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Sample records for acid supplementation normalizes

  1. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Dietary Supplementation Induces Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Dogs

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    John M. Walters

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have anti-inflammatory effects at low concentrations; however increased dietary consumption may conversely increase susceptibility to oxidation by free radicals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of PUFAs on selective oxidative injury and inflammatory biomarkers in canine urine and serum. Dogs (n=54 consumed a diet supplemented with 0.5% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, or 200 mg/kg docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid for 21 days. All dogs exhibited significantly increased plasma PUFA concentrations. All dogs had significant elevations in urinary F2a isoprostane concentration, though dogs consuming a diet containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter had the highest increase (P=.0052. Reduced glutathione concentrations within erythrocytes decreased significantly in all three dietary treatment groups (P=.0108. Treatment with diets containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter resulted in the greatest increase in oxidant injury. Caution should be exercised when supplementing PUFAs as some types may increase oxidation.

  2. Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores.

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    Rees, C A; Bauer, J E; Burkholder, W J; Kennis, R A; Dunbar, B L; Bigley, K E

    2001-04-01

    This prospective study involved supplementing 18 normal dogs with flax seed (FLX) and sunflower seed (SUN) and evaluating their effects on skin and hair coat condition scores and serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations. Skin and hair coat were evaluated in a double-blinded fashion using a numeric scoring system and serum PUFA concentrations were determined. Our hypothesis was that changes in serum PUFA concentrations are associated with improvements in skin and hair coat and that serum PUFA would provide an objective method for making dietary fatty acid supplement recommendations. Although a numerical improvement was found in hair coat quality in both groups, this improvement was not sustained beyond 28 days. The relative per cent of 18:3n-3 concentrations in serum phospholipids increased in the FLX treated dogs but these concentrations remained unchanged in the SUN treated dogs. Also, elevations in relative per cent of 18:2n-6 concentrations in serum phospholipids were seen in the FLX group. The ratio of serum polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids also showed a transient increase. These increases preceded the peak skin condition score peak value by approximately 14 days. It was concluded that a 1-month supplementation with either flax seed or sunflower seed in dogs provides temporary improvement in skin and hair coat. These changes appeared to be associated with increased serum 18 carbon PUFA.

  3. Folic acid supplementation normalizes the endothelial progenitor cell transcriptome of patients with type 1 diabetes: a case-control pilot study

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    Stubbs Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role in vascular wall repair. Patients with type 1 diabetes have reduced levels of endothelial progenitor cells of which their functional capacity is impaired. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidative stress play a role in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in these patients. Folic acid, a B-vitamin with anti-oxidant properties, may be able to improve endothelial progenitor cell function. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes compared to endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects. Furthermore, we studied the effect of folic acid on gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We used microarray analysis to investigate the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from type 1 diabetes patients before (n = 11 and after a four week period of folic acid supplementation (n = 10 compared to the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects (n = 11. The probability of genes being differentially expressed among the classes was computed using a random-variance t-test. A multivariate permutation test was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed among the two classes. Functional classification of differentially expressed genes was performed using the biological process ontology in the Gene Ontology database. Results Type 1 diabetes significantly modulated the expression of 1591 genes compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in processes regulating development, cell communication, cell adhesion and localization. After folic acid treatment, endothelial progenitor cell gene expression profiles from diabetic patients were similar to those from healthy controls. Genes that were normalized by folic acid played a prominent role in

  4. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids: effect on the small-bowel mucosa in normal rats.

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    Koruda, M J; Rolandelli, R H; Bliss, D Z; Hastings, J; Rombeau, J L; Settle, R G

    1990-04-01

    When enteral nutrition is excluded from animals maintained solely with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), atrophy of the intestinal mucosa is observed. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the colon by the fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and fiber polysaccharides and have been shown to stimulate mucosal-cell mitotic activity in the intestine. This study compared the effects of an intravenous and an intracecal infusion of SCFAs on the small-bowel mucosa. Rats received standard TPN, TPN with SCFAs (sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate), TPN with an intracecal infusion of SCFAs, or rat food. After 7 d jejunal and ileal mucosal weights, DNA, RNA, and protein were determined. Standard TPN produced significant atrophy of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Both the intracecal and intravenous infusion of SCFAs significantly reduced the mucosal atrophy associated with TPN. The intravenous and intracolonic infusion of SCFAs were equally effective in inhibiting small-bowel mucosal atrophy.

  5. Supplementation of Ascorbic Acid in Weanling Horses Following Prolonged Transportation

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    Michelle Stives

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Though horses synthesize ascorbic acid in their liver in amounts that meet their needs under normal circumstances, prolonged stress results in low plasma concentrations due to enhanced utilization and renal excretion and can reduce immune function. It was hypothesized that plasma ascorbic acid could be maintained in weanling horses by oral supplementation following prolonged transportation. Weanlings were supplemented with no ascorbic acid (Tx 0: n = 4, 5 grams ascorbic acid twice daily for 5 days (Tx 1: n = 4 or for 10 days (Tx 2: n = 4 following >50 hours of transportation. Supplementation caused slight (P < 0.2 increases in plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. Both supplemented groups had decreased (P < 0.05 plasma concentrations for 1 to 3 weeks following cessation of supplementation, possibly due to increased renal excretion or suppressed hepatic synthesis. Supplementation of ascorbic acid following prolonged stress will increase plasma concentrations, but prolonged supplementation should be avoided.

  6. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study.

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    Popa, Iuliana; Pin, Didier; Remoué, Noëlle; Remoué, Nathalie; Osta, Bilal; Callejon, Sylvie; Videmont, Emilie; Gatto, Hugues; Portoukalian, Jacques; Haftek, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Alterations of the lipid expression in the skin of human and canine atopic subjects may be one of the key factors in the disease development. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the clinically uninvolved skin of atopic dogs and compared it with the lipid composition of their tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC). The effect of a 2 month treatment of atopic dogs by food supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids was evaluated on skin samples taken before and after the treatment period. Electron microscopy revealed that the non-lesional skin of atopic dogs exhibited an abnormal and largely incomplete structure of the lamellar lipids with little cohesion between the corneocyte strata. The SC of atopic dogs was characterized by a significant decrease in the lipid content when compared to the healthy controls. Following oral supplementation with the mixture of essential fatty acids, the overall lipid content of the SC markedly increased. This feature was observed both with the free and, most importantly, with the protein-bound lipids (cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides), the latter constituting the corneocyte-bound scaffold for ordinate organisation of the extracellular lipid bi-layers. Indeed, the semi-quantitative electron microscopy study revealed that the treatment resulted in a significantly improved organization of the lamellar lipids in the lower SC, comparable to that of the healthy dogs. Our results indicate the potential interest of long-term alimentary supplementation with omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in canine atopic dermatitis.

  7. Carnitine supplementation accelerates normalization of food intake depressed during TPN.

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    Laviano, A; Meguid, M M; Renvyle, T; Yang, Z J; Beverly, J L

    1996-07-01

    When total parenteral nutrition (TPN; containing glucose, fat, and amino acids; caloric ratio 50:30:20) providing 100% of the rat's daily caloric intake is given for 3-4 days, food intake rapidly decreases by approximately 85%. After stopping TPN, there is a lag period of 3-4 days before food intake returns to previous level, which appears to be related to fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition. Carnitine plays a key role in the oxidation of fatty acids, and was demonstrated to reduce fat deposition in rats receiving TPN, by increasing beta oxidation. We therefore investigated whether rats receiving TPN supplemented with carnitine may prevent either the decrease or speed up the resumption or normalization of food intake, after TPN is stopped. Fourteen adult Fischer-344 rats had a central venous catheter inserted. After 10 recovery days, controls (n = 7) were infused with TPN providing 100% of rat's daily caloric intake for 3 consecutive days, followed by 4 more days of normal saline. The carnitine group (n = 7) received the same solution, but which provided 100 mg/kg/day carnitine. Daily food intake was measured and data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student's t-test. Both parenteral solutions depressed food intake maximally by almost 90% by day 3. Carnitine accelerated the normalization of food intake by decreasing the lag period by 1 day. We conclude that the addition of carnitine enhanced the normalization of post-TPN food intake and argue that this may be on the basis of enhanced fatty acid oxidation, a substrate known to play a significant role in the anorexia induced by TPN.

  8. A vitamin B-12 supplement of 500 μg/d for eight weeks does not normalize urinary methylmalonic acid or other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status.

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    Hill, Marilyn H; Flatley, Janet E; Barker, Margo E; Garner, Clare M; Manning, Nigel J; Olpin, Simon E; Moat, Stuart J; Russell, Jean; Powers, Hilary J

    2013-02-01

    Plasma vitamin B-12 is the most commonly used biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the predictive value for low vitamin B-12 status is poor. The urinary methylmalonic acid (uMMA) concentration has potential as a functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the response to supplemental vitamin B-12 is uncertain. A study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness of uMMA to supplemental vitamin B-12 in comparison with other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status [plasma vitamin B-12, serum holotranscobalamin (holoTC), plasma MMA] in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 8-wk intervention study was carried out using vitamin B-12 supplements (500 μg/d, 100 μg/d, and 10 μg/d cyanocobalamin) in 100 elderly people with a combined plasma vitamin B-12 1.5. All biomarkers had a dose response to supplemental vitamin B-12. Improvements in plasma vitamin B-12 and serum holoTC were achieved at cobalamin supplements of 10 μg/d, but even 500 μg/d for 8 wk did not normalize plasma vitamin B-12 in 8% and serum holoTC in 12% of people. The response in uMMA was comparable with plasma MMA; 15-25% of people still showed evidence of metabolic deficiency after 500 μg/d cobalamin for 8 wk. There was a differential response in urinary and plasma MMA according to smoking behavior; the response was enhanced in ex-smokers compared with never-smokers. uMMA offers an alternative marker of metabolic vitamin-B12 status, obviating the need for blood sampling.

  9. Finite Groups in Which Sylow Normalizers Admit Supplements

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    Tian Ze LI

    2007-01-01

    For a group G and a subgroup M of G, we say that a subgroup A of G is a supplement to M in G,if G = MA. We prove that a finite group in which every Sylow normalizer admits a nilpotent supple ment is solvable. In particular we confirm a conjecture of Buchthal. Moreover we investigate finite groups in which Sylow normalizers admit solvable supplements.

  10. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

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    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  11. Short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition alters intestinal structure, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) mRNA and protein, and proglucagon mRNA abundance in normal rats.

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    Tappenden, K A; Drozdowski, L A; Thomson, A B; McBurney, M I

    1998-07-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a complex physiologic process that is not completely understood. Intravenous short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) enhance intestinal adaptation after 80% enterectomy in rats. The purpose of this study was to examine rapid responses to SCFA-supplemented total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in the normal small intestine. After jugular catheterization, 31 Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 258 +/- 3 g) were randomly assigned to receive standard TPN or an isoenergetic, isonitrogenous TPN solution supplemented with SCFAs (TPN+SCFA). Intestinal samples were obtained after 24 or 72 h of nutrient infusion. TPN+SCFA for 24 h increased (P SCFA for 72 h increased (P SCFA infusion and returned to levels seen with control TPN by 72 h. Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) mRNA was significantly higher (P SCFA groups at both time points when compared with control TPN groups. Ileal GLUT2 protein abundance in the 72-h TPN+SCFA group was significantly higher (P SCFA than after 24 h, whereas the 24- and 72-h TPN groups did not differ. In summary, SCFAs led to rapid changes in ileal proglucagon and glucose transporter expression in rats receiving TPN and provide insights into therapeutic management of individuals with short bowel syndrome or intestinal malabsorption syndromes.

  12. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

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    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  13. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; F. E. Olumese; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the gro...

  14. Maternal Obesity and Pre-Pregnancy Folic Acid Supplementation

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    Nadine Farah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this nested cohort study was to compare the rate of pre-pregnancy supplementation in obese women with that of women with a normal BMI. Methods: Pregnant women were enrolled at their convenience in a large university hospital. Weight and height were measured in the first trimester and BMI categorised. Results: Of the 288 women, 35.1% were in the normal, 29.5% in the overweight and 35.4% in the obese BMI categories. Only 45.1% (n = 46 of the obese women took pre-pregnancy folic acid compared with 60.4% (n = 61 of women with a normal BMI (p Conclusions: Obese women should take folate supplements whether they are planning to conceive or not.

  15. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    expression and fatty acid synthesis. Research in normal cells has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ...particularly omega -3 fatty acids , inhibits SREBP-1 activation, resulting in a decreased transcription of FAS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer...Lipid Medtabolism, Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  16. Folic acid supplementation promotes mammary tumor progression in a rat model.

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    Deghan Manshadi, Shaidah; Ishiguro, Lisa; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Medline, Alan; Renlund, Richard; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may promote the progression

  17. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

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    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  18. Knowledge of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy

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    Beatriz Barco Tavares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To identify the use of folic acid during pregnancy, as well as the new mothers´ knowledge about folic acid. Methodology. Quantitative, descriptive exploratory, and prospective study. A total of 198 mothers were interviewed in the pediatric outpatient service of Hospital de Base Sao José do Rio Preto, Brazil. They have taken their children for neonatal screening and formally consented to participating in the study. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (350,287. A specific instrument was used for data collection. The data were entered into an appropriate spreadsheet and later statistically analyzed. Pearson´s chi-squared test, p <0.15, was used. Results. On average, the interviewed mothers were 25 years old and received less than two minimum wages. Most had prenatal in the first quartile and a mean of seven appointments, starting the use of folic acid from the 7th to the 9th week of gestational age. However, when asked about the importance of folic acid and its action, almost the majority was not able to answer. Conclusion. Although daily acid supplementation is recommended in prenatal care, this study found that consumption is inadequate, contributing to the increased risk of fetal malformation. Healthcare professionals, especially nurses, should develop educational activities for women about the use of folic acid in the pre-gestation period and in the first pregnancy trimester.

  19. Knowledge of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy.

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    Barco Tavares, Beatriz; Neves Finochio Sabino, Ana Maria; Lima, Juliana Cristina; Tozzo Garcia, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    To identify the use of folic acid during pregnancy, as well as the new mothers´ knowledge about folic acid. Quantitative, descriptive exploratory, and prospective study. A total of 198 mothers were interviewed in the pediatric outpatient service of Hospital de Base Sao José do Rio Preto, Brazil. They have taken their children for neonatal screening and formally consented to participating in the study. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (350,287). A specific instrument was used for data collection. The data were entered into an appropriate spreadsheet and later statistically analyzed. Pearson´s chi-squared test, p folic acid from the 7th to the 9th week of gestational age. However, when asked about the importance of folic acid and its action, almost the majority was not able to answer. Although daily acid supplementation is recommended in prenatal care, this study found that consumption is inadequate, contributing to the increased risk of fetal malformation. Healthcare professionals, especially nurses, should develop educational activities for women about the use of folic acid in the pre-gestation period and in the first pregnancy trimester.

  20. The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, F O; Budiaman, A; Eng, Y; Olumese, F E; Hoesel, J L; Ejilemele, A; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1 β level was significantly (P phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  1. Coincidence of remission of postpartum Graves' disease and use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements

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    Breese McCoy Sarah J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I developed Graves' Disease four months postpartum. After one year on propylthiouracil, I learned that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce inflammation associated with certain autoimmune disorders, although no investigations for thyroiditis have been reported. Within eight weeks of beginning flaxseed oil supplements, TSH levels normalized, but fell somewhat when flaxseed was decreased and PTU discontinued. During another pregnancy, plasma TSH normalized, but was again suppressed by four weeks postpartum, then undetectable by four months. This time, flaxseed supplementation alone coincided with TSH normalization. Omega-3 fatty acids should be investigated as a potential treatment for autoimmune thyroid disease.

  2. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

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    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  3. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

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    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  4. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

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    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folic acid

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    Postma, MJ; Londeman, J; Veenstra, M; de Walle, HEK; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2002-01-01

    Background: Supplementation of folic acid prior to and in the beginning of pregnancy may prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns - such as spina bifida - and possibly other congenital malformations. Objective. To estimate cost effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folk: acid us

  6. Dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Deline, Marshall L; Vrablik, Tracy L; Watts, Jennifer L

    2013-11-29

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acid sodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method.

  7. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

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    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  8. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

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    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented

  9. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8 mo

  10. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  11. U.S. Supplemental Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Annual Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  12. Monitoring of the folic acid supplementation program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    In November of 1993, the Dutch government recommended daily folic acid supplementation of 0.4 or 0.5 mg for all women planning pregnancy, starting 4 weeks before conception until 8 weeks after. In 1995, a one-time mass media campaign was conducted, and due to this campaign, the use of folic acid in

  13. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  14. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  15. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...

  17. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Ken; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Namio; Asahi, Tomohiro; Ohba, Kageyuki; Arasaki, Osamu; Higa, Moritake; Oshiro, Yoshito; Yoshida, Hisashi; Higa, Tohru; Saito, Taro; Ueda, Shinichiro; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL), lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF) during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition. PMID:23326753

  18. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yamakawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.

  19. Epigenetic modifications at DMRs of placental genes are subjected to variations in normal gestation, pathological conditions and folate supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, Beenish; Mahajan, Aatish; Bagga, Rashmi; Hamid, Abid; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2017-01-01

    Invasive placentation and cancer development shares many similar molecular and epigenetic pathways. Paternally expressed, growth promoting genes (SNRPN, PEG10 and MEST) which are known to play crucial role in tumorogenesis, are not well studied during placentation. This study reports for the first time of the impact of gestational-age, pathological conditions and folic acid supplementation on dynamic nature of DNA and histone methylation present at their differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Here, we reported the association between low DNA methylation/H3K27me3 and higher expression of SNRPN, PEG10 and MEST in highly proliferating normal early gestational placenta. Molar and preeclamptic placental villi, exhibited aberrant changes in methylation levels at DMRs of these genes, leading to higher and lower expression of these genes, respectively, in reference to their respective control groups. Moreover, folate supplementation could induce gene specific changes in mRNA expression in placental cell lines. Further, MEST and SNRPN DMRs were observed to show the potential to act as novel fetal DNA markers in maternal plasma. Thus, variation in methylation levels at these DMRs regulate normal placentation and placental disorders. Additionally, the methylation at these DMRs might also be susceptible to folic acid supplementation and has the potential to be utilized in clinical diagnosis. PMID:28098215

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation stimulates differentiation of oligodendroglia cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meeteren, ME; Baron, W; Beermann, C; van Tol, EAF

    2006-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been postulated as alternative supportive treatment for multiple sclerosis, since they may promote myelin repair. We set out to study the effect of supplementation with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on OLN-93 oligodendroglia and rat primary oligodendrocyte differ

  1. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  2. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  3. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi N. Bagley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPARγ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a PPARγ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPARγ, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI- induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1 normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPARγ expression in male rats and (2 increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.

  4. Supplemental folic acid in pregnancy and maternal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Jan Helge Seglem; Øyen, Nina; Fomina, Tatiana; Melbye, Mads; Tretli, Steinar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Bjørge, Tone

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that increased intake of folate protects against the development of several types of cancer. Some studies have, however, raised concern about the safety of folate in relation to cancer risk. Here we examined the risk of maternal cancer after intake of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy. Methods: This is a population-based cohort study comprising 429,004 women with data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, the Cancer Registry of Norway, and other nation...

  5. The effects of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement on late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhisa Komori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17 and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal

  6. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijick-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Doornbos, Bennard; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Djick-Brouwer, D.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. Maternal diet influences milk DHA, whereas milk AA seems rather constant. We investigated milk AA, DHA and DHA/AA after supplementation of AA plus DHA, or DHA alone during pregnancy and lactation.

  7. Effect of benzoic acid supplementation on acid-base status and mineralmetabolism in catheterized growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich;

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) in diets for growing pigs results in urinary acidification and reduced ammonia emission. The objective was to study the impact of BA supplementation on the acid-base status and mineral metabolism in pigs. Eight female 50-kg pigs, fitted with a catheter in the abdominal aorta, were...

  8. Antenatal iron and folic acid supplementation use by pregnant women in Khartoum, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, Hala; Gasim, Gasim I.; Saeed, Ahmed; Imam, Abdulmutalab M; Adam, Ishag

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia during pregnancy can lead to adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The WHO recommends that all pregnant women in areas where anaemia is prevalent receive supplements of iron and folic acid. However, due to many factors, the use of iron and folic acid supplementation is still low in many countries. This study was conducted to assess the rates of iron-folic supplementation and the associated factors during pregnancy and the effects of taking iron-folic acid supplementation...

  9. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 μg of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense.

  10. A combination of supplements may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly Japanese with normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bun, Shogyoku; Ikejima, Chiaki; Kida, Jiro; Yoshimura, Atsuko; Lebowitz, Adam Jon; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Asada, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the effect of a single supplement against Alzheimer's disease (AD) with conflicting results. Taking into account the complex and multifactorial nature of AD pathogenesis, multiple supplements may be more effective. Physical activity is another prospect against AD. An open-label intervention study was conducted to explore a potential protective effect of multiple supplements and physical activity. Their interaction was also examined. Participants were community-dwelling volunteers aged 65 or older as of May 2001 in a rural area of Japan. Among 918 cognitively normal participants included in the analyses, 171 took capsules daily for three years that contained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, Ginkgo biloba leaf dry extracts, and lycopene. Two hundred and forty one participants joined the two-year exercise intervention that included a community center-based and a home-based exercise program. One-hundred and forty eight participated in both interventions. A standardized neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline in 2001, the first follow-up in 2004-2005, and the second in 2008-2009. The primary outcome was AD diagnosis at follow-ups. A complementary log-log model was used for survival analysis. A total of 76 participants were diagnosed with AD during follow-up periods. Higher adherence to supplementation intervention was associated with lower AD incidence in both unadjusted and adjusted models. Exercise intervention was also associated with lower AD incidence in the unadjusted model, but not in the adjusted model. We hypothesized that the combination of supplements acted in a complementary and synergistic fashion to bring significant effects against AD occurrence.

  11. POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP OF FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND IMPROVED FLOW-MEDIATED DILATION IN PREMENOPAUSAL, EUMENORRHEIC ATHLETIC WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Z. Hoch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if six weeks of folic acid supplementation would improve brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation in eumenorrheic female runners with previously normal serum folate levels. This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized pilot study with convenience sampling. Sixteen eumenorrheic subjects who were not taking birth control pills and who ran at least 20 miles/week were randomly assigned to 10 mg/day of folic acid supplementation or placebo for at least 6 weeks. Serum folate levels and brachial artery measurements were made during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, in a sedentary state, following an 8 hour fast; a standard ultrasound technique was used. The brachial artery vasodilator response to reactive hyperemia was similar between the folic acid (6.6% ± 0.8%, mean ± SE and placebo groups (6.5% ± 0.7% at baseline. After six weeks, there was a significantly higher change in flow-mediated dilation for the folic acid group (3.5% ± 0.6% compared to the placebo group (0.1% ± 0.2% (p = 0.01. Serum folate levels also increased significantly in the folic acid group following six weeks of folic acid supplementation. This study demonstrates that brachial artery flow-mediated dilation improves significantly in eumenorrheic female runners with previously normal serum folate levels after 6 weeks of supplementation with folic acid

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

  13. Effect of mineral supplements to citric acid on enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, T; Meyer, K; Hellwig, E; Buchalla, W; Lennon, A M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral supplements to citric acid (1%; pH 2.21) on enamel erosion under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. From each of 156 bovine incisors one polished enamel sample was prepared. The samples were divided among 13 experimental groups (n=12). In group 1 citric acid only was used (control). In groups 2-10 either calcium, phosphate or fluoride in various low concentrations was admixed to the citric acid. In groups 11-13 the citric acid was supplemented with a mixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. For demineralisation the specimens were rinsed with the respective solution for 1 min, immediately followed by a remineralisation period with artificial saliva (1 min). The specimens were cycled through this alternating procedure five times followed by rinsing for 8 h with artificial saliva. The de- and remineralisation cycle was repeated three times for each specimen interrupted by the 8 h-remineralisation periods. Before and after the experiments, the specimens were examined using microhardness testing (Knoop hardness) and laser profilometry. Hardness loss and enamel dissolution was significantly higher for the controls as compared to the remaining groups. Significantly lowest hardness loss for all groups was recorded for group 12 with admixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride to citric acid. The significantly highest enamel loss was recorded for the controls compared to all other samples. Groups 3 and 4 revealed significantly lower and higher tissue loss compared to the remaining groups (2-13), respectively. The other groups did not differ significantly from each other. Modification of citric acid with calcium, phosphate and fluoride exerts a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. However, with the low concentrations applied enamel dissolution could not be completely prevented.

  14. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique van Vliet

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these

  15. Impact of Omega-3 Supplementation with Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Neuronal Cell Fatty Acid Status

    OpenAIRE

    Densel, Owen

    2016-01-01

    A method of treating retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in the free acid form has been developed in order to examine impacts of such supplementation on fatty acid composition of cells and on functional outcomes. Through Bovine Serum Albumin: ALA conjugation, an ALA treatment media was created and compared to the stock media which contained no detectible amounts of ALA. Results from fatty acid analysis of the control cells (n=3) and ALA-sup...

  16. Folic acid supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis: cellular and molecular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carlos Eduardo Andrade; Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; de Souza, Camila Alexandre Soares; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Paiva, Sérgio Alberto Rupp; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2011-11-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation during carcinogenesis is controversial. Considering the impact of liver cancer as a public health problem and mandatory FA fortification in several countries, the role of FA supplementation in hepatocarcinogenesis should be elucidated. We evaluated FA supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats received daily 0.08 mg (FA8 group) or 0.16 mg (FA16 group) of FA/100 g body weight or water (CO group, controls). After a 2-week treatment, animals were subjected to the "resistant hepatocyte" model of hepatocarcinogenesis (initiation with diethylnitrosamine, selection/promotion with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy) and euthanized after 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to the CO group, the FA16 group presented: reduced (p PNL); reduced (p PNL; decreased (p PNL. Regarding all these parameters, no differences (p > 0.05) were observed between CO and FA8 groups. FA-treated groups presented increased hepatic levels of S-adenosylmethionine but only FA16 group presented increased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between experimental groups regarding apoptosis in persistent and remodeling GST-P positive PNL, and global DNA methylation pattern in microdissected PNL. Altogether, the FA16 group, but not the FA8 group, presented chemopreventive activity. Reversion of PNL phenotype and inhibition of DNA damage and of c-myc expression represent relevant FA cellular and molecular effects.

  17. Influence of antioxidant (L- ascorbic acid on tolbutamide induced hypoglycaemia/antihyperglycaemia in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardhan Vishnu A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant levels are the leading cause of diabetes and diabetic complications. So it is felt that supplementation of antioxidants may be useful in controlling the glucose levels and to postpone the occurrence of diabetic complications. The objective of our study is to find the influence of antioxidant supplementation (L-ascorbic acid on tolbutamide activity in normal and diabetic rats. Methods L- ascorbic acid/tolbutamide/L-ascorbic acid + tolbutamide were administered orally to 3 different groups of albino rats of either sex in normal and diabetic condition. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital puncture at different time intervals and were analyzed for blood glucose by GOD-POD method. Diabetes was induced by alloxan 100 mg/kg body weight administered by I.P route. Results L-ascorbic acid/ tolbutamide produced hypoglycaemic activity in a dose dependant manner in normal and diabetic condition. In the presence of L-ascorbic acid, tolbuatmide produced early onset of action and maintained for longer period compared to tolbutamide matching control. Conclusion Supplementation of antioxidants like L-ascorbic acid was found to improve tolbutamide response in normal and diabetic rats.

  18. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-07-24

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.

  19. Association of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and infant bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Dorris, Stacy L; Mitchel, Edward F; Hartert, Tina V; Cooper, William O; Tylavsky, Frances A; Dupont, William; Hartman, Terryl J; Carroll, Kecia N

    2014-04-15

    Viral bronchiolitis affects 20%-30% of infants; because there is no known effective treatment, it is important to identify risk factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. Although adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period prevents neural tube defects, animal data suggest that higher supplementation may be a risk factor for child respiratory diseases. Using a population-based retrospective cohort of 167,333 women and infants, born in 1995-2007 and enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, we investigated the association between the filling of folic acid-containing prescriptions and infant bronchiolitis. We categorized women into the following 4 groups in relation to the first trimester: "none" (no prescription filled), "first trimester only," "after first trimester," and "both" (prescriptions filled both during and after the first trimester). Overall, 21% of infants had a bronchiolitis diagnosis, and 5% were hospitalized. Most women filled their first prescriptions after the fifth to sixth weeks of pregnancy, and most prescriptions contained 1,000 µg of folic acid. Compared with infants born to women in the "none" group, infants born to women in the "first trimester only" group had higher relative odds of bronchiolitis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22) and greater severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22). This study's findings contribute to an understanding of the implications of prenatal nutritional supplement recommendations for infant bronchiolitis.

  20. Folic acid supplementation and IVF pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wånggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A

    2014-06-01

    Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile control women. Our results showed that women with unexplained infertility used considerably more folic acid

  1. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Wu Wen; Josee Champagne; Ruth Rennicks White; Doug Coyle; William Fraser; Graeme Smith; Dean Fergusson; Walker, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Copyright © 2013 Shi Wu Wen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recrui...

  2. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  3. Effect of feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or soluble sugars with malic acid on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicini, J L; Bateman, H G; Bhat, M K; Clark, J H; Erdman, R A; Phipps, R H; Van Amburgh, M E; Hartnell, G F; Hintz, R L; Hard, D L

    2003-02-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate effects of feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or soluble sugars and malic acid on milk production. In trial 1, 257 cows at four sites were fed a basal diet consisting of no more than 60% of forage DM as corn silage and less than 40% as alfalfa hay. Cows were assigned randomly within site, parity, and two stages of lactation to: 1) control; 2) enzyme A; 3) enzyme B; and 4) soluble sugars and malic acid. There was a 14-d pretreatment and an 84-d treatment period. Enzyme solutions were sprayed on either the forage component or the TMR each day while mixing feed. Trial 2 was similar, except 122 cows at one site in the United Kingdom were fed diets containing forage that was 75% corn silage and 25% grass silage, and all cows began the study between 25 to 31 DIM. Mean milk productions for 233 cows that completed trial 1 were 32.9, 32.5, 32.4, and 32.9 kg/d for control, enzyme A, enzyme B, and soluble sugars and malic acid, respectively. Mean milk productions for 116 cows that completed trial 2 were 28.2, 27.9, 28.8, and 28.4 kg/d, respectively. In vitro analyses of the activities of enzyme solutions indicated that all major cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activities were present; however, the pH optima (approximate pH = 4 to 5) were more acidic, and the temperature optimum (approximately 50 degrees C) was greater than normal pH and temperature in the rumen. If fibrolytic activity in the rumen is a major mechanism of action of supplemental fibrolytic enzymes, it appears that considerable activity of these preparations was lost due to conditions in the rumen. In conclusion, feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or malic acid with soluble sugars had no effect on milk production under the conditions used in this study.

  4. Restoration of normal embryogenesis by mitochondrial supplementation in pig oocytes exhibiting mitochondrial DNA deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnone, Gael L M; Tsai, Te-Sha; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Matthews, Pamela; Gould, Jodee; Bonkowski, Michael S; Elgass, Kirstin D; Wong, Ashley S A; Wu, Lindsay E; McKenzie, Matthew; Sinclair, David A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-18

    An increasing number of women fail to achieve pregnancy due to either failed fertilization or embryo arrest during preimplantation development. This often results from decreased oocyte quality. Indeed, reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number (mitochondrial DNA deficiency) may disrupt oocyte quality in some women. To overcome mitochondrial DNA deficiency, whilst maintaining genetic identity, we supplemented pig oocytes selected for mitochondrial DNA deficiency, reduced cytoplasmic maturation and lower developmental competence, with autologous populations of mitochondrial isolate at fertilization. Supplementation increased development to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development, and promoted mitochondrial DNA replication prior to embryonic genome activation in mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes but not in oocytes with normal levels of mitochondrial DNA. Blastocysts exhibited transcriptome profiles more closely resembling those of blastocysts from developmentally competent oocytes. Furthermore, mitochondrial supplementation reduced gene expression patterns associated with metabolic disorders that were identified in blastocysts from mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes. These results demonstrate the importance of the oocyte's mitochondrial DNA investment in fertilization outcome and subsequent embryo development to mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes.

  5. Independence of sialic acid levels in normal and malignant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadapkar, S V; Sheth, N A; Bhide, S V

    1975-06-01

    Sialic acid content in breast or tumor tissue and serum of mouse strains that are either susceptible or resistant to breast cancer was measured at various age periods. Sialic acid content was also studied in normal lung tissue and in lung adenoma and hepatoma. Sialic acid levels during nonmalignant growth of a tissue were measured in breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation, and in regenerating liver, as well as in newborn and postnatal liver. The sialic acid content, when expressed per mg of protein, increased in mammary tumor, lung adenoma, and hepatoma. It also increased in nonmalignant growth of breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation and of regenerating liver and postnatal liver. Increase in sialic acid per mg DNA was observed only in lung tumors, regenerating liver, and postnatal liver. It appears that the changes in sialic acid level are independent of the normal or malignant growth of a tissue and that these changes might be the function of the parameter used to express the sialic acid values, i.e., either the DNA content or protein content of a given tissue.

  6. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL. In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL. The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76 and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99 were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Awareness of Pregnant Women about Folic Acid Supplementation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Riazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of folic acidsupplementation amongst Iranian pregnant women.Materials and methods: We selected 322 women through simple randomized method in a cross sectionstudy. Data was gathered on the base of questionnaire and interview. Statistical analysis was performedusing SPSS software. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: The obtained information revealed that 7.8% with high level of knowledge, 43.8% withintermediate level, 30.4% with low level knowledge, and 18% with no knowledge. Hospitals and healthcenters are two major sources for promoting popular awareness about folic acid. There is a significantrelationship between the knowledge, education, employment, time of prenatal care beginning, age,gravidity, and sources of health information. The number of women with high level of knowledge wasmore among those with lower parity, higher level of education, employment, young age and looking forhealth information.Conclusion: Awareness of folic acid is low among Iranian women. The different strategies are required toelevate the knowledge about folic acid among the women in reproductive age and provide them withsome information about the benefits of this supplement.

