organic fertilizer. Rapid degradation rates of MC-LR and MC-RR, a high GI value and more abundance of culturable protease-producing bacteria were observed during the composting process added with algal sludge. Growth experiments showed that the novel organic fertilizer efficiently promoted plant growth. This study provides a novel resource recovery method to reclaim the Taihu Lake algal sludge and highlights a novel method to produce a high-quality organic fertilizer.

  11. Heavy metal sequestration by humic substances during phyto-treatment of sewage sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzi, E.; Doni, S.; Macci, C.; Ceccanti, B.; Masciandaro, G.

    2009-07-01

    The presence of heavy metals in sludges stabilized in a reed bed system, may affect their use for agricultural purposes; however, the environmental impact of sludges depends on the availability and phyto toxicity of their heavy metal. The aim of this paper was to determine the effectiveness of a reed bed (Phragmites Australia) sludge treatment system in two urban wastewater treatment plants in Italy after two-year period of operation: by estimating the process of sludge stabilization, following conventional and non conventional parameters related with the evolution of organic matter quality (Water soluble Carbon, Dehydrogenase activity, Fulvic Acids, Humic Acids, Pyrolytic indices or organic matter Mineralization and Humification); by following the heavy metal speciation bioavailability in sludges. (Author)

  12. Activated Sludge Ozonation to Reduce Sludge Production in MBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-bing; XUE Gang; WANG Bao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The total experimental period was divided into two stages.At the first stage, a series of batch studies were carried out to get an understanding of the effect of ozonation on sludge properties. At the following stages, three MBRs with different amounts of activated sludge to be ozonated were run in parallel for a long period to evaluate the influence of sludge ozonation on sludge yield and permeate quality.Through batch study, it was found that ozone could disrupt the cell walls and caused the release of plasm from the cells,then the amounts of soluble organics in the solution increased with ozonation time. With the rise of soluble organics, the amount of soluble organics to be mineralized increased as well, which wonld reduce the soluble organics content. For the counteraction between these two aspects, a pseudo-balance could be achieved, and soluble organics would vary in a limited range. Sludge ozonation also increased the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in the solution. In addition, ozonation was effective in improving sludge settling property. On the basis of batch study, a suitable ozone dosage of 0.16 kgO3/kgMLSS wasdetermined. Three systems were run in parallel for a total period of 39 days, it was demonstrated that a part of activated sludge ozonation could reduce sludge production significantly, and biological performance of mineralization and nitrification would not be inhibited due to sludge ozonation. Experimental results proved that the combination of ozonation unit with MBR unit could achieve an excellent quality of permeate as well as a small quantity of sludge production, and economic analysis indicated that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and sludge was only 0.096Yuan (US $0.011,5)/m3 wastewater.

  13. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Rosanna; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Clift, Roland; Morse, Stephen; Pearce, Pete; Saroj, Devendra

    2017-02-01

    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2-7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.

  14. Start-up of a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with mesophilic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lier, J.B. van; Grolle, K.C.F.; Lettinga, G. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Stams, A.J.M. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Microbiology); Conway de Macario, E. (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). School of Public Health)

    1992-04-01

    Fast start-up of thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors was achieved at process temperatures of 46, 55 and 64deg C, using mesophilic granular sludge as inoculum and fatty acid mixtures as feed. The start-up was brought about by increasing the temperature of mesophilic UASB reactors in a single step, which initially led to a sharp drop in the methane-production rate. Thereafter, stable thermophilic methanogenesis was achieved within a period of 1 or 2 weeks depending on the temperature of operation. Mesophilic granules functioned initially as effective carrier material for thermophilic organisms. However, long-term operation led to disintegration of the granules, resulting in wash-out of thermophilic biomass. The temperature optima for acetotrophic methanogenic activity of the sludges cultivated at 46, 55 and 64deg C, were similar, but differed significantly from the temperature optimum of the mesophilic inoculum. All the sludges examined were dominated by Methanothrix-like rods. These could be distinguished by antigenic fingerprinting into two subpopulations, one predominant at 36deg C and the other predominant at 46deg C and above. (orig.).

  15. A new process for efficiently producing methane from waste activated sludge: alkaline pretreatment of sludge followed by treatment of fermentation liquid in an EGSB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Yuxiao; Ye, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-15

    In the literature the production of methane from waste activated sludge (WAS) was usually conducted in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) after sludge was pretreated. It was reported in our previous publication that compared with other pretreatment methods the methane production in CSTR could be significantly enhanced when sludge was pretreated by NaOH at pH 10 for 8 days. In order to further improve methane production, this study reported a new process for efficiently producing methane from sludge, that is, sludge was fermented at pH 10 for 8 days, which was adjusted by Ca(OH)(2), and then the fermentation liquid was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for methane generation. First, for comparing the methane production observed in this study with that reported in the literature, the conventional operational model was applied to produce methane from the pH 10 pretreated sludge, that is, directly using the pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in a CSTR. It was observed that the maximal methane production was only 0.61 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day. Then, the use of fermentation liquid of pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in the reactors of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and EGSB was compared. The maximal methane production in UASB, ASBR, and EGSB reached 1.41, 3.01, and 12.43 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms for EGSB exhibiting remarkably higher methane production were investigated by enzyme, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. It was found that the granular sludge in EGSB had the highest conversion efficiency of acetic acid to methane, and the greatest activity of hydrolysis and acidification enzymes and general physiology with much more Methanosarcinaceae.

  16. Annual fuel reviews 1987. Aromatic and tar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    1988-07-20

    Production of benzene, toluene, and xylene - major aromatic products - was 227,000 tons in total in 1987, which exceeded the 1986 production by 12%, renewing the past highest production record. The reason was the favorable supply and demand situation of petroleum chemicals with ethylene as the main products. Total production of pitch, creosote and naphthalene which are the typical tar products was less than that of 1986 by 5%. It was caused by the delayed recovery of the raw material industry with iron as the main product. The demand for aromatic products largely increased in 1987. Demands for toluene and xylene were at high levels. Demand for tar products was roughly the same as 1986 except for continued poor pitch demand. Demand for creosote was approximately of the smae level as 1986. The demand for 95% naphthalene was 2% less as a whole in comparison with 1986. (11 tabs)

  17. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  18. Preparation of liquid fuels from chark chemical tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of study the optimal conditions of conduction of the process hydrogenization are found. Optimal temperature for preparation of motor oils from chark chemical tar is 4000С. On the increase of temperature from 3500С to 4000С the yield of liquid products on Mo-containing catalyst increases from 47.1 mass. % to 65.2 mass. % compared to the yield of liquid products obtained without the catalyst. The yield of gasoil fraction constitutes 15 mass. %. Optimal quantity of catalyst for preparation of liquid products from the tar is 0.05 mass. %. According to the results of study the catalytic effect of synthesized from emulsion catalyst appears at low concentration of molybdenum (0.05 mass.%. But the double increase of concentration of molybdenum weakly effects the improvement of indicators of the process.

  19. Synergistic effect of water content and composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud on the enhanced hydrogen production from sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiakuan; Song, Jian; Liang, Sha; Guan, Ruonan; Shi, Yafei; Yu, Wenbo; Zhu, Suiyi; Fan, Wei; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping; Deng, Huali; Xiao, Bo

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0.257 and 0.189 L/g dry solid (DS), respectively. At the same temperature and with the same water content, the hydrogen (H2) yields of the S-Fenton-RM samples were always higher than those of the S-PAM samples. At 900 °C, the maximum H2 yield of the S-Fenton-RM samples was 0.102 L/g DS, which was 85.5% higher than that of the S-PAM samples. The results indicated that water in the wet sludge provided the steam atmosphere for pyrolysis, and the water vapor then involved in secondary cracking reformation of tar and char gasification reactions, which would be catalyzed by the presence of metal oxides in the Fenton-RM conditioner, thus increasing the yield of fuel gas, especially hydrogen. The H2 production cost from the S-Fenton-RM system is less than that from the S-PAM system. The results suggest that pyrolysis of the wet deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM is an economical and promising alternative for sewage sludge dewatering and disposal/reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to

  1. Cold Preparation of Heroin in a Black Tar Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Armenta, Richard F; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldshear, Jesse L; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-07-29

    Black tar heroin is typically prepared for injection with heat which decreases the risk of HIV transmission by inactivating the virus. We received reports that persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, a black tar heroin market, were using only water to dissolve heroin. Because Tijuana abuts San Diego County, CA, United States, we undertook the present analyses to determine the prevalence of this practice among PWID in San Diego, California. PWID completed quarterly behavioral assessments and serological testing for blood-borne viruses. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess for individual, social, and structural correlates of preparing heroin without heat within the preceding 6 months. Nearly half of black tar heroin users (149/305) reported they had prepared heroin without heat within 6 months. In multivariable analysis, cold preparation was independently associated with younger age (10 year decrease; AOR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.53), more drug injecting acquaintances (per 5 acquaintance increase; AOR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09) and prefilled syringe use (injecting drugs from syringes that are already filled with drugs before purchase; AOR = 1.86; 95% CI 1.14, 3.02). Conclusions/Importance: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report that PWID living in a black tar heroin market are preparing heroin without heat. Additional research is needed to determine whether this is an endemic practice or PWID are engaging in new forms of drug preparation in response to changes in the environment.

  2. Short contact therapy in psoriasis Tar vs Anthralin

    OpenAIRE

    Kar P

    1994-01-01

    Thirty cases (group I) having psoriasis were studied with a view to assess the efficacy of combination of short contact coal tar therapy, sunrays exposure and short contact anthralin therapy. Results were compared with thirty patients (group II) with psoriasis using anthralin paste as per Ingram technique as control. The combined short contact therapy in group I patients with intensive 90 to 120 minutes treatment sessions done once in every alternate day resulted in complete clearing in 19 (6...

  3. Contemporary Weaving Traditions in Shora Village, Dranang County, TAR

    OpenAIRE

    Yixilamu, Yeshe Xxx

    2013-01-01

    This thesis documents the traditional craft of weaving with a particular focus on the production of nampu (snam bu), a woolen fabric made from sheep wool, which is an important and popular textile among Tibetans. Nampu are mainly used for the making of traditional Tibetan costumes, garments and boots. The most famous area for nampu textiles in Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is Dranang (Grwa nang) County in Lhoka (Lho kha) Prefecture. I have chosen to focus on the production of nampu in Shora (...

  4. Characterization of water treatment sludge and its reuse as coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ahad, Abdul; Alam, Mehtab

    2016-11-01

    Coagulation-flocculation process results in the generation of large volume of waste or residue, known as water treatment sludge (WTS), in the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Sustainable management of the inevitable waste requires careful attention from the plant operators and sludge managers. In this study, WTS produced with the optimum alum dose of 30 ml/L at the laboratory scale has been treated with sulphuric acid to bring forth a product known as sludge reagent product (SRP). The performance of SRP is evaluated for its efficiency in removing the colloidal suspensions from the Yamuna river water over wide pH range of 2-13. 1% sludge acidified with sulphuric acid of normality 2.5 at the rate of 0.05 ml/ml sludge has been observed as the optimum condition for preparing SRP from WTS. The percentage turbidity removal is greater at higher pH value and increases with increasing the dosage of SRP. The optimum SRP dosage of 8 ml/L in the pH range of 6-8 performed well in removing the colloidal suspension and other impurities from the Yamuna water. The quality of treated water met the prescribed standards for most of the quality parameters. Thus, SRP has the potential to substitute the conventional coagulants partially or completely in the water treatment process, depending on the quality needed at the users end. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metaproteomics provides functional insight into activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wilmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Through identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis". When EBPR failed, the sludge was dominated by tetrad-forming alpha-Proteobacteria. Representative and reproducible 2D gel protein separations were obtained for all sludge samples. 638 protein spots were matched across gels generated from the phosphate removing sludges. 111 of these were excised and 46 proteins were identified using recently available sludge metagenomic sequences. Many of these closely match proteins from "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" and could be directly linked to the EBPR process. They included enzymes involved in energy generation, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, glyoxylate/TCA cycle, fatty acid beta oxidation, fatty acid synthesis and phosphate transport. Several proteins involved in cellular stress response were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Importantly, this study provides direct evidence linking the metabolic activities of "Accumulibacter" to the chemical transformations observed in EBPR. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to current EBPR metabolic models.