  9. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Thorn, Stephanie R; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W

    2012-08-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia and euaminoacidemia), or saline. Fetal leucine metabolism was measured under steady-state conditions followed by a fetal muscle biopsy to quantify insulin signaling. In CON, increasing amino acid delivery rates to the fetus by 100% increased leucine oxidation rates by 100%. In IUGR, amino acid infusion completely suppressed fetal protein breakdown rates but increased leucine oxidation rate by only 25%, resulting in increased protein accretion rates by 150%. Acute insulin infusion, however, had very little effect on amino acid delivery rates, fetal leucine disposal rates, or fetal protein accretion rates in CON or IUGR fetuses despite robust signaling of the fetal skeletal muscle insulin-signaling cascade. These results indicate that, when amino acids are given directly into the fetal circulation independently of changes in insulin concentrations, IUGR fetal sheep have suppressed protein breakdown rates, thus increasing net fetal protein accretion.

  10. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  11. The effect of L-carnitine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on tissue amino acid concentrations in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhles, H; Michalk, D; Brandl, U; Fekl, W; Börresen, H C; Stehr, K

    1984-04-01

    Miniature piglets underwent total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with and without L-carnitine supplementation during a 7-day period. Thereafter the tissue amino acid concentrations of liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain were determined and compared to those of orally fed animals. The altered tissue amino acid concentrations during TPN without carnitine returned to normal when L-carnitine was supplemented. The most striking changes of tissue concentrations showed taurine in liver, muscle and brain and ethanolamine in heart and brain. In muscle the branched-chain amino acids were increased when L-carnitine was added to the TPN regime. Ethanolamine changes were discussed with respect to the position of this amino acid in the synthesis of phospholipids. The marked decrease of brain taurine concentrations after carnitine-free TPN was accompanied by reduced values for GABA. Both the substances function as inhibitory transmitters in the brain and should be considered when seizure activity in patients with systemic carnitine deficiency is discussed.

  12. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function.

  13. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu,Huan; Huang, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Xu-Mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation ...

  14. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  15. Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation Does Not Alter Proteolytic Gene Expression following Immobilization

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    Jennifer A. Bunn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if supplementation of protein and amino acids (PAA decreases skeletal muscle expression of atrophy-related genes, muscle mass, and strength during immobilization in humans. Methods. Twenty males wore a lower-limb immobilization boot for 28 days and consumed either a PAA supplement (28 g protein or carbohydrate placebo (28 g maltodextrose, while consuming their normal daily diet. Testing sessions included dietary analysis, lower-leg girth and body composition measurements, strength testing, and gastrocnemius muscle biopsies. Muscle was analyzed for mRNA expression of markers in the ubiquitin and calpain systems, myostatin, TNF-α, and NF-κB. Results. All genes of interest increased over time (P<.05, but there was no difference between groups. Lower-leg girth decreased over time (P=0.02; however, there were no significant changes in body composition or strength. Conclusion. Short-term lower-limb disuse, despite the absence of significant muscle atrophy, is associated with increases in skeletal muscle gene expression of several proteolysis-related genes. These changes do not appear to be altered by oral PAA supplementation.

  16. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia-A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N; Perkins, Sherry L; Walker, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE.

  17. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Min Woo Kim; Ki Hoon Ahn; Ki-Jin Ryu; Soon-Cheol Hong; Ji Sung Lee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Min-Jeong Oh; Hai-Joong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplement...

  18. Folic acid supplementation: what is new? Fetal, obstetric, long-term benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Hind N. Moussa; Hosseini Nasab, Susan; Haidar, Ziad A; Blackwell, Sean C.; Baha M. Sibai

    2016-01-01

    The association between folic acid supplementation, prior to conception and/or during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, has been the subject of numerous studies. The worldwide recommendation of folic acid is at least 0.4 mg daily for all women of reproductive age, and 4–5 mg in high-risk women. In addition, evidence shows that folic acid supplementation could modulate other adverse pregnancy outcomes, specifically, in pregnancies complicated by seizure disorders, preeclampsia, anemia, fetal g...

  19. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Wu Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  20. Effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on preeclampsia: the folic acid clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi Wu; Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 8(0/7) and 16(6/7) weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  1. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Naithani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p=0.790. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  2. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  3. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  4. Retinoic acid binding protein in normal and neopolastic rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, M S; Brandes, M J; Arnold, E A; Isaacs, J T; Ueda, H; Millan, J C; Brandes, D

    1982-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosol from normal and neoplastic rat prostatic tissues exhibited a peak of (3H) retinoic acid binding in the 2S region, corresponding to the cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein (cRABP). In the Fisher-Copenhagen F1 rat, cRABP was present in the lateral lobe, but could not be detected in the ventral nor in the dorsal prostatic lobes. Four sublines of the R-3327 rat prostatic tumor contained similar levels of this binding protein. The absence of cRABP in the normal tissue of origin of the R-3327 tumor, the rat dorsal prostate, and reappearance in the neoplastic tissues follows a pattern described in other human and animal tumors. The occurrence of cRABP in the well-differentiated as well as in the anaplastic R-3327 tumors in which markers which reflect a state of differentiation and hormonal regulation, such as androgen receptor, 5 alpha reductase, and secretory acid phosphatase are either markedly reduced or absent, points to cRABP as a marker of malignant transformation.

  5. Essential fatty acid supplemented diet increases renal excretion of prostaglandin E and water in essential fatty acid deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1981-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient diet for 25 weeks and then switched to an EFA-supplemented diet for 3 weeks. Control rats received the EFA-supplemented diet for 25 weeks and then the EFA-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Throughout the last 19 weeks, the rats were...

  6. Physicians' knowledge and attitudes regarding periconceptional folic acid supplementation: a survey in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hammad, Talab; Dreiher, Jacob; Vardy, Daniel A; Cohen, Arnon D

    2008-05-01

    Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation is an effective way to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Primary care providers are an important source of information to promote folic acid intake. This study aimed at evaluating primary care physicians' knowledge and attitudes regarding folic acid supplementation for childbearing women. A questionnaire on physicians' knowledge and attitudes, mostly including multiple-choice questions, was delivered by mail to all physicians (n=370) in a large health provider organization in southern Israel in 2006. Data regarding demographics as well as type of specialty, experience, and place of work were collected. Eighty-seven physicians were included in the study (response rate: 24%). Seventy physicians out of 81 (94%) reported routine recommendation of folic acid for their patients. Most physicians admitted that they needed more information regarding folic acid supplementation. Knowledge about folic acid's role in preventing congenital anomalies was suboptimal, with 2% of the physicians correctly estimating the efficacy of folic acid in decreasing the risk of NTDs and 8% recognizing the association between folic acid supplementation and decreased prevalence of malformations other than NTDs. Knowledge about the correct timing (12%) and dosage (47%) of folic acid preparations for average-risk women was also lacking. Primary care physicians report that they routinely prescribe folic acid to women in childbearing age in order to prevent congenital anomalies, but their knowledge about folic acid supplementation is insufficient.

  7. Systemic inflammation in morbidly obese subjects: response to oral supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faintuch, Joel; Horie, Lilian M; Barbeiro, Hermes V; Barbeiro, Denise F; Soriano, Francisco G; Ishida, Robson K; Cecconello, Ivan

    2007-03-01

    Morbidly obese patients frequently display asymptomatic chronic activation of acute phase response, with potentially adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Nutritional preparations to improve this phenomenon have rarely been administered. Aiming to investigate the supplementation of flaxseed flour, a source of omega-3 fatty acids, a prospective randomized double-blind cross-over study was designed. Outpatient obese subjects (n=41) were clinically and biochemically screened, and results for 24 randomized subjects are shown. Age was 40.8 +/- 11.6 years (83.3% females) and body mass index (BMI) was 47.1 +/- 7.2 kg/m2. Flaxseed flour (Farinha de Linhaca Dourada LinoLive, Cisbra, Brazil) in the amount of 30 g/day (5 g of alpha-linolenic acid - omega-3) and an equal mass of placebo (manioc flour) were administered for 2 weeks each. Variables included general biochemical investigation, white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibronectin. No intolerance was registered. Body weight and general biochemical indices remained stable. Initial CRP and SAA were elevated (13.7 +/- 9.9 and 17.4 +/- 8.0 ). WBC (8100 +/- 2100/mm3) and fibronectin (463.2 +/- 61.3 mg/dL) were acceptable but in the upper normal range. Corresponding findings after supplementation of flaxseed were 10.6 +/- 6.2 mg/L, 14.3 +/- 9.2 mg/L, 7300 +/- 1800/mm3 and 412.8 +/- 38.6 respectively (Pchange during the control period regarding baseline occurred when placebo was randomized to be given first; however, when it followed omega-3 supplementation, CRP and SAA recovered, whereas WBC and fibronection remained depressed during those 2 weeks (7500 +/- 2100/mm3 and 393.2 +/- 75.8 mg/dL, P<0.05). 1) Various inflammatory markers were elevated in the studied population, although not necessarily exceeding the normal range; 2) Significant reduction could be demonstrated; 3) Some persistent effects of flaxseed supplement 2 weeks after discontinuation were observed.

  8. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Morse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring.

  9. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing.

  10. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (pacid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (pfatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (pfatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (pfatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring.

  11. Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Elham Mirtaheri

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, serum lipid profile was not significantly affected by ALA intervention. However, ALA supplementation aiming at prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia in RA patients should be further investigated. Keywords: Lipoic acid, Supplementation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Women, Lipid profile

  12. Gallic Acid Promotes Wound Healing in Normal and Hyperglucidic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Joo; Moh, Sang Hyun; Son, Dong Hwee; You, Seunghoon; Kinyua, Ann W; Ko, Chang Mann; Song, Miyoung; Yeo, Jinhee; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-07-08

    Skin is the outermost layer of the human body that is constantly exposed to environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and toxic chemicals, and is susceptible to mechanical wounding and injury. The ability of the skin to repair injuries is paramount for survival and it is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders leading to skin pathologies. Diabetic patients often suffer from chronic, impaired wound healing, which facilitate bacterial infections and necessitate amputation. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound) on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our study reveals that GA is a potential antioxidant that directly upregulates the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, GA accelerated cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in both normal and hyperglucidic conditions. Further, GA treatment activated factors known to be hallmarks of wound healing, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk), underpinning the beneficial role of GA in wound repair. Therefore, our results demonstrate that GA might be a viable wound healing agent and a potential intervention to treat wounds resulting from metabolic complications.

  13. Gallic Acid Promotes Wound Healing in Normal and Hyperglucidic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joo Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the outermost layer of the human body that is constantly exposed to environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and toxic chemicals, and is susceptible to mechanical wounding and injury. The ability of the skin to repair injuries is paramount for survival and it is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders leading to skin pathologies. Diabetic patients often suffer from chronic, impaired wound healing, which facilitate bacterial infections and necessitate amputation. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our study reveals that GA is a potential antioxidant that directly upregulates the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, GA accelerated cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in both normal and hyperglucidic conditions. Further, GA treatment activated factors known to be hallmarks of wound healing, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk, underpinning the beneficial role of GA in wound repair. Therefore, our results demonstrate that GA might be a viable wound healing agent and a potential intervention to treat wounds resulting from metabolic complications.

  14. Circulating Unmetabolized Folic Acid: Relationship to Folate Status and Effect of Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Tam; Deborah O'Connor; Gideon Koren

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing concerns that exposure to unmetabolized folic acid, which results from folic acid intakes that overwhelm the liver's metabolic capacity, may be associated with adverse effects. In this paper, we examined the folic acid status of women of reproductive age in relation to dietary intake and the effect of folic acid supplementation (1.1 mg or 5 mg). Plasma unmetabolized folic acid was not significantly correlated with folate intake estimated by food frequency questionnaire or...

  15. ω-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy: For mother, baby, or neither?

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Finkelstein, Yaron; Koren, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION Several pregnant patients have asked recently whether mediareports of children’s intelligence quotients’ increasing with increased intake of essential fatty acids are meaningful enough to be worth the effort of supplementation. What advice should they be given?

  16. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato...

  17. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  18. Differential expression of cholangiocyte and ileal bile acid transporters following bile acid supplementation and depletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Sertac Kip; Konstantinos N. Lazaridis; Anatoliy I. Masyuk; Patrick L. Splinter; Robert C. Huebert; Nicholas F. LaRusso

    2004-01-01

    taurocholate in microperfused IBDUs derived from rats on TCA diet decreased 2.7-fold, whereas it increased 1.7-fold in those on CY diet compared to C diet fed groups.CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that expression of ASBT and t-ASBT in cholangiocytes is regulated by a negative feedback loop while the expression of these transporters in terminal ileum is modified via positive feedback. Thus,while transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in response to alterations in bile acid pool size are operative in both cholangiocytes and ileocytes, each cell type responds differently to bile acid supplementation and depletion.

  19. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia—A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Wu Wen; Yanfang Guo; Marc Rodger; Ruth Rennicks White; Qiuying Yang; Smith, Graeme N.; Perkins, Sherry L.; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurren...

  20. Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine W; Yoshimura, Emerson H; Mareze-Costa, Cecília E; Machado, Erica; Agustinho, Bruna C; Pereira, Lucelia M; Brito, Márcia N; Brito, Nilton A; Zeoula, Lucia M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow's diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control. Whole milk supplementation increased initial weight gain and reduced gain in the adulthood of rats. Intake of common milk reduced cholesterol levels in non-obese rats and reduced insulin resistance in obese rats. PUFA-milk showed a decreasing effect on plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL concentrations, increasing plasma HDL concentration and reducing adipocyte size of non-obese rats, but no effect was observed in obese rats. PUFA/P-milk in obese rats resulted in greater deposition of muscle mass and mesenteric fat, with a tendency to lower LDL levels, and resulted a visceral fat accumulation in non-obese rats. Thus, whole common milk and PUFA-rich milk have shown to be beneficial in a normal metabolic condition, whereas common milk and milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols improve metabolic effects of obesity.

  1. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Naithani; Vartika Saxena; Anissa Atif Mirza; Ranjeeta Kumari; Kapil Sharma; Jyoti Bharadwaj

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated usi...

  2. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  3. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception.

  4. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron ± folic acid supplements alone. Objective. To compare the effects of MMN vs. iron ± folic acid supplements on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregn...

  5. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group, while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3 were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group. The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  6. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  7. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, R; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Rezayazdi, K; Mousavi, M; Safari, H; Martinez-Pastor, F

    2017-02-07

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the semen production and sperm freezability in Holstein bulls. Twelve bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 per group). Bulls received the normal diet (control group) or the normal diet top-dressed with 50 g of CLA (treated group) for 10 weeks. The control group received 40 g/day calcium soap of fatty acid. Fresh and post-thaw semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected at the 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 week of supplementation. Semen evaluations including sperm concentration, motion characteristics (subjective and computer-assisted), viability (Eosin-Nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and abnormality were conducted. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output were not affected by dietary treatment (p > .05). The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology in fresh semen significantly increased (p CLA-fed group compared to control group. Also, in CLA-fed group, the proportion of post-thaw spermatozoa with abnormal morphology at week 10 of trial was significantly higher in CLA than control group (p CLA-fed group, although dietary supplementation did not affect other CASA parameters or viability in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. In this study, CLA supplementation had little positive effect on fresh or post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

  8. Effect of micro-alga supplementation on goat and cow milk fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Póti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae cultivation has been developed over the last decades because it is capable of producing valuable metabolites, such as n-3 fatty acids for nutraceutical purposes. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the micro-alga as fat supplement on fatty acid profile of goat and cow milk, with particular reference to n-3 fatty acids and rumenic acid. Twenty dairy goats and 16 dairy cows were randomly allocated to two isonitrogenous treatment groups to investigate the effect of micro-alga supplementation on the composition and fatty acid profile of milk. The 1st goat group was fed with alfalfa hay and concentrate; the 2nd goat group received the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 10 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The control group cows were fed with alfalfa hay, corn silage and concentrate, while the experimental animals were fed with the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 7.4 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The experimental periods lasted for 17 d. The micro-alga supplements considerably increased rumenic acid concentration in milk (1.20% ví. 1.54%, P < 0.001 for goats; 0.75% vs. 0.85%, P < 0.05 for cows. The n-3 fatty acids were higher in milk (1.02 vs. 1.35; P < 0.001 for goats; 0.47 vs. 0.56; P < 0.05 for cows and in addition the n-6/n-3 ratio was also more favorable in the micro-alga supplemented groups (3.53 vs. 2.88; P < 0.01 for goats; 4.18 vs. 3.36; P < 0.05 for cows. It is concluded that the diet with micro-alga supplementation significantly increased the concentration of beneficial fatty acids in both goat and cow milk.

  9. Effect of vitamin E supplementation of sheep and goats fed diets supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in Se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Staub, T; Wichert, B; Wanner, M; Kreuzer, M

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) and selenium (Se) are an essential part of the antioxidative functions of metabolism. There are situations of low supply of both micronutrients. As VitE is involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their protection against oxidation in metabolism, diets supplemented with PUFA may challenge VitE to an extent making recommended supplies insufficient. Twelve goats and sheep each were fed a diet supplemented with PUFA and characterised by low Se and limited VitE contents during the last 2 months of gestation and the first 2 months of lactation. The basal diet consisted of hay and concentrate. Six goats and sheep received extra VitE, while the control groups received no extra VitE. Blood and milk samples were taken. In addition, liver, heart muscle and spleen samples were obtained from the offspring after slaughtering at an age of 8 weeks. No significant changes were observed in serum Se and VitE. A significant increase in serum VitE concentrations between 2 and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) was evident in the supplemented kids. In 4, 6 and 8 weeks pp, the serum concentrations of VitE in the supplemented kids were significantly higher compared to the unsupplemented group. In the kids, VitE was higher in liver of the supplemented groups. There were no significant differences in response to extra VitE between sheep and goat. The kids responded to serum VitE different from that of lambs, as a significant difference was observed between supplemented and unsupplemented animals in the goat kids, but not the lambs. In conclusion, goats and sheep have to be viewed differently and may not be considered alike relating to VitE/Se metabolism and requirements, especially in young animals.

  10. Free fatty acids normalize a rosiglitazone-induced visfatin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Dominik G; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Schaller, Georg; Artwohl, Michaela; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Prager, Gerhard; Roden, Michael; Wolzt, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The detrimental effect of elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) on insulin sensitivity can be improved by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unknown whether this salutary action of TZD is associated with altered release of the insulin-mimetic adipocytokine visfatin. In this study, we investigated whether visfatin concentrations are altered by FFA and TZD treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study 16 healthy volunteers received an infusion of triglycerides/heparin to increase plasma FFA after 3 wk of treatment with rosiglitazone (8 mg/day, n = 8) or placebo (n = 8), and circulating plasma visfatin was measured. As a corollary, human adipocytes were incubated with synthetic fatty acids and rosiglitazone to assess visfatin release in vitro. The results were that rosiglitazone treatment increased systemic plasma visfatin concentrations from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 ng/ml (P < 0.01). Lipid infusion caused a marked elevation of plasma FFA but had no effect on circulating visfatin in controls. In contrast, elevated visfatin concentrations in subjects receiving rosiglitazone were normalized by lipid infusion. In isolated adipocytes, visfatin was released into supernatant medium by acute addition and long-term treatment of rosiglitazone. This secretion was blocked by synthetic fatty acids and by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Akt. In conclusion, release of the insulin-mimetic visfatin may represent a major mechanism of metabolic TZD action. The presence of FFA antagonizes this action, which may have implications for visfatin bioactivity.

  11. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  12. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and S-Adenosylmethionine Supplementation in Predementia Syndromes and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Panza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that nutritional supplements can improve cognition; however, which supplements are effective remains controversial. In this review article, we focus on dietary supplementation suggested for predementia syndromes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with particular emphasis on S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Very recent findings confirmed that SAM can exert a direct effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST activity. AD is accompanied by reduced GST activity, diminished SAM, and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, the downstream metabolic product resulting from SAM-mediated transmethylation reactions, when deprived of folate. Therefore, these findings underscored the critical role of SAM in maintenance of neuronal health, suggesting a possible role of SAM as a neuroprotective dietary supplement for AD patients. In fact, very recent studies on early-stage AD patients and moderate- to late-stage AD patients were conducted with a nutriceutical supplementation that included SAM, with promising results. Given recent findings from randomized clinical trials (RCTs in which n-3 PUFA supplementation was effective only in very mild AD subgroups or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, we suggest future intervention trials using measures of dietary supplementation (dietary n-3 PUFA and SAM plus B vitamin supplementation to determine if such supplements will reduce the risk for cognitive decline in very mild AD and MCI. Therefore, key supplements are not necessarily working in isolation and the most profound impact, or in some cases the only impact, is noted very early in the course of AD, suggesting that nutriceutical supplements may bolster pharmacological approaches well past the window where supplements can work on their own. Recommendations regarding future research on the effects of SAM or n-3 PUFA supplementation on predementia syndromes and very mild AD include properly designed RCTs that are

  13. Amino acid nutrition of fishes: requirements and supplementation of diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to make a concise review of the published dietary requirements of fishes for amino acids, (2) to describe recent findings at the Tunison Laboratory concerning amino acid nutrition of trout, (3) to review specific signs of deficiency of amino acids, and (4) to discuss use of the fish egg amino acid pattern as a guideline to formulating new feeds or studying amino acid requirements of fishes for which there is limited information on their quantitative requirements.

  14. Predictors of preconceptional folic acid or multivitamin supplement use: a cross-sectional study of Danish pregnancy planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cueto HT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heidi T Cueto,1 Anders H Riis,1 Elizabeth E Hatch,2 Lauren A Wise,2,4 Kenneth J Rothman,2,3 Ellen M Mikkelsen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Compliance with the Danish preconceptional folic acid (FA recommendation – a daily supplement of 400 µg – is reported to be poor. Uncertainty remains, however, about the prevalence of compliers and health-related predictors of compliance in the preconceptional period.Methods: We used self-reported baseline data from 5383 women, aged 18–40 years, enrolled in an Internet-based prospective cohort study of Danish pregnancy planners during 2007–2011. We estimated the prevalence proportions of FA or multivitamin (MV use in relation to selected sociodemographic, lifestyle, reproductive, and medical characteristics. Multivariate binomial regression was used to obtain prevalence proportion differences with 95% confidence intervals for each level of study predictors, adjusted for all other predictors.Results: Overall, 7.7% of women used FA supplements, 20.4% used MV supplements, 34.0% used both, 1.5% used other single vitamins or minerals, and 36.4% did not use any dietary supplements. The prevalence of FA or MV supplement use was higher among older women, women with higher education and income, and women with healthy lifestyle factors such as being a nonsmoker, nondrinker, physically active, maintaining a normal body mass index and having regular pap smears. Greater intercourse frequency and a history of spontaneous abortion were also positively associated with FA or MV supplement use. We found no clear association between use of FA or MV supplements and a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, or

  15. Folic acid supplementation improves microvascular function in older adults through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-07-01

    Older adults have reduced vascular endothelial function, evidenced by attenuated nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation. Folic acid and its metabolite, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), are reported to improve vessel function. We hypothesized that (i) local 5-MTHF administration and (ii) chronic folic acid supplementation would improve cutaneous microvascular function in ageing through NO-dependent mechanisms. There were two separate studies in which there were 11 young (Y: 22 ± 1 years) and 11 older (O: 71 ± 3 years) participants. In both studies, two intradermal microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of lactated Ringer's solution with or without 5 mM 5-MTHF. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous vascular conductance [CVC=red cell flux/mean arterial pressure] was normalized as percentage maximum CVC (%CVCmax) (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, local temperature 43°C). In study 1 after CVC plateaued during local heating, 20 mM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was perfused at each site to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. The local heating plateau (%CVCmax: O = 82 ± 3 vs Y = 96 ± 1, P = 0.002) and NO-dependent vasodilatation (%CVCmax: O = 26 ± 6% vs Y = 49 ± 5, P = 0.03) were attenuated in older participants. 5-MTHF augmented the overall (%CVCmax = 91 ± 2, P = 0.03) and NO-dependent (%CVCmax = 43 ± 9%, P = 0.04) vasodilatation in older but not young participants. In study 2 the participants ingested folic acid (5 mg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. A rise in oral temperature of 1°C was induced using a water-perfused suit, body temperature was held and 20 mM L-NAME was perfused at each site. Older participants had attenuated reflex (%CVCmax: O = 31 ± 8 vs Y = 44 ± 5, P = 0.001) and NO-dependent (%CVCmax: O = 9 ± 2 vs Y = 21 ± 2, P = 0.003) vasodilatation. Folic acid increased CVC (%CVCmax = 47 ± 5%, P = 0.001) and NO

  16. Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.

  17. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  18. High dose of maternal folic acid supplementation is associated to infant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Liwen; Bi, Meirong; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Youqing; He, Chuan; Yao, Yao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation had a positive effect on preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), but its effects in infant asthma remained unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with outpatients between March 2010 and March 2011 including 150 onset infant asthma cases and 212 controls, together with a meta-analysis involving 14,438 participants, was performed. The association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of infant asthma was not significant either in the meta-analysis (OR = 1.06, 95% CI =0.99-1.14) or in the case-control study (OR = 0.72, 95% CI =0.37-1.39). However, quantitative analysis of the supplementation dose demonstrated that the risk of infant asthma significantly increased for the infants whose mother were with high-dose supplementation (>72,000 µg•d; OR = 3.16, 95% CI =1.15-8.71) after adjusting for confounding factors in the case-control study. Meanwhile, the risk of infant asthma significantly decreased for the infants whose mother were with low-dose supplementation (folic acid supplementation for mother during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of infant asthma, whereas supplementation with a relatively low-dose was associated with a decreased risk of infant asthma. These findings should be further investigated in a large population.

  19. Supplementation of plant protein with amino acids for broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Azzawi, I.I.

    1964-01-01

    A diet of sesame oilmeal, maize and barley supplemented with adequate lysine 0.50-0.78 (in total 1.18%-1.23% of the diet) was a suitable diet for fast growing chickens to produce broilers weighing approximately 1 kg in 7 weeks. The average feed intake per unit gain in the 7th week was 2.149 for

  20. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habash, MB; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G

    1999-01-01

    In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein

  1. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadwan Mahmoud

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW, intermediate (IMW, and low molecular weight ligands (LMW. The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation. After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn % was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403

  2. EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS EXPOSED TO HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anwar, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, A. Maqbool1 and K. A. Khan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 5 equal groups and kept under elevated temperature (93-97oF to see the effect of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid on the feed conversion ratio (FCR, immune status and ratio of weight of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight. Heat stress increased the FCR but decreased the immune response and ratio of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight of the birds. Ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation during heat stress had beneficial effects on FCR, immune status and ratio of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight. Grossly, bursa, thymus and spleen of heat stressed birds were atrophied but in ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid supplemented birds these organs were not atrophied. No specific histopathological changes were observed in all groups.

  3. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Chen, Xue; Dong, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wu, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-13

    Folic acid is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Increasing evidence demonstrates that physiological supply of folic acid during pregnancy prevents folic acid deficiency-related neural tube defects (NTDs). Previous studies showed that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure caused NTDs in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-dose folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced NTDs. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (20 μg/kg/d) from gestational day (GD) 8 to GD12. As expected, a five-day LPS injection resulted in 19.96% of fetuses with NTDs. Interestingly, supplementation with folic acid (3mg/kg/d) during pregnancy significantly alleviated LPS-induced NTDs. Additionally, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and skeletal malformations. Additional experiment showed that folic acid attenuated LPS-induced glutathione (GSH) depletion in maternal liver and placentas. Moreover, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental MyD88. Additionally, folic acid inhibited LPS-induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in placentas. Correspondingly, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in placentas, maternal serum and amniotic fluid. In conclusion, supplementation with high-dose folic acid during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced NTDs through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  4. Differentiating prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) from dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Stephen; Collins, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    A reliable means of treating hyper-triglyceridemia is the use of large doses of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Modest levels of EPA and DHA may be obtained from food, particularly fatty fish. This article is intended to review clinically relevant differences between dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3). PubMed and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Website were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2007 that contained the terms fish oil, fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, omega fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, or eicosapentaenoic acid. Articles discussing sources, recommended intake, and differences among various formulations of omega-3 fatty acids were selected for review. A limitation to this review is the lack of head-to-head clinical trials using P-OM3 and dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids. Many types of nonprescription dietary supplements of omega-3 fatty acids are available; however, the efficacy, quality, and safety of these products are open to question because they are not regulated by the same standards as pharmaceutical agents. P-OM3 is the only omega-3 fatty acid product (Omacor capsules) approved by the US FDA available in the United States as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (> or = 500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients. P-OM3 can be used with confidence by practitioners who want to provide therapeutic doses of omega-3 fatty acids in a preparation that has been documented to be both safe and effective.

  5. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  6. Translating formative research findings into a behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and iron and folic acid supplementation in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L; Seim, Gretchen L; Wawire, Salome; Chapleau, Gina M; Young, Sera L; Dickin, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends integrating calcium supplements into antenatal micronutrient supplementation programmes to prevent pre-eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal mortality. As countries consider integrating calcium supplementation into antenatal care (ANC), it is important to identify context-specific barriers and facilitators to delivery and adherence. Such insights can be gained from women's and health workers' experiences with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 pregnant and post-partum women and 20 community-based and facility-based health workers in Kenya to inform a calcium and IFA supplementation programme. Interviews assessed awareness of anaemia, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia; ANC attendance; and barriers and facilitators to IFA supplement delivery and adherence. We analyzed interviews inductively using the constant comparative method. Women and health workers identified poor diet quality in pregnancy as a major health concern. Neither women nor health workers identified pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, anaemia or related symptoms as serious health threats. Women and community-based health workers were unfamiliar with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and considered anaemia symptoms normal. Most women had not received IFA supplements, and those who had received insufficient amounts and little information about supplement benefits. We then developed a multi-level (health facility, community, household and individual) behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and IFA supplementation. Formative research is an essential first step in guiding implementation of antenatal calcium supplementation programmes to reduce pre-eclampsia. Because evidence on how to implement successful calcium supplementation programmes is limited, experiences with antenatal IFA supplementation can be used to guide programme development.

  7. Supplementation with Silk Amino Acids improves physiological parameters defining stamina in elite fin-swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Zubrzycki, Igor Z; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Przybylski, Stanislaw; Wiacek, Magdalena; Clarke, Anna; Trabka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous animal study has shown that supplementation with silk amino acid hydrolysate (SAA) increases stamina in mice. The presented study was the first formal evaluation of the influence of SAA supplementation on parameters defining physiological fitness level in humans. Methods It was a randomized controlled trial with a parallel-group design on elite male fin-swimmers. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of SAA per kg of body mass, dissolved in 250 ml of a Carbor...

  8. Preconception counseling and women's compliance with folic acid supplementation.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastuszak, A.; Bhatia, D.; Okotore, B.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    QUESTION: I am counseling patients to take folic acid when they plan pregnancy and during early pregnancy. Is there any proof that counseling really causes women to comply? ANSWER: A recent Motherisk study showed that counseling women who were planning pregnancy about folic acid use is very effective: 71% of those counseled took folic acid, compared with only 17% of those who were not counseled.

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways...

  10. High dose folic acid supplementation improves arterial endothelial function of coronary patients independent of homocysteine level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KS Woo; P Chook; M Qiao; AKY Chan; LLT Chan; WWM Chan; DS Celermajer

    2003-01-01

    @@ Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (prevalent in rural northern China)is an emerging risk factor for arterial endothelial dysfunction in CAD, which can be improved with folic acid supplementation. Such homocysteine-lowerying dosage of folio acid ( < 1 mg/d ) can reduce restenosis after PTCA, but not the cardiovascular events.Folic acid has additional vascular protection in antixidation, NO synthase protection, angiogenesis-promotion and cytokines reduction.

  11. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study.

  12. Supplementation with the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: influence on the lipid composition and fatty acid profile of human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of supplementing the diet of women during pregnancy and lactation with fish oil containing the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, and its influence on the composition of human milk. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 women aged 18 to 38 years with appropriate dietary pattern, all of them healthy and nonsmokers. The intervention consisted of a daily supplementation with fish oil capsules that corresponded to a daily intake of 315mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 80mg of eicosapentaenoic acid during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first three months postpartum. The total fat content and fatty acid profile of their milk were determined by creamatocrit and gas chromatography. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and the significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the fat contents of the study (fish oil capsules and control (capsules containing corn starch as filler groups. However, the milk of women taking fish oil contained higher docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels 30 and 60 days after delivery. These results demonstrate that high omega-3 intake can influence its concentration in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period, it is appropriate for pregnant and breastfeeding women to supplement on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be done by adding fish oil to the regular diet.

  13. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-13

    Pregnancy is a state of increased requirement of macro- and micronutrients, and malnourishment or inadequate dietary intake before and during pregnancy, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirths. Many nutritional interventions have been proposed during pregnancy according to the nutritional status of the mother and baseline risk factors for different gestational disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed three nutritional interventions including peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation, balanced protein energy supplementation and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy. This paper is a part of a series to estimate the effect of interventions on stillbirths for input to Live Saved Tool (LiST) model. We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies evaluating effectiveness of peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation in reducing neural tube defects (NTD), related stillbirths and balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing all-cause stillbirths. The primary outcome was stillbirths. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). There were 18 studies that addressed peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). Out of these, 7 studies addressed folic acid supplementation while 11 studies evaluated effect of folic acid fortification. Pooled results from 11 fortification studies showed that it reduces primary incidence of NTDs by 41 % [Relative risk (RR) 0.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.68]. This estimate has been recommended for inclusion in the LiST as proxy for reduction in stillbirths. Pooled results from three studies considered to be of low quality and suggest that balanced protein energy supplementation during

  14. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a state of increased requirement of macro- and micronutrients, and malnourishment or inadequate dietary intake before and during pregnancy, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirths. Many nutritional interventions have been proposed during pregnancy according to the nutritional status of the mother and baseline risk factors for different gestational disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed three nutritional interventions including peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation, balanced protein energy supplementation and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy. This paper is a part of a series to estimate the effect of interventions on stillbirths for input to Live Saved Tool (LiST model. Methods We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies evaluating effectiveness of peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation in reducing neural tube defects (NTD, related stillbirths and balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing all-cause stillbirths. The primary outcome was stillbirths. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST model based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG. Results There were 18 studies that addressed peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs. Out of these, 7 studies addressed folic acid supplementation while 11 studies evaluated effect of folic acid fortification. Pooled results from 11 fortification studies showed that it reduces primary incidence of NTDs by 41 % [Relative risk (RR 0.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.52-0.68]. This estimate has been recommended for inclusion in the LiST as proxy for reduction in stillbirths. Pooled results from three studies considered to be of low quality and suggest that

  15. Folate/folic acid knowledge, intake, and self-efficacy of college-aged women: impact of text messaging and availability of a folic acid-containing supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C; Kauwell, Gail P A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. The protocol included 3 study visits and a 6-week intervention for 4 groups: control; TM only; supplement only; and TM+supplement. Supplement groups received folic acid-containing supplements. TM groups received 18 folate-related TMs. Participants completed knowledge quizzes, supplement intake questions, a self-efficacy scale, and dietary recalls. Despite receiving the same folic acid education, intake of folic acid and total folate was greater in the supplement groups compared with the non-supplement groups at mid- and post-study. TMs had no impact on any study measure. Provision of a folic acid-containing supplement enhanced short-term folic acid intake, supporting the provision of supplements to this population group.

  16. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  17. Long-term folic acid (but not pyridoxine) supplementation lowers elevated plasma homocysteine level in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, P; Chadefaux, B; Coudé, M; Aupetit, J; Kamoun, P; Jungers, P

    1996-01-01

    Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, is present in chronic uremic patients. We prospectively evaluated the effects of sequential supplementation with pyridoxine (70 mg/day) and folic acid (10 mg/day) for two 3-month periods in 37 nondialyzed patients (29 males) with creatinine clearance (CCr) ranging from 10 to 80 ml/min, whose plasma vitamin B12 and folate level was in the normal range. Mean (+/- SD) baseline plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) was 14.9 +/- 5.2, 16.5 +/- 5.1 and 26.1 +/- 12.1 mumol/l (upper limit in 45 healthy controls 14.1 mumol/l) in patients with CCr 40-80, 20-40 and pyridoxine Hcy did not significantly decrease whereas following folic acid Hcy decreased significantly to 9.9 +/- 2.9 (-33% vs. baseline), 10.3 +/- 3.4 (-37%) and 15.4 +/- 5.5 (-40%), respectively (Student's paired t test, p pyridoxine) pharmacologic supplementation is effective in lowering elevated plasma Hcy in chronic renal failure patients, thus suggesting that enhancing the Hcy remethylation pathway may overcome hyperhomocysteinemia in such patients. In view of the potential atherogenic effects of hyperhomocysteinemia, long-term folate supplementation should be considered in uremic patients.

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  19. Amino acid supplements and recovery from high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carwyn P M; Pearson, David R

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term amino acid supplementation could maintain a short-term net anabolic hormonal profile and decrease muscle cell damage during a period of high-intensity resistance training (overreaching), thereby enhancing recovery and decreasing the risk of injury and illness. Eight previously resistance trained males were randomly assigned to either a high branched chain amino acids (BCAA) or placebo group. Subjects consumed the supplement for 3 weeks before commencing a fourth week of supplementation with concomitant high-intensity total-body resistance training (overreaching) (3 x 6-8 repetitions maximum, 8 exercises). Blood was drawn prior to and after supplementation, then again after 2 and 4 days of training. Serum was analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Serum testosterone levels were significantly higher (p creatine kinase levels were significantly lower (p resistance training. These findings suggest that short-term amino acid supplementation, which is high in BCAA, may produce a net anabolic hormonal profile while attenuating training-induced increases in muscle tissue damage. Athletes' nutrient intake, which periodically increases amino acid intake to reflect the increased need for recovery during periods of overreaching, may increase subsequent competitive performance while decreasing the risk of injury or illness.

  20. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future.

  1. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  2. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  3. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids' supplementation in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine

    2017-05-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.

  5. Folic acid supplementation prevents the changes in hepatic promoter methylation status and gene expression in intrauterine growth-retarded piglets during early weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Bo, L; Ying, Y; Bing, Y; Xiang-Bing, M; Zhi-Qing, H; Guo-Quan, H; Hong, C; Dai-Wen, C

    2013-10-01

    During intrauterine life, genome interacts with maternal signals to influence the mRNA expression levels of specific genes persistently by regulating DNA methylation status. The objective of this study was to examine the responses of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPARα and PPARγ) promoter methylation, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and metabolite concentrations of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets to dietary folic acid supplementation. According to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 5 mg/kg of folic acid from weaning (day 14) to day 35 of age. Triglycerides in hepatic tissue and plasma were significantly elevated in control diets-fed IUGR piglets compared with NBW piglets but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of GR, PPARα, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in IUGR piglets fed a control diet were significantly higher than that in NBW piglets, and promoter methylation status of GR, PPARα and PPARγ in IUGR piglets was reduced significantly compared with NBW piglets. However, the changes in gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR piglets were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic DNA methyltransferase activity was greater with dietary folic acid supplementation regardless of birth weight. Taken together, these results demonstrated that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could prevent the changes of promoter methylation status and gene expressions in the liver of IUGR piglets.

  6. Energy absorption is reduced with oleic acid supplements in human short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compher, Charlene W; Kinosian, Bruce P; Rubesin, Stephen E; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Metz, David C

    2009-01-01

    Oleic acid premeal supplements have been described as a method to trigger the ileal brake and thus lengthen transit time and the opportunity for nutrient absorption. The aims of this study were to determine whether oleic acid supplements would lengthen transit time and improve absorption of nutrients in study participants with short bowel syndrome as well as affect diarrhea or patient weight. A double-blind, controlled, random-order crossover trial was conducted in 8 study participants with longstanding and severe short bowel syndrome, employing blue food color appearance, breath hydrogen testing, and radio-opaque markers as measures of transit time. Absorption of energy, protein, fat, and fluid was conducted by classic nutrient balance methods. Diarrhea was estimated by daily stool weight and number of bowel actions. Although 8 patients were enrolled, only 7 completed the study. Transit time was not significantly different between oleic acid and placebo treatment, although peptide YY levels trended higher with the oleic acid treatment. Energy absorption was reduced 14% by oleic acid, significantly more than the 3% reduction by placebo. Fat, protein, and fluid absorption was not changed significantly. Neither diarrhea nor patient body weight was changed by oleic acid. Energy absorption is reduced by oleic acid supplements in severe short bowel syndrome. The study may have lacked power to determine whether oleic acid affects diarrhea or body weight.

  7. A Mixed-Method Study to Determine the Benefits of Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation and Effects of Folic Acid Deficiency in Mothers on Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; Kolli, Sunanda Reddy; Neogi, Sutapa B; Singh, Samiksha; Allagh, Komal Preet; John, Neena; N, Srinivas; Ramani, Sudha; Shamanna, B R; Doyle, Pat; Kinra, Sanjay; Ness, Andy; Pallepogula, Dinesh Raj; Pant, Hira B; Babbar, Smiksha; Reddy, Raghunath; Singh, Rachna

    2016-06-23

    Evidence from high income countries shows mothers who are supplemented with folic acid in their periconceptional period and early pregnancy have significantly reduced adverse outcomes like birth defects. However, in India there is a paucity of data on association of birth defects and folic acid supplementation. We identified a few important questions to be answered using separate scientific methods and then planned to triangulate the information. In this paper, we describe the protocol of our study that aims to determine the association of folic acid and pregnancy outcomes like neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We decided to fill the gaps in knowledge from India to determine public health consequences of folic acid deficiency and factors influencing dietary and periconceptional consumption of folic acid. The proposed study will be carried out in five stages and will examine the questions related to folic acid deficiency across selected locations in South and North India. The study will be carried out over a period of 4 years through the hierarchical evidence-based approach. At first a systematic review was conducted to pool the current birth prevalence of NTDs and orofacial clefts OFCs in India. To investigate the population prevalence, we plan to use the key informant method to determine prevalence of NTDs and OFCs. To determine the normal serum estimates of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 among Indian women (15-35 years), we will conduct a population-based, cross-sectional study. We will further strengthen the evidence of association between OFCs and folic acid by conducting a hospital-based, case-control study across three locations of India. Lastly, using qualitative methods we will understand community and health workers perspective on factors that decide the intake of folic acid supplements. This study will provide evidence on the community prevalence of birth defects and prevalence folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency in the

  8. Folic acid supplementation changes the fate of neural progenitors in mouse embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiuhuan; Zhao, Shidou; Liu, Shangming; Zhang, Yanmin; Fu, Jie; Wang, Fuwu; Liu, Qian; Ling, Eng-Ang; Hao, Aijun

    2013-07-01

    Folic acid has been shown to decrease the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in normal and hyperglycemic conditions, but the influence of folic acid on the development of central nervous system is not fully understood. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of folic acid, especially high dose of folic acid, on the characteristics of neural progenitors in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic mouse. Hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnant mice were given 3 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg folic acid from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) and were euthanased on E11.5, E13.5 or E18.5. The incidence of NTDs at E13.5 was counted. The proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of neural progenitors and neuronal migration were determined using BrdU incorporation assay, TUNEL assay, immunofluorescence, Western blot and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Both normal and high doses of folic acid decreased the incidence of NTDs, promoted proliferation and reduced apoptosis of neuroepithelial cells in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic mice. Importantly, folic acid, especially at high dose, might affect the premature differentiation of neural progenitors in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy. This may be attributed to changes of messenger RNA expression levels of some basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In addition, folic acid might be involved in regulating neuronal migration in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy. These findings suggest that periconceptional supplementation of folic acid, especially at high dose, may be a double-edged sword because it may result in undesirable outcomes affecting both the neuronal and glial differentiation in hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy.

  9. Comparative efficacy of supplementation of phytoconcentrate herbal preparation and synthetic amino acid on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kanduri

    Full Text Available In view to study the role of herbal sources of essential amino acids in improving growth & performance, an experiment was conducted on seventy five day Vencob broiler chicks. Chicks were randomly divided into three groups (n=25, one negative control (T0 and two treatments (T1 & T2. Control group (T0 was offered basal diet deficient in natural or synthetic source of amino acids (choline, methionine, lysine & biotin. Treatment group T1 was fed with basal diet supplemented with polyherbal formulation comprising natural sources (herbs that mimic the activity of amino acids (choline, methionine, lysine & biotin @ 2Kg/tonne of feed while treatment group T2 was fed with basal diet supplemented with combination of synthetic choline chloride (600gm/tonne, synthetic methionine (1kg/tonne, synthetic lysine (1kg/tonne and biotin (150mg/tonne. Growth & performance parameters were recorded at weekly intervals and a metabolic trial for nutrient retention studies was conducted at the end of study. A significant increase in mean body weight gain, mean final body weight, feed efficiency & nutrient retention was observed in both the treated groups as compared to untreated control. The results of group T1 supplemented with herbal sources of amino acids were in confirmation with T2 supplemented with combination of synthetic amino acids suggesting that the polyherbal formula can successfully replace synthetic additives in feed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 413-416

  10. A Review: Supplementation of Foods with Essential Fatty Acids-Can It Turn a Breeze without Further Ado?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S

    2016-07-03

    This paper focuses on the critical aspects of supplementation of foods with essential fatty acids (EFAs), the need, health benefits of supplementation and the constraints of the process. Current trend of supplementation of foods with EFAs has been gaining momentum and more research pioneers due to the health benefits in par with the direct intake of EFA supplements. Technologies including encapsulation, nanotechnology, molecular complexing, genetic engineering and more emerging means, hold promise to food supplementation with EFAs. Food trials with adoption of various technologies, studies of bioavailability and health benefits are still underway and crucial before EFA supplementation in foods can hit the market on a global scale.

  11. Effect of chronic fish oil supplementation on renal function of normal and cachectic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernandez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the effect of chronic diet supplementation with n-3 PUFA on renal function of healthy and cachectic subjects by providing fish oil (1 g/kg body weight to female rats throughout pregnancy and lactation and then to their offspring post-weaning and examined its effect on renal function parameters during their adulthood. The animals were divided into four groups of 5-10 rats in each group: control, control supplemented with fish oil (P, cachectic Walker 256 tumor-bearing (W, and W supplemented with fish oil (WP. Food intake was significantly lower in the W group compared to control (12.66 ± 4.24 vs 25.30 ± 1.07 g/day. Treatment with fish oil significantly reversed this reduction (22.70 ± 2.94 g/day. Tumor growth rate was markedly reduced in the P group (16.41 ± 2.09 for WP vs 24.06 ± 2.64 g for W. WP group showed a significant increase in mean glomerular filtration rate compared to P and control (1.520 ± 0.214 ml min-1 kg body weight-1; P < 0.05. Tumor-bearing groups had low urine osmolality compared to control rats. The fractional sodium excretion decreased in the W group compared to control (0.43 ± 0.16 vs 2.99 ± 0.87%; P < 0.05, and partially recovered in the WP group (0.90 ± 0.20%. In summary, the chronic supplementation with fish oil used in this study increased the amount of fat in the diet by only 0.1%, but caused remarkable changes in tumor growth rate and cachexia, also showing a renoprotective function.

  12. Role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects: physicians yet unaware!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Kumhar, G Das; Harit, D; Faridi, M M A

    2010-09-01

    Folic acid supplementation is important in the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD). The study was conducted to assess the awareness amongst physicians regarding the role of Folic Acid (FA) in the prevention of NTD. Physicians were interviewed regarding the awareness of FA dose, timing of supplementation and knowledge about its role in prevention of neural tube defects using a semistructured questionnaire. Among 202 physicians interviewed (48 pediatricians, 54 obstetricians, 100 recently qualified medical graduates) overall awareness about FA was present in 92.07%, similar in three groups (P > 0.05). Only 47.52% were aware of preconception administration, 61.38% about dose of supplementation and 11.88% about recurrence rate of NTD. Only 15 (7.4%) knew all these. Regarding the etiology of NTDs only 26.7% said both FA and genetic factors are involved. Though majority were aware that folic acid has a role in prevention of NTDs, their knowledge about timing and dose of supplementation was lacking. Hence attempts should be made to increase the awareness regarding prevention of NTD's by FA supplementation at a proper time.

  13. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  14. Fermentanomics informed amino acid supplementation of an antibody producing mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Erik K; Bradley, Scott A; Smitka, Tim A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Lute, Scott C; Brorson, Kurt A

    2013-01-01

    Fermentanomics, or a global understanding of a culture state on the molecular level empowered by advanced techniques like NMR, was employed to show that a model hybridoma culture supplied with glutamine and glucose depletes aspartate, cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, and tyrosine during antibody production. Supplementation with these amino acids prevents depletion and improves culture performance. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the distribution of glycans attached to the IgG3 in cultures supplemented with specific amino acids, arguing that this strategy can be implemented without fear of impact on important product quality attributes. In summary, a targeted strategy of quantifying media components and designing a supplementation strategy can improve bioprocess cell cultures when enpowered by fermentanomics tools.

  15. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis.

  16. Impact of iron and folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperaki, E; Tsikopoulos, A; Makedou, K; Paliogianni, E; Kiriazi, L; Charisi, C; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the impact of supplements on oxidative stress (OS) during pregnancy. Fifty volunteer pregnant women (21-40 years old), in the 12 ± 2 weeks' and 38 ± 2 weeks' gestation of pregnancy (study group), and 25 non-pregnant healthy women (control group) were enrolled. All pregnant women were divided into two age groups (A1: folic acid, B3: both and B4: none). Antioxidant activity was assayed using the TAC kit (Cayman Chemical Co.). Level of statistical significance was p pregnancy, especially with folic acid or no supplementation. In conclusion, pregnancy is associated with OS, which is promoted by the administration of iron supplementation.

  17. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Klemp, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  18. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  19. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Danique; Derks, Terry G. J.; van Rijn, Margreet; de Groot, Martijn J.; MacDonald, Anita; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with

  20. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Danique; Derks, Terry G. J.; van Rijn, Margreet; de Groot, Martijn J.; MacDonald, Anita; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with

  1. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes : A registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. E. H.; Otten, E.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs

  2. Public health significance of supplementation or fortification of grain products with folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for supplemental folate can be traced to the initial phase of the discovery of this vitamin as a micronutrient for the prevention of pregnancy related anemia. In the post discovery era, folic acid was used primarily to prevent deficiency as manifested by low blood folate levels and megalob...

  3. Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Hearing in Older Adults: a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durga, J.; Verhoef, P.; Anteunis, L.J.C.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Age-related hearing loss is a common chronic condition of elderly persons. Low folate status has been associated with poor hearing. Objective: To determine whether folic acid supplementation slows age-related hearing loss. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conduc

  4. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes aerobic growth of Salmonella Typhimurium under nitrosative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Mee; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kook, Joong-Ki; Choy, Hyon E; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Bang, Iel Soo

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inactivates iron-sulfur enzymes in bacterial amino acid biosynthetic pathways, causing amino acid auxotrophy. We demonstrate that exogenous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can restore the NO resistance of hmp mutant Salmonella Typhimurium lacking principal NO-metabolizing enzyme flavohemoglobin, and of mutants further lacking iron-sulfur enzymes dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (IlvD) and isopropylmalate isomerase (LeuCD) that are essential for BCAA biosynthesis, in an oxygen-dependent manner. BCAA supplementation did not affect the NO consumption rate of S. Typhimurium, suggesting the BCAA-promoted NO resistance independent of NO metabolism. BCAA supplementation also induced intracellular survival of ilvD and leuCD mutants at wild-type levels inside RAW 264.7 macrophages that produce constant amounts of NO regardless of varied supplemental BCAA concentrations. Our results suggest that the NO-induced BCAA auxotrophy of Salmonella, due to inactivation of iron-sulfur enzymes for BCAA biosynthesis, could be rescued by bacterial taking up exogenous BCAA available in oxic environments.

  5. Preconception care: preliminary estimates of costs and effects of smoking cessation and folic acid supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Polder, J.J.; Cohen-Overbeek, T.E.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess costs and effectiveness of preconception counseling for all women planning pregnancy in The Netherlands with regard to folic acid supplementation and smoking cessation counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Costs and effects were estimated based on 200,000 women approached yearly and uptake

  6. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); L.E.M. Elstgeest (Liset E.); S. Scholtens (Salome); A. Haveman-Nies (Annemien); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); U. Gehring (Ulrike); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); A.H. Wijga (Alet)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in

  7. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  8. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  9. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  10. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol.To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies.Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed.Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics produced changes in total cholesterol (TC (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains.In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  11. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  12. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  13. The effect of Iron Folic Acid Supplementation and Dietary Iron Intake in High Schools Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Iron deficiency is one of the major public health problems imposing significant effect on the body and mind which has negative impacts on humans’ capability of. Increasing demand of the body, inadequate intake and decrease of absorbency are the major causes of anemia among teenage girls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary iron folic acid supplementation and dietary iron intake in high school girls. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on sixty female high school students at grade one and three in Yasuj, Iran. Biochemical markers of iron status were measured beforehand and afterwards of folic acid supplementation for 16 weeks. Food consumption patterns and iron intake were determined by frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test by means of N4 analysis software. Results: Anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in grade one were 9.7%, 32.3% and 9.9% respectively, in addition to in grade three were 19.4% , 41.9% and 3.2% respectively. After iron folic acid supplementation, these indicators were 9.7%, 16.1% and 3.3% in grade one and in grade three were 9.7%, 22.6%, 0.0% respectively. Conclusion: Overall, it appeared that weekly iron folic acid supplementation in duration of 16 weeks per year, with dietary modification, could improve the indices of blood in high school girls. Key words: Anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, iron folic acid supplementation

  14. High Dosage Folic Acid Supplementation, Oral Cleft Recurrence and Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Padovani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. Patients and Methods: The study included 2,508 women who were at-risk for oral cleft recurrence and randomized into two folic acid supplementation groups: 0.4 and 4 mg per day before pregnancy and throughout the first trimester. The infant outcome data were based on 234 live births. In addition to oral cleft recurrence, several secondary outcomes were compared between the two folic acid groups. Cleft recurrence rates were also compared to historic recurrence rates. Results: The oral cleft recurrence rates were 2.9% and 2.5% in the 0.4 and 4 mg groups, respectively. The recurrence rates in the two folic acid groups both separately and combined were significantly different from the 6.3% historic recurrence rate post the folic acid fortification program for this population (p = 0.0009 when combining the two folic acid groups. The rate of cleft lip with palate recurrence was 2.9% in the 0.4 mg group and 0.8% in the 4 mg group. There were no elevated fetal growth complications in the 4 mg group compared to the 0.4 mg group. Conclusions: The study is the first double-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT to study the effect of high dosage folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence. The recurrence rates were similar between the two folic acid groups. However, the results are suggestive of a decrease in oral cleft recurrence compared to the historic recurrence rate. A RCT is still needed to identify the effect of folic acid on oral cleft recurrence given these suggestive results and the supportive results from previous interventional and observational studies, and the study offers suggestions for such future studies. The results also suggest that high dosage folic acid does not compromise fetal growth.

  15. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Supplementation in Formula Modulates the Neonatal Gut Microbiome and Normalizes Intestinal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinder, Ganive; Allaire, Joannie M.; Garcia, Cyrielle; Lau, Jennifer T.; Chan, Justin M.; Ryz, Natasha R.; Bosman, Else S.; Graef, Franziska A.; Crowley, Shauna M.; Celiberto, Larissa S.; Berkmann, Julia C.; Dyer, Roger A.; Jacobson, Kevan; Surette, Michael G.; Innis, Sheila M.; Vallance, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast milk has many beneficial properties and unusual characteristics including a unique fat component, termed milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). While breast milk yields important developmental benefits, there are situations where it is unavailable resulting in a need for formula feeding. Most formulas do not contain MFGM, but derive their lipids from vegetable sources, which differ greatly in size and composition. Here we tested the effects of MFGM supplementation on intestinal development and the microbiome as well as its potential to protect against Clostridium difficile induced colitis. The pup-in-a-cup model was used to deliver either control or MFGM supplemented formula to rats from 5 to 15 days of age; with mother’s milk (MM) reared animals used as controls. While CTL formula yielded significant deficits in intestinal development as compared to MM littermates, addition of MFGM to formula restored intestinal growth, Paneth and goblet cell numbers, and tight junction protein patterns to that of MM pups. Moreover, the gut microbiota of MFGM and MM pups displayed greater similarities than CTL, and proved protective against C. difficile toxin induced inflammation. Our study thus demonstrates that addition of MFGM to formula promotes development of the intestinal epithelium and microbiome and protects against inflammation. PMID:28349941

  16. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  17. Amino acid composition and biological effects of supplementing broad bean and corn proteins with Nigella sativa (black cumin) cake protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Gaby, A M

    1998-10-01

    The biological effects of supplementing broad bean (Vicia faba) or corn (Zea maize) meal protein with black cumin (Nigella sativa) cake protein as well as their amino acid composition were investigated. The percentage of total protein content of Nigella cake was 22.7%. Lysine is existent in abundant amounts in faba meal protein, while leucine is the most abundant in corn meal protein (chemical score = 156) and valine is higher in Nagella cake protein. compared with rats fed sole corn or faba meal protein, substitution of 25% of corn or faba meal protein with Nigella cake protein in the diet remarkably raised the growth rate of rats and resulted in significant higher levels of rat total serum lipids and triglycerides. Also, the supplemented diet caused significant increases in serum total protein and its two fractions albumin and globulin and insignificantly increase the activity of serum phosphatases and transaminases within normal ranges. The supplementation did not have any adverse nutritional effects in the levels of lipid fractions in the serum.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  19. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  20. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  1. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  2. Pilot study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ibegbulam, Obike; Duru, Augustine; Ocheni, Sunday; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Umar, Garba; Asinobi, Isaac; Madu, Anazoeze; Okoye, Augustine; Nwagha, Tessy; Oguonu, Uche; Uamai, Ify; Agwu, Obineche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anike, Uche; Agu, Kingsley; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Herrada, Sagrario

    2011-07-01

    In a previous retrospective study, it was observed that the greater the amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood, the lesser the number of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the higher the steady state haemoglobin level. SCD causes ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation; which can be ameliorated by a metabolite of DHA that down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The objectives of this prospective pilot study were to evaluate the effects of DHA and EPA supplements in SCD, and test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated partly by reducing inflammation. Oral DHA and EPA supplements were given to 16 SCD patients for 6 months. We then compared pre- and post-supplementation values of number of crisis, steady state Hb, plasma unconjugated bilirubin and three indices of inflammation: plasma interleukin-6, blood neutrophil and platelet counts. There was a significant reduction in the plasma level of unconjugated bilirubin, and the number of sickle cell crisis; but not in the markers of inflammation. The pilot data suggest that DHA and EPA supplements reduce the number of crisis and steady state haemolysis in SCD; but provide no evidence that these effects are mediated by reducing inflammation.

  3. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  4. Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Deborah L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 μg folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 μg folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003. There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22. Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490

  5. Puerto Rican primary physicians' knowledge about folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Dávila Torres, René R; Gorrín Peralta, José J; Montes de Longo, Idalina

    2003-12-01

    We conducted a study of a group of primary physicians in Puerto Rico to evaluate their knowledge about folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects. The study design was transverse-correlational. A total of 66 primary physicians in two hospitals (public and private) participated in the study. The sample was nonrandom and opportunistic, and only those physicians present in the hospitals at the moment of distribution of the questionnaires participated. A self-administered and anonymous questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabular analysis were used to describe the results of this study. Inferential statistics were also used, including Chi square and t-tests to establish the associations/differences between physician knowledge and the independent variables. Of the participants, 87.9% demonstrated an inadequate knowledge about folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects as part of preconception care and only 12.1% demonstrated adequate knowledge. Older physicians had greater knowledge about folic acid. Also, women demonstrated greater knowledge about folic acid than did men. Most of the physicians who always recommend supplementation to their patients demonstrated a greater knowledge about folic acid, and all participants with adequate knowledge came from the public hospital. Despite a concerted effort by the Health Department of Puerto Rico to provide education in the importance of folic acid supplementation to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects, primary physicians in two Puerto Rican hospitals generally have not availed themselves of this training and showed a lack of knowledge on this important clinical issue. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effect of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-12-01

    Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were used to determine the effects of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Three treatments were as follows: basal diet (56:44 Roughage:concentrate [R:C] ratio, dry matter basis) supplemented with 500 g of palm oil as control (PO), 500 g mixture (1:1, w/w) of palm oil and linseed oil (POLSO) and 500 g of linseed oil (LSO). The LSO supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition. Compared to control cows, cows supplemented with LSO increased milk concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 FA (P < 0.05), particularly C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Feeding LSO reduced concentrations of milk short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) while it increased concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Milk proportions of n-3 FA increased, whereas n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the LSO as compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on corn silage with LSO at 500 g/day could improve the nutritional value of milk with potential health-beneficial FA without detrimental effect on milk composition or cow's performance. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (phen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (play, egg weight, and FCR. From economical point of view, egg production was more profitable at 0.5% level of sodium butyrate and 0.5% level of calcium propionate which reduced the feed cost per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass production without affecting the egg quality. PMID:28096625

  8. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  9. Patients with fibromyalgia have normal serum levels of hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Møller, H J; Schaadt, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) in Danish patients with fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: Serum levels of HA were determined in 53 patients with established FM and 55 control samples using a radiometric assay. Values were correlated to clinical disease severity variables...

  10. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  11. Effects of supplementation with 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester on splanchnic amino acid metabolism and essential amino acid mobilization in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbach, Kristine Foged; Larsen, Mogens; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl;

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated by differ......The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated...

  12. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Haitham A.; Dina M. M. AlSadek; Mohit P. Mathew; Chen-Zhong Li; Djansugurova, Leyla B.; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hafiz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show s...

  13. Short communication: Lactational responses to palmitic acid supplementation when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, J; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of mid-lactation dairy cows to a palmitic acid (C16:0)-enriched fatty acid supplement when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn in the diet. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (182 ± 60 d in milk; mean ± SD) were blocked by preliminary 3.5% fat-corrected milk and randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments consisted of a control diet containing no supplemental fat (CON), and 2 C16:0-enriched fatty acid-supplemented treatments (PA; BergaFat F100, Berg & Schmidt, Hanover, Germany) as a replacement for either soyhulls (PA-SH) or dry ground corn (PA-CG). The C16:0-enriched supplement was fed at 1.5% of diet dry matter. The PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake, but PA-SH increased dry matter intake by 1.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments did not affect milk yield; however, PA-SH increased milk yield by 2.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to decrease milk protein content (3.12 vs. 3.15%). In contrast, PA-SH increased milk protein content (3.14 vs. 3.10%) and milk protein yield (1.27 vs. 1.19 kg/d) compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments increased milk fat concentration (3.68 vs. 3.55%) and milk fat yield (1.46 vs. 1.38 kg/d). The increase in milk fat yield with PA treatments was due to the increase in the yield of 16-carbon fatty acid in milk fat. Furthermore, PA-SH tended to increase yield of de novo fatty acids and yield of 16-carbon fatty acids compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to increase feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/dry matter intake) compared with CON (1.51 vs. 1.46). The PA-SH treatment tended to increase insulin concentration compared with PA-CG (1.58 vs. 1.49 μg/L) and PA treatments increased nonesterified fatty acids compared with CON (110 vs. 99 μEq/L). Overall, PA treatments improved feed efficiency and increased milk fat yield and the response to the C16:0-enriched

  14. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (Pamino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges.

  15. Chlorogenic acid supplementation improves multifocal electroretinography in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chlorogenic acid supplementation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, we evaluated objective change in visual function with multifocal electroretinography, along with visual acuity, visual field, standard electroretinography, and contrast sensitivity. Eighteen patients diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa were enrolled in this prospective, non-comparative, single-arm study. Multifocal electroretinography, best-corrected visual acuity in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters, total point score on visual field examination with Humphrey Field Analyzer II, electroretinography, and contrast sensitivity were measured and repeated after 3 months supplementation with chlorogenic acid. The amplitude of ring 5 was significantly higher on multifocal electroretinography after 3 months of chlorogenic acid supplementation (7.2 ± 9.5 vs 8.3 ± 10.8 nV/deg(2), mean ± standard deviation, P = 0.022). There were no significant changes in the best-corrected visual acuity, total point score on Humphrey Field Analyzer, 30 Hz flicker amplitude on standard electroretinography, or contrast sensitivity. Chlorogenic acid may have a beneficial effect on the peripheral area at the margins of retinal degeneration, and should be considered as an anti-oxidant for the management of retinitis pigmentosa.

  16. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  18. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline N. Zanoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is able to neutralize reactive oxygen species and is essential for collagen synthesis. In aging process oxidative stress is elevated. This study aims to investigate the effects of AA supplementation on the periodontal ligament (PL of rats during aging. Twenty five rats were used and divided into groups: J90 (90-day-old control, E345 (345-day-old control, E428 (428-day-old control, EA345 (345-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on and EA428 (428-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on. We analyzed the thickness, density of fibroblasts and blood vessels and collagen fibers types in the PL. In group J90 there was predominantly type III collagen fibers (87.64%. In animals supplemented with AA, the area filled by type I fibers (group EA345: 65.67%, group EA428: 52.23% was higher than type III fibers. PL in group EA428 was thicker than the one observed in group E428 (P < 0.05. During natural aging process, AA promoted the maturation of collagen fibers and enhanced angiogenesis in periodontal ligament. One can conclude that the supplementation with AA represented a beneficial factor for the development of PL in aged rats.

  19. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07, or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05. Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16, acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15, cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21, vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02, or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.

  20. Folic acid supplementation inhibits recurrence of colorectal adenomas: A randomized chemoprevention trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Jaszewski; Adhip PN Majumdar; Sabeena Misra; Martin Tobi; Nadeem Ullah; Jo Ann Naumoff; Omer Kucuk; Edi Levi; Bradley N Axelrod; Bhaumik B Patel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether folic acid supplementation will reduce the recurrence of colorectal adenomas,the precursors of colorectal cancer, we performed a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in patients with adenomatous polyps.METHODS: In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at this VA Medical Center, patients with colorectal adenomas were randomly assigned to receive either a daily 5 mg dose of folic acid or a matched identical placebo for 3 years. All polyps were removed at baseline colonoscopy and each patient had a follow up colonoscopy at 3 years. The primary endpoint was a reduction in the number of recurrent adenomas at 3 years.RESULTS: Of 137 subjects, who were eligible after confirmation of polyp histology and run-in period to conform compliance, 94 completed the study; 49 in folic acid group and 45 in placebo group. Recurrence of adenomas at 3-year was compared between the two groups. The mean number of recurrent polyps at 3-year was 0.36 (SD, 0.69) for folic acid treated patients compared to 0.82 (SD, 1.17) for placebo treated subjects, resulting in a 3-fold increase in polyp recurrence in the placebo group. Patients below 70 years of age and those with left-sided colonic adenomas or advanced adenomas responded better to folic acid supplementation.CONCLUSION: High dose folic acid supplementation is associated with a significant reduction in the recurrence of colonic adenomas suggesting that folic acid may be an effective chemopreventive agent for colorectal neoplasia.

  1. Effects of Guanidinoacetic Acid Supplementation to Broiler Diets With Varying Energy Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Heger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the response of broiler chickens to guanidinoacetic acid (GAA added to diets with different energy levels during fattening to 35 days of age. Ross 308 male chicks were allotted to 10 treatments, each consisting of six replicates of 140 birds/pen. Five maize-soyabean meal isonitrogenous diets with decreasing AMEn levels (100, 99, 98, 97 and 96% of requirement with or without supplements of 0.6 g/kg CreAMINO® containing a minimum of 96% GAA were formulated. The criteria of response were feed intake, body weight gains, feed conversion ratio and carcass, breast meat, leg meat and abdominal fat yields. Supplementation of broiler diets with 0.06% GAA resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in voluntary feed intake. With decreasing AMEn level, voluntary feed intake and consequently protein and amino acid intakes increased which was manifested by improved growth performance (P < 0.01. GAA supplements significantly (P < 0.001 improved feed conversion ratio and efficiency of AMEn utilization and significantly (P < 0.01 increased breast meat yield. With decreasing AMEn level, the effects of GAA supplementation tended to diminish.