  6. Metaproteomics Provides Functional Insight into Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Paul; Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Through identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Methodology/Principal Findings A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis”. When EBPR failed, the sludge was dominated by tetrad-forming α-Proteobacteria. Representative and reproducible 2D gel protein separations were obtained for all sludge samples. 638 protein spots were matched across gels generated from the phosphate removing sludges. 111 of these were excised and 46 proteins were identified using recently available sludge metagenomic sequences. Many of these closely match proteins from “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” and could be directly linked to the EBPR process. They included enzymes involved in energy generation, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, glyoxylate/TCA cycle, fatty acid β oxidation, fatty acid synthesis and phosphate transport. Several proteins involved in cellular stress response were detected. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, this study provides direct evidence linking the metabolic activities of “Accumulibacter” to the chemical transformations observed in EBPR. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to current EBPR metabolic models. PMID:18392150

  7. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chakrabarty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observation of large-scale production of spherical, carbonaceous particles – "tar balls" – from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements indicate that brown carbon is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional organic carbon (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths and brown carbon suggest that accounting for UV absorption by brown carbon leads to a significant increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased atmospheric warming. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  8. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chakrabarty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles – "tar balls" – from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index – optically defined as "brown carbon" – is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  9. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-07-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index - optically defined as "brown carbon" - is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  10. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  11. Study of the modification of coal-tar pitch with p-methyl benzaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qilang Lin; Tiehu Li; Yongbin Ji; Wenzhi Wang; Xiaoxian Wang [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Coal-tar pitch is modified with p-methyl benzaldehyde (PMB) in the presence of p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTS). The main characteristics of the modified pitches such as coking value, softening point and solubility are studied in this paper. The molecular structures of the modified pitches are studied using FT-IR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy techniques. In addition, the morphologies of the modified pitches are inspected with SEM, and the optical textures of resultant semi-cokes are characterized by polarized-light microscopy. Results show that the modified pitches have much higher coking value and {beta}-resins content than the parent pitch. There exist many microfibers with a uniform distribution in the modified pitches. Moreover, the modification results in an improvement in the optical textures of resultant semi-cokes. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  13. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  14. Thermodynamic studies of a series of homologous HIV-1 TAR RNA ligands reveal that loose binders are stronger Tat competitors than tight ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Lise; Azoulay, Stéphane; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Zenacker, Laura; Gaysinski, Marc; Clayette, Pascal; Patino, Nadia

    2013-06-01

    RNA is a major drug target, but the design of small molecules that modulate RNA function remains a great challenge. In this context, a series of structurally homologous 'polyamide amino acids' (PAA) was studied as HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) RNA ligands. An extensive thermodynamic study revealed the occurence of an enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon resulting in very close TAR affinities for all PAA. However, their binding modes and their ability to compete with the Tat fragment strongly differ according to their structure. Surprisingly, PAA that form loose complexes with TAR were shown to be stronger Tat competitors than those forming tight ones, and thermal denaturation studies demonstrated that loose complexes are more stable than tight ones. This could be correlated to the fact that loose and tight ligands induce distinct RNA conformational changes as revealed by circular dichroism experiments, although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments showed that the TAR binding site is the same in all cases. Finally, some loose PAA also display promising inhibitory activities on HIV-infected cells. Altogether, these results lead to a better understanding of RNA interaction modes that could be very useful for devising new ligands of relevant RNA targets.

  15. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described.

  16. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  17. Sludge Treatment Evaluation: 1992 Technical progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L J; Felmy, A R; Ding, E R

    1993-01-01

    This report documents Fiscal Year 1992 technical progress on the Sludge Treatment Evaluation Task, which is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of this task is to develop a capability to predict the performance of pretreatment processes for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste stored at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Significant cost savings can be achieved if radionuclides and other undesirable constituents can be effectively separated from the bulk waste prior to final treatment and disposal. This work is initially focused on chemical equilibrium prediction of water washing and acid or base dissolution of Hanford single-shell tank (SST) sludges, but may also be applied to other steps in pretreatment processes or to other wastes. Although SST wastes contain many chemical species, there are relatively few constituents -- Na, Al, NO[sub 3], NO[sub 2], PO[sub 4], SO[sub 4], and F -- contained in the majority of the waste. These constituents comprise 86% and 74% of samples from B-110 and U-110 SSTS, respectively. The major radionuclides of interest (Cs, Sr, Tc, U) are present in the sludge in small molal quantities. For these constituents, and other important components that are present in small molal quantities, the specific ion-interaction terms used in the Pitzer or NRTL equations may be assumed to be zero for a first approximation. Model development can also be accelerated by considering only the acid or base conditions that apply for the key pretreatment steps. This significantly reduces the number of chemical species and chemical reactions that need to be considered. Therefore, significant progress can be made by developing all the specific ion interactions for a base model and an acid dissolution model.

  18. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part B. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were produced as a by-product from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The composition of the tar produced varies depending on many factors; these include the temperature of production and the type of retort used. As different production processes produce different tars, a comprehensive database of the compounds present within coal tars from different production processes is a valuable resource. Such a database would help to understand how their chemical properties differ and what hazards the compounds present within these tars might pose. This study focuses on the aliphatic and aromatic compounds present in a database of 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 198 individual aliphatic and 951 individual aromatic compounds were detected within 16 tar samples produced by five different production processes. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of coal tars varies greatly depending on the production process used to obtain the tars and this is clearly demonstrated within the results. The aliphatic composition of the tars provided an important piece of analytical information that would have otherwise been missed with the detection of petrogenic compounds such as alkyl cyclohexanes. The aromatic compositions of the tar samples varied greatly between the different production processes investigated and useful analytical information was obtained about the individual production process groups. Alkyl cyclohexanes were detected in all samples from sites known to operate Carbureted Water Gas plants and not detected in

  19. Contact sensitivity to newsprint: a rare manifestation of coal tar allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illchyshyn, A.; Cartwright, P.H.; Smith, A.G.

    1987-07-01

    Contact dermatitis due to coal tar is infrequently reported in spite of the fact that it consists of a mixture of 10,000 constituents, and is still often used to treat both eczema and psoriasis. Discusses patient with coal tar sensitivity in whom the source of exacerbation of her dermatitis is shown to be newsprint, a common product containing coal tar-derived material. 6 refs.

  20. Pelagic tar off Georgia and Florida in relation to physical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, C.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, R.; Blanton, J.

    1980-11-01

    It was hypothesized, following the Ixtoc oil rig blowout in Campeche Bay in August 1979, that resultant tarballs should eventually appear in the Gulf stream off Georgia and that little would reach nearshore areas. Surface tows to collect floating tar were conducted off the coasts of Georgia and Florida to test this hypothesis. No tar was found within 40 km of shore. All samples more than 40 km from shore contained some tar.

  1. Effects of acid/alkali lysis on the characteristics and reduction efficacy of sludge in continuous running systems%连续运行系统中酸碱溶胞对污泥特性及减量效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢敏; 黄聪; 刘小波; 李美艳; 欧双慧

    2014-01-01

    研究酸、碱对剩余活性污泥的溶胞效果,考察了pH、温度、作用时间对溶胞效果的影响。试验结果表明:pH=12.0,T=60℃,t=2 h时为最佳条件,溶出的有机质中溶解性蛋白、溶解性总糖、SCOD以及总磷的释放量明显增加。以污水厂剩余污泥为接种污泥,某高校生活污水作为进水,建立动态试验,对剩余污泥进行溶胞处理后投入曝气池。结果表明:在对照组和试验组的出水水质都满足国标要求的前提下,试验组排泥量比对照组减少75%,污泥减量效果显著。%The lysis effect of acid/alkali on residual activated sludge has been studied,and the influences of pH, temperature,action time on lysis effect have been investigated. The testing results show that the optimal conditions are as follows:pH=12.0,T=60 ℃,and t=2 h. Under these conditions,the releasing quantity of soluble protein, soluble total sugar,and SCOD in the organic substances dissolved out,as well as the total phosphorus released,can be increased obviously. Dynamic test is set up,by using the residual sludge in a wastewater plant as seed sludge and the domestic sewage in a university as influent. After residual sludge has been treated by lysis method ,it should be put in an aeration filter. The results show that on the premise that both of the effluent water quality of the contrasting group and testing group can meet international requirements ,the sludge discharge quantity of testing group is 75%lower than that of contrasting group,and its sludge reduction efficacy is remarkable.

  2. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  3. The Legend of Hot Tar or Pitch as a Defensive Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In popular culture and even in academic discourse surrounding castles, hot tar pitch has been depicted as a widespread defensive weapon. The identification of "machicoulis" (machicolations) as an architectural provision for pouring down liquid tar pitch goes back to the early days of castle...... production and use during the Middle Ages will be discussed with special focus on the application of tar pitch as an ingredient in medieval and post-medieval thermal weapons (especially Greek Fire, the firebomb and the fire arrow). The punishment of tarring and feathering will also be considered...

  4. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  5. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Mekbib Atnaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3 in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  7. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  8. The Legend of Hot Tar or Pitch as a Defensive Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In popular culture and even in academic discourse surrounding castles, hot tar pitch has been depicted as a widespread defensive weapon. The identification of "machicoulis" (machicolations) as an architectural provision for pouring down liquid tar pitch goes back to the early days of castle...... production and use during the Middle Ages will be discussed with special focus on the application of tar pitch as an ingredient in medieval and post-medieval thermal weapons (especially Greek Fire, the firebomb and the fire arrow). The punishment of tarring and feathering will also be considered...

  9. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non

  10. 由混合电镀污泥硫酸浸出液选择性沉淀分离铬的研究%Recovery of chromium from sulphuric acid leaching solutions of mixed electroplating sludge by selective precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志峰; 赵洪兴; 王成彦; 袁文辉; 杨卜

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of Cr from the sulphuric acid leaching solutions of mixed electroplating sludge (MES) is studied. After the removal of Cu by solvent extraction, the selective phosphate precipitation is applied for the separation of Cr from Fe, Ni and Zn in the MES leaching solutions. The experimental results show that the precipitation of Cr can be carried out stably and effectively and the concentration of Cr in the solutions can be lowered down to about 0.04 g/L. Cr is efficiently enriched in the precipitates which contain 13% of Cr, 0.4 %of Ni, 0.1%of Fe and 0.2%of Zn,respectively,and could be further recovered as economic products.%研究由混合电镀污泥硫酸浸出液选择性分离回收铬的方法.浸出液经萃取提铜后,应用磷酸沉淀方法实现铬与铁、镍、锌的选择性分离.实验证明,该方法稳定有效,能够达到选择性沉淀铬的目的,沉淀后液中铬的浓度可降至0.04 g/L左右.沉铬渣含铬约13%,镍、铁、锌等杂质含量可分别降至0.4%、0.1%和0.2%左右.由磷酸铬渣可进一步综合回收铬并制取铬的经济产品.

  11. 过氧乙酸破解和化学重絮凝改善活性污泥过滤脱水性能%Enhancement of activated sludge dewatering performance with combined peroxyacetic acid oxiution and chemical re?flocculation with inorganic coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秉帝; 张伟军; 王东升; 段晋明

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances ( EPS) in sewage sludge are highly hydrophilic, and the destruction of EPS structure is very essential for the high-performance dewatering process. In this study, the peracetic acid lysis and chemical re-flocculation was used to achieve the volume reduction and dewaterability improvement of waste activated sludge. Moreover, dynamic variations of the floc morphology and EPS properties of sludge were also investigated. The results indicated that PAA treatment had very limited effect on sludge filterability, while filtration drying performance was effectively improved. PAA could effectively solubilize the sludge particle and destroy the protein-like substances, resulting in an efficient releasing of bound water. Sludge dewatering was enhanced under a low pH level after PAA oxiution, ascribing to the higher oxiutive ability of PAA under acid conditions. No integral sludge floc could be observed after PAA treatment at high dosages. Floc reformed after the additive of PAC and ferric chloride, meanwhile both filterability and dewaterability were improved. Furthermore, PAC performed better in improving sludge dewatering performance than ferric chloride due to its high adsorption and bridging abilities.%活性污泥中的胞外聚合物( EPS)高度亲水,破坏EPS结构是促使结合水释放的必要过程.为此,研究利用过氧乙酸( PAA)预氧化破解污泥和化学絮凝过程以同步实现污泥减量和脱水性改善,深入解析组合调理过程中污泥絮体形态特征及EPS分布和组成的变化特征.结果表明:PAA处理污泥对其过滤特性影响不大,但有效降低滤后泥饼的含水率;PAA能够有效破解污泥,破坏EPS中蛋白质类有机物,促使结合水释放;随着pH的降低,PAA对污泥脱水性的改善效果更佳,这主要是因为酸性环境有效提高了PAA对污泥 EPS的氧化效率;高剂量 PAA 处理污泥后未见到有完整结构的絮体.投加聚合氯化铝( PAC)和氯化铁

  12. Carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber hybrid material: a super support material for sludge biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qijie; Dai, Guangze; Bao, Yanling

    2017-07-16

    Carbon fiber (CF) is widely used as a sludge biofilm support material for wastewater treatment. Carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber (CNTs/CF) hybrid material was prepared by ultrasonically assisted electrophoretic deposition (EPD). CF supports (CF without handling, CF oxidized by nitric acid, CNTs/CF hybrid material) were evaluated by sludge immobilization tests, bacterial cell adsorption tests and Derjaguin -Landau -Verwey -Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We found that the CNTs/CF hybrid material has a high capacity for adsorbing activated sludge, nitrifying bacterial sludge and pure strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). CNTs deposited on CF surface easily wound around the curved surface of bacterial cell which resulted in capturing more bacterial cells. DLVO theory indicated the lowest total interaction energy of CNTs/CF hybrid material, which resulted in the highest bacteria cell adsorption velocity. Experiments and DLVO theory results proved that CNTs/CF hybrid material is a super support material for sludge biofilms.

  13. Biodiesel production from wet municipal sludge: evaluation of in situ transesterification using xylene as a cosolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, O K; Song, J S; Cha, D K; Lee, J W

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a method to produce biodiesel from wet wastewater sludge. Xylene was used as an alternative cosolvent to hexane for transesterification in order to enhance the biodiesel yield from wet wastewater sludge. The water present in the sludge could be separated during transesterification by employing xylene, which has a higher boiling point than water. Xylene enhanced the biodiesel yield up to 8.12%, which was 2.5 times higher than hexane. It was comparable to the maximum biodiesel yield of 9.68% obtained from dried sludge. Xylene could reduce either the reaction time or methanol consumption, when compared to hexane for a similar yield. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content of the biodiesel increased approximately two fold by changing the cosolvent from hexane to xylene. The transesterification method using xylene as a cosolvent can be applied effectively and economically for biodiesel recovery from wet wastewater sludge without drying process.

  14. Modelling the low-tar BIG process; Modellering af low-tar BIG processen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2002-09-15

    This report describes the possibilities of integrating a biomass gasifier in a combined heat and power plant. The purpose of the study is, among others, to see if the gasification technology can challenge existing heat and power production methods. A research programme dealing with the construction of a low far gasifier (LT-BIG), which easily can be scaled to large gasification plants, is in progress. This report also contains a model formulation and implementation for this suggested low tar gasifier. All the models are created by the use of the energy simulation tool DNA. For some cases it has been necessary to develop new components or to alter existing components in DNA. Three different systems are considered; Gas Engine, Simple Cycle Gas Turbine and Combined Cycle. When biomass with and lower heating value of 19 MJ/kg and a moisture content of 50% is employed the subsequent results and designs are achieved: 1) The Engine plant utilizes the hot flue-gas to dry the biomass, but has difficulties taking advantage of the potential energy from the cooling of the syngas. An engine with a net electric efficiency of 40% at full load is computed to convert 38,5% of the energy content in the biomass to electricity. 2) The Simple Cycle Gas Turbine plant has good potential for integration with a gasifier. It dries the biomass by means of the flue-gas and recuperates the energy from the hot syngas to preheat the pressurised gas before it enters the combustion chamber. With an isentropic efficiency of 89% and a pressure ratio of 20, an electric efficiency of 38% is computed. 3) The Combined Cycle plant almost reach a computed efficiency of 45%. It utilises the cooling of the hot syngas to produce extra steam for the cycle, which results in a very steady efficiency, even when the moisture content of the fuel is changed. A grand parametric and sensitivity study of the LT-BIG model is carried out. The study includes estimates of the air demand for the gasifier and the partial

  15. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2009-06-01

    During the treatment of sewage, a huge volume of sludge is generated, which is disposed of on land as soil fertilizer/conditioner due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. However, the presence of toxic heavy metals and other toxic compounds in the sludge restricts its use as a fertilizer. Over the years, bioleaching has been developed as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective technology for the removal of heavy metals from the sludge. The present paper gives an overview of the various bioleaching studies carried out in different modes of operation. The various important aspects such as pathogen destruction, odor reduction and metal recovery from acidic leachate also have been discussed. Further, a detailed discussion was made on the various technical problems associated with the bioleaching process, which need to be addressed while developing the process on a larger scale.

  16. Different options for metal recovery after sludge decontamination at the Montreal Urban Community wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, N; Blais, J F; Lounès, M; Tyagi, R D; Sasseville, J L

    2002-01-01

    The MUG (Montreal Urban Community) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (270 tds/day) during the physico-chemical treatment of wastewater. Recently, this treatment plant endowed a system of drying and granulation of sludge for valorization as an agricultural fertilizer having a capacity of 70 tds/day (25% of the daily sludge production). However, the metal content (mainly Cu and Cd) of the sludge surpasses the norms for biosolids valorization. In order to solve this problem, a demonstration project, from the lab scale to the industrial pilot plant, was carried out to test the Metix-AC technology for the removal of metals. A strongly metal-loaded filtrate was generated during the sludge decontamination. Tests concerned the study of the metal recovery by total precipitation and selective precipitation, as well as the use of alternative products for the metal precipitation. Other works consisted to simulate the acid filtrate recirculation from the decontaminated sludge (25% of the total volume) in the untreated sludge (75% of the total volume) intended for the incineration. The total precipitation with hydrated limeappearedeffectivefortherecoveryof metals (87% Cd, 96% Cr, 97% Cu, 98% Fe, 71% Ni, 100% Pb, 98% Zn). However, this option entails the production of an important quantity of metallic residue, which should be disposed of expensively as dangerous material. The selective iron precipitation does not appear to bean interesting option because the iron in solution within the leached sludge was principally present in the form of ferrous iron, which cannot be precipitated at pH lower than five. On the other hand, the use of commercial precipitating agents (TMT-15, CP-33Z, CP-NB and CPX) without pH adjustment of filtrate gave good results for the recovery of Cu and, to a lesser degree for the recovery of Pb. However, the efficiency for the other metals' (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) recovery was weaker (< 25%). Finally, the acid filtrate

  17. Assessment of alternative management techniques of tank bottom petroleum sludge in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Futaisi, Ahmed [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman)]. E-mail: futaisi@squ.edu.om; Jamrah, Ahmad [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman); Yaghi, Basma [Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman); Taha, Ramzi [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman)

    2007-03-22

    This paper investigated several options for environmentally acceptable management techniques of tank bottom oily sludge. In particular, we tested the applicability of managing the sludge by three options: (1) as a fuel supplement; (2) in solidification; (3) as a road material. Environmental testing included determination of heavy metals concentration; toxic organics concentration and radiological properties. The assessment of tank bottom sludge as a fuel supplement included various properties such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and energy content. Solidified sludge mixtures and road application sludge mixtures were subjected to leaching using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Tank bottom sludge was characterized as having higher concentrations of lead, zinc, and mercury, but lower concentrations of nickel, copper and chromium in comparison with values reported in the literature. Natural occurring radioactive minerals (NORM) activity values obtained on different sludge samples were very low or negligible compared to a NORM standard value of 100 Bq/g. The fuel assessment results indicate that the heating values, the carbon content and the ash content of the sludge samples are comparable with bituminous coal, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal and petroleum coke/coal mixture, but lower than those in car tyres and petroleum coke. The nitrogen content is lower than those fuels mentioned above, while the sulfur content seems comparable with bituminous coal, petroleum coke and a petroleum coke/coal mixture. The apparent lack of leachability of metals from solidification and road material sludge applications suggests that toxic metals and organics introduced to these applications are not readily attacked by weak acid solutions and would not be expected to migrate or dissolved into the water. Thus, in-terms of trace metals and organics, the suggested sludge applications would not be considered hazardous as defined by the TCLP leaching procedure.

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production potential of heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Uchida, Takahiro; Morohoshi, Jota; Sei, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production potential of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge by genotypic and phenotypic characterizations. A total of 114 bacterial strains were isolated from four activated sludge samples taken from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor and three wastewater treatment processes of two municipal wastewater treatment plants. PCR detection of the phaC genes encoding class I and II PHA synthase revealed that 15% of the total isolates possessed phaC genes, all of which had the closest similarities to known phaC genes of α- and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. PHA production experiments under aerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions showed that 68% of the total isolates were capable of producing PHA from at least one of the six substrates used (acetate, propionate, lactate, butyrate, glucose and glycerol). Genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that 75% of the activated sludge bacteria had PHA production potential. Our results also indicated that short-chain fatty acids would be the preferable substrates for PHA production by activated sludge bacteria, and that there might be a variety of unidentified phaC genes in activated sludge.

  19. Toluene in sewage and sludge in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2014-01-01

    Toluene is a compound that often occurs in municipal wastewater ranging from detectable levels up to 237 μg/L. Before the year 2000, the presence of the aromatic hydrocarbons was assigned only to external sources. The Enhanced Biological Nutrients Removal Processes (EBNRP) work according to many different schemes and technologies. For high-efficiency biological denitrification and dephosphatation processes, the presence of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in sewage is required. VFAs are the main product of organic matter hydrolysis from sewage sludge. However, no attention has been given to other products of the process. It has been found that in parallel to VFA production, toluene formation occurred. The formation of toluene in municipal anaerobic sludge digestion processes was investigated. Experiments were performed on a laboratory scale using sludge from primary and secondary settling tanks of municipal treatment plants. The concentration of toluene in the digested sludge from primary settling tanks was found to be about 42,000 μg/L. The digested sludge supernatant liquor returned to the biological dephosphatation and denitrification processes for sewage enrichment can contain up to 16,500 μg/L of toluene.

  20. How does the entering of copper nanoparticles into biological wastewater treatment system affect sludge treatment for VFA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jingyang

    2014-10-15

    Usually the studies regarding the effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), which are released to wastewater treatment plant, on sludge anaerobic treatment in the literature have been conducted by directly adding NPs to sludge treatment system. Actually, NPs must enter into the wastewater treatment facility from influent before sludge being treated. Thus, the documented results can not reflect the real situations. During sludge anaerobic treatment for producing volatile fatty acids (VFA, the preferred carbon source for wastewater biological nutrient removal), it was found in this study that the entering of CuNPs to biological wastewater treatment system had no significant effect on sludge-derived VFA generation, while direct addition of CuNPs to sludge fermentation reactor caused a much lower VFA production, when compared to the control test. Further investigation revealed that the entering of CuNPs into wastewater biological treatment system improved sludge solubilization due to the decline of sludge particle size and the increase of sludge microorganism cells breakage. In addition, there was no obvious influence on hydrolysis, while significant inhibition was observed on acidification, resulting in the final VFA production similar to the control. When CuNPs were directly added to the fermentation system, the solubilization was little influenced, however the hydrolysis and acidification were seriously inhibited, causing the ultimate VFA generation decreased. Therefore, selecting proper method close to the real situation is vital to accurately assess the toxicity of nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation.

  1. Environmental assessment: tar sand in situ steam injection experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A field experiment is planned for the in situ recovery of bitumen from tar sand. The site is located on a ten acre site 6.5 miles West of Vernal, Utah, and the experiment will last about six months. The experiment will utilize steam to lower the viscosity of the bitumen and drive it into production wells where it is recovered. Due to the small scale of this experiment, the impact of the proposed action will be minimal. Impact on local biological life will be minimal. The experiment will have no effect on aquatic habitats. No rare or endangered biological species will be affected by the experiment.