  2. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  3. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; Mathew, Mohit P; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, "Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  4. Influence of acid and bile acid on ERK activity, PPARY expression and cell proliferation in normal human esophageal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Ru Jiang; Jun Gong; Zhen-Ni Zhang; Zhe Qiao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of acid and bile acid exposure on cell proliferation and the expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Y (PPARy) in normal human esophageal epithelial cells in vitro.METHODS: In vitro cultured normal human esophageal epithelial cells were exposed to acidic media (pH 4.0-6.5), media containing different bile acid (250 μmol/L), media containing acid and bile acid, respectively.Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT and flow cytometry. The expressions of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and PPARy protein were determined by the immunoblotting technique.RESULTS: Acid-exposed (3 min) esophageal cells exhibited a significant increase in proliferation ratio,S phase of the cell cycle (P<0.05) and the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. When the acid-exposure period exceeded 6 min, we observed a decrease in proliferation ratio and S phase of the cell cycle, with an increased apoptosis ratio (P<0.05). Bile acid exposure (3-12 min) also produced an increase in proliferation ratio, S phase of the cell cycle (P<0.05)and phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression. On the contrary,deoxycholic acid (DCA) exposure (>20 min) decreased proliferation ratio. Compared with bile acid exposure (pH 7.4), bile acid exposure (pH 6.5, 4) significantly decreased proliferation ratio (P<0.05). There was no expression of PPARY in normal human esophageal epithelial cells.CONCLUSION: The rapid stimuli of acid or bile acid increase proliferation in normal human esophageal epithelial cells by activating the ERK pathway.

  5. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  6. Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Nadine W.; Yoshimura, Emerson H.; Mareze-Costa, Cec?lia E.; Machado, Erica; Agustinho, Bruna C.; Pereira, Lucelia M.; Brito, M?rcia N.; Brito, Nilton A.; Zeoula,Lucia M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow?s diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enric...

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation in ileum myenteric neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    SILVERIO, Sonia M.; Mari,Renata B.; Clebis,Naianne K.; SCOZ, Juliana R.; Germano,Ricardo de M.; Major,José A.A.; Pedro P. Bombonato; Sandra R. Stabille

    2009-01-01

    The exacerbation of the oxidative stress and of the polyol pathway which impair damage myenteric plexus are metabolic characteristics of diabetes. The ascorbic acid (AA) is an antioxidant and an aldose reductase inhibitor, which may act as neuroprotector. The effects of AA supplementation on the density and cellular body profile area (CP) of myenteric neurons in STZ-induced diabetes in rats were assessed. Four groups with five animals each were formed: normoglycemic (C); diabetic (D); AA-trea...

  8. Effects of phytic acid and exercise on some serum analytes in rats orally exposed to diets supplemented with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Tasha; Omoregie, Samson N; Wright, Vincent; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It has been reported to be high in the soil where food crops are grown in some parishes of Jamaica. Surprisingly, no adverse effect of cadmium has been reported among the Jamaican population. However, phytic acid has also been shown to be high in some food crops grown in Jamaica. In this study, we evaluated the effects of phytic acid (1 %) and exercise on the metabolism of cadmium (5 mg cadmium/kg body weight) in rats. Five groups of rats were fed as follows: rats fed control diet, control diet supplemented with cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with phytic acid plus cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with cadmium plus phytic acid, and control diet supplemented with cadmium only. The animals were fed for 4 weeks and then sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for some biochemical assays. Percentage weight loss (28.42 %) was greatest in the group that had cadmium supplement only. The group fed control diet supplemented with cadmium only displayed increased liver enzymes and electrolytes except for the significant decrease in bicarbonate compared to other test groups. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were increased in the group fed cadmium supplement only compared to other test groups. Total cholesterol trended downwards in the test groups compared to control. These observations suggest that consumption of diet high in phytic acid with relatively high physical activity may be protective against the adverse effects of cadmium.

  9. Identifying environmental risk factors for human neural tube defects before and after folic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinhu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects are a major cause of infant mortality and disability in many parts of the world. Neural tube defects (NTDs are one of the most common types of birth defects. In 2001, the Chinese population and family planning commission initiated a national intervention program for the prevention of birth defects. A key step in the program was the introduction of folic acid supplementation. Of interest in the present study was to determine whether folic acid supplementation has the same protective effect on NTDs under various geographical and socioeconomic conditions within the Chinese population and the nature in which the influence of environmental factors varied after folic acid supplementation. Methods In this study, Heshun was selected as the region of interest as a surrogate for helping to answer some of the questions raised in this study on the impact of the intervention program. Spatial filtering in combination with GIS software was used to detect annual potential clusters from 1998 to 2005 in Heshun, and Kruskal-wallis test and multivariate regression were applied to identify the environmental risk factors for NTDs among various regions. Results In 1998, a significant (p Conclusion This suggests that the government needs to adapt the intervention measures according to local conditions. More attention needs to be paid to the poor and to people living in areas near coal mines.

  10. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and child psychomotor development after the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manuela; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy has been associated with improved neuropsychological development in children, although the effects of high dosages of folic acid (FA) supplements are unclear. To examine the association between the use of high dosages of FA supplements during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development after the first year of life. The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project recruited pregnant women from 4 areas of Spain (Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) between November 2003 and January 2008. Pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the usual dietary folate intake and FA supplements at 10 to 13 weeks and 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. The main analyses were based on a sample of 2213 children with complete information on neuropsychological development and FA supplement intake during pregnancy. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effects of FA supplements on child neuropsychological development. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We calculated mental scale and psychomotor scale scores. One SD below the mean established a delay in neurodevelopment (score 5000 μg/d). In multivariate analysis, we observed that children whose mothers used FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d during pregnancy had a statistically significantly lower mean psychomotor scale score (difference, -4.35 points; 95% CI, -8.34 to -0.36) than children whose mothers used a recommended dosage of FA supplements (400-1000 μg/d). An increased risk of delayed psychomotor development (psychomotor scale score <85) was also evident among children whose mothers took FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d, although the association was not statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.82-3.08). To our knowledge, this is the first time a detrimental effect of high dosages of FA supplements

  11. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  12. High-dose folic acid supplementation alters the human sperm methylome and is influenced by the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; San Gabriel, Maria C; Chan, Donovan; Behan, Nathalie A; Caron, Maxime; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Zini, Armand; Trasler, Jacquetta

    2015-11-15

    Dietary folate is a major source of methyl groups required for DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that is actively maintained and remodeled during spermatogenesis. While high-dose folic acid supplementation (up to 10 times the daily recommended dose) has been shown to improve sperm parameters in infertile men, the effects of supplementation on the sperm epigenome are unknown. To assess the impact of 6 months of high-dose folic acid supplementation on the sperm epigenome, we studied 30 men with idiopathic infertility. Blood folate concentrations increased significantly after supplementation with no significant improvements in sperm parameters. Methylation levels of the differentially methylated regions of several imprinted loci (H19, DLK1/GTL2, MEST, SNRPN, PLAGL1, KCNQ1OT1) were normal both before and after supplementation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) revealed a significant global loss of methylation across different regions of the sperm genome. The most marked loss of DNA methylation was found in sperm from patients homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, a common polymorphism in a key enzyme required for folate metabolism. RRBS analysis also showed that most of the differentially methylated tiles were located in DNA repeats, low CpG-density and intergenic regions. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that methylation of promoter regions was altered in several genes involved in cancer and neurobehavioral disorders including CBFA2T3, PTPN6, COL18A1, ALDH2, UBE4B, ERBB2, GABRB3, CNTNAP4 and NIPA1. Our data reveal alterations of the human sperm epigenome associated with high-dose folic acid supplementation, effects that were exacerbated by a common polymorphism in MTHFR.

  13. The interaction between maternal and post-hatch n-3 fatty acid supplementation in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation.

  14. Folic acid supplementation attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Yan Cui; Jing Ge; Meijing Ma

    2012-01-01

    Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups.

  15. Urine acidification and mineral metabolism in growing pigs feddiets supplemented with dietary methionine and benzoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) reduces pH of urine and thereby reduces the emission of ammonia and possibly also odorous sulphur-compounds from slurry. The effect of BA on mineral metabolism in growing pigs is not clear. The objective was therefore to study the effect of BA and methionine (Met) as a sulphur (S...... d adaptation period and a 7 d period with collection of faeces and urine. Benzoic acid was metabolized into hippuric acid which reduced urinary pH by 0.8 pH units (P ... apparent digestibility was not (P = 0.58) affected by BA, but on the 1% Met diets, S excretion into urine was reduced (P = 0.006) by BA. In conclusion, both BA and Met supplementation increased P and Ca apparent digestibility and decreased urinary pH. The increased acid load provided through dietary BA did...

  16. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Meher

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs, which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12 diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD, vitamin B12 deficient (BD and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO. Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05 levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05 in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05 levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05 SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05 PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01 in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05 by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  17. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  18. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid on homocysteine induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, Dj; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2015-06-01

    Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.

  19. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toorang, Fatemeh; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity.

  20. The Effect of Carnitine Supplementation on Hyperammonemia and Carnitine Deficiency Treated with Valproic Acid in a Psychiatric Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Masaru; Nagamine, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levocarnitine (active isoform of carnitine, L-Carnitine) supplementation on serum ammonia and carnitine levels simultaneously, and their clinical outcomes in valproic acid-treated psychiatric subjects.

  1. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj

    2013-07-01

    The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.

  2. Effect of soluble fiber or fructooligosaccharide supplementation upon trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad-Regadas Sthela Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of soluble fiber or fructooligosaccharide (FOS supplementation upon trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: 64 Wistar rats were given water, soluble fiber or FOS intragastrically during 14 days prior to colitis induction with TNBS (n=48 or rectal enema with water (n=16; control group. On the 7th or 14th day following colitis induction the rats were weighed and euthanized in order to determine the colon weight/length ratio and macroscopic and microscopic scores. RESULTS: On the 7th day following colitis induction the body weight had decreased significantly, the colon weight/length ratio had increased and macroscopic and microscopic colon lesions were observed. On the 14th day following colitis induction no difference in body weight was observed, in spite of the persistence of macroscopic and microscopic lesions and increased colon weight/length ratio. Supplementation with soluble fiber or FOS did not revert colon lesions or any of the study parameters. Supplementation with FOS, but not with fiber, was associated with increased colon weight/length ratio on the 14th day. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with soluble fiber or FOS produced no significant impact on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

  3. Maternal folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methylation and gene expression in the rat offspring in a gestation period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anna; Ishiguro, Lisa; Kim, Denise; Im, David; Kim, Sung-Eun; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation can alter DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing fetus, which may confer disease susceptibility later in life. We determined which gestation period and organ were most sensitive to the modifying effect of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring. Pregnant rats were randomized to a control diet throughout pregnancy; folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd week of gestation only; or folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy. The brain, liver, kidney and colon from newborn pups were analyzed for folate concentrations, global DNA methylation and gene expression of the Igf2, Er-α, Gr, Ppar-α and Ppar-γ genes. Folic acid supplementation during the 2nd or 3rd week gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly increased brain folate concentrations (Pfolic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy significantly increased liver folate concentrations (P=.005), in newborn pups. Brain global DNA methylation incrementally decreased from early to late gestational folic acid supplementation and was the lowest with folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy (P=.026). Folic acid supplementation in late gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly decreased Er-α, Gr and Ppar-α gene expression in the liver (Pfolic acid supplementation. Maternal folic acid supplementation affects tissue folate concentrations, DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring in a gestation-period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

  4. [Factors affecting the use of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Gansu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Hu, Xiaobin; Wang, Minzhen; Li, Liansheng; Liu, Wu; Da, Zhenqiang; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, Ning; Bai, Ya'na

    2010-11-01

    To study the factors of folic acid intake among pregnant women, and to provide the basic dates for improving the effectiveness of folic acid intervention. A cross-section study was conducted both in hospital and household. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 2094 women in two counties of Gansu province, who were pregnant at least three months or postpartum within one year. Only 25.4% of 2094 subjects have taken folic acid. Lack of knowledge on folic acid, the age of pregnant women, the history of birth defects, had a check in hospital before pregnant, the degree of education, planned pregnancy and the history of miscarriages were the significant influential factors for whether or not taking folic acid. The history of childbearing and the knowledge on folic are the important factors affecting the use of folic acid supplements. Widely initiating health education on the knowledge of folic acid and advocating family planning in childbearing aged population should be taken as the most important measures. But finding a way of effectively increasing the rate of folic acid intake before pregnancy is a problem still needs to be solved.

  5. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  6. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  7. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  8. Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Lu, Jing; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2008-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid [VA; 18:1(n-9)] is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and is the precursor to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans. Despite VA being the predominant trans monoene in ruminant-derived lipids, very little is known about its nutritional bioactivity, particularly in conditions of chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of VA to improve dyslipidemia, insulin sensitivity, or inflammatory status in obese and insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. The obese rats and age-matched lean littermates were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 1.5% (wt:wt) VA for a period of 3 wk. The incorporation of VA and subsequent conversion to CLA in triglyceride was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose and insulin metabolism were assessed via a conscious adapted meal tolerance test procedure. Plasma lipids as well as serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by commercially available assays. VA supplementation did not result in any observable adverse health effects in either lean or obese JCR:LA-cp rats. After 3 wk of feeding, body weight, food intake, and glucose/insulin metabolism did not differ between VA-supplemented and control groups. The incorporation of VA and CLA into adipose triglycerides in obese rats fed VA increased by 1.5-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared with obese rats fed the control diet. The most striking effect was a 40% decrease (P JCR:LA-cp rats. In contrast, dietary VA had substantial hypo-triglyceridemic effects, suggesting a new bioactivity of this fatty acid that is typically found in ruminant-derived food products.

  9. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  10. Effect of plant proteins and crystalline amino acid supplementation on postprandial plasma amino acid profiles and metabolic response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Holm, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquafeeds formulated with plant protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAAs) is believed to influence amino acid (AA) uptake patterns and AA metabolic fate. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured in rainbow trout (468.5 +/- A 86.5 g) force fed 0...... to be caused by an unbalanced dietary AA profile and CAA supplementation, rather than inclusion of plant protein concentrate....

  11. Race and ethnicity and preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women in Georgia, PRAMS 2009 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Ayesha; Kramer, Michael R; Oakley, Godfrey P; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2017-01-20

    The United States Public Health Service recommends that all women of reproductive age consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to prevent major neural tube defects. Hispanics have the highest prevalence of neural tube defects compared with other race/ethnic groups. We studied prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use, and its association with race/ethnicity among pregnant women in Georgia. Using state-wide population-based data from 2009 to 2011 Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we examined the prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years. We conducted multivariable logistic regression and estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to examine the association between race/ethnicity and supplemental folic acid use among study participants. Overall, 25% of all participants reported taking folic acid supplements daily before conception. Only 21% of Hispanic women reported preconception folic acid supplement use. Hispanic women were twice as likely to not take folic acid supplements (adjusted odds ratio = 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-3.40) compared with non-Hispanic whites, after controlling for maternal age, parity, pregnancy intention, knowledge that folic acid prevents birth defects, and preconception smoking and exercise. Hispanics are a growing population in the United States with an expected 14 million women of child-bearing age by 2020, and the prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use is low in this group with a high risk of neural tube defects. Promotion of voluntarily fortified corn masa flour can lower neural tube defects in Hispanics. Mandatory corn masa fortification will be a more effective public health policy.Birth Defects Research 109:38-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  13. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    supplementation. This work is already a second article in a series of studies conducted using this model of dietary intervention. In the previous study (Vigerust et al., [21]) the effects of fish oil and TTA on the plasma lipids and cholesterol levels as well as key metabolic enzymes in the liver have been...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...... studied. In an ongoing study more work is being done to explore in detail for example the link between the down regulation of the components of the respiratory chain (observed in this study) and the strong antioxidant effects of TTA. The reference diet in this study has been designed to mimic an unhealthy...

  14. Knowledge about folic acid supplementation in women presenting for antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, S; Mullaney, L; McKeating, A; Farren, M; McCartney, D; Turner, M J

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Ireland has increased in recent years. This study examines knowledge about folic acid (FA) supplementation for the prevention of NTDs among women presenting for antenatal care. Women were recruited at their convenience in the first trimester after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy. A detailed questionnaire was completed under the supervision of a research dietitian. Clinical and socio-demographic details were collected. Of the 587 women studied, 96% took FA during early pregnancy. Of these, 56.4% cited brain/spinal development or the prevention of brain/spinal defects, spina bifida or NTDs as the reason for taking FA. Multivariate analysis showed that women who were experiencing material deprivation or who were living in Ireland knowledgeable about the benefits of FA supplementation (Pknowledge about the importance of FA in improving pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Knowledge and use of periconceptual folic acid supplements by British Forces Germany personnel and dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L J

    1996-10-01

    Periconceptual dietary folic acid supplementation reduces the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Their use has been advocated by the Chief Medical Officer (CMO), the Consultant Advisor in Obstetrics & Gynaecology (O&G), the Senior Consultant in O&G British Forces in Germany (BFG) and by Medical Administration & Technical Instruction (MA&TI) in all NAAFI outlets. An audit of awareness of the recommendations and use of such supplements amongst pregnant women in BFG was performed over a 12 week period in BMH Rinteln. 16.6% (5/6) and 17.6% (34/193) of those with and without a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD respectively had taken the correct dose before conception. Knowledge of and compliance with the recommendations is poor. An opportunity to positively influence health in a "captive" population is being lost.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T1, T2, T3 and T4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, phenolic glycoside k and phenolic

  17. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on endosulfan toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdem, Sebahat; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Gulay, Mehmet S; Hatipoglu, Fatma S; Ozdem, Sadi S

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the endosulfan-induced alterations and the effect of vitamin C supplementation on endosulfan-induced alterations in serum biochemical markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in rabbits. Basal, 4th and 6th week serum levels of total oxidant status (TOS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total protein sulfhydryl (T-SH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in rabbits administered endosulfan (1 mg/kg) alone or in combination with vitamin C (20 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Control rabbits received either vehicles or vitamin C. Serum TOS, TBARS and AOPP levels at 4th and 6th week were significantly higher whereas T-SH levels were significantly lower than basal values in endosulfan-administered rabbits. GST increased significantly at 4th week but decreased below basal value at 6th week. Similarly, TAC decreased significantly at 6th week. Vitamin C supplementation increased TAC at 4th and 6th weeks in controls and increased T-SH and GST and decreased TOS, TBARS and AOPP at 4th week in endosulfan-administered rabbits. TAC increased significantly at 6th week by vitamin C supplementation in endosulfan-administered rabbits. There were significant increments in TBARS and decrements in TAC and GST levels at 6th week compared to 4th week in endosulfan-administered rabbits. Present findings indicated to an increased and progressively uncompensated oxidant stress in endosulfan-administered rabbits that was substantially ameliorated by vitamin C supplementation through an improvement in antioxidant capacity. It was suggested that vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in preventing the detrimental effects of increased oxidative stress caused by endosulfan exposure.

  18. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.

  19. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  20. Metabolism of tryptophan, methionine and arginine in Diplodus sargus larvae fed rotifers: effect of amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M; Conceição, L E C; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Dinis, M T

    2008-06-01

    Dietary amino acids imbalances have been described when fish larvae are fed rotifers, what may lead to a reduction in growth rate. The tube-feeding technique can be used to assess the effect of free amino acid short term supplementation. In this study supplementation of tryptophan, methionine and arginine were tested in Diplodus sargus. Single crystalline (14)C amino acids as well as a mix of (14)C amino acids were used as tracers to compare results of individual amino acids metabolism with the average of all amino acids. The results show low absorption efficiencies for tryptophan (70%) and arginine (80%) and similar absorption for methionine (90%) when compared with the average of all amino acids. Supplementation of these amino acids seems to be viable but it did not result in higher retention compared to the amino acid mix. This means that tryptophan, methionine and arginine are probably not the limiting amino acid when Diplodus sargus larvae are fed rotifers. However, supplementation in these IAA may be required for their roles as precursors of important molecules other than proteins, in order to improve larval quality and/or performance.

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation of laying hens: effects on egg fatty acid composition and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Franchini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a common term for a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid; the most commonly found in natural products is cis-9, trans-11-octadecanoic acid. Naturally occurring CLA is produced as an intermediate product of microbial metabolism of linoleic acid in the rumen. For this reason the CLA concentration is higher in ruminant products, such as milk, cheese and meat compared to products derived from monogastrics, particularly chicken meat and egg yolk. Recent investigations suggest that CLA have anticarcinogenic properties, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity (Ip et al., 1995; Nicolosi et al., 1997; Du et al., 2001...

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy alters neonatal behavior in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, Judith L; Wilkinson, Robert G; Mackenzie, Alexander M; Sinclair, Liam A

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine whether supplementation of pregnant ewes with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids present in fish oil, in combination with dietary vitamin E, would alter neonatal behavior in sheep. Twin- (n=36) and triplet- (n=12) bearing ewes were allocated at d 103 of gestation to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 1 of 2 fat sources [Megalac, a calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate or a fish oil mixture, high in 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] and 1 of 2 dietary vitamin E concentrations (50 or 500 mg/kg) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Feeding fish oil increased gestation length by 2 d and increased the proportion of 22:6(n-3) within neonatal plasma by 5.1-fold and brain by 10%, whereas brain 20:5(n-3) was increased 5-fold. Supranutritional dietary vitamin E concentrations decreased the latency of lambs to stand in ewes fed fish oil but not Megalac, whereas latency to suckle was decreased from 43 to 34 min by fish oil supplementation. Supplementation with fish oil also substantially decreased the secretion rate (mL/h) of colostrum and the yield (g/h) of fat and protein. We conclude that supplementation of ewes with fish oil decreases the latency to suckle, increases gestation length and the 22:6(n-3):20:4(n-6) ratio in the neonatal brain, and may improve lamb survival rate. However, further work is required to determine how to mitigate the negative effects of fish oil on colostrum production.

  3. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtzberg Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid (FA added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6% of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00, compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97. Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49. Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses.

  4. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  5. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  6. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to a low-protein diet regulates intestinal expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Ren, Man; Zeng, Xiangfang; Ma, Xi; Wu, Zhenlong; Thacker, Philip; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) on growth performance, expression of jejunal AA and peptide transporters, and the colonic microflora of weanling piglets fed a low-protein (LP) diet. One hundred and eight Large White × Landrace × Duroc piglets (weaned at 28 days of age) were fed a normal protein diet (NP, 20.9 % crude protein), an LP diet (LP, 17.1 % crude protein), or an LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + BCAA, 17.9 % crude protein) for 14 days. Dietary protein restriction reduced piglet growth performance and small-intestinal villous height, which were restored by BCAA supplementation to the LP diet to values for the NP diet. Serum concentrations of BCAA were reduced in piglets fed the LP diet while those in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet were similar to values for the NP group. mRNA levels for Na(+)-neutral AA exchanger-2, cationic AA transporter-1, b(0,+) AA transporter, and 4F2 heavy chain were more abundant in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet than the LP diet. However, mRNA and protein levels for peptide transporter-1 were lower in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet as compared to the LP diet. The colonic microflora did not differ among the three groups of pigs. In conclusion, growth performance, intestinal development, and intestinal expression of AA transporters in weanling piglets are enhanced by BCAA supplementation to LP diets. Our findings provide a new molecular basis for further understanding of BCAA as functional AA in animal nutrition.

  7. Amino acid uptake in arterio-venous serum of normal and cancerous colon tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Bo Wang; Jian-Guo Shen; Su-Zhan Zhang; Ke-Feng Ding; Shu Zheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the difference of amino acid uptake between normal and cancerous colon tissues.METHODS: Sixteen patients with colon cancer were enrolled in our study. Blood samples were taken during operations, serum amino acid concentrations of blood from cancerous or normal colon were analyzed. Amino acid uptake rate was calculated by the A-V difference and evaluated statistically.RESULTS: Except for methionine, the uptake rate of amino acids in cancer was higher than that in normal colon (25.01% vs-2.29%, P<0.01). The amino acid uptake rate did not correlate to the size of tumor mass (P>0.05). There was no statistical significance in the amino acid uptake rate according to the Dukes stage, though it was higher in patients with Dukes stage C or D than that with Dukes stage B (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Abnormal synthetic metabolism of colon cancer may contribute to its higher amino acid uptake rate than that of normal colon.

  8. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aquilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH. Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group. Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A and venous (V amino acids measured and muscle (A − V differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl- indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs.

  9. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  10. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  11. Pre-conceptional vitamin/folic acid supplementation 2007: the use of folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Wyatt, Philip; Allen, Victoria; Gagnon, Alain; Langlois, Sylvie; Blight, Claire; Audibert, François; Désilets, Valerie; Brock, Jo-Ann; Koren, Gideon; Goh, Y Ingrid; Goh, Ingrid; Nguyen, Patricia; Kapur, Bhushan

    2007-12-01

    To provide information regarding the use of folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies, so that physicians, midwives, nurses, and other health care workers can assist in the education of women in the pre-conception phase of their health care. OPTION: Supplementation with folic acid and vitamins is problematic, since 50% of pregnancies are unplanned, and women's health status may not be optimal when they conceive. Folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement has been associated with a decrease in specific birth defects. Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Database were searched for relevant English language articles published between 1985 and 2007. The previous Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) Policy Statement of November 1993 and statements from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Canadian College of Medical Geneticists were also reviewed in developing this clinical practice guideline. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Promoting the use of folic acid and a multivitamin supplement among women of reproductive age will reduce the incidence of birth defects. The costs are those of daily vitamin supplementation and eating a healthy diet. 1. Women in the reproductive age group should be advised about the benefits of folic acid in addition to a multivitamin supplement during wellness visits (birth control renewal, Pap testing, yearly examination) especially if pregnancy is contemplated. (III-A) 2. Women should be advised to maintain a healthy diet, as recommended in Eating Well With Canada's Food Guide (Health Canada). Foods containing excellent to good sources of folic acid are fortified grains, spinach, lentils, chick peas, asparagus, broccoli, peas, Brussels sprouts, corn, and oranges. However, it is unlikely that diet alone can provide

  12. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cognitive function: are smaller dosages more beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakari AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Razak Abubakari,1 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,2 Ebrahim K Naderali3 1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, UK; 2Blue Coat School, Liverpool, UK; 3School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park Campus, Liverpool, UK Abstract: As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (-0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.01, -0.02 but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.06, +0.14 compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dietary fatty acids, omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid

  14. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population.

  15. Vitamin D-3 and vitamin K-1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities : effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Storm, H; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; Van der Veer, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60-y-old postmenopausal Dutch women. Design: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n = 96) and low (T-score less than or equal to-1; n = 45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with

  16. Vitamin D-3 and vitamin K-1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities : effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Storm, H; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; Van der Veer, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60-y-old postmenopausal Dutch women. Design: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n = 96) and low (T-score less than or equal to-1; n = 45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with

  17. Potency of pre–post treatment of coenzyme Q10 and melatonin supplement in ameliorating the impaired fatty acid profile in rodent model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf El-Ansary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism and membrane fatty acid composition play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Altered fatty acid homeostasis as a result of insufficient dietary supplementation, genetic defects, the function of enzymes involved in their metabolism, or mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of autism. Objective: This study evaluates the association of altered brain lipid composition and neurotoxicity related to autism spectrum disorders in propionic acid (PA–treated rats. Design: Forty-eight young male western albino rats were used in this study. They were grouped into six equal groups with eight rats in each. The first group received only phosphate buffered saline (control group. The second group received a neurotoxic dose of buffered PA (250 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days. The third and fourth groups were intoxicated with PA as described above followed by treatment with either coenzyme Q (4.5 mg/kg body weight or melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight for 1 week (therapeutically treated groups. The fifth and sixth groups were administered both compounds for 1 week prior to PA (protected groups. Methyl esters of fatty acid were extracted with hexane, and the fatty acid composition of the extract was analyzed on a gas chromatography. Results: The obtained data proved that fatty acids are altered in brain tissue of PA-treated rats. All saturated fatty acids were increased while all unsaturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in the PA-treated group and relatively ameliorated in the pre–post melatonin and coenzyme Q groups. Conclusions: Melatonin and coenzyme Q were effective in restoring normal level of most of the impaired fatty acids in PA-intoxicated rats which could help suggest both as supplements to ameliorate the autistic features induced in rat pups.

  18. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI.

  19. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitrow, Melissa J; Moore, Vivienne M; Rumbold, Alice R; Davies, Michael J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the timing, dose, and source of folate during pregnancy on childhood asthma by using data from an Australian prospective birth cohort study (n = 557) from 1998 to 2005. At 3.5 years and 5.5 years, 490 and 423 mothers and children participated in the study, respectively. Maternal folate intake from diet and supplements was assessed by food frequency questionnaire in early (late (30-34 weeks) pregnancy. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed asthma, obtained by maternal-completed questionnaire. Asthma was reported in 11.6% of children at 3.5 years (n = 57) and in 11.8% of children at 5.5 years (n = 50). Folic acid taken in supplement form in late pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma at 3.5 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.43) and with persistent asthma (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69). The effect sizes did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. The association was similar at 5.5 years but did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.42) in univariable models. These findings on childhood asthma support previous observations that supplementation with folate in pregnancy leads to an allergic asthma phenotype in mice via epigenetic mechanisms and is associated with poorer respiratory outcomes in young children.

  20. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Matin, Somaieh; Nemati, Ali; Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients' anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001), average caloric intake (P=0.01), and macronutrient intake (Pnutritional status of patients suffering from COPD through adjusting the serum level of IL1β.

  1. Effects of supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and hormonal parameters of embryo recipient heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Angel Cardona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PPUFA has positive effects on cow reproduction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding a source of PPUFA to energy supplements for embryo recipient heifers on productive performance and plasma concentrations of progesterone, cholesterol and insulin. For this purpose, 44 Angus x Hereford embryo recipient heifers (average body weight = 385 kg raised on pasture were studied in a completely randomized design. The effects of PPUFA added to isocaloric energy supplements for 60 days on production parameters and serum concentrations of cholesterol, progesterone and insulin were evaluated. The treatments consisted of individual supplementation with: 1 control (no supplement; 2 corn (corn, 70%; soybean meal, 30%; 3 PPUFA supplement (Megalac-E®, 30%; soybean meal, 20%; commercial ration, 50%. The treatments did not affect (P>0.05 dry matter intake, pregnancy rates, or serum insulin concentration. However, PPUFA supplement increased (P0.05 in dry matter intake between treatments, PPUFA supplement increased (P<0.05 average daily gain compared to the control and corn treatments. The inclusion of PPUFA in energy supplements offered to heifers used in an embryo transfer program increased average daily gain and serum concentrations of cholesterol and progesterone, but did not affect pregnancy rates.

  2. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobadi H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Ghobadi,1 Somaieh Matin,2 Ali Nemati,3 Abbas Naghizadeh-baghi4 1Pulmonary Division, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, 4Basic Sciences Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran Background: COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β, is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.Patients and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study.Results: The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001, average caloric intake (P=0.01, and macronutrient intake (P<0.05, while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL1β among the patients of the supplementation group (P=0.008. Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control

  3. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 microg), vitamin B(12) (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA

  4. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  5. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  6. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 microg), vitamin B(12) (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA

  7. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of vegan cohort, the index was significantly higher in females than males (3.9 ± 1.0% vs. 3.5 ± 1.0%; p = 0.026) and was directly related to age (p for trend = 0.009). The omega-3 index increased from 3.1 ± 0.6% to 4.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.009) in the supplementation study. We conclude that vegans have low baseline omega-3 levels, but not lower than omnivores who also consume very little docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Modification of the technical properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by supplementing the growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J A; Ross, R P; Sybesma, W F H; Fitzgerald, G F; Stanton, C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 μg/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 μg/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P < 0.05) oleic acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical

  9. Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on normal colon tissue and circulating biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Roberd M

    2015-04-01

    This brief review, based on an invited presentation at the 17th Workshop on Vitamin D, is to summarize a line of the author's research that has been directed at the intertwined missions of clarifying and/or developing vitamin D and calcium as preventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, understanding the mechanisms by which these agents may reduce risk for the disease, and developing 'treatable' biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. The biological plausibility and observational and clinical trial evidence for vitamin D and calcium in reducing risk for colorectal neoplasms, the development of pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, and the clinical trial findings from the author's research group on the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in modulating these biomarkers are summarized. Regarding the latter, we tested the efficacy of 800 IU (20μg) of vitamin D3 and 2.0g of calcium daily, alone and combined vs. placebo over 6 months on modulating normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial design clinical trial (n=92). The tissue-based biomarkers were measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using immunohistochemistry with quantitative image analysis, and a panel of circulating inflammation markers was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). Statistically significant proportional tissue increases in the vitamin D group relative to the placebo group were found in bax (51%), p21 (141%), APC (48%), E-cadherin (78%), MSH2 (179%), the CaSR (39%), and CYP27B1 (159%). In blood, there was a 77% statistically significant decrease in a summary inflammation z-score. The findings for calcium were similar to those for vitamin D. These findings indicate that supplemental vitamin D3 or calcium can favorably modulate multiple normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal

  10. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

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    Jing Hu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was performed to find relevant literature. All eligible studies assessed proteinuria, the serum creatinine clearance rate, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or the occurrence of end-stage renal disease. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for continuous data were used to estimate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on renal function, as reflected by the serum creatinine clearance rate, proteinuria, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relative risk. Additionally, a random-effects model was used to estimate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of end-stage renal disease. Nine randomized controlled trials evaluating 444 patients with chronic kidney disease were included in the study. The follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 76.8 months. Compared with no or low-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, any or high-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, respectively, was associated with a lower risk of proteinuria (SMD: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.10; p=0.004 but had little or no effect on the serum creatinine clearance rate (SMD: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.84; p=0.482 or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (SMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.42; p=0.296. However, this supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of end-stage renal disease (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.99; p=0.047. In sum, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with a significantly reduced risk of end-stage renal disease and delays the progression of this disease.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Liu, Zuoliang; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was performed to find relevant literature. All eligible studies assessed proteinuria, the serum creatinine clearance rate, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or the occurrence of end-stage renal disease. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for continuous data were used to estimate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on renal function, as reflected by the serum creatinine clearance rate, proteinuria, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relative risk. Additionally, a random-effects model was used to estimate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of end-stage renal disease. Nine randomized controlled trials evaluating 444 patients with chronic kidney disease were included in the study. The follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 76.8 months. Compared with no or low-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, any or high-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, respectively, was associated with a lower risk of proteinuria (SMD: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.10; p=0.004) but had little or no effect on the serum creatinine clearance rate (SMD: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.84; p=0.482) or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (SMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.42; p=0.296). However, this supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of end-stage renal disease (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.99; p=0.047). In sum, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with a significantly reduced risk of end-stage renal disease and delays the progression of this disease.