  2. pTAR-Encoded Proteins in Plasmid Partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Kalnin, Kirill; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Yarmolinsky, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Partition cassettes, essential for the segregational stability of low-copy-number bacterial plasmids, typically encode two autoregulated proteins and an adjacent cis-acting centromere analog to which one or perhaps both proteins bind. The diminutive partition region of pTAR of Agrobacterium spp. was reported to be exceptional, encoding only a single protein, ParA (D. R. Gallie and C. I. Kado, J. Mol. Biol. 193:465–478, 1987). However, resequencing of the region revealed two small downstream g...

  3. Deodarone Isomers in Cedrus atlantica Essential Oils and Tar Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Anne Marie; Bighelli, Ange; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Satrani, Badr; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Deodarone [2,2,6-trimethyl-6-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-tetrahydro-4-pyrone] is a sesquiterpene tetrahydro-γ-pyrone related to bisabolene and atlantone, first isolated from Cedrus deodora essential oil. With respect to the stereochemistry of the asymmetric carbons C4 and C8, two diastereoisomers may be distinguished. Identification and quantification of both diastereoisomers in wood and tar oils from C. atlantica has been achieved using 13C NMR spectroscopy, in combination with GC (polar column). The contents of (4R,8R)- and (4R,8S)-deodarone varied between 1.1-2.8% and 1.0-3.0%, respectively.

  4. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  5. Isolation and structural determination of mutagenic substances in coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuge, T.; Zenda, H.; Nukaya, H.; Terada, A.; Okamoto, T.; Shudo, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Iitaka, Y.; Sugimura, T.

    1982-04-01

    Eleven compounds that were mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurim TA98 were isolated from a basic fraction of coal tar. These were six aminopolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (1-aminofluoranthene, 1- and 3-aminophenanthrene, 1- and 2-aminopyrene and 5-aminobenz(hALPHA)anthracene) and five aza-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenaleno(1,9-gh)quinoline, pyrido(3,2-c)carbazole, quino(3,2-c)carbazole, benzo(h)naphtho(2,1,8-delfquinoline and benzo(de)naphthol(1,8-gh)quinoline).

  6. Efficient Phosphorus Cycling in Food Production: Predicting the Phosphorus Fertilization Effect of Sludge from Chemical Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Øgaard, Anne; Brod, Eva

    2016-06-22

    This study examined the P fertilization effects of 11 sewage sludges obtained from sewage treated with Al and/or Fe salts to remove P by a pot experiment with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and a nutrient-deficient sand-peat mixture. Also it investigated whether fertilization effects could be predicted by chemical sludge characteristics and/or by P extraction. The mineral fertilizer equivalent (MFE) value varied significantly but was low for all sludges. MFE was best predicted by a negative correlation with ox-Al and ox-Fe in sludge, or by a positive correlation with P extracted with 2% citric acid. Ox-Al had a greater negative impact on MFE than ox-Fe, indicating that Fe salts are preferable as a coagulant when aiming to increase the plant availability of P in sludge. The results also indicate that sludge liming after chemical wastewater treatment with Al and/or Fe salts increases the P fertilization effect.

  7. Effect of hydrothermal carbonization on migration and environmental risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge during pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhengang; Zheng, Qingfu; Lang, Qianqian; Xia, Yu; Peng, Nana; Gai, Chao

    2017-09-18

    The heavy metals distribution during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge, and pyrolysis of the resultant hydrochar was investigated and compared with raw sludge pyrolysis. The results showed that HTC reduced exchangeable/acid-soluble and reducible fraction of heavy metals and lowered the potential risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The pyrolysis favored the transformation of extracted/mobile fraction of heavy metals to residual form especially at high temperature, immobilizing heavy metals in the chars. Compared to the chars from raw sludge pyrolysis, the chars derived from hydrochar pyrolysis was more alkaline and had lower risk and less leachable heavy metals, indicating that pyrolysis imposed more positive effect on immobilization of heavy metals for the hydrochar than for sewage sludge. The present study demonstrated that HTC is a promising pretreatment prior to pyrolysis from the perspective of immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the ability of sludge to degrade PCP under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. L. Bolaños

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of sludge from different sources to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP was evaluated. Three 2.5 liter reactors (R1, R2, and R3 were inoculated with different anaerobic sludges, semi continuously fed and maintained in orbital motion at 30±1°C. R1 was inoculated with aerobic sludge and river sediment collected downstream from a pulp and paper plant. R2 received sludge from an anaerobic reactor treating effluents from a paper recycling plant and R3 received anaerobic sludge from a biodigestor treating industrial and domestic effluents. The sludges were first acclimatized to a culture medium generally recommended for organochloride anaerobic degradation studies. The reactors were then subjected to increasing concentrations of PCP from 0.05 to 10.0 mg.l-1. PCP degradation and metabolite formation were monitored using gas chromatography, and the effects of PCP on the anaerobic process were verified by monitoring pH, volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, total suspended solids, and chemical oxygen demand. It was found that PCP did not affect reactor performance. All the sludges displayed the best PCP degradation capacity at a concentration of 0.2 mg.l-1, producing fewer chlorinated metabolites than when higher PCP concentrations were applied. R1 consistently produced fewer chlorinated metabolites, confirming the hypothesis that pre exposure to chlorinated compounds improves the sludge's capacity to degrade PCP.

  9. Effects of thermally pretreated temperature on bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ben-Yi; Liu, Jun-Xin

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge. Therefore, in this paper the effects of thermally pretreated temperatures on hydrogen production from sewage sludge were investigated under different pre-treatment conditions. In the thermal pretreatment, some microbial matters of sludge were converted into soluble matters from insoluble ones. As a result, the suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) of sludge decreased and the concentration of soluble COD (SCOD) increased, including soluble carbohydrates and proteins. The experimental results showed that all of those pretreated sludge could produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation and the hydrogen yields under the temperatures of 121 degrees C and 50 degrees C were 12.23 ml/g VS (most) and 1.17 ml/g VS (least), respectively. It illuminated that the hydrogen yield of sludge was affected by the thermally pretreated temperatures. Additionally, the endurance of high hydrogen yield depended on the translation of microbial matters and inhibition of methanogens in the sludge. The temperatures of 100 degrees C and 121 degrees C (treated time, 30 min) could kill or inhibit completely the methanogens while the others could not. To produce hydrogen and save energy, 100 degrees C was chosen as the optimal temperature for thermal pretrcatment. The composition changes in liquid phase in the fermentation process were also discussed. The SCOD of sludge increased, which was affected by the pretreatment temperature. The production of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic fermentation increased with the pretreatment temperature.

  10. Effects of thermally pretreated temperature on bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ben-yi; LIU Jun-xin

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge. Therefore, in this paper the effects of thermally pretreated temperatures on hydrogen production from sewage sludge were investigated under different pre-treatment conditions. In the thermal pretreatment, some microbial matters of sludge were converted into soluble matters from insoluble ones. As a result, the suspended solid(SS) and volatile suspended solid(VSS) of sludge decreased and the concentration of soluble COD(SCOD) increased,including soluble carbohydrates and proteins. The experimental results showed that all of those pretreated sludge could produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation and the hydrogen yields under the temperatures of 121 ℃ and 50℃ were 12.23 ml/g VS(most)and 1.17 ml/g VS (least), respectively. It illuminated that the hydrogen yield of sludge was affected by the thermally pretreated temperatures. Additionally, the endurance of high hydrogen yield depended on the translation of microbial matters and inhibition of methanogens in the sludge. The temperatures of 100℃ and 121℃ (treated time, 30 min) could kill or inhibit completely the methanogens while the others could not. To produce hydrogen and save energy, 100℃ was chosen as the optimal temperature for thermal pretreatment. The composition changes in liquid phase in the fermentation process were also discussed. The SCOD of sludge increased, which was affected by the pretreatment temperature. The production of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic fermentation increased with the pretreatment temperature.

  11. Study of the pyrolysis of sludge and sludge/disposal filter cake mix for the production of value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velghe, Inge; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan; Schreurs, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Slow and fast pyrolysis of sludge and sludge/disposal filter cake (FC) mix are performed to investigate the liquid and solid products for their use as value added products. The obtained slow pyrolysis liquid products separate in an oil, a water rich fraction and a valuable crystalline solid 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin. During fast pyrolysis, mainly an oil fraction is formed. Aliphatic acids and amides present in the water rich fractions can be considered as value added products and could be purified. The oil fractions have properties which make them promising as fuel (25-35 MJ/kg, 14-20 wt% water content, 0.2-0.6 O/C value), but upgrading is necessary. Sludge/FC oils have a lower calorific value, due to evaporation of alcohols present in FC. ICP-AES analyses reveal that almost none of the metals present in sludge or sludge/FC are transferred towards the liquid fractions. The metals are enriched in the solid fractions.

  12. "Recovery of Iron Coagulants From Tehran Water-Treatment-Plant Sludge for Reusing in Textile Wastewater Treatment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vaezi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water treatment plants in Iran discharge their sludge to the environment whithout consideration of possible side effects. Since this kind of sludge is generally considered pollutant, the sludge treatment of water industry seems to be an essential task. Obviously theweight and volume of solids produced during the coagulation process are much more than other wastes of water treatment operations, and their treatment is much more difficult as well. Besides, this sludge contains metal hydroxide so disposing of it would waste considerable amounts of valuable metal salts. To face the mentioned problems, reclamation of coagulatns from waste sludges for reuse has been investigated in this research. Among different chemicals used in the experiments of recovery, sulfuric-acid showed better results from both practical and cost viewpoints. Three important phenomena were observed by sludge acidificantion: dissolution of metal hydroxide, reduction of sludge volume and finally faster settleability and dryness of remainder sludge. The salt recovered by sulfuric acid from the sludges of Tehran Water-Treatment Plant was ferric sulfate which showed good results in the treatment of two different types of wastewaters from textile industry.

  13. Ácidos orgânicos como extratores de metais pesados fitodisponíveis em solos tratados com lodo de esgoto Organic acids as extractors of phytoavailable heavy metals in soils treated with sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marlene Moreno Pires

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ainda não foi desenvolvido um método de extração eficiente para estimar teores fitodisponíveis de metais pesados, porque os extratores utilizados não simulam reações semelhantes às que ocorrem próximo às raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uma solução de ácidos orgânicos rizosféricos como extratora de teores fitodisponíveis de metais pesados presentes em solos tratados com lodo de esgoto. Os solos utilizados foram: Latossolo Amarelo distrófico, Neossolo Quartzarênico e Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, cultivados com plantas de banana, pupunha e café, respectivamente. A avaliação do extrator (solução composta por ácido acético, cítrico, lático e oxálico em concentrações de 1,00, 0,72, 0,49 e 0,12 mol L-1, respectivamente foi feita a partir da análise da correlação entre teores de metais pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn extraídos do solo e os teores nas plantas. As correlações foram significativas, indicando a eficiência do extrator para todos os casos estudados. Entre os metais avaliados, as quantidades extraídas de Pb correlacionaram-se melhor com teor fitodisponível nas três situações investigadas.An efficient extraction method to estimate concentrations of phytoavailable heavy metals has not been established yet, because the extractors used do not simulate reactions close to the roots. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a rhizospheric acid organic solution as an extractor of phytoavailable heavy metal from soils (Oxisols treated with sewage sludge. Three Oxisols with different textures cultivated with banana, peach palm and coffee were studied. The extractor (solution composed by acetic, citric, lactic and oxalic acids with concentrations of 1.00, 0.72, 0.49 and 0.12 mol L-1, respectively evaluation was performed from correlation analyzes between heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn concentrations extracted from the soil, and plant tissue concentrations. The correlation

  14. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54 mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10-80 mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59-83%, compared to 13-23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS.

  15. Co-gasification of coal/sewage sludge and gas turbine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Laughlin, K.; Davison, J.E.; Smith, M.A. [ed.] [British Coal Corporation, Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom). Coal Technology Development Division

    1995-12-31

    The project investigated the ability of the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), formerly known as the British Coal Topping Cycle, to co-utilise coal and pelletised sewage sludge in the CTDU pressurised gasifier. The co-firing coal and pelletised sewage sludge in the CTDD pressurised gasifier did not have an adverse effect on the gasifier operability or process performance over the parameter range studied, provided that the carbon (in fuel) to oxygen (in fluidising air) input ratio was fixed. For all test conditions, sustained ash agglomeration-free operation was achieved. Tar levels were low and fines elutriation rates remained constant. The sulphur retention efficiency attained during co-gasification with limestone addition was high. This indicates that there may be scope for reducing sorbent requirements. Plant efficiencies for an IGCC plant co-firing straw and coal were predicted to decrease if lockoppers had to be used. However, it should be possibly to virtually eliminate this penalty if an advanced feeding system could be developed. The feeding of straw to an ABGC plant using lock hoppers should not incur a reduction in plant efficiency. The addition of sewage sludge to IGCC and ABGC plants was predicted to reduce the cost of electricity provided that the gate fee for sewage sludge was above 20 UK pounds per tonne. Two designs of turbine combustor based on the tubo-annual design principle were tested, burning both synthetic and coal/sewage sludge-derived fuel gases. Combustor performance was improved substantially by increasing the size of the flame-tube diameter from 82.5 mm to 125 mm, by increasing the residence time within the primary zone and by changing the combustor cooling approach to one which utilised a combination of film and impingement cooling. Emissions of CO and NO{sub x} were very low. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

    2008-04-28

    The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus

  17. A baseline assessment of beach debris and tar contamination in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Rijn, van J.; Bron, P.S.; Leon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Data on beach debris and tar contamination is provided for 21 natural beach sites in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean. Transects amounting to a combined length of 991 m were sampled March–May 2011 and a total of 8960 debris items were collected. Highest debris and tar contamination were found on the

  18. Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry D.; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildl...

  19. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction and ...... tar destruction and a high moisture content of the biomass enhances the decomposition of phenol and inhibits the formation of naphthalene. This enhances tar conversion and gasification in the char-bed, and thus contributes in-directly to the tar destruction.......TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction...... and conversion. The study identifies the following major impact factors regarding tar content in the producer gas: oxidation temperature, excess air ratio and biomass moisture content. In a experimental setup, wood pellets were pyrolyzed and the resulting pyrolysis gas was transferred in a heated partial...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  2. Gc/ms analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foundation for the further processing and utilization of coal tar. ... After dust removal and tar separation, the coal gas entered into the next waste ... multiplier tube voltage at 500 V, scan range form m/z 40 to 650 at 3 scan/s was used, solvent.

  3. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of tar compounds formed during pyrolysis of rice husks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Stevens, T.W.; Hovestad, A.; Skolnik, V.; Visser, R.

    1991-01-01

    Pyrolysis of agricultural waste to produce fuel gas involves formation of tars as noxious by-products. In this paper the qualitative analysis of tars formed during pyrolysis of rice husks is presented, based on identification by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and interpolation of retention tim

  4. No Increased Risk of Cancer after Coal Tar Treatment in Patients with Psoriasis or Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, Judith H. J.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Oldenhof, Ursula T. H.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Alkemade, Hans A.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C. M.; van der Valk, Pieter G. M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.

    Coal tar is an effective treatment for psoriasis and eczema, but it contains several carcinogenic compounds. Occupational and animal studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after exposure to coal tar. Many dermatologists have abandoned this treatment for safety reasons, although the risk of

  5. Decomposition of tar in gas from updraft gasifier by thermal cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Peder; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2000-01-01

    Continuing earlier work with tar reduction by partial oxidation of pyrolysis gas [1] thermal cracking has been evaluated as a gas cleaning process. The work has been focusing on cleaning gas from updraft gasifiers, and the long term purpose is to develop a tar cleaning unit based on thermal...

  6. Concentrations and speciation of heavy metals in sludge from nine textile dyeing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Ning, Xun-an; Chen, Guoxin; Lin, Meiqing; Liu, Jingyong; Wang, Yujie

    2013-12-01

    The safe disposal of sludge from textile dyeing industry requires research on bioavailability and concentration of heavy metals. In this study, concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb) in sludge from nine different textile dyeing plants were examined. Some physiochemical features of sludge from textile dyeing industry were determined, and a sequential extraction procedure recommended by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was used to study the metal speciation. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to provide additional information regarding differences in sludge composition. The results showed that Zn and Cu contents were the highest, followed by Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb. The concentration of Cd and Ni in some sludge samples exceeded the standard suggested for acidic soils in China (GB18918-2002). In sludge from textile dyeing plants, Pb, Cd and Cr were principally distributed in the oxidizable and residual fraction, Cu in the oxidizable fraction, Ni in all four fractions and Zn in the acid soluble/exchangeable and reducible fractions. The pH and heat-drying method affected the fractionation of heavy metals in sludge.

  7. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizong Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sludge (AS, capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  8. Phillips solves Venezuelan tar-belt producing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, R.E.; Meldau, R.F.

    1972-07-17

    Phillips Petroleum Co. and partners have just completed an expansion to produce, treat, and ship 88,000 bpd of heavy oil from the tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. The first phase of the expansion was a $4.5-million diluent project to produce 80 API oil from the largest reservoir in the Morichal field, Monagas State. The second phase was to drill 41 wells in Amoco's Jobo field under an operating contract. The final phase was a $3.5-million expansion of treating, pipeline, and terminal facilities to handle the increased throughput. The crude produced is naphthenic and after treating is ready for road-building use, and as residual fuel at its usual viscosity of 520 to 550 sfs at 122/sup 0/F. As an asphalt stock, it has a yield of 60 to 70% and is readily processed into quality-paving asphalts which meet standard specifications. Production of the viscous 80 API crude oil, even though the major oil reservoir in Morichal, was very limited until installation of the diluent facilities last year. The same problem exists all over the famous tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. Vast oil reserves exist almost continuously in the area shown by the base map, but the oil cannot be dehydrated, desalted or transported when produced by itself. Thus, the 80 API oil is a known reserve, but without an external supply of diluent it cannot be commercially recovered.

  9. [Compositions and structure characterizations of coal tar refined soft pitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Juan; Zhao, Xue-Fei; Lai, Shi-Quan; Cheng, Jun-Xia; Lu, Yi-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    High temperature coal tar was used as raw materials, and was distilled to 280 degrees C for getting coal tar soft pitch. Then refined soft pitch was obtained by solvent extracting and subsequent settlement method. Its soft point was 32 degrees C; the group compositions consisted of 53.67% heptane soluble, 39.47% heptane insoluble but toluene soluble, 6.86% toluene insoluble and 0.06% quinoline insoluble. The relative average molecular weight was about 292. Its average molecular formula was C22.22 H16.32 N0.12 S0.06 O0.33; the total content of heteroatom was less than 1. IR analytic results showed that its heteroatom O existed in the R-O-R and Ar-O-R structure; its heteroatom N existed in the R-NH-R and -N=, with the latter being primary. Its average structure was obtained by improved Brown-Lander model: five-membered condensed rings. UV analysis indicated that the majority was linear arrangement, and the minority was surface arrangement; namely, the chemical structure of the samples was mainly the cata-condensed structure, while the minority was peri-condensation.

  10. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Microbiological and biochemical properties of an agricultural Mexican soil amended with sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Armenta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge is a concern because it may affect the quality of organic matter and microbiological and biochemical soil properties. The effects of surface application of sewage sludge to an agricultural soil (at 18 and 36 t ha-1 dry basis were assessed in one maize (Zea mays L. growing season. The study evaluated microbial biomass, basal respiration and selected enzymatic activities (catalase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and β-glucosidase 230 days after sewage sludge application and infrared spectroscopy was used to assess the quality of dissolved organic matter and humic acids. Sewage sludge applications increased the band intensity assigned to polysaccharides, carboxylic acids, amides and lignin groups in the soil. The organic matter from the sewage sludge had a significant influence on the soil microbial biomass; nevertheless, at the end of the experiment the equilibrium of the soil microbial biomass (defined as microbial metabolic quotient, qCO2 was recovered. Soil urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were strongly influenced by sewage sludge applications.

  12. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  13. Characterization of the fate of lipids in activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangala B.Chipasa; Krystyna Medrzycka

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to characterize the transformation of lipids in activated sludge under aerobic conditions. Results showed that the overall lipid content in the effluent could not be reduced to values below 300 mg/L from an initial content of 2, 000 mg/L. However, the contents of individual fatty acids underwent drastic decreases and increases during all microbial growth phases. These changes in contents of individual fatty acids showed that fatty acids were used as substrates by microorganisms as well as released into the wastewater as by-products. We have therefore suggested a novel model of transformation of lipids in activated sludge, showing that utilization of microbial activity for complete removal of lipids from wastewater is limited.

  14. Microwave-induced cracking of pyrolytic tars coupled to microwave pyrolysis for syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneroso, D; Bermúdez, J M; Montes-Morán, M A; Arenillas, A; Menéndez, J A

    2016-10-01

    Herein a new process is proposed to produce a syngas-rich gas fraction (>80vol% H2+CO) from biowaste based on microwave heating within two differentiated steps in order to avoid tars production. The first step consists of the microwave pyrolysis of biowaste induced by a char-based susceptor at 400-800°C; tars, char and syngas-rich gas fractions being produced. The tars are then fed into the second step where a portion of the char from the first step is used as a bed material in a 0.3:1wt% ratio. This bed is heated up by microwaves up to 800°C, allowing thermal cracking of tars and additional syngas (>90vol% H2+CO) being then produced. This new concept arises as an alternative technology to the gasification of biowastes for producing syngas with no need for catalysts or gasifying reagents to minimise tars production.

  15. Influence of diffusion resistance in oxidative heat-hardening of char/tar briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, K.B.S.; Venkatesham, M.

    1983-11-01

    Char/tar briquetes can be made sufficiently strong and completely smokeless by heating in the presence of oxygen. It is recognized that tar is converted into a resinous matter during this process and the rate at which this happens seems to be controlled by oxygen diffusion into the briquete. A model has been developed, considering the tar to envelop the char particles as a thin stationary layer. Computer simulation of briquetes having a binder percentage varying linearly in a direction parallel to the cylindrical axis has shown that briquetes with the smaller amount of tar near the end of the cylinder give the better average conversion, implying that such briquetes are the strongest. This has been verified experimentally using briquetes having a linearly varying tar content. The model however is a highly simplified representation of a complicated phenomenon and may need substantial modification before firmer conclusions are drawn.

  16. Characterization of the replication and stability regions of Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, D R; Zaitlin, D; Perry, K L; Kado, C I

    1984-03-01

    A 5.4-kilobase region containing the origin of replication and stability maintenance of the 44-kilobase Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR has been mapped and characterized. Within this region is a 1.3-kilobase segment that is capable of directing autonomous replication. The remaining segment contains the stability locus for maintenance of pTAR during nonselective growth. Approximately 35% of pTAR shares sequence homology with pAg119, a 44-kilobase cryptic plasmid in grapevine strain 1D1119. However, no homology was detected between pTAR DNA and several Ti plasmids or several other small cryptic plasmids in many A. tumefaciens strains. A recombinant plasmid containing the origin of replication and stability maintenance region of pTAR was compatible with pTiC58, pTi15955, and pTi119 and incompatible with pAg119. A new compatibility group, Inc Ag-1, is discussed.

  17. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Rice Husk Char Characteristics and Its Tar Adsorption Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchan Paethanom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A biomass waste, rice husk, was inspected by thermoanalytical investigation to evaluate its capability as an adsorbent medium for tar removal. The pyrolysis process has been applied to the rice husk material at different temperatures 600, 800 and 1000 °C with 20 °C/min heating rate, to investigate two topics: (1 influence of temperature on characterization of rice husk char and; (2 adsorption capability of rice husk char for tar removal. The results showed that subsequent to high temperature pyrolysis, rice husk char became a highly porous material, which was suitable as tar removal adsorbent with the ability to remove tar effectively. In addition, char characteristics and tar removal ability were significantly influenced by the pyrolysis temperature.