  13. Supplementation of corn-soybean based layer diets with different levels of acid protease

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    Satrijo Widi Purbojo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was held in Institute of Animal Science farm, University of the Philippines Los Banos, was to know the effects of acid protease supplementation in layer diets. Ninety-four-week old pullets were caged individually. Five treatments were randomly arranged to 95 pullets following a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 19 times. The feeding trial lasted for 16 weeks. The same management practices were provided to all treatments throughout the feeding period. Pullets were fed once a day in the morning and clean drinking water was available to the pullets at all times. A basal layer diet that contained 18% crude protein (CP and 2800 Kcal ME/kg supplemented with required vitamins, minerals and amino acids were formulated. The diets with reduced protein of 17% and 2800 kcal ME/kg was also formulated. The diet with the reduced crude protein was supplemented with different levels of protease (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%. Six birds from each treatment were randomly selected and placed in individual digestion cages. They were fed with their respective diets with chromic oxide as indicator for 7 days. Chromic oxide was added to the different diets at 0.2%. On the 3rd to 6th day of feeding, feces were collected using stainless fecal trays installed under each cage. At the end of the collection period, fecal samples collected from each replicate of treatment were dried then subjected to proximate analysis and chromic oxide determination. Result showed that no significant difference on biweekly feed consumption and overall observations. Reduced CP + 0.1% protease was the highest on the hen day production (93.75% and the lowest of feed conversion (1.85 while reduced CP + 0.075% protease was the highest of egg weight (58.82 g and eggshell thickness (0.392 mm. There was no significant difference on digestibility coefficient.

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplemented Diet Influences the Orchidectomy-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Rat Mesenteric Arteries

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    Villalpando, Diva M.; Navarro, Rocío; del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S.; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the cardiovascular benefits of a high dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been extensively studied. However, many of the molecular mechanisms and effects exerted by PUFAs have yet to be well explained. The lack of sex hormones alters vascular tone, and we have described that a DHA-supplemented diet to orchidectomized rats improve vascular function of the aorta. Based on these data and since the mesenteric artery importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a DHA-supplemented diet on the mesenteric vascular function from orchidectomized rats. For this purpose mesenteric artery segments obtained from control, orchidectomized or orchidectomized plus DHA-supplemented diet were utilized to analyze: (1) the release of prostanoids, (2) formation of NO and ROS, (3) the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh), as well as the involvement of prostanoids and NO in this response, and (4) the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), analyzing also the effect of exogenous noradrenaline (NA), and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The results demonstrate beneficial effects of DHA on the vascular function in orchidectomized rats, which include a decrease in the prostanoids release and superoxide formation that were previously augmented by orchidectomy. Additionally, there was an increase in endothelial NO formation and the response to ACh, in which NO involvement and the participation of vasodilator prostanoids were increased. DHA also reversed the decrease in EFS-induced response caused by orchidectomy. All of these findings suggest beneficial effects of DHA on vascular function by reversing the neurogenic response and the endothelial dysfunction caused by orchidectomy. PMID:28068359

  15. Syringic acid, a novel natural phenolic acid, normalizes hyperglycemia with special reference to glycoprotein components in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayachandran Muthukumaran; Subramani Srinivasan; Vinayagam Ramachandran; Udaiyar Muruganathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of syringic acid, a natural phenolic compound on the levels of glycoprotein components in plasma and tissues of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in maleWistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan(150 mg/kg b.w).Syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) was administered orally for30 d.The effects of syringic acid on plasma glucose, insulin,C-peptide, plasma and tissue glycoproteins were studied.Results:Oral administration of syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) for30 d positively modulates the glycemic status in alloxan induced diabetic rats.The levels of plasma glucose were decreased with significant increase of plasma insulin andC-peptide level.The altered levels of plasma and tissue glycoprotein components were restored to near normal.No significant changes were noticed in normal rats treated with syringic acid.Conclusions:The present findings suggest that syringic acid can potentially ameliorate glycoprotein components abnormalities in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of syringic acid as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic acids and phytase on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers

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    Mohammadagheri, Nasibeh; Najafi, Ramin; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acids and phytase enzyme supplementation on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers. The experiment was done in a factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 2 based on completely randomized design with eight treatments, five replicates with 12 chicks in each until 42 days of age. Diets included natural vinegar (0 and 2%), citric acid (CA; 0.00 and 1.00%) and phytase enzyme (PHY; 0.00 and 500 FTU phytase per kg of feed). One bird from each treatment replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate the small intestinal morphology on 42 days of age. Analysis of results showed that vinegar increased feed consumption and body weight gain in total experimental period (p ˂ 0.05), while CA significantly decreased feed consumption on 0-14 days of age (p ˂ 0.05). No effect was observed on performance in interaction of organic acids together and with PHY group (p > 0.05). In duodenum CA increased the villus height and width (p ˂ 0.05) and PHY enzyme increased villus width (p ˂ 0.05) and decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). On the other hand, CA along with PHY significantly decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). In jejunum PHY alone and in combination with vinegar increased the goblet cells numbers (p ˂ 0.05), whereas vinegar significantly increased the goblet cells numbers in ileum (p ˂ 0.05). The muscular thickness in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was not affected among different treatment groups. The results showed that supplementation of organic acids and phytase together in this experiment, with no negative effects on each other, improved their effects on some parameters. PMID:27872714

  18. Effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 on metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulet, B; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Doepel, L; Palin, M-F; Girard, C L

    2007-07-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 given from 3 wk before to 8 wk after calving on lactational performance and metabolism of 24 multiparous Holstein cows assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Supplementary folic acid at 0 or 2.6 g/d and vitamin B12 at 0 or 0.5 g/d were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Supplementary folic acid increased milk production from 38.0 +/- 0.9 to 41.4 +/- 1.0 kg/d and milk crude protein yield from 1.17 +/- 0.02 to 1.25 +/- 0.03 kg/d. It also increased plasma Gly, Ser, Thr, and total sulfur AA, decreased Asp, and tended to increase plasma Met. Supplementary B12 decreased milk urea N, plasma Ile, and Leu and tended to decrease Val but increased homocysteine, Cys, and total sulfur AA. Liver concentration of phospholipids was higher in cows fed supplementary B12. Plasma and liver concentrations of folates and B12 were increased by their respective supplements, but the increase in plasma folates and plasma and liver B12 was smaller for cows fed the 2 vitamins together. In cows fed folic acid supplements, supplementary B12 increased plasma glucose and alanine, tended to decrease plasma biotin, and decreased Km of the methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in hepatic tissues following addition of deoxyadenosylcobalamin, whereas it had no effect when cows were not fed folic acid supplements. There was no treatment effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acids as well as specific activity and gene expression of Met synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in the liver. Ingestion of folic acid supplements by cows fed no supplementary B12 increased total lipid and triacylglycerols in liver, whereas these supplements had no effect in cows supplemented with B12. The increases in milk and milk protein yields due to folic acid supplements did not seem to be dependent on the vitamin B12 supply. However, when vitamin B12 was given in

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2008-08-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhanced the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders.

  20. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Folic acid (FA) may have a role in the prevention of pregnancy complications. However, the efficacy of FA supplementation in reducing the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is still unclear. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth (PTB). The research protocol was designed a priori, defining methods for searching the literature in electronic databases, including and examining articles, and extracting and analyzing data. We included all randomized trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton gestations without prior PTB who were randomized to prophylactic treatment with either FA supplementation or control (placebo or no treatment). The primary outcome was the incidence of PTB pregnancy does not prevent PTB <37 weeks. Daily FA supplementation remains the most important intervention to reduce the risk of neural tube defects.

  1. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a levels during pregnancy

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    Zohreh Hekmati Azar Mehrabani

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women.

  2. Brain docosahexaenoic acid status and learning in young rats submitted to dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and supplementation limited to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calatayud, Salvador; Redondo, Carlos; Martín, Eva; Ruiz, José Ignacio; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Sanjurjo, Pablo

    2005-05-01

    N-3 fatty acid deficiency has been related to decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels in brain and to learning disadvantages. The influence of n-3 deficiency and supplementation on brain fatty acids and learning were investigated in young rats. Newborn Wistar rats were assigned to three groups of cross-foster mothers. The control group (C) was nursed by mothers that received essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and the deficient group (D) was nursed by mothers that did not receive those fatty acids. The supplemental group (S) had the same conditions as D, receiving an additional DHA and arachidonic acid supplement during lactation. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus fatty acid composition was examined using thin-layer and capillary column gas chromatography, and learning was measured by passive-avoidance procedure. D brains showed low DHA and high DPA levels, but S brain composition was similar to C. Learning in the S group was unaffected, but in the D group, it was poorer than C. Learning was directly correlated with DHA levels and inversely with DPA levels in brain. Low DHA and high DPA brain levels both were correlated with poor learning. DPA seems not to be a suitable brain functional analogue of DHA, and DHA supplementation reversed both biochemical and learning adverse effects observed in n-3 deficiency.

  3. Fatty acid pattern of lipids in normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, D; Reichmann, G; Egger, E; Olthoff, D; Döhler, K

    1975-11-21

    The fatty acid distribution of the main lipid fractions: triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylcholine (PCh), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and sphingomyelin (Sph) of muscle from 6 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (p.m.d.), Duchenne, 8 to 12 years old was estimated and compared with normal controls of different age. In view of the results of several authors about varied fatty acid distribution in immature muscle a third group comprising samples of neonatal muscle was studied. 1. The fatty acid pattern of the lipid fractions TG, Sph, and PE from muscle of patients with p.m.d. shows no important variation in comparison to normal controls. In contrast to this the fatty acid distribution in PCh is extremely varied: the percentage of 18:2 is decreased and corrrespondingly the content of 18:1 is increased. In view of the high percentage (nearly 10%) in which linoleic acid is substituted by oleic acid in PCh, effects on the plasma membrane are to be expected. 2. The fatty acid pattern in neonatal muscle shows in narly all positions of the fractions TG, Sph, PE, and PCh a different distribution from normal or dystrophic muscle. In view of the most important variation in dystrophic muscle it must be stated that generally 18:2 is decreased. This deficit was replaced by an increase of all other fatty acids (not only at a substitution by 18:1 as given in p.m.d.). Therefore the diminished content of linoleic acid in PCh of neonatal and dystrophic muscle cannot be interpreted as expression of a corresponding or similar lipid metabolism in both tissues. The results were seen as signs of significant qualitative alterations especially of PCh in p.m.d. They were discussed as proof of our thesis that the basic defect in p.m.d. concerns the specific acylation of PCh with linoleic acid.

  4. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

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    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  5. Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianhui; Cui, Yimin; Shen, Lin; Sun, Ningling; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jianping; Xu, Xin; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-09-01

    There are growing data and a continuing controversy over the effect of folic acid supplementation on cancer risk. We conducted a meta-analysis based on up-to-date published relevant randomized trials to further examine this issue. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cancer using a random-effects model. Overall, folic acid supplementation had no significant effect on total cancer incidence (13 trials, n = 49,406, RR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.99-1.11, p = 0.13), colorectal cancer (seven trials, n = 33,824, 1.01; 0.82-1.23, p = 0.95), other gastrointestinal cancer (two trials, n = 20,228, 1.00; 0.75-1.33, p = 0.99), prostate cancer (five trials, n = 27,065, 1.17; 0.84-1.62, p = 0.35), other genitourinary cancer (two trials, n = 20,228, 0.97; 0.75-1.27, p = 0.84), lung cancer (five trials, n = 31,864, 1.00; 0.84-1.21, p = 0.97), breast cancer (four trials, n = 19,800, 0.82; 0.63-1.07, p = 0.15), hematological malignancy (three trials, n = 25,670, 0.87; 0.64-1.17, p = 0.35) and total cancer mortality (six trials, n = 31,930, 1.02; 0.90-1.15, p = 0.81). However, a significantly reduced risk was observed for melanoma (three trials, n = 19,128, 0.47; 0.23-0.94, p = 0.03). Furthermore, higher total cancer incidence risk was observed among those trials with a higher percent use of lipid-lowering drugs (>60%, 1.10; 1.00-1.20, p = 0.04), or with lower percent baseline hypertension (≤70%, 1.08; 1.00-1.16, p = 0.057).Consistently, meta-regression analyses suggested that the similar trend between percent use of lipid-lowering drugs (p = 0.084) or percent baseline hypertension (p = 0.056) and log-RR for total cancer incidence associated with folic acid supplementation. Our findings indicate that folic acid supplementation has no significant effect on total cancer incidence, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast

  6. Impact of physiological levels of chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation on intestinal and hepatic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in Cyp7a1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan D; Lopez, Adam M; Tong, Ernest Y; Posey, Kenneth S; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Repa, Joyce J; Turley, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) have a diminished bile acid pool (BAP) and therefore represent a useful model for investigating the metabolic effects of restoring the pool with a specific BA. Previously we carried out such studies in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed physiological levels of cholic acid (CA) and achieved BAP restoration, along with an increased CA enrichment, at a dietary level of just 0.03% (w/w). Here we demonstrate that in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) at a level of 0.06% (w/w), the BAP was restored to normal size and became substantially enriched with muricholic acid (MCA) (>70%), leaving the combined contribution of CA and CDCA to be Cyp7a1 deficiency such as an elevated rate of intestinal sterol synthesis, an enhanced level of mRNA for Cyp8b1 in the liver, and depressed mRNA levels for Ibabp, Shp and Fgf15 in the distal small intestine. When Cyp7a1(-/-) and matching Cyp7a1(+/+) mice were fed a diet with added cholesterol (0.2%) (w/w), either alone, or also containing CDCA (0.06%) (w/w) or CA (0.03%) (w/w) for 18days, the hepatic total cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) in the Cyp7a1(-/-) mice were 26.9±3.7, 16.4±0.9 and 47.6±1.9, respectively, vs. 4.9±0.4, 5.0±0.7 and 6.4±1.9, respectively in the corresponding Cyp7a1(+/+) controls. These data affirm the importance of using moderate levels of dietary BA supplementation to elicit changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism through shifts in BAP size and composition.

  7. Performance of pigs kept under different sanitary conditions affected by protein intake and amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Y; Lammers, A; Jansman, A J M; Rijnen, M M J A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-11-01

    There is growing evidence that requirements for particular AA increase when pigs are kept under low sanitary conditions. The extent to which reduction in growth performance is related to these increased requirements is unclear. To evaluate this relationship, an experiment (2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) was performed with 612 male pigs (9 per pen) kept under low sanitary conditions (LSC) or high sanitary conditions (HSC) and offered ad libitum access to either a normal CP concentration diet (NP; 17, 15, and 15% CP for the starter, grower, and finisher phase, respectively) or a low CP concentration diet (LP; 20% CP reduced relative to NP for each phase), each of which containing a basal AA profile (AA-B) or a supplemented AA profile (AA-S). The supplemented diet type contained 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp relative to Lys on an apparent ileal digestible basis compared with the basal diet type. Pigs were followed for a complete fattening period and slaughtered at a targeted pen weight of 110 kg. Haptoglobin concentrations in serum (0.92 g/L for LSC and 0.78 g/L for HSC) and IgG antibody titers against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (3.53 for LSC and 3.08 for HSC) collected in the starter, grower, and finisher phases and pleuritis scores at slaughter (0.51 for LSC and 0.20 for HSC) were greater for LSC pigs compared with HSC pigs ( ≤ 0.01), illustrating that sanitary conditions affected health conditions. The ADG and G:F were greater for HSC pigs compared with LSC pigs ( ≤ 0.01). The number of white blood cells (WBC) was higher in (AA-S)-fed pigs compared with (AA-B)-fed pigs when kept at LSC but not at HSC [SS (sanitary conditions) × AA interaction, = 0.04]. Pigs fed NP had a lower number of WBC compared with pigs fed LP ( = 0.02). The number of platelets in pigs fed AA-S diets was higher compared with pigs fed AA-B diets ( ≤ 0.01). A 20% reduction in dietary supplementation of Met, Thr, and Trp relative to Lys decreased G:F more in LSC pigs than in HSC pigs

  8. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasani, Bonny; Simmer, Karen; Patole, Sanjay K; Rao, Shripada C

    2017-03-10

    The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants. To assess whether supplementation of formula milk with LCPUFA is both safe and beneficial for full-term infants, while focusing on effects on visual function, neurodevelopment and physical growth. Two review authors independently searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; December 2016), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to December 2016), Embase (Ovid, 1980 to December 2016), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1980 to December 2016) and abstracts of the Pediatric Academic Societies (2000 to 2016). We applied no language restrictions. We reviewed all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating effects of LCPUFA supplemented versus non-supplemented formula milk on visual function, neurodevelopment and physical growth. We did not include trials reporting only biochemical outcomes. Two review authors extracted data independently. We assessed risk of bias of included studies using the guidelines of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. When appropriate, we conducted meta-analysis to determine a pooled estimate of effect. We identified 31 RCTs and included 15 of these in the review (N = 1889).Nine studies assessed visual acuity, six of which used visual evoked potentials (VEP), two Teller cards and one both. Four studies reported beneficial effects, and the remaining five did not. Meta-analysis of three RCTs showed significant

  9. RBC and WBC fatty acid composition following consumption of an omega 3 supplement: Lessons for future clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Oscar F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from increasing numbers of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that omega 3 fatty acids incorporated in cell culture media or in the diet of the animals can suppress the growth of cancers. When human clinical trials are initiated to determine the ability of omega 3 fatty acids to alter growth or response to chemotherapeutic interventions of cancers, it will be essential to determine the omega 3 intake of individuals in the trial to determine compliance with consumption of the supplement and to correlate with endpoints of efficacy. We wondered if the fatty acid composition of RBCs might accurately indicate incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids in the WBCs. In this report we determine and compare the changes in fatty acid compositions of red blood cells and white blood cells in response to consumption of three doses of an omega 3 fatty acid supplement. Results We found that the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in both red blood cells and white blood cells increased following consumption of the supplement. There was a linear, dose responsive increase in the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in red blood cells but the increase in omega 3 in white blood cells was not linear. The magnitude of increase in omega 3 fatty acids was different between the two cell types. Conclusions Fatty acid analysis of red blood cells is a good measure of compliance with supplement consumption. However, fatty acid analysis of white blood cells is needed to correlate changes in fatty acid composition of white blood cells with other biochemical changes in the white blood cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00899353.

  10. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition. Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia. In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  11. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberle, Johannes; Shahbeck, Noora; Ibrahim, Khalid; Schmitt, Bernhard; Scheer, Ianina; O'Gorman, Ruth; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2012-07-25

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition.Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia.In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  12. Altered maternal thyroid function: Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on fetal and neonatal myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ratan

    1998-01-01

    Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro, in offsprings born of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mothers was studied in rats. L-carnitine supplementation stimulated myocardial fatty acid oxidation during gestational period in offspring born of control and hyperthyroid mothers. In contrast L-carnitine supplementation induced stimulation in myocardial fatty acid oxidation was very less in fetuses born of hypothyroid mothers. However, in neonates born of...

  13. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-07

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  14. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (Pamino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (Pamino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets.

  16. Evidence for a role of free fatty acids in the regulation of somatostatin secretion in normal and alloxan diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasada, T; Howard, B; Dobbs, R E; Unger, R H

    1980-09-01

    To investigate the effect of acute elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) on the secretion of splanchnic somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI), the peripheral venous, pancreatic, and gastric venous effluent levels of SLI were measured in normal and chronic alloxan diabetic dogs before and after the infusion of a fat emulsion supplemented with heparin. In normal conscious dogs heparin injected during the infusion of a fat emulsion elevated FFA levels from a mean (+/-SE) base-line level of 0.7+/-0.1 meq/liter to a peak value of 1.5+/-0.1 meq/liter (P fat emulsion without heparin, of heparin alone nor of saline itself had an effect on either the plasma level of FFA or SLI. In another group of anesthetized dogs with surgically implanted catheters the administration of fat emulsion plus heparin was accompanied by more than a two-fold rise in the concentration of SLI in the venous effluent of the pancreas and of the gastric fundus and antrum in association with an elevation of FFA levels. In a group of conscious diabetic dogs fat emulsion plus heparin raised FFA from a mean base-line level of 1.2+/-0.2 to 1.6+/-0.3 meq/liter (P < 0.05) and SLI rose from a mean base-line level of 185+/-9 pg/ml to a peak value of 310+/-44 pg/ml (P < 0.01). Although SLI levels were significantly greater than in normal dogs at several time points after the rise in FFA, the magnitude of the increment in diabetic dogs did not differ from normal. These results demonstrate that a rise in FFA levels is a potent stimulus for SLI secretion from the pancreas and stomach and raise the possibility that FFA is an important physiological regulator of SLI secretion.

  17. Indole-3-acetic acid metabolism in normal and dwarf micropropagated banana plants (Musa spp. AAA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaffari,Gilmar Roberto; Peres,Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Tcacenco,Fernando Adami; Kerbauy,Gilberto Barbante

    2002-01-01

    Nanism is one of the most frequent type of mutant in micropropagated banana plants from the Cavendish subgroup. The present study aimed at studying some of the hormone factors involved in this type of mutation. Rhizomes from normal and dwarf plants from the cultivar Grand Naine were incubated for 5 d in the presence of [³H]-L-tryptophan, [³H]-indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellin, to quantify the endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid-ester, indole-3-acetic acid-amide, free indole-3-acetic ...

  18. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völp Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. Materials and methods In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events and acceptance (compliance of the dietary therapy were documented. Results After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A

  19. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne; O'Callaghan, Nathan; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emile; Beilin, Lawrence J; Fenech, Michael; Irish, Ashley B; Watts, Gerald F; Puddey, Ian B; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-03-19

    DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F₂-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F₂-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients.

  20. Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids supplementation on fatty acid metabolism in atorvastatin-administered SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Abdullah; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Hossain, Shahdat; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol-lowering statins, which substantially benefit future cardiovascular events, on fatty acid metabolism have remained largely obscured. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on fatty acid metabolism together with the effects of TAK-085 containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester on atorvastatin-induced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid lowering in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats, as a metabolic syndrome model. Supplementation with 10mg/kg body weight/day of atorvastatin for 17 weeks significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Atorvastatin alone caused a subtle change in fatty acid composition particularly of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver or erythrocyte membranes. However, the TAK-085 consistently increased both the levels of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver and erythrocyte membranes. After confirming the reduction of plasma total cholesterol, 300mg/kg body weight/day of TAK-085 was continuously administered for another 6 weeks. Supplementation with TAK-085 did not decrease plasma total cholesterol but significantly increased the EPA and DHA levels in both the plasma and liver compared with rats administered atorvastatin only. Supplementation with atorvastatin alone significantly decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases, elongase-5, and stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase-2 levels and increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the liver compared with control rats. TAK-085 supplementation significantly increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that long-term supplementation with atorvastatin decreases the EPA and DHA levels by inhibiting the desaturation and elongation of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, while TAK-085 supplementation effectively replenishes this effect in SHRcp rat liver.

  1. Whole body creatine and protein kinetics in healthy men and women: effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2016-03-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20-30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine-free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-(13)C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [(2)H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C(2)H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21 g.day(-1) and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g day(-1). Creatine caused a ten-fold increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50 % decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine, and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine, and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p = 0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states.

  2. The Acid Soluble Disulphide and Mixed Disulphide Levels of Some Normal Tissues and Transplanted Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, G.; Ting, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    The acid soluble disulphides and mixed disulphides of a range of normal rat and mouse tissues and a number of transplanted rat or mouse tumours were measured. The result were considered in relation to other workers' data. It is noted that more radioresponsive tissues have higher levels than the more radioresistant tissues. PMID:5475758

  3. Changes of lymphocyte kinetics in the normal rat, induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormai, S.; Hagenbeek, A.; Palkovits, M.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1973-01-01

    The changes in lymphocyte kinetics induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) were studied in the normal rat. Quantitative data are presented concerning the degree of lymphocyte mobilization in the spleen and in various lymph nodes at different times after PMAA administra

  4. Association of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation With Alzheimer Disease Stage in Apolipoprotein E ε4 Carriers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Hussein N; Braskie, Meredith N; Mack, Wendy J; Castor, Katherine J; Fonteh, Alfred N; Schneider, Lon S; Harrington, Michael G; Chui, Helena C

    2017-03-01

    The apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) allele identifies a unique population that is at significant risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential ω-3 fatty acid that is critical to the formation of neuronal synapses and membrane fluidity. Observational studies have associated ω-3 intake, including DHA, with a reduced risk for incident AD. In contrast, randomized clinical trials of ω-3 fatty acids have yielded mixed and inconsistent results. Interactions among DHA, APOE genotype, and stage of AD pathologic changes may explain the mixed results of DHA supplementation reported in the literature. Although randomized clinical trials of ω-3 in symptomatic AD have had negative findings, several observational and clinical trials of ω-3 in the predementia stage of AD suggest that ω-3 supplementation may slow early memory decline in APOE4 carriers. Several mechanisms by which the APOE4 allele could alter the delivery of DHA to the brain may be amenable to DHA supplementation in predementia stages of AD. Evidence of accelerated DHA catabolism (eg, activation of phospholipases and oxidation pathways) could explain the lack of efficacy of ω-3 supplementation in AD dementia. The association of cognitive benefit with DHA supplementation in predementia but not AD dementia suggests that early ω-3 supplementation may reduce the risk for or delay the onset of AD symptoms in APOE4 carriers. Recent advances in brain imaging may help to identify the optimal timing for future DHA clinical trials. High-dose DHA supplementation in APOE4 carriers before the onset of AD dementia can be a promising approach to decrease the incidence of AD. Given the safety profile, availability, and affordability of DHA supplements, refining an ω-3 intervention in APOE4 carriers is warranted.

  5. Homocysteine in Gestational Diabetes and Normal Pregnancy plus Effects of Folic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Davari-Tanha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The aim of study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folate, vit B12 and lipid pro­files in gestational diabetes mellitus and comparison with normal pregnant women as well as effect of different doses of fo­lic acid on Homocysteine (Hcy and pregnancy outcome."nMethods:  In a biphasic study first prospective controlled study 80 pregnant women were chosen at 24-28 weeks of gesta­tion. In case group pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and control group who had normal Oral Glucose Toler­ance test (GTT results. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyc­eride, LDL, HDL, were measured. In phase II study a randomized clinical trial was done with diabetic women 15 with 1mg folic acid and 15 with 5 mg folic acid for six weeks and then above variables and pregnancy outcome was evalu­ated."nResults: The mean levels of homocysteine in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM group were significantly higher but fo­lic acid and vit B12 were significantly lower. Hcy levels were decreased in both groups after six weeks folic acid but de­crease in Hcy for group 5mg was significantly more than 1mg group. "nConclusion: Homocysteine levels were higher in GDM than normal pregnancy. High dose folic acid can reduce Hcy levels more than low dose and it may be a safe, simple, inexpensive intervention that prevents major pregnancy complications. "n 

  6. Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Chen, Chi; Bobr, Aleh; Yao, Dan; Lu, Yuwei; Nelson, Valerie M; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-15

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We hypothesized that fecal bile acid composition is altered in patients with recurrent CDI and that FMT results in its normalization. General metabolomics and targeted bile acid analyses were performed on fecal extracts from patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT and their donors. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to determine the bacterial composition of pre- and post-FMT fecal samples. Taxonomic bacterial composition of fecal samples from FMT recipients showed rapid change and became similar to the donor after the procedure. Pre-FMT fecal samples contained high concentrations of primary bile acids and bile salts, while secondary bile acids were nearly undetectable. In contrast, post-FMT fecal samples contained mostly secondary bile acids, as did non-CDI donor samples. Therefore, our analysis showed that FMT resulted in normalization of fecal bacterial community structure and metabolic composition. Importantly, metabolism of bile salts and primary bile acids to secondary bile acids is disrupted in patients with recurrent CDI, and FMT corrects this abnormality. Since individual bile salts and bile acids have pro-germinant and inhibitory activities, the changes suggest that correction of bile acid metabolism is likely a major mechanism by which FMT results in a cure and prevents recurrence of CDI.

  7. Effect of fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches: A structural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Jinrong; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three saturated fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches were investigated. The complexing index (CI) of normal wheat starch-fatty acid complexes decreased with increasing carbon chain length. In contrast, waxy wheat starch-fatty acid complexes presented much lower CI. V-type crystalline polymorphs were formed between normal wheat starch and three fatty acids, with shorter chain fatty acids producing more crystalline structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy presented the similar results with XRD. The formation of amylose-fatty acid complex inhibited granule swelling, gelatinization progression, retrogradation and pasting development of normal wheat starch, with longer chain fatty acids showing greater inhibition. Amylopectin can also form complexes with fatty acids, but the amount of complex was too little to be detected by XRD, FTIR, Raman and DSC. As a consequence, small changes were observed in the functional properties of waxy wheat starch with the addition of fatty acids.

  8. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priscila de Freitas; Maria Raquel Martal Natali; Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira; Marcilio Hubner Miranda Nero; Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6±46.52 vs 680.6±30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4±5.19 vs 291.1 ±6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes meilitus with or without supplementation with AA.

  9. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

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    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  10. Plasma vanillylmandelic acid level as an index of psychological stress response in normal subjects.

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    Fukuda, M; Hata, A; Niwa, S; Hiramatsu, K; Honda, H; Nakagome, K; Iwanami, A

    1996-06-26

    The relationships between psychological stress responses and plasma levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were investigated in normal volunteers. Two questionnaires were used to measure stress: the Psychological Stress Response Scale (PSRS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Plasma levels of VMA--but not MHPG, HVA, and 5-HIAA--showed significant positive correlations with PSRS emotional and cognitive-behavioral stress and STAI state anxiety. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma levels of VMA and MHPG and psychological stress responses measured repeatedly in a longitudinal study of an Olympic swimmer. Plasma VMA measurements, which reflect the level of activity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, may provide a useful biochemical index of psychological stress responses in normal subjects.

  11. Fatty acid profile of goat milk in diets supplemented with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.).

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    Schettino, B; Vega, S; Gutiérrez, R; Escobar, A; Romero, J; Domínguez, E; González-Ronquillo, M

    2017-08-01

    Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is the greatest known plant source of n-3 α-linolenic acid. The present study evaluated the effects of 3 inclusion levels of chia seed [zero (control); low, 2.7% (CLow); and high, 5.5% (CHigh)] in diets of dairy goats on milk yield and fatty acid profile. Nine Saanen dairy goats in the last third of lactation period, live weight 38 ± 8.7 kg, housed in metabolic cages, were fed iso-proteic and iso-energetic (160 g of crude protein/d and 11 MJ of metabolizable energy/d) diets. Gas chromatography was used to analyze fatty acid profile and total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Silver ion HPLC was used to analyze the isomeric profile of CLA. The results were subjected to variance analysis using a Latin square design repeated 3 × 3. The CHigh treatment was higher for dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber intake compared with CLow and control diets. Digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of chia seeds. The CHigh diet improved N intake with respect to the control and CLow diet. Milk yield and chemical composition were not affected by the treatment. The milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C:20 was higher for CHigh than the other treatments. The in vitro gas production (mL of gas/g of dry matter) was lower in CHigh than the control diet. In conclusion, the addition of chia seeds at the CHigh level in dairy goat diets negatively affected in vitro rumen fermentation, but increased the milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1n-9 cis, and C:20, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The total CLA content increased from 0.33 to 0.73% with the supplementation of chia to the diet, as well as the isomers cis-9,trans-11, trans-7,cis-9, trans-11,cis-13, and trans-12,trans-14. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of folic acid supplementation with ferrous sulfate on the linear and ponderal growth of children aged 6-24 months: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Medeiros, D A; Hadler, M C C M; Sugai, A; Torres, V M

    2015-02-01

    Studies evaluating the effect of folic acid supplementation, either alone or in combination with iron, on the linear and ponderal growth of children are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation with ferrous sulfate on both linear growth and weight gain in anemic and nonanemic children attending Municipal Daycare Centers in Goiania, State of Goias, Brazil. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 188 children aged 6-24 months. The effects of ferrous sulfate and folic acid supplementation were evaluated using the analysis of variance procedure, based on a double factorial model with two factors of fixed effects (folic acid supplementation and ferrous sulfate supplementation), adjusted for initial weight. The level of significance was 0.05. The children who received folic acid supplementation showed greater weight gain than the monthly average weight gain of those not given the supplement (P=0.026). This effect was independent of the dose of ferrous sulfate (P for interaction=0.693). Folic acid supplementation increased the gain of weight-for-age Z-score when compared with the placebo group (P=0.018), independent of the dose of ferrous sulfate. Folic acid had no effect on linear growth. The use of folic acid supplementation increased the monthly average weight gain and the gain in weight-for-age Z-score compared with the placebo group. This effect was independent of the dose of ferrous sulfate.