  18. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhabib, Karim; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Sardin, Michel

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release.

  19. Extraction of copper from sewage sludge using biodegradable chelant EDDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lihua; ZHU Zhiliang; ZHANG Ronghua; ZHENG Chengsong; ZHANG Hua; QIU Yanling; ZHAO Jianfu

    2008-01-01

    [S,S]-Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), a biodegradable chelant, was used to separate the heavy metals from the sewage sludge based on chemical extraction technology. Under various conditions, the extraction experiments were carried out for the sewage sludge from Shanghai Taopu Municipal Wastewater Plant, China. The influences of pH and the concentration of EDDS on the extraction efficiency for copper were discussed. The results showed that EDDS had higher extraction efficiency for copper from the sewage sludge than other heavy metals. The system pH and the concentration of EDDS had a significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The extraction efficiency of copper increased gradually with the increase of system pH and reached a higher efficiency within pH range of 3 to 10. The extraction efficiency maintained at approximately 70% when the pH ≥ 4.5 and the molar ratio of EDDS to total heavy metals was 10:1. From the fractional analysis of the heavy metals in sewage sludge before and after the extraction, it was found that the extracted copper mainly came from the following four fractions, i.e. water soluble, acid-soluble, reducible, and oxidizable fractions.

  20. Origin of beach-stranded tars from source rocks indigeneous to Seychelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Mahe (South Africa)

    1996-03-01

    Tarballs have been found stranded as traction deposits on a beach on northwest Mahe Island, Seychelles, with every ebbing tide. Weekly collections from mid-1993 to mid-1994 gathered nearly 4750 samples of two types of tar: a dominant black malleable tar and a less common brownish-black hard tar. Both tars represent moderately degraded extracts of crude oils seemingly derived from mature source rocks dominated by a combination of oil-prone phytoplanktonic and algal organic matter over gas-prone land-plant organic matter. Source rock deposition occurred principally in paralic to open-marine environments. The presence of minor oleanane and bicadinane, and a general preponderance of diasteranes and tricyclic terpanes in the hard tar suggest derivation from a Late Cretaceous clastic source rock with possible carbonate interbeds. By contrast, no samples of the malleable tar contain oleanane or bicadinane, but all contain significant norhopane and tetracyclic terpanes, which, along with significant sulfur and low diasterane contents, indicate derivation from a carbonate source rock of perhaps pre-Late Cretaceous age. Additionally, maturity and limited geochemical data from proven and potential source rocks present in the offshore wells enable the malleable and hard tars to be equated with specific units in the Seychelles stratigraphy; the malleable tar is seemingly derived from a Middle Jurassic carbonate of Tethyan affinity and the hard tar possibly originated from either Campanian or Maastrichtian-Paleocene shales. These tars are thus concluded to be natural seepage products derived from source rocks indigenous to Seychelles, and their persistent beach stranding significantly reduces the risk of hydrocarbon exploration in this frontier province.

  1. Thermo-chemical process with sewage sludge by using CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Kwon, Hyun-Han

    2013-10-15

    This work proposed a novel methodology for energy recovery from sewage sludge via the thermo-chemical process. The impact of CO2 co-feed on the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification) of sewage sludge was mainly investigated to enhance thermal efficiency and to modify the end products from the pyrolysis and gasification process. The CO2 injected into the pyrolysis and gasification process enhance the generation of CO. As compared to the thermo-chemical process in an inert atmosphere (i.e., N2), the generation of CO in the presence of CO2 was enhanced approximately 200% at the temperature regime from 600 to 900 °C. The introduction of CO2 into the pyrolysis and gasification process enabled the condensable hydrocarbons (tar) to be reduced considerably by expediting thermal cracking (i.e., approximately 30-40%); thus, exploiting CO2 as chemical feedstock and/or reaction medium for the pyrolysis and gasification process leads to higher thermal efficiency, which leads to environmental benefits. This work also showed that sewage sludge could be a very strong candidate for energy recovery and a raw material for chemical feedstock.

  2. Characterization and leaching study of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of the 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation processes for use in a comprehensive sludge-processing flow sheet for concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tanks wastes for final disposal. This report discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge. Approximately 5 L of sludge/supernate from MVST W-25 was retrieved and transferred to a stainless steel tank for mixing and storage in a hot cell. Samples were centrifuged to separate the sludge liquid and the sludge solids. Air-dried samples of sludge were analyzed to determine the concentrations of radionuclides, other metals, and anions. Based upon the air-dried weight, about 41% of the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was water. The major alpha-, gamma-, and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and the anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, OH{sup {minus}}, and O{sub 2{minus}}. The organic carbon content was 3.0 {+-} 1.0%. The pH was 13.

  3. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Tecchnical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Aemmaelae, A.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), Email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi

    2010-10-15

    Wastewater sludges contain valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aimed with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge were the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. The effects of wood based filter aids were studied on the dewatering properties of waste activated sludge. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.)

  4. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Binding affinity and inhibitory potency of neomycin and streptomycin on the Tat peptide interaction with HIV-1 TAR RNA detected by on-line acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Nardos; Thompson, Michael

    2003-10-07

    The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to a segment of the transactivation responsive region (TAR) RNA of the human immunodeficiency virus, and their inhibitory potency to disrupt the interaction of the RNA with a regulatory Tat protein-derived peptide, have been studied using a flow-through acoustic wave detector system. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the acoustic wave detection system shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten-fold greater affinity for TAR RNA and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. These results are in agreement with previous studies. However, unlike the time-consuming batch-based assays, use of the flow-through format offers considerable potential for the rapid screening of the chemistry of relatively small-molecule-nucleic acid binding events.

  6. Actual waste demonstration of the nitric-glycolic flowsheet for sludge batch 9 qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs qualification testing to demonstrate that the sludge batch is processable. Based on the results of this actual-waste qualification and previous simulant studies, SRNL recommends implementation of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in DWPF. Other recommendations resulting from this demonstration are reported in section 5.0.

  7. Microbiological and biochemical properties of an agricultural Mexican soil amended with sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Armenta; Rocio Vaca; Jorge Lugo; Pedro del Aguila

    2012-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge is a concern because it may affect the quality of organic matter and microbiological and biochemical soil properties. The effects of surface application of sewage sludge to an agricultural soil (at 18 and 36 t ha-1 dry basis) were assessed in one maize (Zea mays L.) growing season. The study evaluated microbial biomass, basal respiration and selected enzymatic activities (catalase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and #946;-glucosidase) 230 days after s...

  8. Effects of pre-treatments on the lipid extraction and biodiesel production from municipal WWTP sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Fortuny Sanromá, Agustín; Stüber, Frank Erich; Fabregat Llagostera, Azael; Font Capafons, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe José

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel production is currently limited due to high raw material costs. The potential of using sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants as an alternative lipid feedstock was investigated. Four different types of sludge (primary, secondary, blended and stabilised) were tested in lipid extraction by Soxhlet using hexane, and biodiesel production by acid catalysis. To improve the extraction efficiency, the influence of pre-treatment methods (ultrasonic and mechanical disintegration) a...

  9. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often

  10. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  11. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  12. The use of solvents for purifying industrial naphthalene from coal tar distilled oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azpiroz, Gonzalez; Blanco, C. Gutierrez; Banciella, Casal [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC c/Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, 33011 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    The organic chemistry industry is based on organic compounds derived from coal, petroleum and gas. Coal tars derived from the carbonisation process are complex mixtures, of which the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the main component. One of the most important PAH's is naphthalene, which represents between 10 to 12% of the sample. In recent years, new applications for industrial naphthalene have been developed. However, the naphthalene required for high level industry must be extremely pure. New routes in the purification process are being studied to reduce the economic cost and environmental impact resulting from the increase in demand for pure naphthalene. Any alternative method to that of sublimation for purification in the distillation process and/or catalytic hydrogenation must improve the quality of industrial naphthalene, to make it suitable for the new applications. In the present work, an alternative method for purifying industrial naphthalene has been investigated. A new process based on extraction with solvents such as phosphoric acid and acetic acid is reported and discussed. Industrial naphthalene was purified by means of a new technique and the stability and good properties of the product were verified. (author)

  13. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results.

  14. Effect and behaviour of different substrates in relation to the formation of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Al-Zuhairy, S H K; Kraan, R; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-06-01

    When aerobic granular sludge is applied for industrial wastewater treatment, different soluble substrates can be present. For stable granular sludge formation on volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate), production of storage polymers under anaerobic feeding conditions has been shown to be important. This prevents direct aerobic growth on readily available chemical oxygen demand (COD), which is thought to result in unstable granule formation. Here, we investigate the impact of acetate, methanol, butanol, propanol, propionaldehyde, and valeraldehyde on granular sludge formation at 35 °C. Methanogenic archaea, growing on methanol, were present in the aerobic granular sludge system. Methanol was completely converted to methane and carbon dioxide by the methanogenic archaeum Methanomethylovorans uponensis during the 1-h anaerobic feeding period, despite the relative high dissolved oxygen concentration (3.5 mg O2 L(-1)) during the subsequent 2-h aeration period. Propionaldehyde and valeraldehyde were fully disproportionated anaerobically into their corresponding carboxylic acids and alcohols. The organic acids produced were converted to storage polymers, while the alcohols (produced and from influent) were absorbed onto the granular sludge matrix and converted aerobically. Our observations show that easy biodegradable substrates not converted anaerobically into storage polymers could lead to unstable granular sludge formation. However, when the easy biodegradable COD is absorbed in the granules and/or when the substrate is converted by relatively slow growing bacteria in the aerobic period, stable granulation can occur.

  15. Recycling of sludge with the Aqua Reci process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendahl, K; Jäfverström, S

    2004-01-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an innovative and effective destruction method for organics in sewage sludge. The SCWO process leaves a slurry of inorganic ash in a pure water phase free from organic contaminants, which opens possibilities for a simple process to recover components like phosphates and/or coagulants from the sewage sludge, a process marketed as the Aqua Reci. In a continuous pilot plant for the SCWO process digested sludge has been treated. The ash has been extracted in lab- and pilot scale with both caustic and acids in order to recover phosphates and coagulants. The particle size of the inorganic contaminants in the water after the SCWO process is between 1-10 microm, which means that it is very reactive. The phosphate, and partly the aluminium, can be extracted with caustic as iron and heavy metals are completely insoluble in caustic. This is a method to separate the phosphates from the rest of the contaminants. However, high calcium content will bind the phosphate as calcium phosphate insoluble in caustic. In most cases the calcium content is too high and the best solution is to dissolve phosphates and all metals with sulphuric acid. From this solution first iron phosphate can be separated and thereafter in a second step aluminium and finally heavy metals in a third step. Iron can be separated from the phosphate, either by leaching the phosphate with caustic off to sodium phosphate leaving a precipitate consisting of iron hydroxide, or the iron phosphate can be dissolved in hydrochloric acid followed by a liquid extraction process where ferric chloride can be separated leaving a phosphoric acid. By the acid dissolving process it is possible to recover phosphate, iron, aluminium, and heavy metals from the inorganic since the Aqua Reci process only leaves a silica residue representing about 10% of the DS content in the original sludge.

  16. Hybrid Sludge Modeling in Water Treatment Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Sludge occurs in many waste water and drinking water treatment processes. The numeric modeling of sludge is therefore crucial for developing and optimizing water treatment processes. Numeric single-phase sludge models mainly include settling and viscoplastic behavior. Even though many investigators emphasize the importance of modeling the rheology of sludge for good simulation results, it is difficult to measure, because of settling and the viscoplastic behavior. In this thesis, a new method ...