  13. HPLC DETERMINATION OF D-PANTHENOL AND GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID FROM A HERBAL ANTI-HERPETIC SUPPLEMENT

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    Elena Gabriela Oltean

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available HPLC was used for the quantitative determination of panthenol and glycyrrhetinic acid in an herbal antiherpetic supplement containing panthenol (B5 provitamin and alcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra. For the determination of panthenol, the separation was carried out on a Kromasil 60-S Hilic D C18 column (250x4.6 mm, 5 µm, with methanol – 20 mM potassium phosphate dibasic, pH 6 (10:90, volume ratio as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. Flow was 1 mL·min-1 and the column temperature was maintained at (30±0.5 °C. For glycyrrhetinic acid, a Hypersil C18 BDS column (250x4.6 mm, 5 µm with acetonitrile – 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (75:25, volume ratio isocratic elution. The detection wavelength was set at 250 nm. Flow was 1 mL·min-1 and the column temperature was maintained at (30±0.5 °C.

  14. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

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    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  15. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

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    Haitham A. Badr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  16. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

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    Wisitiporn Suksombat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO, or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO, or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS. All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05. To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (p<0.05 and n-3 fatty acids (FA (p<0.01, particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05 while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA (p<0.05. Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA

  17. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans

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    da Luz Claudia R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK, aldolase, myoglobin, soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality.

  18. A Pilot Study: Effects of Dietary Supplementation with α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Perilla Seed Oil on Bronchial Asthma

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    Kozo Ashida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available N-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, have been reported to have some beneficial effects in patients with bronchial asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil rich in a-linolenic acid (α-LNA, parent n-3 fatty acid, were studied in five patients with asthma. The symptoms of asthma and mean peak flow rates (PFR both early in the morning and in the evening were improved 2 weeks after dietary supplementation and the increases in PFR were significant (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by peripheral leukocytes stimulated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was significantly suppressed from 77.6 to 41.6 ng/5Xl06 cells by dietary supplementation (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 by leukocytes was also significantly suppressed from 64.0 to 38.8 ng/5x106 cells after supplementation with perilla seed oil (P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil is beneficial for the treatment of asthma.

  19. Effect of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Full-Term Infants

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    Mijna Hadders-Algra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It takes more than 20 years before the human brain obtains its complex, adult configuration. Most dramatic developmental changes occur prenatally and early postnatally. During development, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA such as doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (AA are accreted in the brain. Since breastfeeding is associated with a better developmental outcome than formula feeding, and human milk in contrast to traditional standard formula contains LCPUFA, the question arose whether LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula may promote the neurodevelopmental outcome. The current paper reviews the evidence available in full-term infants. It concludes that postnatal supplementation of formula with LCPUFA is associated with a beneficial effect on short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. However, no evidence is available that LCPUFA supplementation enhances neurodevelopmental outcome in full-term infants beyond the age of four months. Nevertheless, it should be realized that very limited information is available on the effect of LCPUFA supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcome at school age or later. It is conceivable that effects of LCPUFA supplementation first emerge or re-emerge at school age when more complex neural functions are expressed.

  20. Acid- and alkaline phosphatase in amniotic fluid in normal and complicated pregnancy.

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    Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Löfstrand, T

    1978-01-01

    171 samples of amniotic fluid were obtained by abdominal amniocentesis from 67 women with complicated pregnancies (isoimmunization, diabetes mellitus or toxaemia). The levels of heat-labile alkaline phosphatase (HLAP), heat-stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were determined and compared to the enzyme levels in 179 samples from women with normal pregnancies of corresponding gestational ages. HLAP showed two "peaks" of activity, one in the 5th-22nd week and the other at term. HSAP and AcP showed increased activity at term. HSAP was decreased (p less than 0.01) in isoimmunization between the 36th and 40th week. 11 cases of toxaemia with placental insufficiency showed no differences in the levels of HLAP and HSAP compared with normal pregnancy. AcP showed no differences between normal and complicated pregnancy. Samples contaminated by blood showed no significant increase in the acid- and alkaline phosphatase levels. Samples contaminated by meconium showed a complex pattern. Some samples had normal enzyme levels, some had high levels of HLAP only and some had high levels of HSAP and AcP. The origin of the enzymes is not known with certainty. HSAP in amniotic fluid is most likely not of placental but intestinal origin. Determinations of acid- and alkaline phosphatase in amniotic fluid seem to be of little values in the clinical management of complicated pregnancy.

  1. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

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    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  2. Control of prostate cancer associated with withdrawal of a supplement containing folic acid, L-methyltetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12: a case report

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    Garcia April

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is the first report of possible direct stimulation of hormone-resistant prostate cancer or interference of docetaxel cytotoxicity of prostate cancer in a patient with biochemical relapse of prostatic-specific antigen. This observation is of clinical and metabolic importance, especially at a time when more than 80 countries have fortified food supplies with folic acid and some contemplate further fortification with vitamin B12. Case presentation Our patient is a 71-year-old Caucasian man who had been diagnosed in 1997 with prostate cancer, stage T1c, and Gleason score 3+4 = 7. His primary treatment included intermittent androgen deprivation therapy including leuprolide + bicalutamide + deutasteride, ketoconazole + hydrocortisone, nilandrone and flutamide to resistance defined as biochemical relapse of PSA. While undergoing docetaxel therapy to treat a continually increasing prostate-specific antigen level, withdrawal of 10 daily doses of a supplement containing 500 μg of vitamin B12 as cyanocobalamin, as well as 400 μg of folic acid as pteroylglutamic acid and 400 μg of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate for a combined total of 800 μg of mixed folates, was associated with a return to a normal serum prostatic-specific antigen level. Conclusion This case report illustrates the importance of the effects of supplements containing large amounts of folic acid, L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of prostate cancer cells directly and/or B vitamin interference with docetaxel efficacy. Physicians caring for patients with prostate cancer undergoing watchful waiting, hormone therapy, and/or chemotherapy should consider the possible acceleration of tumor growth and/or metastasis and the development of drug resistance associated with supplement ingestion. We describe several pathways of metabolic and epigenetic interactions that could affect the observed changes in serum levels of prostate-specific antigen.

  3. Effects of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine abundance.

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    Milo, L A; Reardon, K A; Tappenden, K A

    2002-09-01

    We examined the effect of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on proinflammatory cytokine levels in piglets. Piglets (N = 22) received either standard total parenteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids. After seven days of continuous nutrient infusion, proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6) abundance in plasma, jejunal, and ileal samples and small intestinal myeloperoxidase was determined using western blotting. No differences were seen in TNF-alpha small intestinal abundance. IL-1beta was higher in the small intestine of the short-chain fatty acid group (P short-chain fatty acids beneficially increase small intestinal abundance of IL-1beta and IL-6 during total parenteral nutrition administration, while not affecting systemic production of these cytokines or intestinal inflammation.

  4. The effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study

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    Gal eDubnov-Raz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common neuro-developmental disorder in childhood. Its pharmacologic treatment mostly includes methylphenidate, yet many parents seek alternative, natural, therapeutic options, commonly omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies of supplementation with fish oil or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids to children with ADHD yielded mixed results. The use of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chained, plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (18:3 n-3, has not been sufficiently examined in this population. Methods: Forty untreated children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, were randomized to receive either 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid or placebo, for 8 weeks. Before and after supplementation, the children underwent a physician assessment of ADHD symptoms and a computerized continuous performance functions test. The children's parents and teachers filled out Conners' and DSM questionnaires. Results: Seventeen (42.5% children completed the study, 8 in the supplementation group, 9 in the placebo group. Main drop-out reasons were capsule size, poor compliance, and a sense of lack of effect. No significant difference was found in any of the measured variables tested before and after supplementation, in both study groups. No between-group difference was found in the changes of the various measures of ADHD symptoms throughout the study period.Conclusion: Supplementation of 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid did not significantly reduce symptoms in children with ADHD. Future studies in this field should consider an alternative method to deliver the oil, a higher dose, and a larger sample size.

  5. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

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    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  6. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12 reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

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    Nisha G Kemse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids. L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. RESULTS: Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01 pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05 and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.01, lower (p<0.05 placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ά levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. CONCLUSION: Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  7. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

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    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  8. Zinc, magnesium, and calcium ion supplementation confers tolerance to acetic acid stress in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential substrate for ethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials produces inhibitory compounds such as acetic acid, which negatively affect ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Supplementation of the medium with three metal ions (Zn(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) increased the tolerance of S. cerevisiae toward acetic acid compared to the absence of the ions. Ethanol production from xylose was most improved (by 34%) when the medium was supplemented with 2 mM Ca(2+) , followed by supplementation with 3.5 mM Mg(2+) (29% improvement), and 180 μM Zn(2+) (26% improvement). Higher ethanol production was linked to high cell viability in the presence of metal ions. Comparative transcriptomics between the supplemented cultures and the control suggested that improved cell viability resulted from the induction of genes controlling the cell wall and membrane. Only one gene, FIT2, was found to be up-regulated in common between the three metal ions. Also up-regulation of HXT1 and TKL1 might enhance xylose consumption in the presence of acetic acid. Thus, the addition of ionic nutrients is a simple and cost-effective method to improve the acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae.

  9. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children wHh severe acute malnutrition

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    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained ...

  10. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  11. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA), in comparison with selenomethionine (SeMet), on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice using intramuscular and subcutaneous injection models. Mice were fed AIN9...

  12. Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Devlin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133 age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation, randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day and ARA (200 mg/day supplement (supplement or a corn oil supplement (control until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00, B (95% CI, p = 0.045 in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94, p < 0.001 and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68, p = 0.001. These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months.

  13. Effect of parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids on adaptation to massive small bowel resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruda, M J; Rolandelli, R H; Settle, R G; Zimmaro, D M; Rombeau, J L

    1988-09-01

    After massive small bowel resection, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is prescribed to maintain nutritional status. However, TPN reduces the mass of the remaining intestinal mucosa, whereas adaptation to small bowel resection is associated with increased mucosal mass. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to stimulate mucosal cell mitotic activity. This study determined whether the addition of SCFAs to TPN following small bowel resection would prevent intestinal mucosal atrophy produced by TPN. Adult rats underwent an 80% small bowel resection and then received either standard TPN or TPN supplemented with SCFAs (sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate). After 1 wk, jejunal and ileal mucosal weights, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein contents were measured and compared with the parameters obtained at the time of resection. Animals receiving TPN showed significant loss of jejunal mucosal weight, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein and ileal mucosal weight and deoxyribonucleic acid after small bowel resection, whereas animals receiving SCFA-supplemented TPN showed no significant change in the jejunal mucosal parameters and a significant increase in ileal mucosal protein. These data demonstrate that SCFA-supplemented TPN reduces the mucosal atrophy associated with TPN after massive bowel resection and thys may facilitate adaptation to small bowel resection.

  14. Effects of supplemental humic acid on ruminal fermentation and blood variables in rams

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    Nurten Galip

    Full Text Available In this study, we particularly aimed to research the effect of supplemental humic acid on ruminal fermentation and blood variables in rams. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of humic acid (HA on protozoa count, percentages of different protozoa types and blood parameters. Three male Kivircik rams with ruminal cannula were used in a Latin square design, during 22 days periods (15 days for adaptation, 7 days for collection. They received 0 control group (CG, 5 g/day or 10 g/day of HA (HA5, HA10, assay groups. HA were added to the ration with grain diet. Ration was consisted of 5% grain diet and 95 % alfalfa hay. Rumen contents collected before, 3h and 6h after morning feeding on days 1 and 7 in each collection period were analyzed. Blood samples were also collected the same days. No significant difference in biochemical and hematological parameters (except eosinophils levels, P<0.05, variables of ruminal fluid (except sodium levels before feeding and species of rumen protozoa organism (except the percentage Epidinium spp. were evidenced with the addition of HA. In conclusion, we think that they might have been true the widely use in animal food of humates which don’t have any negative effect on biochemical and hematological parameters in particular.

  15. The Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation on Depression Remission: a Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is some evidence that omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depression. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA and placebo on mild to moderate depression. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 54 outpatients with mild to moderate depression. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: receiving EPA supplement or placebo. EPA and placebo groups received two identical capsules per day for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg EPA or coconut oil. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HRSD was used to determine the severity of depression at baseline, sixth and twelfth weeks after intervention. Results: Forty two patients(77.8% completed the 12-week intervention. A statistically significant difference was observed in mean scores of HRSD between EPA and placebo groups at the end of the study (P=0.001. Mean scores of HRSD decreased over time in both groups so that the analysis of variance for repeated measurements showed a statistically significant time effect(F=50.55, df=1.32, P<0.0001. Also, a statistically significant treatment effect of EPA compared to placebo was observed over time (treatment*time interaction, F=12.67, df=1.32, P=0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the efficacy of EPA in treatment of depression, so its use is recommended as an add-on to antidepressant medications in treatment of mild to moderate depression.

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy: A Potential Tool to Prevent Membrane Rupture and Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Pietrantoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, a daily intake of DHA is recommended during pregnancy. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-oxidative pathways. Several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes (PROM and preterm-PROM (pPROM, are associated with placental inflammation and oxidative stress. This pilot study reports on a preliminary evaluation of the significance of the daily DHA administration on PROM and pPROM events in healthy pregnant women. Further extensive clinical trials will be necessary to fully elucidate the correlation between DHA administration during pregnancy and PROM/pPROM occurrence, which is related in turn to gestational duration and overall fetal health.

  17. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity in subcellular fractions of normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, D; Rüstow, B; Olthoff, D; Jung, K

    1985-03-15

    Biopsy samples from normal and dystrophic human muscle (Duchenne type) were fractionated by differential centrifugation and microsomes, mitochondria and cytosol were assayed for phosphatidic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4) and marker enzymes of mitochondria and cytosol. The activity of phosphatidic acid phosphatase was significantly lower in microsomes and higher in cytosol and mitochondria of dystrophic muscle than in the corresponding subcellular fractions of normal muscle. The results support an explanation of earlier findings that there is reduced G3P incorporation into diglycerides and phosphatidylcholine and a qualitative and quantitative change in the amount of phosphatidylcholine in dystrophic microsomes. The possible reasons for the reduction in the activity of only microsomal PA-P-ase were discussed.

  18. L-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation with corn steep liquor-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Ding, Shaofeng; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei

    2006-12-01

    Batch and fed-batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potential of corn steep liquor (CSL)-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal (AHSM) as an alternative to yeast extract (YE) for the production of L-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei LA-04-1. The CSL-supplemented AHSM gave an outstanding result in supporting L-lactic acid production from glucose. In the exponential fed-batch fermentation, the concentration, yield and productivity of L-lactic acid were 162.5 g/L, 89.7% and 1.69 g/L per h, respectively, which were lower than those with 20 g/L YE (180 g/L, 90.3%, 2.14 g/L per h) after 96 h of fermentation. However, the raw material cost of the nitrogen resource was estimated as only 25% of that using the YE.

  19. Acidity and Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Normal and Alzheimer's Disease Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Eric B; Sumien, Nathalie

    2017-02-15

    Alzheimer's disease prevalence has reached epidemic proportion with very few treatment options, which are associated with a multitude of side effects. A potential avenue of research for new therapies are protons, and their associated receptor: acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Protons are often overlooked neurotransmitters, and proton-gated currents have been identified in the brain. Furthermore, ASICs have been determined to be crucial for proper brain function. While there is more work to be done, this review is intended to highlight protons as neurotransmitters and their role along with the role of ASICs within physiological functioning of the brain. We will also cover the pathophysiological associations between ASICs and modulators of ASICs. Finally, this review will sum up how the studies of protons, ASICs and their modulators may generate new therapeutic molecules for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Uric Acid Metabolism in a Sample of Egyptian Hypertensive Patients With Normal Kidney Function

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Afifi, ¹ Iman Sarhan¹, Magdy El Sharkawy¹, Mostafa Kamel¹, Waleed Anwar ¹,

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with hypertension. Also, it is well known to coincide with the metabolic syndrome but is still not recognized as a risk factor. So, we aimed to evaluate hyperuricemia among a sample of hypertensive Egyptians with normal renal function.Methods: this study was performed on 303 hypertensive patients aged 30-69 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the level of uric acid: group 1 composed of 168 hypertensive hyperuricemic patient ...

  1. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food IntakeBrown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Amanda C.; Williams, Lynda M.; Wahle, Klaus W.; Jung-Heun Ha; Shabina Bashir; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Alan A. Sneddon; D. Vernon Rayner

    2009-01-01

    The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression ...

  2. Evidence that histidine is an essential amino acid in normal and chronically uremic man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopple, J D; Swendseid, M E

    1975-05-01

    The requirement for dietary histidine was investigated in four normal and three chronically uremic men. Subjects lived in a metabolic unit where they were fed three isonitrogenous diets in the following order: a 40-g protein diet (28 plus or minus SD 8 days), a semi-synthetic amino acid diet deficient in histidine (35 plus or minus 2 days), and an amino acid diet which contained histidine (31 plus or minus 5 days). With ingestion of the histidine-deficient diet, nitrogen balance gradually became negative, and serum albumin decreased in six subjects. Plasma histidine fell by 82 plus or minus 6 per cent; muscle histidine decreased by 62 plus or minus 19 per cent; the hematocrit fell by 25 plus or minus 9 per cent; and serum iron rose. Subjects felt unwell, and in five cases a skin lesion consisting of fine scales, dry skin, and mild erythema developed. After administration of the histidine-repletion diet, nitrogen balance became positive in six subjects; serum albumin increased in five cases; plasma and muscle histidine rose; serum iron fell abruptly; a reticulocytosis ensued; and the hematocrit rose. The clinical symptoms and skin lesions disappeared. These observations indicate that histidine is an essential amino acid in normal and chronically uremic man. The absence of dietary histidine is associated with failure of normal erythropoiesis.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, essentiality and requirements: why and how to provide supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids comprize from 50-60% of the structural matter of the brain and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA is the most  important omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain phospholipids comprizing 25% of the total fatty acids of the grey matter. The majority of the DHA present in the human brain is incorporated during the brain growth spurt which starts at week 26 of gestation and imposes a high demand for the fatty acid until about 2 years of age. DHA is required during brain development when neuronal and glial differentiation and migration, and active myelination and synaptogenesis take place. The fatty acid must be incorporated into the brain lipids as preformed DHA because less than 5% of its precursor (alpha linolenic acid, LNA is converted to DHA. The human foetus has a limited ability to synthesize DHA from LNA, and therefore it must be largely supplied from maternal sources. Maternal DHA available for foetal nutrition can be provided from three main sources: adipose tissue, which is the main reservoir for the fatty acid; through biosynthesis from the precursor LNA, which occurs mainly in the liver; and as preformed DHA from dietary sources. In the postnatal period DHA is provided by the mother to the newborn through milk secretion. Western nutrition provides low LNA and DHA and Expert Nutrition Committees suggest that mothers should receive DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. At present DHA supplementation can be provided from different sources: as purified free DHA, as an ethyl ester derivative, extracted from single-cell algae oils, from egg yolk phospholipids, or in the form of sn-2 DHA monoacylglycerol. In this review we revise and discuss the evidence of DHA requirements for the newborn, the need for maternal supplementation during pregnancy and nursing, and the alternatives at present for providing DHA supplementation.Los lípidos comprenden entre el 50-60% de la estructura del cerebro, y el

  4. A Comparative Study of Alternate Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Regimes in Childhood Anaemia

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    Bhuwan R Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of anaemia among children less than five years of age in India is around 70%. Anaemia in young children puts them at a higher risk of experiencing health problems such as stunted growth, mental retardation, and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of IFA supplementation (daily vs. biweekly vs. weekly regime on haemoglobin levels of young children. Materials and Methods: A total 740 children in age group of six months to five years were included in this community based interventional study using Systemic random sampling. The children having mild to moderate anaemia were then divided into three groups A, B and C by simple random sampling and were given Iron and Folic acid supplementation daily, biweekly and weekly respectively. Follow up data was collected after 3 months and analysed using appropriate tests. Results: Prevalence of Anaemia was 91.1% among study participants. Comparison after 3 months showed significant change in haemoglobin levels in all three groups with mean improvement of 1.31 gm%, 0.89 gm% and 0.85 gm% in group A, B and C respectively. However, no significant difference was noted among the groups in pre as well as post intervention phase. Conclusion: Weekly regime is as effective as daily or biweekly regime in improving haemoglobin levels in children. Moreover, it has better compliance, lesser side effects and cost of therapy. So, the same should be recommended for prophylaxis as well as treatment of mild to moderate anaemia cases. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 33-36

  5. Normal appearances of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in children on planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusuwan, P.; Reyes, L.; Gordon, I. [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Thirty-two children who underwent renal arteriography with normal results also underwent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) imaging. Variations in the normal appearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA images are described in these children. Criteria for high-quality {sup 99m}Tc DMSA images are defined in terms of kidney outline and contrast between the inner and the outer part of the kidney. Most of the images in this study were of high quality. The two most common features of normal {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA images were a round-shaped (50%) or flat (either lateral or medial aspect) (24.8%) contour. A small number of unusual appearances were observed and these have been illustrated. The mean differential function of the left kidney was 51% with a range of 45%-57%. (orig.) With 9 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

  6. Long-term ω-3 fatty acid supplementation induces anti-stress effects and improves learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Miguel Á; Terreros, Gonzalo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-06-14

    Chronic stress leads to secretion of the adrenal steroid hormone corticosterone, inducing hippocampal atrophy and dendritic hypertrophy in the rat amygdala. Both alterations have been correlated with memory impairment and increased anxiety. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids improves memory and learning in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ω-3 supplementation on learning and major biological and behavioral stress markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: 1) Control, 2) Vehicle, animals supplemented with water, and 3) ω-3, rats supplemented with ω-3 (100 mg of DHA+25 mg of EPA). Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups: one of which was not subjected to stress while the other was subjected to a restraint stress paradigm. Afterwards, learning was analyzed by avoidance conditioning. As well, plasma corticosterone levels and anxiety were evaluated as stress markers, respectively by ELISA and the plus-maze test. Restraint stress impaired learning and increased both corticosterone levels and the number of entries into the open-arm (elevated plus-maze). These alterations were prevented by ω-3 supplementation. Thus, our results demonstrate that ω-3 supplementation had two beneficial effects on the stressed rats, a strong anti-stress effect and improved learning.

  7. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  8. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Catanese, Patrizia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rizzuto, Luigi; Marozzi, Paola; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Stampone, Tomaso; Cappello, Francesco; Morici, Giuseppe; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C) supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  9. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  10. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Han

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD, especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementation for managing hypertriglyceridemia were included. Reduction in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR were examined. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to the daily O3FA doses. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and urine ACR significantly reduced after O3FA supplementation. Overall, 172 (50.0% patients did not experience renal function loss, and 125 (36.3% patients had a GFR with a positive slope. The patients treated with O3FAs at 4g/day showed greater maintenance in renal function than those treated with lower dosages (p < 0.001. This dose dependent effect remains significant after adjustment for multiple variables. O3FA supplementation in diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia shows benefits of reducing albuminuria and maintaining renal function. The effects are dependent on the dose of daily O3FA supplementation.

  11. Effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on muscle thickness and strength in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Sell, Katie M; Ghigiarelli, Jamie J; Kelly, Christopher F; Shone, Edward W; Accetta, Matthew R; Baum, Jamie B; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation on muscle thickness and strength following an 8 week supervised resistance-training program. Fifteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 3.5 years; 80.6 ± 8.7 kg; 178.1 ± 5.6 cm; 14.6% ± 8.8% body fat) were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA or a placebo (PL). Testing was carried out before (PRE) and after (POST) training/supplementation for muscle thickness and strength. Muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles were measured via ultrasonography, along with 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of squat, deadlift, and bench press. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using PRE values as the covariate, did not reveal any group differences for measures of muscle thickness in the RF (PA: 3.6% ± 5.2%; PL: 3.2% ± 4.2%, p = 0.97), VL (PA: 23.4% ± 18.1%, PL: 12.5% ± 15.4%, p = 0.37), BB (PA: 3.7% ± 6.4%, PL: 9.6% ± 12.4%, p = 0.86), or TB (PA: 15.1% ± 17.9%, PL: 10.7% ± 19.3%, p = 0.79). Likewise, no group differences were observed in changes in squat (PA: 8.4% ± 4.1%, PL: 8.1% ± 4.2%, p = 0.79), deadlift (PA: 10.1% ± 10.1%, PL: 8.9% ± 9.5%, p = 0.66), or bench press (PA: 5.7% ± 5.5%, PL: 5.1% ± 3.0%, p = 0.76) exercises. Collectively, however, all participants experienced significant (p muscle thickness and strength. Results of this study suggest that PA supplementation, in combination with a 3 days·week(-1) resistance-training program for 8 weeks, did not have a differential effect compared with PL on changes in muscle thickness or 1RM strength.

  12. Dietary supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids improves quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Algaranhar Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the effect of inclusion unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs in the buffalo diet, on the sperm quality after thawing. In parallel, it was verified the degree of association among techniques to assess plasma membrane integrity (PMI of spermatozoa. Patterns of sperm motility (subjective and computer-assisted analysis, kinetics, morphology and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. The hypo-osmotic swelling test, nigrosin-eosin staining (E-N and fluorescent probes propidium iodide/Hoechst 33342 (IP-H342 were adopted to evaluate PMI. The study was planned considering two experimental groups, which were evaluated in repeated measures design. over time. Eleven Murrah buffalo bulls (3.5±1.0 years, and 536.9±73.0 kg were divided in Control Group (CONT, n=5 and Palm Oil Group (PO, n=6. Animals were fed with forage and concentrated in a controlled manner. Animals of PO received dietary supplementation containing palm oil (2% of dry matter. Dietary consumption was daily monitored and the intake level of UFAs in PO was 55.4% higher than CONT. Semen samples were collected and evaluated every 14 days. The experiment lasted 120 days, considering four periods of 30 days each (Periods I, II, III and IV and repeated measures structure was used in statistical analysis. Significance level adopted was 5%. There was no effect of treatment on sperm motility (P>0.05, but palm oil supplementation presented a positive effect on spermatic ability to progress (derived from BCF, STR and LIN in Period IV (P<0.05. High correlation (91% was observed between IP-H342 and E-N techniques (Y = 0.9155 x + 2.9843, R2 = 0.82, P?0.05. Thus, supplementation with UFAs increased the progressivity of spermatozoa after 90 days, and had no effect on other seminal parameters. Eosin-nigrosin stain can be used efficiently as a predictor of the level of PMI when conditions for implementing fluorescent probes not present.

  13. The effect of the humic acid and herbal additive supplement on production parameters of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pistová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and dietary herbal additive (clove (Syzygium aromaticum, lavender (Lavendula angustifolia and black pepper (Piper nigrum L. on production parameters of broiler chicken were studied.  A total of 60 Ross 308 broiler chicken were divided into 3 treatments (n=20. The control group of chickens was fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chicken in treatment T1 were fed a diet containing 1% of humic acid and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. Chicken in treatment T2 were fed with complete feed mixture without any additives and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. The body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. The results shout that the body weight was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in treatments groups compared to the control group (the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 2052.9±197.9 and 2140.4±300.4 g±SD. The feed intake was in the control group 3.11 kg, in the treatment T1 3.00 kg and in the treatment T2 3.12 kg. Feed conversion for the entire fattening period was in control group 2.19 kg/kg complete feed mixture, in the treatment T1 1.83 kg/kg complete feed mixture and in the treatment T2 1.84 kg/kg complete feed mixture with no significant different (P≥0.05 compared to control group. In conclusion, supplement by humic acid and herbal additive can improve production parameters of broiler chicken.

  14. Revisiting normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance values in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, A.; Tondeur, M. [Department of Radioisotopes, CHU St Pierre, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ Ghent, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    Normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance values as a function of age were published a number of years ago. These values were based on data from children with a normal left to right ratio and a normal appearance on DMSA scintigraphy, despite the presence of an acute renal infection. At that time, the authors were unaware that hyperfiltration is a common phenomenon in patients with acute renal infection and that their normal values could have been significantly overestimated. The present work therefore aimed to re-appraise these normal values. In a first step, in order to verify the previous results, the same type of population was selected, namely patients with present or past urinary tract infection but normal images and a normal left to right ratio on DMSA scintigraphy. In a second step, the selection was based on patients who had had no recent urinary tract infection. In both series, a single blood sample method was used for the evaluation of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance. In the first group of patients, the results obtained were almost identical to those previously published. In the second group of patients, the results were significantly lower: after 2 years of age, the mean GFR value was 104 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} (10th and 90th percentiles 81 and 135 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively), compared with 117 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} in the first group. The data of the second group are probably more representative of the true normal GFR values and can be applied to the entire paediatric population. (orig.)

  15. Uric Acid Metabolism in a Sample of Egyptian Hypertensive Patients With Normal Kidney Function

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    Adel Afifi, ¹ Iman Sarhan¹, Magdy El Sharkawy¹, Mostafa Kamel¹, Waleed Anwar ¹,

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with hypertension. Also, it is well known to coincide with the metabolic syndrome but is still not recognized as a risk factor. So, we aimed to evaluate hyperuricemia among a sample of hypertensive Egyptians with normal renal function.Methods: this study was performed on 303 hypertensive patients aged 30-69 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the level of uric acid: group 1 composed of 168 hypertensive hyperuricemic patient sand group2 composed of 135 hypertensive normouricemic patients. All patients were subjected to complete medical history and detailed clinical examination including body mass index (BMI, complete blood count (CBC, serum creatinine, BUN, FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, sodium, potassium, urinary uric acid, urinary creatinine, urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio and fractional excretion of uric acid(FEUA.Results: The overall prevalence of hyperuricemia was 55.4%. Uric acid correlated significantly with age (p0.05. Serum uric acid found to correlate significantly (p<0.001 with urinary uric acid, urinary creatinine and negatively with FEUA denoting early tubular defect of the kidney. Also, Urinary uric acid, urinary creatinine and urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio were higher in group 1than in group 2 (p values were<0.001, <0.001 and <0.05 respectively. FEUA was found to be significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.01. We found, also, that serum sodium level was significantly higher in the hyperuricemic group than in the normouricemic group (p<0.001 denoting the role of Na+ in the development of hypertension and defective renal excretion of uric acid.Conclusion: We conclude that the incidence hyperuricemia in our sample of Egyptian hypertensive patients was (55.4%. Impaired renal clearance of uric acid occurs before deterioration of GFR. Serum uric acid should be measured in all cases of hypertension together with BMI, total cholesterol

  16. Overall renal and tubular function during infusion of amino acids in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    1. Amino acids have been used to test renal reserve filtration capacity. Previous studies suggest that amino acids increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by reducing distal tubular flow and tubuloglomerular feedback activity. 2. Glomerular function and the renal tubular handling of sodium during...... infusion of amino acids was studied in 12 normal volunteers. 3. Clearance of sodium (CNa) was unchanged. Effective renal plasma flow increased slightly, but significantly, by 9% (P less than 0.05). GFR was increased by 13% (P less than 0.001). Clearance of lithium (CLi) (used as an index of proximal...... tubular outflow) increased by 38% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption (GFR-CLi) remained unchanged. Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] was decreased by 10% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute distal sodium reabsorption [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where PNa is plasma...

  17. Overall renal and tubular function during infusion of amino acids in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    1. Amino acids have been used to test renal reserve filtration capacity. Previous studies suggest that amino acids increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by reducing distal tubular flow and tubuloglomerular feedback activity. 2. Glomerular function and the renal tubular handling of sodium during...... infusion of amino acids was studied in 12 normal volunteers. 3. Clearance of sodium (CNa) was unchanged. Effective renal plasma flow increased slightly, but significantly, by 9% (P less than 0.05). GFR was increased by 13% (P less than 0.001). Clearance of lithium (CLi) (used as an index of proximal...... tubular outflow) increased by 38% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption (GFR-CLi) remained unchanged. Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] was decreased by 10% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute distal sodium reabsorption [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where PNa is plasma...

  18. Maternal prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Funda; Kumral, Abdullah; Ozbal, Seda; Dilek, Mustafa; Tugyan, Kazım; Duman, Nuray; Ozkan, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen negatively influences brain maturation and development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether maternal ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 FA) supplementation during pregnancy protects the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Thirty-six rat pups from six different dams were divided into six groups according to the diet modifications and hyperoxia exposure. The groups were: a control group (standard diet+room air), a hyperoxia group (standard diet+80% O₂ exposure), a hyperoxia+high-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a hyperoxia+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a room air+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented+group, and a room air+high dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group. The ω-3 FA's were supplemented as a mixture of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the second day of pregnancy until birth. Rat pups in the hyperoxic groups were exposed to 80% oxygen from birth until postnatal day 5 (P5). At P5, all animals were sacrificed. Neuronal cell death and apoptosis were evaluated by cell count, TUNEL, and active Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination showed that maternally ω-3 FA deficient diet and postnatal hyperoxia exposure were associated with significantly lower neuronal counts and significantly higher apoptotic cell death in the selected brain regions. Ω-3 FA treatment significantly diminished apoptosis, in the selected brain regions, in a dose dependent manner. Our results suggest that the maternal ω-3 FA supply may protect the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-09-01

    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA.

  20. The relationship between awareness and supplementation: which Canadian women know about folic acid and how does that translate into use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Chantal R M; Leon, Juan Andres; Evans, Jane

    2014-01-15

    Although the benefit of folic acid (FA) to prevent neural tube defects (NTD) is well established, not all women take supplements in the periconceptional period. This study used data from the Public Health Agency of Canada's Maternity Experiences Survey to evaluate determinants of awareness of FA among recently pregnant women in Canada, and the extent to which that translated into actual supplement usage. Telephone interviews took place between October 23, 2006 and January 31, 2007 with women who were 5 to 14 months postpartum to survey their experiences during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period. These analyses were conducted on women who responded to questions relating to FA supplementation. The 6,421 respondents were weighted to represent 76,508 women using weights which corresponded to the sampling strata, the mother's first language and Aboriginal status. Overall, 77.6% of surveyed women knew that taking FA periconceptionally could help protect against NTD. Women who were younger, single or separated reported less awareness and use of FA, while higher maternal age, level of education and income were positively associated with both knowledge and use. Despite longstanding national guidelines for supplementation, there were regional variations in knowledge and use of FA. The data indicate clear socio-demographic differences among Canadian women with respect to their knowledge and use of FA. Although most women understood the benefits of FA supplementation, a little over a third of them did not take FA supplements prior to becoming pregnant, and less than half supplemented according to national guidelines. Identification of those subpopulations whose use of supplements is suboptimal may allow for targeted educational or other interventions to further encourage FA use.

  1. Effect of different forage species supplemented with two carbohydrate sources on short and medium chain fatty acids in sheep milk

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    G. Piredda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four Sarda dairy sheep fed with diets based on fresh forage were allocated to eight groups to evaluate the effect of corn or beet pulp based supplementation on milk fatty acid composition. Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L., burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L., and garland, a daisy forb, (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.. The supplements were iso-nitrogenous but differed in carbohydrate composition consisting either of 60% (DM of corn (concentrate C or 40% sugar beet pulp (concentrate BP. The supplementation was iso-energetic (500 and 530 g/d, respectively. Overall during winter period (growing stage of the forages SU and RY groups showed higher levels of atherogenicity index and C16:0. In winter period BP outperformed C for palmitic acid. In spring AI showed a trend similar to that of winter. Moreover C concentrate gave a better level of AI and myristic acid than BP. This study confirms that forage species and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrate source in the supplement markedly affect mediumchain FA profile and hence atherogenicity index in sheep milk.

  2. Poor adherence to folic acid and iodine supplement recommendations in preconception and pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Lenka; Umberger, Wendy; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao J

    2016-10-01

    To determine pregnant women's knowledge of and adherence to the recommendations for periconceptional folic acid supplementation (PFS) and iodine supplementation (IS). Secondary objectives include determining predictors of adherence, and identifying influential nutrition information sources. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 857 pregnant women, including a national cohort (n=455) recruited using an online panel provider and a South Australian cohort (n=402) recruited from a public maternity hospital. Adherence to PFS and IS recommendations was 27% and 23%, respectively. Planning pregnancy and awareness of the correct timing of recommendations were predictors of adherence for both recommendations. Not consuming any alcohol during pregnancy and living in metropolitan areas also predicted adherence to the IS recommendation. Awareness of the recommendation was greater for folic acid (more than 90%) than iodine (56-69%). Knowledge of the importance of folic acid and iodine was greater than knowledge regarding the recommended dose and timing of supplementation. Main healthcare providers were considered the most influential nutrition information sources. Knowledge of and adherence to supplement recommendations for preconception and pregnancy needs improvement. While main healthcare providers may play an important role, further research is needed to explore strategies for increasing adoption of recommendations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Improvement of Semen Quality in Holstein Bulls during Heat Stress by Dietary Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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    Hamid Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family are importantfor sperm membrane integrity, sperm motility and viability. There are evidences to suggest thatdietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids affects reproduction in men and males ofdifferent animal species. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate changes in thequality parameters of Holstein bull semen during heat stress and the effect of feeding a source ofomega-3 fatty acids during this period.Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from 19 Holstein bulls during the expected time ofheat stress in Iran (June to September 2009. Control group (n=10 were fed a standard concentratefeed while the treatment group (n=9 had this feed top dressed with 100 g of an omega-3 enrichednutriceutical. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm production were evaluated onejaculates collected after 1, 5, 9 and 12 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, computer-assistedassessment of sperm motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSTwere conducted.Results: Heat stress affected sperm quality parameters by weeks five and nine of the study (p<0.05.Supplementation significantly increased total motility, progressive motility, HOST-positivespermatozoa and average path velocity in the fresh semen of bulls (p<0.05.Conclusion: Dietary omega-3 supplementation improved in vitro quality and motility parametersof fresh semen in Holstein bulls. However, this effect was not evident in frozen-thawed semen.

  4. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  5. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  6. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  7. Human prefrontal cortex phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid increase during normal adult aging, whereas those containing arachidonic acid decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Sarah E; Friedrich, Michael G; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Else, Paul L

    2015-04-01

    Membrane phospholipids make up a substantial portion of the human brain, and changes in their amount and composition are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, little is known about the changes that phospholipids undergo during normal adult aging. This study examined changes in phospholipid composition in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over the adult life span. The largest age-related changes were an increase in the abundance of both mitochondrial and microsomal phosphatidylserine 18:0_22:6 by approximately one-third from age 20 to 100 years and a 25% decrease in mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine 18:0_20:4. Generally, increases were seen with age in phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid across both membrane fractions, whereas phospholipids containing either arachidonic or adrenic acid decreased with age. These findings suggest a gradual change in membrane lipid composition over the adult life span.

  8. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu PL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pei-Li Zhu,1 Si-Yuan Pan,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Yi Zhang,1 Xiao-Yan Wang,1 Nan Sun,1 Zhu-Sheng Chu,1 Zhi-Ling Yu,3 Kam-Ming Ko41Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF, a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb pulp (AqSF-P or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY, on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL mice.Methods: Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR were fed on a normal diet (ND or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w diet (HCBD containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w with or without AqSF-P (0.3%-9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w or BY (0.025%, w/w for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and glucose levels, were measured.Results: Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79% in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67% and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%, when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was

  9. A log-normal distribution model for the molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Maurice, P.A.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a lognormal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured M(n) and M(w) and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several types of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high- pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a log-normal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured Mn and Mw and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several type's of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.

  10. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Couture

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG and fasting insulin (FI responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA. Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03 was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2 had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008. For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456. For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively. Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation.

  11. Alleviative effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on acute heat stress-induced thermal panting and the level of plasma nonesterified fatty acids in hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Y

    2012-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid on hypothyroidism-induced negative growth performance and whether α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress in relation to hypothyroid status. 2. Female broiler chickens (14 d-old) were fed diets supplemented with α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) and an antithyroid substance, propylthiouracil (200 mg/kg), for 20 d under thermoneutral conditions (25°C). At 42 d of age, chickens were exposed to a high ambient temperature (36°C, 60% RH) for 4 h. 3. Under the thermoneutral condition, propylthiouracil administration decreased feed efficiency and concomitantly increased adipose tissue and thyroid gland weights. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triacylglycerol were also increased by propylthiouracil administration. However, α-lipoic acid supplementation did not affect the hypothyroidism-induced effects. 4. In hypothyroid chickens, the rise in respiratory rate induced by heat exposure was greatly inhibited by α-lipoic acid administration at 1 h, but this effect had disappeared at 4 h. In addition, a similar inhibitory effect on the concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids was subsequently observed at 4 h. 5. Therefore, the present study suggested that α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress if chickens are in a hypothyroid status.

  12. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemse, Nisha G; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (pvitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  13. [Gastric acid secretion and absorption of levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease--the effect of supplement therapy to gastric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, I; Terao, Y; Sai, I; Hashimoto, K; Sakuta, M

    1994-03-01

    Since an oral regimen of levodopa has been instituted for treatment of Parkinson's disease, its absorption and metabolism has been well demonstrated. However, its chemical characteristics of high solubility in acid solution and low solubility in water have not been well known. We paid attention to this characteristic and studied the relationship between its absorption and gastric acid secretion in 38 patients with Parkinson's disease who became refractory to therapy of levodopa. We measured the pH and amount of collected fasting gastric juice. Gastric acid secretion was decreased in 22 patients (58%). In ten of these 22 patients, 30 ml of lemon juice was prescribed in every administration of levodopa as a supplement to gastric acid for two weeks. Increases of L-dopa concentration after 60 min. and 180 min. were observed after lemon juice supplement therapy. Among the Parkinson symptoms, rigidity, akinesia, and small step gait were improved in every case except one patient who showed decrease of L-dopa concentration at 180 minutes. However, improvement of tremor was less remarkable. We consider this supplement therapy to gastric acid is one of the effective and useful methods in the management of Parkinson's disease.

  14. ESTIMATION OF SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS IN NORMAL PREDIABETIC AND DIABETIC PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gurupad Mantur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Raised serum uric acid has been associated with a lot of diseases like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular diseases and metabolic disorders. But, the association of serum uric acid levels to that of diabetes mellitus has not been successfully understood. A sincere effort has been put in this study to find out the serum uric acid levels in normal individuals, prediabetics and diabetics and come to a conclusion on the correlation of serum uric acid in diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred eighty people who visited the Department of Medicine were selected. The study included ninety males and ninety females and in each group there were thirty non-diabetic, thirty prediabetics and thirty diabetics. Prediabetics were considered as 110 to 125 mg/dL (6.1 mM/L to 6.9 mM/L - that is WHO criteria was followed. All the subjects were aged between 40-60 years. The correlations were made between the serum uric acid levels and serum fasting glucose, serum postprandial and HbA1c. RESULTS The results show a rise in the serum uric acid levels in the prediabetic and not so much in the non-diabetics and the confirmed diabetics. CONCLUSION The serum uric acid level measurements can be used as a powerful tool in identifying the prediabetic condition and help an individual to make the necessary lifestyle adjustments so that the progression of the diseases can be stopped or maybe infinitely delayed.

  15. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  16. Proteolysis in goat "coalho" cheese supplemented with probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

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    Bezerra, Taliana Kênia Alves; de Araujo, Ana Rita Ribeiro; do Nascimento, Edilza Santos; de Matos Paz, José Eduardo; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi; Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; do Egypto Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to analyse the proteolytic effects of adding isolated and combined probiotic strains to goat "coalho" cheese. The cheeses were: QS - with culture Start, composed by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris (R704); QLA - with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5); QLP - with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (L. casei 01); QB - with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB 12); and QC, co-culture with the three probiotic microorganisms. The cheeses were analysed during 28 days of storage at 10°C. The probiotic cell count was higher than 6.5 and 7 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) of cheese at the 1st and 28th days of storage, respectively. The addition of co-culture influenced (pcheese and resulted in a higher content of soluble protein and release of amino acids at the 1st day after processing. However, over all 28 days, the cheese supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis in its isolated form showed the highest proteolytic activity, particularly in the hydrolysis of the alpha-s2 and kappa-casein fractions.

  17. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

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    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  18. Effect of supplementing fat to pregnant nonlactating cows on colostral fatty acid profile and passive immunity of the newborn calf.

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    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Martins, L T; Bisinotto, R S; Shin, J H; Lock, A L; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (FA) to nulliparous and parous Holstein animals (n=78) during late gestation on FA profile of colostrum and plasma of newborn calves and on production and absorption of IgG. The saturated FA supplement (SAT) was enriched in C18:0 and the unsaturated FA supplement (ESS) was enriched in the essential FA C18:2n-6. Fatty acids were supplemented at 1.7% of dietary dry matter to low-FA diets (1.9% of dietary dry matter) during the last 8 wk of gestation. Calves were fed 4 L of colostrum within 2h of birth from their own dam or from a dam fed the same treatment. Feeding fat did not affect prepartum dry matter intake, body weight change, or gestation length. Parous but not nulliparous dams tended to give birth to heavier calves if fed fat prepartum. Parous dams were less able to synthesize essential FA derivatives, as evidenced by lower desaturase indices, compared with nulliparous dams, suggesting a greater need for essential FA supplementation. The FA profile of colostrum was modified to a greater degree by prepartum fat feeding than was that of neonatal calf plasma. The placental transfer and synthesis of elongated n-3 FA (C20:5, C22:5, and C22:6) were reduced, whereas the n-6 FA (C18:2, C18:3, and C20:3) were increased in plasma of calves born from dams fed ESS rather than SAT. Supplementing unsaturated FA prepartum resulted in elevated concentrations of trans isomers of unsaturated monoene and diene FA, as well as C18:2n-6 in colostrum. Serum concentrations of IgG tended to be increased in calves born from dams fed fat compared with those not fed fat, and prepartum feeding of SAT tended to improve circulating concentrations of IgG in newborn calves above the feeding of ESS. Apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was improved in calves born from dams fed fat, and SAT supplementation appeared more effective than supplementation with ESS. Feeding SAT prepartum

  19. Effects of long-term dietary supplementation of monensin or saccharomyces cerevisiae on blood acid-base and productive performance in growing feedlot steers.

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    Castillo, Cristina; Benedito, José Luis; Méndez, Jesús; García-Partida, Paulino; Vázquez, Patricia; Pereira, Victor; López-Alonso, Marta; Hernández, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two dietary supplements (monensin and a live yeast culture) on acid-base balance in steers maintained in a commercial feedlot system, considering effects over the growing period (14 to 23 weeks of age). A 63-day feedlot study was performed using 42 double-muscled Belgian Blue steers. Steers were allotted randomly to one of the three study groups: (1) control group [no supplementation, C], (2) monensin supplementation [MON] at a concentration of 30 mg/kg (DM basis), and (3) live Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain supplementation [SACC] at a dose of 500 mg/kg (DM basis). Venous blood samples were collected for the measurement of acid-base parameters and L-lactate. Production parameters were also used as a complementary tool for understanding the internal changes associated with supplementation. Our results show that during the study period no statistical differences were observed between supplemented and control steers, although non-supplemented animals tended to gain more efficiently than those fed monensin or yeast. Nevertheless, taking into account blood parameters, these control animals showed a greater risk of acid overload due to a more marked decline in blood buffer levels over time in comparison with supplemented steers although no differences were observed between monensin or yeast supplemented animals. Additionally, significant effect of supplementation was observed in packed cell volume (PCV) values.

  20. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

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    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  1. Exercise and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Hyperphagic OLETF Rats

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    Sarah J. Borengasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8/group: (1 remained sedentary (SED, (2 access to running wheels; (EX (3 a diet supplemented with 3% of energy from fish oil (n3PUFA-SED; and (4 n3PUFA supplementation plus EX (n3PUFA+EX. The 8 week treatments began at 13 weeks, when hepatic steatosis is present in OLETF-SED rats. Results. EX alone lowered hepatic triglyceride (TAG while, in contrast, n3PUFAs failed to lower hepatic TAG and blunted the ability of EX to decrease hepatic TAG levels in n3PUFAs+EX. Insulin sensitivity was improved in EX animals, to a lesser extent in n3PUFA+EX rats, and did not differ between n3PUFA-SED and SED rats. Only the EX group displayed higher complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO to CO2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity. EX also lowered hepatic fatty acid synthase protein while both EX and n3PUFA+EX decreased stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 protein. Conclusions. Exercise lowers hepatic steatosis through increased complete hepatic FAO, insulin sensitivity, and reduced expression of de novo fatty acid synthesis proteins while n3PUFAs had no effect.

  2. Provision of Iron and Folic Acid Supplementations for Pregnant Women in Public and Private Sectors of Tabriz, Iran

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    Hossein Jabbari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate different methods used to provide necessary supplementations for pregnant women and obtain reliable data about the general status of health promotion during pregnancy. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 401 pregnant women referring to different women’s hospitals of Tabriz, including Alzahra, Taleghani, 29-Bahman, Zakariya, Shafa, and Shams from March 2011 to September 2013. Subjects were selected using simple random sampling and had prior experience of childbirth. Results: In this study, prenatal care was provided for all the pregnant women at public (55.8% and private sectors (44.2%. Iron supplementation used by the subjects included ferrous sulfate (150 mg + folic acid (0.5 mg (20.2%, regular-release ferrous sulfate (325 mg (70.4%, folic acid (0.1 mg + ferrous sulfate (200 mg (6.5%, and vitamin B12 (15 mg + ferrous fumarate (350 mg+ vitamin C (150 mg + folic acid (1 mg (1.6%. Supplementations were provided before (56.7% or after (43.3% the onset of pregnancy. In total, 40.9% of the subjects received family planning care, 44.7% of whom referred to medical centers, 34.6% referred to health houses, 12.3% consulted gynecologists, 2.8% consulted midwives and 5% received traditional care. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, general status of iron and folic acid supplementation, their provision and average use of these substances were suboptimal. However, status, provision and use of iron were significantly more efficient than folic acid.

  3. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy induces sex-specific changes in methylation and expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in rats.

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    Reyna Penailillo

    Full Text Available In the placenta, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2 limits fetal glucocorticoid exposure and its inhibition has been associated to low birth weight. Its expression, encoded by the HSD11B2 gene is regulated by DNA methylation. We hypothesized that maternal diets supplemented with folic acid (FA during pregnancy modify the expression of placental HSD11B2 through gene methylation. Wistar rats were fed with high (8 mg/kg or normal low (1mg/kg, control levels of FA during pregnancy. Concentrations of mRNA and protein in placentas were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Methylation in five CpG sites of the placental HSD11B2 promoter (-378 to -275 was analyzed by bacterial cloning and subsequent sequencing. In the FA-supplemented group, mRNA and protein levels of 11β-HSD2 decreased by 58% and increased by 89%, respectively, only in placentas attached to males. In controls, most CpG sites were not methylated except for the CpG2 site which was 80% methylated. CpG2 methylation level increased under the FA treatment; however, only in placentas attached to females was this increase significant (113%. This change was not related to HSD11B2 expression. Fetal weight of females from FA- supplemented mothers was 6% higher than females from control mothers. In conclusion, this is the first study reporting that FA over supplementation during pregnancy modifies the placental HSD11B2 gene expression and methylation in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting that maternal diets with high content of FA can induce early sex-specific responses, which may lead to long-term consequences for the offspring.

  4. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy induces sex-specific changes in methylation and expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penailillo, Reyna; Guajardo, Angelica; Llanos, Miguel; Hirsch, Sandra; Ronco, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the placenta, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) limits fetal glucocorticoid exposure and its inhibition has been associated to low birth weight. Its expression, encoded by the HSD11B2 gene is regulated by DNA methylation. We hypothesized that maternal diets supplemented with folic acid (FA) during pregnancy modify the expression of placental HSD11B2 through gene methylation. Wistar rats were fed with high (8 mg/kg) or normal low (1mg/kg, control) levels of FA during pregnancy. Concentrations of mRNA and protein in placentas were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Methylation in five CpG sites of the placental HSD11B2 promoter (-378 to -275) was analyzed by bacterial cloning and subsequent sequencing. In the FA-supplemented group, mRNA and protein levels of 11β-HSD2 decreased by 58% and increased by 89%, respectively, only in placentas attached to males. In controls, most CpG sites were not methylated except for the CpG2 site which was 80% methylated. CpG2 methylation level increased under the FA treatment; however, only in placentas attached to females was this increase significant (113%). This change was not related to HSD11B2 expression. Fetal weight of females from FA- supplemented mothers was 6% higher than females from control mothers. In conclusion, this is the first study reporting that FA over supplementation during pregnancy modifies the placental HSD11B2 gene expression and methylation in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting that maternal diets with high content of FA can induce early sex-specific responses, which may lead to long-term consequences for the offspring.

  5. Individual and structural environmental influences on utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

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    Tinago, Chiwoneso B; Annang Ingram, Lucy; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-07-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent among Zimbabweans with serious health and social implications. Due to a lack of a national micronutrient food fortification policy, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care established a policy for the prevention of maternal micronutrient deficiencies, which centres on pregnant women receiving daily iron and folic acid (IFA) at their first antenatal care visit and throughout pregnancy. Despite these efforts, utilization of IFA supplementation in pregnancy in Zimbabwe is low. This study aimed to understand the experiences and knowledge of IFA supplementation among pregnant women and healthcare workers in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the influence of health-service and social environments on utilization. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in Shona and English, with pregnant women (n = 24) and healthcare workers (n = 14) providing direct antenatal care services to pregnant women in two high-density community clinics. Data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10. Influences on utilization were at the individual and structural environmental levels. Reasons for low utilization of IFA supplementation included forgetting to take IFA, side effects, misconceptions about IFA, limited access to nutrition information, delayed entry or non-uptake of antenatal care and social norms of pregnant women for IFA supplementation. Utilization was enhanced by knowledge of risks and benefits of supplementation, fear of negative health complications with non-utilization, family support and healthcare worker recommendation for supplementation. Study findings can inform approaches to strengthen micronutrient supplementation utilization to improve the micronutrient status of pregnant women to decrease maternal mortality and improve overall maternal and child health in Zimbabwe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk Fatty Acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

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    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (poil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows' diets.

  7. The effects on boar sperm quality of dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differ among porcine breeds.

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    Yeste, Marc; Barrera, Xavier; Coll, David; Bonet, Sergi

    2011-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to shed light on the relationship between boar sperm quality and dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has been reported inconsistently in the literature. With this aim, such effects were evaluated and compared among three different porcine breeds: Duroc, Large-White, and Pietrain. Animals were randomly separated into two groups and fed either with a control diet or with a diet supplemented with omega-3. Sperm quality of these boar (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) was assessed every week for a 26-week period. Supplementing boar's diet with omega-3 did not affect ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm viability, and acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity. In contrast, supplemented diet positively affected both sperm morphology in Large-White and Pietrain breeds and the osmotic resistance of Pietrain spermatozoa. No effects were seen for the same sperm parameters in Duroc breed. These breed-differences in boar fed with the supplemented diet could explain the contradictions in literature and might be related with differences in the composition of plasma membrane among breeds reported by other authors. Because no harmful effects were observed in the three evaluated breeds, but positive effects in Large-White and Pietrain boar, we can conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be added to boar's diet at the levels used in this study to improve their sperm quality. More research is, however, needed to determine how these fatty acids differently affect the morphology and the osmotic resistance of the spermatozoa in these breeds.

  8. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant En¬zymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Fatemeh TOORANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients.Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids. Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA, which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes.Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation.Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Omega-3 supplement, Antioxidant enzymes

  9. Are There Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Milk with Supplementation of Omega-3 Sources? A Systematic Review.

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    Amaral, Yasmin Notarbartolo di Villarosa do; Marano, Daniele; Silva, Leila Maria Lopes da; Guimarães, Aline Carnevale Lia Dias; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 sources on the fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods The review consisted of the search for articles published in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Virtual Health Library[VHL]) and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: fatty acids, omega-3, human milk and supplementation; for this purpose, we have used the program of research to integrate the services for the maintenance of autonomy (PRISMA) checklist. The following selection criteria were used: articles in English, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, published between 2000 and 2015, and about studies performed in humans. We found 710 articles that met the established criteria; however, only 22 of them were selected to be part of this study. Results All studies found a positive relationship between the consumption of omega-3 sources and their concentration in human milk. The differences in the findings are due to the distinct methods used, such as the specific time of the omega-3 supplementation, the type of omega-3 source offered, as well as the sample size. Conclusion Although the studies were different in several methodological aspects, it was possible to observe the importance of omega-3 supplementation during gestation and/or the puerperium. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  10. Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation interact to influence body weight, insulin resistance, and food intake regulatory gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

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    Huot, Pedro S P; Ly, Anna; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Reza-López, Sandra A; Cho, Daniel; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Maternal intake of multivitamins or folic acid above the basal dietary requirement alters the growth and metabolic trajectory of rat offspring. We hypothesized that a modest increase in the folic acid content of maternal diets would alter the offspring's metabolic phenotype, and that these effects could be corrected by matching the folic acid content of the offspring's diet with that of the maternal diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control or a 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups from each maternal diet group were randomized to the control or to the 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet for 25 weeks. Male pups from dams fed the folic acid-supplemented diet were 3.7% heavier than those from control-fed dams and had lower mRNA expression for leptin receptor Obrb isoform (Lepr) (11%) and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) (14%). In contrast, female pups from folic acid-supplemented dams were 5% lighter than those from control-fed dams and had lower proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) (42%), Lepr (32%), and Agrp (13%), but higher neuropeptide Y (Npy) (18%) mRNA expression. Folic acid supplementation ameliorated the alterations induced by maternal folic acid supplementation in male pups and led to the lowest insulin resistance, but the effects were smaller in female pups and led to the highest insulin resistance. In conclusion, maternal folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control level was associated with alterations in body weight and hypothalamic gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner, and some of these effects were attenuated by postweaning folic acid supplementation.

  11. Supplementation of essential fatty acids to Holstein calves during late uterine life and first month of life alters hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression.

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    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Lock, A L; Block, E; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R

    2016-09-01

    Linoleic acid is an essential dietary fatty acid (FA). However, how the supplementation of linoleic acid during uterine and early life may modify the FA profile and transcriptome regulation of the liver, and performance of preweaned dairy calves is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of essential FA to Holstein calves during late uterine and early life on their hepatic FA profile and global gene expression at 30 d of age. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed either no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA supplement enriched with C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched with linoleic acid. Male calves (n=40) born from these dams were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low (LLA) or high linoleic acid (HLA) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. Liver biopsy was performed at 30 d of age, and microarray analysis was performed on 18 liver samples. Total concentration of FA in liver were greater in calves fed LLA compared with those fed HLA MR (8.2 vs. 7.1%), but plasma concentrations of total FA did not differ due to MR diets. The FA profiles of plasma and liver of calves were affected differently by the prepartum diets. Specifically, the FA profile in liver was affected moderately by the feeding of fat prepartum, but the profiles did not differ due to the type of FA fed prepartum. The type of MR fed during the first 30 d of life had major effects on both plasma and liver FA profiles, resembling the type of fat fed. Plasma and liver of calves fed LLA MR had greater percentage of medium-chain FA (C12:0 and C14:0), whereas plasma and liver from calves fed HLA MR had greater percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Dams fed fat or a specific type of FA modified the expression of some genes in liver of calves, particularly those genes involved in biological functions and pathways related to upregulation of lipid metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory responses

  12. CaCO3 supplementation alleviates the inhibition of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

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    Qi, Gaoxiang; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the inhibiting effect of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation and explain the mechanism of the alleviation in the inhibiting effect under CaCO3 supplementation condition. From the medium containing 50 g sugars l(-1) and 0.5 g formic acid l(-1), only 0.75 g ABE l(-1) was produced when pH was adjusted by KOH and fermentation ended prematurely before the transformation from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In contrast, 11.4 g ABE l(-1) was produced when pH was adjusted by 4 g CaCO3 l(-1). The beneficial effect can be ascribed to the buffering capacity of CaCO3. Comparative analysis results showed that the undissociated formic acid concentration and acid production coupled with ATP and NADH was affected by the pH buffering capacity of CaCO3. Four millimole undissociated formic acid was the threshold at which the transformation to solventogenesis occurred. The inhibiting effect of formic acid on ABE fermentation can be alleviated by CaCO3 supplementation due to its buffering capacity.

  13. Reversible receptor methylation is essential for normal chemotaxis of Escherichia coli in gradients of aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, R M; Koshland, D E

    1988-01-01

    The chemotaxis of wild-type cells of Escherichia coli and double mutants lacking the methyltransferase and the methylesterase activities of the receptor modification system has been compared in spatial gradients of aspartic acid. Previous studies showing that a chemotactic response can be observed for the mutant raised questions about the role of methylation in the bacterial memory. To clarify the role of methylation, the redistribution of bacteria in stabilized defined gradients of aspartic acid was monitored by light scattering. There was no redistribution of the mutant cells in nonsaturating gradients of aspartic acid, but over the same range these mutant bacteria were observed to respond and to adapt during tethering experiments. In large saturating gradients of aspartate, slight movement of the mutant up the gradient was observed. These results show that dynamic receptor methylation is required for the chemotactic response to gentle gradients of aspartic acid and that methylation resets to zero and is part of the normal wild-type memory. There are certain gradients, however, in which the methylation-deficient mutants show chemotactic ability, thus explaining the apparent anomaly. Images PMID:2829179

  14. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  15. Biological effects of add-on eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Assies, Johanna; Bot, Mariska;

    2012-01-01

    ) lipoprotein parameters during 12-weeks' follow-up. RESULTS: Besides increases in supplemented α-tocopherol [estimate (95% CI); 3.62 (1.14-6.11) µmol/l; p = 0.006] and plasma and erythrocyte EPA, the intervention did not influence other oxidative stress, inflammatory or one-carbon-cycle parameters compared...... to placebo. HPA-axis reactivity significantly decreased in the EPA-group (N = 12) [AUC(i): -121.93 (-240.20--3.47) min×nmol/l; p = 0.045], not in the placebo-group (N = 12). Furthermore, EPA-supplementation increased erythrocyte and plasma docosapentaenoic acid, and decreased plasma arachidonic acid (AA...

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients.

  17. Effects of n–3 Supplementation on Plasma and Liver Phospholipid Fatty Acids Profile in Aged Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation in Wistar rats are focused on cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and antioxidant status changes. We determined plasma and liver phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) status and plasma lipid concentrations in aged Wistar rats. Our results showed differences in plasma and liver FAs profiles as well as plasma chlolesterol (CHOL), triglicerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), CHOL/HDL ratio (risk factor for ...

  18. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation.

  19. Chemometric analysis of the interactions among different parameters describing health conditions, breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how different doses of conjugated linoleic acids applied for various periods of time influence breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats treated or not with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). We also search for interactions among parameters describing health conditions and cancer risk. Animals were divided into 18 groups with different diet modifications (vegetable oil, 1.0%, 2.0% additions of CLA) and different periods of supplementation. In groups treated with DMBA mammary adenocarcinomas appeared. Due to the complexity of experiment apart from statistical analysis a chemometric tool-Partial Least Square method was applied. Analysis of pairs of correlated parameters allowed to identify some regularities concerning the relationships between fatty acid profiles and clinical features of animals. Fatty acids profile was the result of prolonged exposure to high dose of CLA and DMBA administration. These two factors underlined the differences in fatty acids profiles among clusters of animals.

  20. [Folic acid supplementation as prophylaxis of neural tube defect in the Lower Silesia region: fact or fiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagłaj, Maciej; Wojtyłko, Anna

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of nationwide programme of prophylaxis of neural tube defects in the Lower Silesia region. A questionnaire study was conducted among all mothers of infants admitted between 2001 and 2010 to the Department of Pediatric Surgery and Urology in Wroclaw Medical Academy. The data regarding pregnancy and delivery, newborn's medical condition, family history, parental health, profession and education, and finally folic acid supplementation by mothers were analysed. Among 1278 newborn infants, in 148 children (11.6%) central nervous system (CNS) defects were diagnosed. Among 894 mothers (69.9%) who took part in the study, 159 of them (17.8%) confirmed taking folic acid before becoming pregnant. The rate of supplementation with folic acid showed a rising trend in the study period and increased from 7.1% in 2001 to 35.8% in 2010. Folic acid was taken more frequently by the women living in urban areas (24.2%) than by those living in rural regions (9.2%). With regard to the educational level, the highest rate of supplementation with folic acid was noted among the women with high education (37.8%). Forty-eight percent of mothers were informed about prevention of neural tube defects by their physician, while in 32% of them the family or media were the source of information. Mothers of 255 infants confirmed that they knew about prevention of congenital defects by vitamin intake, but they had not taken folic acid before pregnancy. 1. Realization of the programme of prevention of neural tube defects in Lower Silesia region is highly unsatisfactory. 2. The actions undertaken on the national and local level and aimed to popularize the knowledge about prevention of CNS defects among women are assessed to be ineffective in the Lower Silesia region and need urgent verification.

  1. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2016-09-22

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  2. Carcass traits and meat quality of pigs fed on fodder supplemented with sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel NEVRKLA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare meat and fat content and meat quality of pigs fed diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and animals not receiving the supplement SFO or CLA (control group. The experiment consisted of 116 pigs, divided into three groups: two experimental (n = 40 where animals were fed feed supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and control (n = 36. Fattening pigs were kept and fed in standardized conditions. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 120 kg. Meat quality traits (pH, drip loss, backfat fat content, colour, MLLT muscle dry matter content, fat in the dry matter, IMF in MLLT were determined. Summarizing obtained results it should be concluded that 2% sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid did not affect the meat quality. The experimental animals were characterized by high meat content (58.26% - SFO addition; 57.63% - CLA addition; 57.99% C group and low fat content (from 14.35 mm in SFO group up to 14.70 mm in CLA group.

  3. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Pgrowth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Pmuscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  4. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  5. THE EFFECT OF COTTONSEED AND SOYBEAN SUPPLEMENTATION ON CLA ISOMERS AND OTHER UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmaryan G. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the supplementation effect of different treatments of whole cottonseed and full fat soybean on the diet of dairy ewes and the milk fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content. The results indicate for both diets it is most suitable to use the second treatment in order to increase the level of cis- 9,trans-11 CLA isomer in milk. In the level of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-11 no changes were observed in neither of the diets.

  6. Survey on the Quality of the Top-Selling European and American Botanical Dietary Supplements Containing Boswellic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Jürgen; Artaria, Christian; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2016-04-01

    In consideration of the increasing popularity of frankincense and the widely published quality problems associated with botanical dietary supplements, a survey was conducted for the first time on the quality of frankincense containing botanical dietary supplements. Six US products representing 78 % of the units sold and 70 % of the market value, and 11 European products representing 30 % of the units sold and 40 % of the market value were tested for their boswellic acid composition profile, label compliance, and claimed health benefits. Special focus was also set on the statements made with regard to the frankincense applied.Only five products out of seventeen disclosed all relevant information for the Boswellia extract, mentioning the species, the part of plant used, and the boswellic acid content. Whereas all products but one claimed to use Boswellia serrata, three products did not mention the resin as the part applied and 10 products did not declare the boswellic acid content. Apart from the different boswellic acid composition determined with a sensitive LC/MS method, 41 % of the products did not comply with the label declaration. Hence, one product from Italy did not contain any of the six characteristic boswellic acids (KBA, AKBA, αBA, βBA, AαBA, AβBA) at all and another US product contained only traces, suggesting the absence of frankincense or the use of Boswellia frereana instead of B. serrata. In another product, the ratios of the individual boswellic acids were different from B. serrata gum resin, indicating the use of another species such as Boswellia sacra or Boswellia carterii. Furthermore, two products revealed different boswellic acid contents from those declared on the label. Further, two products did not declare the use of manipulated Boswellia gum resin extract being enriched in acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid content reaching up to 66 %. In addition, consumers could be misled by outdated literature or references to in vitro studies

  7. Long-time Fulvic Acid Supplementation Modulates Hydroxylysyl Glycosylation of Collagen in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱少华; 朱金龙; 肖坚; 任亮; 刘良; 周亦武

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of fulvic acid (FA) on the hydroxylysyl glycosylation in collagen bio-synthesis, 40 NMRI mice were divided into two groups (n=20 in each group, consisting 10 females and 10 males). The animal was maintained for two generations by different diets:control group with normal water and food and study group with water containing 30mg/L FA and normal food. The second generation of the animal was slaughtered, and the biochemical parameters of collagen content and the degree of collagen hydroxylysyl glycosylation in skin, rib and tibia were detected by biochemical methods. The mean value of collagen in the study group was increased slightly, and no significant difference between study group and control group was found (P>0.05), but the content of glucose-glactose-hydroxylysine (GGH) was significantly decreased in the study group in comparison with the control group (P<0.01). It was suggested that through the decrease of GGH 30 mg/L FA could inhibit the activity of galactosyl-hydroxylysylglucosyl-transferase and further disturb the post-translational modification of collagen intracellularly.