  17. Kinetics of mesophase transformation of coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H.; Feng, Y.; Shen, B.; Gao, J. [East China Institute of Metallurgy, Maanshan (China)

    1998-05-01

    A study on the kinetics of mesophase transformation of two coal tar pitches (CTP) with different primary quinoline-insoluble (QI) content is reported. It showed that the meosphase transformation of CTP studied was an autocatalytic type reaction. The rate law and rate constants for the mesophase transformation at holding temperature of 390{degree}C, 410{degree}C and 450{degree}C were determined and the rate constants of mesophase transformation follow the Arrhenius equation. Primary QI of CTP decreases the activation energy from 210.1 kJ/mol to 175.8 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor from 2.12 x 10{sup 13} 1/h to 6.29 x 10{sup 10} 1/h; its influence on the rate constants is irregular. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    , in a concentration of 600–2000ppmv, was chosen as a tar model compound. Experiments were performed in a TGA apparatus and a fixed bed reactor. Four oxygen carriers (60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg–ZrO2 (Mn40) and FeTiO3 (Fe)) were tested under alternating reducing/oxidizing cycles...... deposition compared to Mn40, specially at high temperatures. Carbon deposition could be controlled by decreasing the temperature and the time for the reduction step. The addition of water also reduced the amount of carbon deposited, which was completely avoided working with a H2O/C7H8 molar ratio of 26.4....

  19. Estimating thermodynamic properties of coal, char, tar and ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisermann, W.; Johnson, P. Conger, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Methods of predicting the specific heat, enthalpy, and entropy of coal, char, tar and ash as a function of temperature and material composition are presented. The standard entropy of coal is approximated by comparing the behaviour of the standard entropies of a number of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of the variables H/(C + N), O/(C + N), N/(C + N), and S/(C + N), where the variables are the atomic fractions of the respective elements. The standard entropy of a bituminous coal was found to be about 20 kJ/kmol carbon K and of the char to be about 10 kJ/kmol carbon K. Estimates of the enthalpy difference between 273 K and temperatures above 273 K deviated from published data by about 8.49% for chars and 8.55% for coals on the average. Maximum deviations of 18.3% and 17.6% respectively were found.

  20. Excess sludge reduction in activated sludge processes by integrating ultrasound treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Elvira, S.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Plaza, F. I.; Garralon, G.; Fdz-Polanco, F.

    2009-07-01

    Biological sludge produced in the activated sludge process can be minimised modifying the water line, the sludge line or the final disposal strategy. Selecting the water line the general idea is to reduce the sludge producing the yield coefficient by means of the called lysis cryptic growth process. The main techniques referenced in literature are onization, chlorination and chemical and heat treatment. Ultrasounds are widely used to increase anaerobic biodegradability but are not reported as system to control excess sludge production. (Author)

  1. Short contact therapy in psoriasis Tar vs Anthralin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty cases (group I having psoriasis were studied with a view to assess the efficacy of combination of short contact coal tar therapy, sunrays exposure and short contact anthralin therapy. Results were compared with thirty patients (group II with psoriasis using anthralin paste as per Ingram technique as control. The combined short contact therapy in group I patients with intensive 90 to 120 minutes treatment sessions done once in every alternate day resulted in complete clearing in 19 (63.3% patients, 3 (10% showed more than 50% clearing of lesions, 6 (20% had 21-50% improvement of lesions, one (3.3% had 5-20% improvement and disease got worse in one (3.3% case. The average rate of clearance of lesions started to appear between 10-22 days with a mean of 16 days. In group II out of 30 patients using anthralin paste every day, 16 (53.3% showed complete clearing of lesions, 5 (16.6% showed more than 50% clearing of lesions, 4 (13.3% had 21-50% improvement of lesions, two (6.6% patients had 5-20% improvement of lesions and the disease got worse in 3 (10% cases. The average rate of clearance of lesions started to appear between 18-28 days with a mean of 23 days. The combined short contact therapy schedule allows minimal time away from work, decreased hours per week in contact with coal tar and anthralin, decreased cost and a low risk of side effects.

  2. Opening of the TAR hairpin in the HIV-1 genome causes aberrant RNA dimerization and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Atze T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TAR hairpin is present at both the 5′ and 3′ end of the HIV-1 RNA genome. The 5′ element binds the viral Tat protein and is essential for Tat-mediated activation of transcription. We recently observed that complete TAR deletion is allowed in the context of an HIV-1 variant that does not depend on this Tat-TAR axis for transcription. Mutations that open the 5′ stem-loop structure did however affect the leader RNA conformation and resulted in a severe replication defect. In this study, we set out to analyze which step of the HIV-1 replication cycle is affected by this conformational change of the leader RNA. Results We demonstrate that opening the 5′ TAR structure through a deletion in either side of the stem region caused aberrant dimerization and reduced packaging of the unspliced viral RNA genome. In contrast, truncation of the TAR hairpin through deletions in both sides of the stem did not affect RNA dimer formation and packaging. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, although the TAR hairpin is not essential for RNA dimerization and packaging, mutations in TAR can significantly affect these processes through misfolding of the relevant RNA signals.

  3. Geochemical Characteristics and Origin of Tar Mats from the Yaha Field in Tarim Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 张俊; 等

    1999-01-01

    Tar mats were firstly discovered and determined accurately in terrestrial oil and gas reservoirs associated with Lower Tertiary sandstone reservoirs in the Yaha field of the Tarim Basin,China,by thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detector(TLC-FID)and Rock-Eval analysis.The relative content of asphaltene in gross composition of tar mat extracts accounts for more than 30%,that in the corresponding oil leg less than 20%.In the geochemical description profile of oil gas reservoirs,drastic changes in asphaltene contents between tar mats and oil legs could be discovered.This in an important marker to determine tar mats.Distribution characteristics of saturated and aromaic hydrocarbons from reservoir core extracts and crude oils in the Yaha oil and gas reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are described systematically in this paper,and the results show there are similarities among n-alkane distribution characteristics,biomarker distribution characteristics and their combined characteristics of saturated hydrocarbons,and the geochemical characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons for tar mats.oil leg,asphaltic sand and crude oil.These characteristics suggest the hydrocarbons in these samples were originated from the common source rocks.However,the geochemical characteristics of tar mats reveales that the mechanism of formation of tar mats is the precipitation of asphaltene from crude oils in petroleum reservoirs caused by increased dissolved gas in oil legs(gas injection).

  4. DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT IN PYROLYTIC TARS USING COULOMETRIC KARL-FISHER TITRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid organic fraction of pyrolytic tar has a high energy value which makes possible its utilization as an energy source. However, before utilization, it is crucial to remove water from the liquid fraction. The presence of water reduces the energy value of pyrolytic tars. Water separation from the organic tar fraction is a complex process, since an emulsion can be readily formed. Therefore, after phase separation, it is important to know the residual water content in the organic phase and whether it is necessary to further dry it. The results presented in this manuscript focus on a water determination in liquid products from coal and biomass pyrolysis by a coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration. The Coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration is often used for a water content determination in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. However, to date, this titration method has not been used for a water determination in tars. A new water determination method, which has been tested on different types of tar, has been developed. The Coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration is suitable for tar samples with a water content not greater than 5 wt. %. The obtained experimental results indicate that the new introduced method can be used with a very good repeatability for a water content determination in tars.

  5. Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

    2014-03-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied.

  6. Sampling of benzene in tar matrices from biomass gasification using two different solid-phase sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipovs, Sergejs

    2008-06-01

    Biomass tar mainly consists of stable aromatic compounds such as benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene being the biggest tar component in real biomass gasification gas. For the analysis of individual tar compounds, the solid-phase adsorption method was chosen. According to this method, tar samples are collected on a column with an amino-phase sorbent. With a high benzene concentration in biomass tar, some of the benzene will not be collected on the amino-phase sorbent. To get over this situation, we have installed another column with activated charcoal which is intended for collection of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, after the column with the amino-phase sorbent. The study of maximal adsorption amounts of various compounds on both adsorbents while testing different sampling volumes led to the conclusion that benzene is a limiting compound. The research proved that the use of two sorbents (500 mg + 100 mg) connected in series allows for assessment of tar in synthesis gas with a tar concentration up to 30-40 g m(-3), which corresponds to the requirements of most gasifiers.

  7. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  8. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Suopajaervi, T.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi

    2009-10-15

    Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractination to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge have been the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties, which is one of the key topics, have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydro cyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.)

  9. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  10. Paper Sludge Reuse in Lightweight Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Ji; Hsueh, Ying-Chih; Peng, Ching-Fang; Tang, Chao-Wei

    2016-10-27

    The lightweight aggregates used by the civil engineering market are sintered at a high temperature, about 1200 °C. In times of high energy prices and regulation of carbon dioxide emissions, lightweight aggregate products of the high-temperature process in sales marketing are not readily accepted. This study developed a sintered-type paper sludge lightweight aggregate. In order to reduce energy consumption, substitution of some reservoir sediment clay in paper sludge substitutes is to be expected. The study used two types of paper sludge (green clay paper sludge and paper pulp sludge). The sintering temperature was reduced effectively as the green clay paper sludge was substituted for some of the reservoir sediment clay, and the optimum substitute ranges of green clay paper sludge were 10%-50%. The optimum substitute ranges of the paper pulp sludge were 10%-40%. Test results show that the properties of aggregates have a particle density of 0.66-1.69 g/cm³, a water absorption of 5%-30%, and a loss on ignition of 10%-43%. The loss on ignition of aggregate became greater with the increase in paper sludge content. This means that the calorific value provided by the paper sludge will increase as paper sludge content increases. Paper sludge can therefore be considered a good material to provide heat energy for sintering lightweight aggregate.

  11. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  12. Fractionation and business potential from sludge (Pafrak)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P.; Kylloenen, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Niinimaeki, J.; Oksanen, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generation of potential business ideas which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Municipal waste activated sludge and deinking, primary, waste activated and tertiary sludge from pulp and paper industry are the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Dewatering properties, which are one of the key topics, have been studied with a novel flocculation/filtration device. Conventional fractionation equipment (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone. filter belt press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge could be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. One of the key issues in future research is how to affect the binding forces between different substances in sludge. (orig.)

  13. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  14. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sludge sampling. 61.54 Section 61.54... sampling. (a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with § 61.52(b), an owner or operator... days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test. (c) Sludge...

  15. Technology Assessment Report - Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sludge production in the United States is increasing with an increase in population. An estimated 7.2 million dry tons of treated and tested sewage sludge was generated in 2004 and 4.1 million tons of paper mill sludge was produced in 1995. Consequently, there is an increased ne...

  16. HIV-1 TAR element is processed by Dicer to yield a viral micro-RNA involved in chromatin remodeling of the viral LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCaffrey Timothy

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a regulatory mechanism conserved in higher eukaryotes. The RNAi pathway generates small interfering RNA (siRNA or micro RNA (miRNA from either long double stranded stretches of RNA or RNA hairpins, respectively. The siRNA or miRNA then guides an effector complex to a homologous sequence of mRNA and regulates suppression of gene expression through one of several mechanisms. The suppression of gene expression through these mechanisms serves to regulate endogenous gene expression and protect the cell from foreign nucleic acids. There is growing evidence that many viruses have developed in the context of RNAi and express either a suppressor of RNAi or their own viral miRNA. Results In this study we investigated the possibility that the HIV-1 TAR element, a hairpin structure of ~50 nucleotides found at the 5' end of the HIV viral mRNA, is recognized by the RNAi machinery and processed to yield a viral miRNA. We show that the protein Dicer, the enzyme responsible for cleaving miRNA and siRNA from longer RNA sequences, is expressed in CD4+ T-cells. Interestingly, the level of expression of Dicer in monocytes is sub-optimal, suggesting a possible role for RNAi in maintaining latency in T-cells. Using a biotin labeled TAR element we demonstrate that Dicer binds to this structure. We show that recombinant Dicer is capable of cleaving the TAR element in vitro and that TAR derived miRNA is present in HIV-1 infected cell lines and primary T-cell blasts. Finally, we show that a TAR derived miRNA is capable of regulating viral gene expression and may be involved in repressing gene expression through transcriptional silencing. Conclusion HIV-1 TAR element is processed by the Dicer enzyme to create a viral miRNA. This viral miRNA is detectable in infected cells and appears to contribute to viral latency.