  8. Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management of nursing home residents. Methods Nineteen subjects (8M, 11F; mean age 77.1 ± 10.1 suffering with chronic constipation were assigned to receive LAB (3.0 × 1011 CFU/g twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner a day for 2 weeks in November 2008. Subjects draw up a questionnaire on defecation habits (frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool, and we collected fecal samples from the subjects both before entering and after ending the trial, to investigate LAB levels and inhibition of harmful enzyme activities. Results were tested with SAS and Student's t-test. Results Analysis of questionnaire showed that there was an increase in the frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit after LAB treatment, but there were no significant changes. And it also affects the intestinal environment, through significantly increase (p p Conclusion LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation.

  9. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid diet supplementation on semen quality and fertility of broiler breeder roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapeh, Ramin Shahabi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2017-02-01

    Decreased semen quality and fertility rate is a common feature in broiler breeder roosters. This decrease is associated with dysfunction of Sertoli cells and defective spermatogenesis. Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as a precursor of creatine, plays an important role in the proper functioning of Sertoli cells and energy metabolism in sperm. Twenty, 29-wk-old broiler breeder roosters (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups and fed diets supplemented with different levels of GAA, including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200), and 1800 (GAA-1800) mg GAA/kg of diet for 26 successive weeks. During a 24-wk period, the seminal characteristics were weekly evaluated. At the end of experiment, sperm penetration and fertility rates were determined, using 68 artificially inseminated age-matched broiler breeder hens of the same strain (for 2 weeks). Semen concentration (P = 0.003), total sperm number (P = 0.005) and sperm forward motility (P = 0.01) were increased by GAA-1200 group. Also, sperm plasma membrane functionality was marginally affected (P = 0.06) in roosters received all levels of GAA. Sperm abnormality and plasma membrane integrity were not affected by dietary GAA. The highest number of sperm penetration holes was recorded for the GAA-1200 group (P = 0.08). Interestingly, fertility rate was increased by the feeding of all levels of GAA (P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary GAA was associated with improvement in most of the rooster's seminal characteristics and fertility rate, suggesting a potential for using GAA to attenuate the age-related sub-fertility in commercial broiler breeder roosters.

  10. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  11. Effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during pregnancy, on neonatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Klis, FRM; van der Dijs, FPL; van Beusekom, CM; Landman, H; Capello, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    2001-01-01

    Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) status during pregnancy is important. We studied the effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during uncomplicated pregnancy, on neonatal LCP status at term delivery. Supplements were administered from the second trimester to de

  12. Effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on cognition and behaviour at 9 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special attent

  13. Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysneiros, Roberta M; Ferrari, Danuza; Arida, Ricardo M; Terra, Vera C; de Almeida, Antonio-Carlos G; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A

    2010-01-01

    Studies have provided evidence of the important effects of omega-3 fatty acid on the brain in neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Previous data have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids lead to prevention of status epilepticus-associated neuropathological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats with epilepsy. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has resulted in extensive preservation of GABAergic cells in animals with epilepsy. This study investigated the interplay of these effects with neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The results clearly showed a positive effect of long-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain plasticity in animals with epilepsy. Enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF levels and preservation of interneurons expressing parvalbumin were observed. Parvalbumin-positive cells were identified as surviving instead of newly formed cells. Additional investigations are needed to determine the electrophysiological properties of the newly formed cells and to clarify whether the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain plasticity are accompanied by functional gain in animals with epilepsy.

  14. ANAEMIA ERADICATION IN ADOLESCENTS- A NEW HOPE WITH WEEKLY IRON FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION (WIFS (PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Divakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is perceived to be a major public health problem especially among adolescent females .Findings from National Family Health Survey NFHS (2005-06 indicate that 56% of the adolescent girls in India are anaemic and, of these 17% suffer from moderate to severe anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia in female adolescent age group is still an understudied subject. The aims of this study were to evaluate the recently initiated WIFS program for government school girls with respect to implementation and impact on trends in prevalence of Anaemia among adolescent girls in a Bengaluru rural school. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross-sectional, descriptive exploratory research study was used. The choice of the school was based on commitment to administration of weekly iron-folic acid supplements (WIFS programme. All the girl students from class 6 th to 10th of Government High and Senior Secondary school (age group, 11-19 years who were a part of WIFS were enrolled as study participants. Qualitative data on anaemia awareness and diet history, compliance, side effects were taken from these girls. General information on age, height, weight were collected and BMI calculated. Hb estimation was done by Haemocue method. Statistical Analysis- Analysis were prepared by IBM SPSS Statistics version 22. RESULTS Out of the 95girls in the school, there were 81 girls (85.26% reported to consume one tablet of Iron folic acid (IFA weekly in the past 1 year, with no major side effects. The girls had knowledge about symptoms of anaemia and iron-rich diet. Hb estimates indicated 79.01% non anaemic, prevalence of anaemia was 20.99%; none of the girls had severe anaemia, 1.2% had moderate anaemia and the remaining 19.8% belonged to mild anaemia category, indicating a significant decline. The mean BMI of the study sample was 17.53 kg/m2 with 67.9% underweight and 6.2% overweight. CONCLUSION Overall, in this school, the WIFS program was found to be well implemented with good

  15. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: At least 500 μg of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 μg of folate or with one 500 μg capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p

  16. Effect of solar radiation and flaxseed supplementation on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, M; Albenzio, M; Bruno, A; Fedele, V; Santillo, A; Sevi, A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of protection from solar radiation and whole flaxseed supplementation on milk yield and milk fatty acid profile in lactating ewes exposed to high ambient temperature. The experiment was conducted during summer and involved 40 ewes divided into 4 groups. The ewes were either exposed (not offered shade) or protected from solar radiation (offered shade). For each solar radiation treatment, ewes were supplemented with whole flaxseed or not. Milk samples from each ewe were collected at the morning and afternoon milking every week, and analyzed for pH, total protein, casein, fat, and lactose content, somatic cell count, and renneting parameters (clotting time, rate of clot formation, and clot firmness after 30 min). At the beginning of the experiment, and then at d 23 and 44, milk samples were analyzed for milk fatty acids using gas chromatography. Flaxseed supplementation significantly increased milk yield, fat, protein, and casein yields, and somatic cell count, and increased fat and lactose contents of milk. A decrease of saturated fatty acids from C6:0 to C16:0 and an increase of C18:1 trans-11 and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 was observed in milk from flaxseed-supplemented ewes. Flaxseed supplementation decreased saturated fatty acids content and increased total monounsaturated fatty acids content, the total content of isomers of conjugated linoleic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids content in milk. Flaxseed also increased the α-linolenic acid content of milk. As a result, milk from supplemented groups showed an increase in n-3 fatty acid content. Flaxseed supplementation decreased short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, and increased long-chain fatty acid content of milk. On average, flaxseed supplementation increased the C18:2 cis-9,trans-11/C18:1 trans-11 Δ(9)-desaturase index starting from d 23 of the experiment, in correspondence with the highest C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 content of milk from flaxseed-supplemented

  17. The micronutrient supplements, zinc sulphate and folic acid, did not ameliorate sperm functional parameters in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigani, M; Yaghmaei, B; Amirjannti, N; Lakpour, N; Akhondi, M M; Zeraati, H; Hajihosseinal, M; Sadeghi, M R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of folic acid and zinc sulphate supplementation on the improvement of sperm function in subfertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Eighty-three OAT men participated in a 16-week intervention randomised, double-blind clinical trial with daily treatment of folic acid (5 mg day(-1) ) and zinc sulphate (220 mg day(-1) ), or placebo. Before and after treatment, semen and blood samples were obtained for determining sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, sperm viability, sperm mitochondrial function, sperm chromatin status using toluidine blue, aniline blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining; and semen and blood folate, zinc, B12 , total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Sperm concentration (×10(6)  ml(-1) ) increased in subfertile men receiving the combined treatment of folic acid and zinc sulphate and also in the group receiving only folic acid treatment; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.056 and P = 0.05, respectively). Sperm chromatin integrity (%) increased significantly in subfertile men receiving only zinc sulphate treatment (P = 0.048). However, this improvement in sperm quality was not significant after adjusting placebo effect. This study showed that zinc sulphate and folic acid supplementation did not ameliorate sperm quality in infertile men with severely compromised sperm parameters, OAT. Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, and also nutritional factors play an important role in results of administration of supplementation on sperm parameters. However, these results should be confirmed by multiple studies in larger populations of OAT men.

  18. Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-09-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01741077.

  19. Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Wesseling, Catharina; Spector, Logan G; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Ezzat, Sameera; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Koifman, Sergio; Kaatsch, Peter; Moschovi, Maria; Rashed, Wafaa M; Selvin, Steve; McCauley, Kathryn; Hung, Rayjean J; Kang, Alice Y; Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype. We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center. Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester). Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

  20. Statin Use Mitigate the Benefit of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation-A Meta-Regression of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ankur; Bajaj, Anurag; Khosla, Sandeep; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    During last 2 decades, multiple studies have evaluated omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation for cardiovascular prevention. The benefit found in previous studies was not demonstrated in more contemporary trials. We aimed to investigate effect of study characteristics, particularly concomitant statin therapy on results of randomized controlled trials. We systematically searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating ω-3 PUFA supplementation and reporting clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effect model, followed by a meta-regression of dose, docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA) ratio, and duration of treatment and use of lipid-lowering/statin therapy in control group. Twenty-three studies with 77,776 patients (38,910 PUFA; 38,866 controls) were included. PUFA had no effect on total mortality [risk ratio (RR) = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.01] and myocardial infarction (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73-1.02), but marginally reduced cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98). Lower control group statin use (b = 0.222, P = 0.027) and higher DHA/EPA (b = -0.105, P = 0.033) ratio was associated with higher reduction in total mortality. Duration and dose had no effect. None of the variables except duration had significant effect on reduction in cardiovascular mortality by PUFA supplementation. There was evidence of publication bias. Statin use may mitigate, and higher DHA/EPA ratio is associated with the beneficial effect of PUFA supplementation.

  1. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  2. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  3. Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid plus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increases food intake and brown adipose tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Alan A; Rayner, D Vernon; Mitchell, Sharon E; Bashir, Shabina; Ha, Jung-Heun; Wahle, Klaus W; Morris, Amanda C; Williams, Lynda M

    2009-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  5. Meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat from broilers supplemented with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Md Manirul; Bostami, A B M Rubayet; Mun, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with four levels (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) of pomegranate by-product (PB) on meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler meat were evaluated. The crude protein and moisture contents increased, whereas ether extract in breast and thigh meat and cholesterol in breast meat decreased in response to dietary PB supplementation (pmeat, the sum of saturated fatty acids was lower, while the sum of mono-unsaturated and n-3 fatty acids were higher, alongside lower n-6/n-3 ratio in the 1.0% and 2.0% PB supplemented group (pmeat were reduced in the PB supplemented groups (pproducts improved the meat composition, fatty acid profile and reduced lipid oxidation of broiler meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of high-dose large neutral amino acid supplementation on exercise, motor skill, and mental performance in Australian Rules Football players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stepto, Nigel K; Shipperd, Benjamin B; Hyman, Graeme; McInerney, Bernie; Pyne, David B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-dose large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation on attenuating fatigue-induced decrements in exercise and motor skill performance in Australian Rules Football (ARF) players...

  7. Effect of dietary supplemental nicotinic acid on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in three genotypes of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, R R; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Zhao, J P; Li, P; Hu, J; Wen, J

    2011-04-01

    The effects of dietary supplemental nicotinic acid (NA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were investigated in three genotypes of chicken. Fast-growing AA (Arbor Acres) broilers were compared with two genotypes of a slow-growing local breed, Beijing-You, that had undergone selection for and against intramuscular fat content respectively (BJY+IMF and BJY-IMF). The treatments were arranged 3×4 factorial completely randomized design. Day-old females (n=624) were allocated to four treatments with six replicates per treatment and fed diets (basal contained ~25 mg NA/kg) supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 120 mg NA/kg. A sample of 72 birds from each genotype was slaughtered at market time (8 weeks of age for AA and 16 weeks of age for BJY). The breast muscles of AA broilers were darker, had less redness and yellowness, lower drip loss and higher shear force as compared to the BJY genotypes (pabdominal fat but, for most variables, values decreased slightly with 120 mg NA/kg. Increasing supplementation to 60 mg NA/kg decreased (quadratic, pmuscle; (ii) the addition of 30 mg NA/kg meets the requirement of BJY genotypes; and (iii) there seems to be no beneficial effect of NA supplementation on chicken meat quality except for limiting the drip loss.

  8. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and prolongs survival in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoh Iwasa

    Full Text Available Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05. The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver.

  9. Effect of α-linoleic acid supplementation in goat’s diet on milk yield, quality and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kompan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effect of α-linoleic acid (ALA on goat’s milk production (daily milk yield, fat and protein content and somatic cell count (SSC and the persistence of this effect after supplement termination was conducted on 32 Alpine breed goats kept on an indoor Alpine farm. After adaptation period the animals were randomly allocated according to treatment into control group (G0 with no added supplement and test group (G1 where supplement containing ALA was added over a period of five days. Measurements of milk yield and sampling for analysis of milk composition in adaptation period, treatment period and first five days of period after treatment occurred every day at each milking (morning and evening. From the 5th to the 50th day of the after treatment period, measurements and sampling occurred every fifth day. Based on the conducted research it could be concluded that supplementation had no effect on milk yield; it had low effect on milk components and significant effect on SSC. This could be used as a method of choice for reduction of SCC in goat’s milk.

  10. Fatty acid profile, carcass and quality traits of meat from Nellore young bulls on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture.

  11. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C. Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C, superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C, and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C. Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA.

  12. Effects of Low-Protein Diets Supplemented with Branched-Chain Amino Acid on Lipid Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Wei, Hongkui; Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Guo, Qiuping; Yin, Yulong

    2017-04-05

    This study evaluated the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in low-protein diets on lipid metabolism in dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA), abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA), and perirenal adipose (PRA) tissues. A total of 24 piglets were allotted to four treatments, and each group was fed the adequate protein (AP) diet, low-protein (LP) diet, LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B), or LP diet supplemented with twice BCAA (LP + 2B). Serum concentrations of leptin in the BCAA-supplemented treatments were higher (P effect was likely modulated by the expression of lipid metabolic regulators in DSA, ASA, and PRA in a depot-specific manner.

  13. Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat H. M. El-Nour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (<0.05 increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season.

  14. Impact of enriching larval brine shrimp (Artemia sp. with a supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids on their growth and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prusińska Maja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact the commercial supplement S.presso (INVE Aquaculture, Belgium, a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids to enrich the proximate composition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp., had on their growth and mortality. Four different enrichment protocols were investigated: the supplement was given in one or two doses at various time intervals. The results indicate that while S.presso increased nauplius mortality slightly, administering the appropriate dose reduced losses to a very low level (from 12.5% with a single dose to 8.6% with the recommended dose divided into to equal parts. Additionally, it was confirmed that the supplement S.presso increased brine shrimp growth slightly in comparison to that of the control group, but the differences were statistically insignificant. The results permit concluding that S.presso is suitable for use as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids for brine shrimp enrichment with the intent of using them as fish food.

  15. Effect of extender and amino acid supplementation on sperm quality of cooled-preserved Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two commercially available liquid stallion semen extenders for the preservation of Andalusian donkey semen at 5°C for up to 72h, and to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition on sperm quality of cooled donkey semen. In addition, this study investigated the effect of seasons on semen characteristics of Andalusian jackasses. Throughout a year, 50 ejaculates were collected from ten adult donkeys and a complete semen evaluation was performed immediately after collection. In Experiment 1, semen samples (n=32) were pooled, divided into two aliquots, and cooled in either Gent(®) A or INRA 96(®). In Experiment 2, pooled semen samples (n=9) were cooled in Gent A(®) supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60mM for each glutamine, proline, or taurine. Fresh semen and chilled samples were assessed for sperm motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Sperm motility variables were greater (Psperm variables were observed among seasons. In conclusion, Gent(®) A maintained sperm motility characteristics after 72h of cold storage to a greater extent than INRA 96(®). Moreover, motility was greater when Gent(®) A supplemented at different concentrations of amino acids than Gent(®) A with no supplementation. An effect of seasons on the semen quality of the Andalusian donkey was demonstrated.

  16. Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Extract Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Modulates Serum Amino Acids Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Martínez, Yordan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract (SCCWE) on growth performance, oxidative stress, intestinal morphology, and serum amino acid concentration in weaned piglets. Utilizing a completely randomized design, 40 healthy piglets weaned at 21 d were grouped into 4 experimental treatments with 10 pigs per treatment group. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0), a basal diet with a 0.05% SCCWE (T1), a basal diet with a 0.10% SCCWE (T2), and a basal diet with a 0.15% SCCWE (T3). SCCWE supplementation increased the average daily gain and final body weight compared with T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE in T2 and T3 improved the average daily feed intake and decreased the feed/gain ratio compared with T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). SCCWE decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly compared to T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE increased the concentration of Ile compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of Leu, Phe, and Arg were higher in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate beneficial effects of SCCWE supplementation on growth performance, the concentration of some essential amino acids, and alleviation of oxidative stress in weaned piglets.

  17. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Young-Sool; Chung, Hye Jin; Sontakke, Sneha B; Chung, In-Young; Ju, Sunmi; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2017-07-11

    To measure ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor of patients with cataract after oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with senile cataract who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients (n = 14 each) were administered oral vitamin C (2 g), intravenous vitamin C (20 g) or no treatment (control group) on the day before surgery. Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 cm(3)) were obtained by anterior chamber aspiration at the beginning of surgery and stored at -80 °C. Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean age at surgery was 62.5 years, with no difference among the three groups. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor in the control and oral and intravenous vitamin C groups were 1347 ± 331 μmol/L, 1859 ± 408 μmol/L and 2387 ± 445 μmol/L, respectively. Ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in the control than in the oral (P humor is increased by systemic vitamin C supplementation, with intravenous administration being more effective than oral administration.

  18. FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF SERUM-LIPIDS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR BABIES AFTER NORMAL AND HYPERTENSIVE PREGNANCIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSCHOUW, YT; AL, MDM; HORNSTRA, G; BULSTRARAMAKERS, MTEW; HUISJES, HJ

    1991-01-01

    The biochemical essential fatty acid (EFA) status of neonates born after normal and hypertensive pregnancies (PIH) and that of their mothers was assessed by measuring the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol esters (CE) of umbilical cord serum and maternal

  19. Alterations in acid-base homeostasis during water immersion in normal man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Schneider, N. S.; Vaamonde, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of water immersion on renal bicarbonate and acid excretion were assessed in 10 normal male subjects. Immersion resulted in a highly significant progressive increase in the rate of sodium and bicarbonate excretion, and in urine pH. Immersion was also associated with a significant increase in urine P-CO2; this increase presupposes a maintained rate of hydrogen secretion in the distal tubular segment. The rapidity of onset of the bicarbonaturia (2 hrs of immersion) and the concomitant increase in urinary P-CO2 suggest that enhanced bicarbonate excretion of immersion cannot be completely accounted for by immersion-induced suppression of aldosterone, and that the natriuresis and bicarbonaturia of immersion is mediated in part by an increased proximal rejection of sodium and bicarbonate.

  20. Lysosomal acid lipase: At the crossroads of normal and atherogenic cholesterol metabolism

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    Joshua A Dubland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Unregulated cellular uptake of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the arterial intima leads to the formation of foam cells in atherosclerosis. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL plays a crucial role in both lipoprotein lipid catabolism and excess lipid accumulation as it is the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters derived from both low density lipoprotein (LDL and modified forms of LDL. Evidence suggests that as atherosclerosis progresses, accumulation of excess free cholesterol in lysosomes leads to impairment of LAL activity, resulting in accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the lysosome as well as the cytosol in foam cells. Impaired metabolism and release of cholesterol from lysosomes can lead to downstream defects in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 regulation, needed to offload excess cholesterol from plaque foam cells. This review focuses on the role LAL plays in normal cholesterol metabolism and how the associated changes in its enzymatic activity may ultimately contribute to atherosclerosis progression.

  1. Leucine Supplementation After Mechanical Stimulation Activates Protein Synthesis via L-type Amino Acid Transporter 1 In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Naoya; Kawano, Fuminori; Murakami, Taro; Nakata, Ken; Higashida, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-30

    Branched-chain amino acid supplements consumed following exercise are widely used to increase muscle mass. Although both exercise (i.e., mechanical stimulation) and branched-chain amino acid leucine supplementation have been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway independently, the mechanisms underlying their synergistic effects are largely unknown. Utilizing cultured differentiated C2C12 myotubes, we established a combination treatment model in which the cells were subjected to cyclic uniaxial mechanical stretching (4 h, 15%, 1 Hz) followed by stimulation with 2 mM leucine for 45 min. Phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), an mTOR-regulated marker of protein translation initiation, was significantly increased following mechanical stretching alone but returned to the baseline after 4 h. Leucine supplementation further increased p70S6K phosphorylation, with a greater increase observed in the stretched cells than in the non-stretched cells. Notably, the expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), a stimulator of the mTOR pathway, was also increased by mechanical stretching, and siRNA-mediated knockdown partially attenuated leucine-induced p70S6K phosphorylation. These results suggest that mechanical stretching promotes LAT1 expression and, consequently, amino acid uptake, leading to enhanced leucine-induced activation of protein synthesis. LAT1 has been demonstrated to be a point of crosstalk between exercise- and nutrition-induced skeletal muscle growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain ( P increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) ( P red blood cell (RBC) count ( P cell hemoglobin (day 14, P = 0.035; day 21, P = 0.003), and serum protein carbonyl level (day 21, P = 0.009), while significantly increased serum GSH content (day 14, P = 0.022; day 28, P = 0.001), SOD and GSH-Px activities at 21 days of age ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  3. Effects of a simple educational intervention in well-baby clinics on women's knowledge about and intake of folic acid supplements in the periconceptional period: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smit, Denhard J; Weinreich, Stephanie S; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that a concise intervention to promote the preconception use of folic acid (FA) supplements among mothers who visit a well-baby clinic (WBC) for the 6-month check-up of their youngest child is effective. Effectiveness was measured as intention to use or actual use of FA supplements before a next pregnancy among women who expected to be pregnant within 0-12 months. Controlled intervention study with independent samples of intervention and control mothers. The intervention took place at the 6-month visit. A post-intervention measurement was done in the intervention group and a comparable measurement in the control group at the 11-month check-up visit. The intervention, verbal and in writing, was implemented in four Dutch WBC and given by the WBC physician to the mothers who visited the WBC. All mothers visiting the WBC were eligible for inclusion, unless they were unable to complete a questionnaire. The intervention group consisted of 198 (68 %) mothers recruited from 291 6-month intervention visits and the control group of 215 (84%) mothers recruited from 255 11-month normal visits. In mothers who expected to be pregnant within 0-12 months, the proportion using or intending to use FA was 65% in the intervention group (n 49) v. 42% in the control group (n 43; difference 23%, 95% CI 4, 43%, P<0·05). Health education intervention at the 6-month WBC visit is an effective means to promote the use of FA supplements or the intention to do so.

  4. alpha-Lipoic acid supplementation inhibits oxidative damage, accelerating chronic wound healing in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Renata; Nasole, Emanuele; Di Donato, Ferruccio; Borghi, Battista; Neuzil, Jiri; Tomasetti, Marco

    2005-07-29

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is successfully used for the treatment of a variety of conditions. However, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen induces production of reactive oxygen species, causing damage to the cells. Thus, antioxidant supplementation has been proposed as an adjuvant to attenuate such deleterious secondary effects. We evaluated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) in patients affected by chronic wounds undergoing HBO treatment. LA supplementation efficiently reduces both the lipid and DNA oxidation induced by oxygen exposure. LA exerted its antioxidant activity by directly interacting with free radicals or by recycling vitamin E. An inhibitory effect of LA on the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 was observed. Taken together, we demonstrated an adjuvant effect of LA in HBO therapy used for impaired wound healing treatment. We propose that LA may be used to further promote the beneficial effects of HBO therapy.

  5. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    acids ( PUFA ), particularly omega -3 fatty acids , inhibits SREBP-1 activation, resulting in a decreased transcription of FAS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate...Cancer; Lipid Metabolism; Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...controls, Menendez et al demonstrated that addition of omega -3 fatty acids (-3 FA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), alpha- linolenic acid

  6. Calcium and linoleic acid supplements in the prevention of pre-eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonelo E Bautista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzate et al.1, conducted a nested case-control study to (quote “estimate the protective effect from calcium [supplement] alone [CC], compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid [CC+CLA] in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia”. Based on a crude analysis of the data in Table 3,1 they concluded that neither CC nor CC+CLA reduced the risk of preeclampsia in the whole sample, but that CC+CLA significantly decreased risk among women 13-18 years old. A quick look analysis of the data in this table shows this conclusion is mostly based on the fact that none of the cases in 13-18 year old women was treated with CC+CLA. Contrary to the authors’ interpretation, this does not point to a protective effect of CC+CLA, it simply indicates that the assumption of positivity has being violated and, consequently, that an effect for this age group cannot be estimated2. In fact, the probability of getting no treated cases in this age-group was 28%, since only 15.5% of all women received CC+CLA. Also, accurate estimates of effect in women 34-45 years old were not possible, because there were only seven women who used CC+CLA in this age group. In spite of the limited sample size, the authors restricted their attention to the apparent protective effect of CC+CLA in 13-19 year old women, while ignoring apparent harmful effects in older women. I estimated age-specific rate ratios (RR by fitting a saturated conditional complementary log-log3 to the data in Table 3 and found that CC+CLA was protective among women 13-19 (RR= 0.61, 95% CI: 0.41- 0.90, but harmful in women 19-34 (RR= 1.74, 95% CI: 1.21- 2.50 and 35-45 years old (RR= 4.98, 95% CI= 1.74-14.30. Of course, this approach is an improvement over a naive crude analysis, but does not solve the problem of violation and near violation of positivity described above. An overall age-adjusted RR was 1.02 (95% CI= 0.89-1.17; p= 0.756. Thus, this study provides no evidence of a beneficial effect of CC+CLA in

  7. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Xu, Anlong; Krul, Cyrille; Venema, Koen; Liu, Yong; Niu, Yantao; Lu, Jinxiu; Bensoussan, Liath; Seeram, Navindra P; Heber, David; Henning, Susanne M

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to determine whether flavonoids from green and black tea (GT, BT), citrus fruit with rutin (CF+R) and soy (S) supplements exposed to the same conditions in a dynamic in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2) will form the same phenolic acid products of microbial metabolism. About 600 mg of flavonoids from GT, BT, CF+R and S extracts were infused at t = 0 and 12 h into the TIM-2. Samples from the lumen and dialysate were collected at t = 0,4,8,12,16,24 and 28h. The flavonoid and PA concentrations were measured by HPLC and GC-MS. GT, BT, and CF+R formed 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3M4HPAA), 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (4HPAA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4DHPAA), and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (3,3HPPA). BT flavonoids were also metabolized to 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6THBA) and CF+R flavonoids to 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) propionic acid (3,4H3MPPA), 3-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (3HPAA) and a small amount of hippuric acid. After S infusion, we found 3M4HPAA and 4HPAA only. Among these phenolic acids, only 3,4DHPAA exhibited antiproliferative activity in prostate and colon cancer cells. 3,4DHPAA was significantly (P BT, C+R, and S flavonoids resulted in the conversion to the same major phenolic acids.

  8. Production of resistant starch by extrusion cooking of acid-modified normal-maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize extrusion cooking and hydrothermal treatment to produce resistant starch (RS) as an economical alternative to a batch-cooking process. A hydrothermal treatment (110 degrees C, 3 d) of batch-cooked and extruded starch samples facilitated propagation of heat-stable starch crystallites and increased the RS contents from 2.1% to 7.7% up to 17.4% determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber. When starch samples were batch cooked and hydrothermally treated at a moisture content below 70%, acid-modified normal-maize starch (AMMS) produced a greater RS content than did native normal-maize starch (NMS). This was attributed to the partially hydrolyzed, smaller molecules in the AMMS, which had greater mobility and freedom than the larger molecules in the NMS. The RS contents of the batch-cooked and extruded AMMS products after the hydrothermal treatment were similar. A freezing treatment of the AMMS samples at -20 degrees C prior to the hydrothermal treatment did not increase the RS content. The DSC thermograms and the X-ray diffractograms showed that retrograded amylose and crystalline starch-lipid complex, which had melting temperatures above 100 degrees C, accounted for the RS contents.

  9. Roles of retinoic acid signaling in normal and abnormal development of the palate and tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Junko; Udagawa, Jun; Shiota, Kohei

    2014-05-01

    Palatogenesis involves various developmental events such as growth, elevation, elongation and fusion of opposing palatal shelves. Extrinsic factors such as mouth opening and subsequent tongue withdrawal are also needed for the horizontal elevation of palate shelves. Failure of any of these steps can lead to cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. It has been shown that retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles during palate development, but excess RA causes cleft palate in fetuses of both rodents and humans. Thus, the coordinated regulation of retinoid metabolism is essential for normal palatogenesis. The endogenous RA level is determined by the balance of RA-synthesizing (retinaldehyde dehydrogenases: RALDHs) and RA-degrading enzymes (CYP26s). Cyp26b1 is a key player in normal palatogenesis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of the pathogenesis of RA-induced cleft palate, with special reference to the regulation of endogenous RA levels by RA-degrading enzymes.

  10. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  11. Functional assessment of zinc nutriture using changes in plasma zinc after exercise in men supplemented with folic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaski, H.C.; Bolonchuk, W.W.; Milne, D.B.

    1986-03-05

    Recently, the authors proposed that changes in plasma zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content after maximal exercise could be a functional test of human trace element nutriture. To test this hypothesis, they studied the effect of folic acid (FA) supplements, previously shown to affect zinc absorption on the exercise-induced changes in plasma Zn and Cu in 7 men aged 28.6 +/- 1.2 yr (mean +/- SEM). The men were fed a constant diet with intakes of Cu (1.01 +/- 0.06 mg/d), Zn (12.7 +/- 0.3 mg/d) and FA (200 mg/d) for two 4 wk periods. This basal diet was supplemented with 400 or 800 mg/d FA and it was fed for 4 wk periods alternating with the unsupplemented diet. Pre and post-exercise hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), and plasma Zn and Cu were not affected by FA supplements. To correct for hemoconcentration during exercise, the van Beaumont quotient was calculated from pre and post-exercise Hct, Hb, and plasma Zn and Cu. When the basal diet was fed, the quotient for Zn was 3.4 +/- 1.4 and 2.3 +/- 1.4%, and it declined (p < 0.05) to -5.93 +/- 1.9% and -7.4 +/- 1.8% with 400 and 800 mg/d supplementation, resp. FA supplementation had no effect on the quotient for plasma Cu. These data suggest that Zn mobilization from stores during exercise is impaired with high intakes of FA.

  12. Peri-conceptional supplementation of folic acid-knowledge and practices of pregnant women and health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vartika; Naithani, Manisha; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Singh, Richa; Das, Pranoti

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital anomalies. NTDs are preventable if folic acid (FA) is supplemented before and during conception. Knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women as well as it's timely provision by health providers is crucial in reducing the burden of NTDs in the community. To study the knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women and it's prescription/provision by health providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the block Doiwala, District Dehradun, Uttarakhand. A total of 400 pregnant women and 121 government health providers (5 medical officers, 25 auxiliary nurse midwives [ANMs], and 91 accredited social health activists [ASHAs]) were interviewed on predesigned, pretested questionnaire by study/field investigator. Proportion of different variables calculated and Chi-square test with Yates correction was applied. Of 400, 73.50% of women had heard of FA. Overall, knowledge scores suggested intermediate to low level of knowledge about FA. Totally 94.25% of women had planned pregnancies; however, only 4.75% of women reported FA supplementation before conception. This indicates that if these women would have been properly counseled and prescribed FA, they might have taken it. About 60% of medical officers, 4% of ANMs, and 3.3% of ASHAs knew FA deficiency as one of the causes of NTD. None of the health providers reported to be prescribing/counseling FA to pregnant women. FA was out of supply on the block at the time of the study. Knowledge and supplementation practices related with FA are poor.

  13. Peri-conceptional supplementation of folic acid-knowledge and practices of pregnant women and health providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Neural tube defects (NTDs are one of the most common congenital anomalies. NTDs are preventable if folic acid (FA is supplemented before and during conception. Knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women as well as it's timely provision by health providers is crucial in reducing the burden of NTDs in the community. Aim: To study the knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women and it's prescription/provision by health providers. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the block Doiwala, District Dehradun, Uttarakhand. Subjects and Methods: A total of 400 pregnant women and 121 government health providers (5 medical officers, 25 auxiliary nurse midwives [ANMs], and 91 accredited social health activists [ASHAs] were interviewed on predesigned, pretested questionnaire by study/field investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportion of different variables calculated and Chi-square test with Yates correction was applied. Results: Of 400, 73.50% of women had heard of FA. Overall, knowledge scores suggested intermediate to low level of knowledge about FA. Totally 94.25% of women had planned pregnancies; however, only 4.75% of women reported FA supplementation before conception. This indicates that if these women would have been properly counseled and prescribed FA, they might have taken it. About 60% of medical officers, 4% of ANMs, and 3.3% of ASHAs knew FA deficiency as one of the causes of NTD. None of the health providers reported to be prescribing/counseling FA to pregnant women. FA was out of supply on the block at the time of the study. Conclusions: Knowledge and supplementation practices related with FA are poor.

  14. Folic acid supplement use and menstrual cycle characteristics: a cross-sectional study of Danish pregnancy planners.

    Science.gov (United States)

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