  17. Characterisation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids of coal tar using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; McGregor, Laura; Richards, Phil; Kerr, Stephanie; Glenn, Aliyssa; Thomas, Russell; Kalin, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is a recently developed analytical technique in which two capillary columns with different stationary phases are placed in series enabling planar resolution of the analytes. The resolution power of GCxGC is one order of magnitude higher than that of one dimension gas chromatography. Because of its high resolution capacity, the use of GCxGC for complex environmental samples such as crude oils, petroleum derivatives and polychlorinated biphenyls mixtures has rapidly grown in recent years. We developed a one-step method for the forensic analysis of coal tar dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites. Coal tar is the by-product of the gasification of coal for heating and lighting and it is composed of thousands of organic and inorganic compounds. Before the boom of natural gases and oils, most towns and cities had one or several manufactured gas plants that have, in many cases, left a devastating environmental print due to coal tar contamination. The fate of coal tar DNAPLs, which can persist in the environment for more than a hundred years, is therefore of crucial interest. The presented analytical method consists of a unique clean-up/ extraction stage by pressurized liquid extraction and a single analysis of its organic chemical composition using GCxGC coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). The chemical fingerprinting is further improved by derivatisation by N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) of the tar compounds containing -OH functions such as alcohols and carboxylic acids. We present here how, using the logical order of elution in GCxGC-TOFMS system, 1) the identification of never before observed -OH containing compounds is possible and 2) the isomeric selectivity of an oxidation reaction on a DNAPL sample can be revealed. Using samples collected at various FMGP sites, we demonstrate how this GCxGC method enables the simultaneous

  18. Evaluation of coagulation sludge from raw water treated with Moringa oleifera for agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Jairo Feria

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation-flocculation is a physical-chemical process responsible for producing the largest amount of sludge in the purification of natural raw water. Conventionally, aluminum sulfate or alum has been used as a coagulant. However, disposal of the sludge produced has been problematic for the environment due to excess aluminum. Currently, the convenience of using natural coagulants such as seed extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO is being studied, although, the properties of sewage sludge produced and its possible reuse are unknown. In this paper the physical-chemical, nutritional and dangerous characteristics from MO sludge were evaluated by using standard methods to verify its potential use in agricultural soils. Results indicated that pH, electrical conductivity, ion exchange capacity, organic matter and micronutrients from sludge were suitable for application to soils with agricultural potential; but deficiency of macronutrients and presence of fecal coliforms limits it to be used as soil improver and not as fertilizer. Sludge stabilization with hydrated lime at doses greater than or equal to 3 % was effective to ensure the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and to obtain a Class A sludge, unrestricted for agricultural use and suitable for acid soils.

  19. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yinghong; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Suo

    2014-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  1. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  3. Removing NH3-N from sludge pressure filtration liquid by MAP process with waste phosphoric acid as phosphorus source%以废磷酸为磷源的MAP法去除污泥压滤液中的氨氮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志成; 王德汉; 邓加曦

    2016-01-01

    Using MAP process with waste phosphoric acid as phosphorus source to treat NH3-N in sludge pressure filtration liquid, the effect of reaction time, stirring mode, pH value, mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium and initial NH3-N concentration on NH3-N removal and residual PO43-concentration were inves-tigated, and then, the optimal reaction condition was determined. The results of the test showed that, when the mass concentrations of NH3-N and PO43-were 700.42 and 0.33 mg/L respectively, under normal temperature, the optimal reaction condition was: the pH value was 9, n(NH4+) ﹕n(PO43-) ﹕ n(Mg2+) =1 ﹕ 1: 1, the aeration stir-ring time was 10 min. Under the above condition, the removal rate of NH3-N reached 84.9%, the mass concentra-tions of NH3-N and residual PO43-in the effluent water were 105.69 and 6.49 mg/L respectively. It could draw a conclusion that, MAP process with waste phosphoric acid as phosphorus source had a good removing performance on NH3-N and could be used for pretreatment of high concentration NH3-N wastewater.%利用废磷酸作为MAP法的磷源处理污泥压滤液厌氧出水中的NH3-N,考察了反应时间、搅拌方式、pH值、氮磷镁物质的量之比、初始NH3-N浓度对NH3-N去除效果和残余PO43-浓度的影响,并确定了最佳反应条件。试验结果表明,当原水NH3-N的质量浓度为700.42 mg/L, PO43-的质量浓度为0.33 mg/L时,常温下,最佳反应条件为pH值为9, n(NH4+)﹕n(PO43-)﹕n(Mg2+)=1﹕1﹕1,曝气搅拌反应10 min。此时, NH3-N的去除率可达84.91%,出水NH3-N的质量浓度为105.69 mg/L,残余PO43-的质量浓度为6.49 mg/L。以废磷酸作为沉淀剂磷源的MAP法,具有较好的NH3-N处理效果,可用于高浓度NH3-N废水的预处理。

  4. Formation and degradation of valuable intermediate products during wet oxidation of municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel J; Sarmah, Ajit K; Farid, Mohammed M; Young, Brent R

    2016-04-01

    The current study investigated the formation of organic acids and alcohols as major intermediate products of wet oxidation of municipal sludge. Municipal sludge was subjected to 60-min wet oxidation at temperatures ranging from 220 to 240°C, with 20bar oxygen partial pressure. Acetic acid was the main intermediate compound produced in this study, followed by propionic, n-butyric, iso-butyric and pentanoic acids and methanol. It was found that the process severity has a significant influence on the formation and degradation of these intermediate products.

  5. A comparison of thermal conversion process for several coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y.; Shui, H.; Yuan, X. [East China Metallurgical Institute, Ma`anshan (China)

    1995-03-01

    The property and constituents of coal tar pitch are of great importance to the production of raw material for needle coke. Structural constituents of five coal tar pitches were determined using {sup 1}H-NMR. Besides, thermal conversion process of these pitches in which primary quinoline in soluble fraction was removed by centrifugal separation method was also investigated. The experimental results show Baogang (I) and Meishan coal tar pitches meet the requirements of raw material for needle coke. The thermal conversion data was correlated with structural parameters. 6 refs.,1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Characterization of the replication and stability regions of Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallie, D R; Zaitlin, D; Perry, K L; Kado, C I

    1984-01-01

    A 5.4-kilobase region containing the origin of replication and stability maintenance of the 44-kilobase Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR has been mapped and characterized. Within this region is a 1.3-kilobase segment that is capable of directing autonomous replication. The remaining segment contains the stability locus for maintenance of pTAR during nonselective growth. Approximately 35% of pTAR shares sequence homology with pAg119, a 44-kilobase cryptic plasmid in grapevine strain 1D11...

  7. Development of a Novel Nonradiometric Assay for Nucleic Acid Binding to TDP-43 Suitable for High-Throughput Screening Using AlphaScreen® Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cassel, Joel A.; Blass, Benjamin E.; Reitz, Allen B.; Pawlyk, Aaron C.

    2010-01-01

    TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nucleic acid binding protein that is associated with the pathology of cystic fibrosis and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar dementia. We have developed a robust, quantitative, nonradiometric high-throughput assay measuring oligonucleotide binding to TDP-43 using AlphaScreen® technology. Biotinylated single-stranded TAR DNA (bt-TAR-32) and 6 TG repeats (bt-TG6) bound with high affinity to TDP-43, w...

  8. Mineralogy and metals speciation in Mo rich mineral sludges generated at a metal recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Joussein, E; Labanowski, J; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2015-04-01

    In France, more than 250 million metric tons of sludges need to be treated each year. These sludges are either dumped on the landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. A large portions of these sludges are mineral sludges, originating from metal recycling plants. In order to estimate their metal recovery potential, these mineral sludges were characterized. Four types of mineral sludge samples were collected from a metal recycling plant (3 from the recycling plant storage areas (bulk storage, barrel storage and storage shed) and 1 from the collection basin). The sludges were characterized, wherein the Mo, Ni, Cr, Co, Zn and W content and speciation were quantified. The samples had pH values between 5.9 and 10.3 with organic matter contents varying between 6.3% (storage shed) and 29.5% (bulk storage) (loss on ignition at 500 °C). Based on their leaching properties, the four mineral sludge samples (in the case of Mo) and the bulk storage sludge (in the case of Ni and Zn) were classified as potentially hazardous regarding the EN 12457-1 and EN 12457-2 method. Mineralogical results reveal that both bulk storage and the storage shed give the highest contributions to the metal content of the collection basin sample. Sequential extraction of the collection basin samples indicated that Mo is bound to the oxidizable and residual fraction, while Ni, Cr and Co were bound to the residual fraction, and Zn to the soluble acid fraction, respectively. W tends to be equally distributed among all extracted fractions. A strong correlation existed between Mo and Co, as well as between Ni, Zn and Cr, respectively.

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnowski, P.; Wieczorek, A.; Ledakowicz, S. [Technical University of Lodz (Poland). Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering

    2003-05-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of methane fermentation of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) as well as the co-fermentation of both substrates under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. In the first experiment the primary sludge and thickened excess activated sludge were fed into a 40 dm{sup 3} bioreactor operated thermophilically. The second co-fermentation experiment was conducted with the mixture of sewage sludge (75%) and OFMSW (25%) in the same bioreactor arrangement. The other three experiments (III and IV, V) were carried out in quasi-continuous mode in two separated stages: acidogenic digestion in the continuous stirred tank bioreactor under thermophilic conditions (56{sup o}C) and mesophilic methane fermentation (36{sup o}C). The third experiment was conducted with the substrate-OFMSW only, in the fourth run sewage sludge from a municipal water treatment plant was used. In the fifth experiment a mixture of sewage sludge and OFMSW was used. In all experiments the following data were determined: biogas content and productivity, pH, total suspended and volatile solids, elemental content (C, H, N, S) of sludge, OFMSW and inoculum, total organic carbon, total alkalinity and volatile fatty acid content. Comparing the elemental analysis of sewage sludge and OFMSW it is evident that N content is higher in the sludge than in the OFMSW, however, the carbon content relation is the opposite, which may be beneficial to methane yield of co-digestion. Methane concentration in the biogas was above 60% in all cases. Biogas productivity varied between 0.4 and 0.6 dm{sup 3}/g VSS{sub add} depending on substrate added to the digester. The obtained results are generally consistent with literature data. (author)

  10. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste.

  11. Production of cellulase from kraft paper mill sludge by Trichoderma reesei rut C-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kang, Li; Lee, Yoon Y

    2010-05-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material generated from pulping and papermaking operations. Because of high glucan content and its well-dispersed structure, paper mill sludges are well suited for bioconversion into value-added products. It also has high ash content originated from inorganic additives used in papermaking, which causes hindrance to bioconversion. In this study, paper mill sludges from Kraft process were de-ashed by a centrifugal cleaner and successive treatment by sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, and used as a substrate for cellulase production. The treated sludge was the only carbon source for cellulase production, and predominantly inorganic nutrients were used as the nitrogen source for this bioprocess. The cellulase enzyme produced from the de-ashed sludge exhibited cellulase activity of 8 filter paper unit (FPU)/mL, close to that obtainable from pure cellulosic substrates. The yield of cellulase enzyme was 307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed sludge. Specific activity was 8.0 FPU/mg protein. In activity tests conducted against the corn stover and alpha-cellulose, the xylanse activity was found to be higher than that of a commercial cellulase. Relatively high xylan content in the sludge appears to have induced high xylanase production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed using partially de-ashed sludge as the feedstock for ethanol production using Sacharomyces cerevisiae and the cellulase produced in-house from the sludge. With 6% (w/v) glucan feed, ethanol yield of 72% of theoretical maximum and 24.4 g/L ethanol concentration were achieved. These results were identical to those of the SSF using commercial cellulases.

  12. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  13. Quinone-respiration improves dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervantes, F.J.; Vu-Thi-Thu, L.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of humic acids and the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), on the biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by anaerobic granular sludge was studied. Addition of both humic acids and AQDS at sub-stoichiometric levels increased the first-order rate of conversion o

  14. Thermal behaviors and heavy metal vaporization of phosphatized tannery sludge in incineration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ping; ZHAO Youcai; XIA Fengyi

    2008-01-01

    The high concentration of heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb) in tannery sludge causes severe heavy metal emissions in the process of incineration. In the present investigation, the tannery sludge was treated with 85% phosphoric acid before the incineration process in the tube furnace to control the heavy metal emissions. The thermal behavior and heavy metal vaporization of pre-treated tannery sludge were investigated, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analy