WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid storage tank

  1. Construction of a stainless steel storage tank for phosphoric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Buh, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to get acquainted with all necessary procedures for steel storage tank manufacturing and assembly control. The representative storage tank was built from stainless steel and it was designed to hold 750 m3 of phosphoric acid. In the first section all legally mandatory control procedures are described and they are applied to our storage tank in the second section. Welding control is presented, which consists of destructive and non-destructive inspections of t...

  2. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  3. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  4. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-31

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

  6. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  7. Double wall underground storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

    1993-07-06

    A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

  8. Operating characteristics of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukacek, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks might seem to be the most passive components in the LNG plant or ship, this appearance of quiescence arises only because we too easily imagine LNG storage to be like the storage of water. The contents of an LNG storage tank are in continuous dynamic reaction because of heat leak into the tanks, changes in barometric pressure, and the circumstances surrounding the addition and withdrawal of LNG.

  9. 19 CFR 151.44 - Storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage tanks. 151.44 Section 151.44 Customs... Storage tanks. (a) Plans and gauge tables. When petroleum or petroleum products subject to duty at a specific rate per barrel are imported in bulk in tank vessels and are to be transferred into shore...

  10. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  11. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  12. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  13. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 1986, Congress amended Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, directing EPA to regulate Underground Storage Tanks (USTs). EPA directly implements the UST...

  14. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  15. Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.

  16. Underground Storage Tanks - UST_IDEM_IN: Underground Storage Tanks in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — UST_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains regulated underground storage tank locations (including leaking underground storage tanks) in Indiana, provided by...

  17. Development of an energy storage tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  18. First cloud-based service for analyzing storage tank data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    Most commercial storage tanks are unmonitored and require manual processes to verify conditions, remediate issues or request servicing. New Boundary Technologies has developed an off-the-shelf solution that eliminates several manual processes. Its TankVista Internet service was launched as the first cloud-based service for continuously monitoring and analyzing the conditions and storage levels of commercial storage tanks, bins, silos and other containers. TankVista takes data from storage tank sensors and translates it into graphics and maps that industry can use to drive new efficiencies in storage tank management. A bulk oil distributor can leverage TankVista to remotely and continuously monitor its own storage tanks as well as those of its clients. TankVista monitors tank level, temperature, pressure, humidity and other storage criteria in order to know exactly when and where to replenish supplies. Rather than re-filling tanks at about 50 per cent capacity, a bulk oil distributor can wait until usage levels dictate more efficient re-filling. The monitoring takes place without manual intervention. TankVista complements the iDigi Tank, which has the unique ability to wirelessly connect dispersed and remote tank assets, and get this information through drop-in wireless mesh technology to the cloud without requiring onsite Internet access. 1 fig.

  19. Position paper -- Waste storage tank heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on the heat removal system to be used on the waste storage tanks currently being designed for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), project W-236A. The current preliminary design for the waste storage primary tank heat removal system consists of the following subsystems: (1) a once-through dome space ventilation system; (2) a recirculation dome space ventilation system; and (3) an annulus ventilation system. Recently completed and ongoing studies have evaluated alternative heat removal systems in an attempt to reduce system costs and to optimize heat removal capabilities. In addition, a thermal/heat transfer analysis is being performed that will provide assurance that the heat removal systems selected will be capable of removing the total primary tank design heat load of 1.25 MBtu/hr at an allowable operating temperature of 190 F. Although 200 F is the design temperature limit, 190 F has been selected as the maximum allowable operating temperature limit based on instrumentation sensitivity, instrumentation location sensitivity, and other factors. Seven options are discussed and recommendations are made

  20. Risk based inspection for atmospheric storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agus; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is an attack that occurs on a metallic material as a result of environment's reaction.Thus, it causes atmospheric storage tank's leakage, material loss, environmental pollution, equipment failure and affects the age of process equipment then finally financial damage. Corrosion risk measurement becomesa vital part of Asset Management at the plant for operating any aging asset.This paper provides six case studies dealing with high speed diesel atmospheric storage tank parts at a power plant. A summary of the basic principles and procedures of corrosion risk analysis and RBI applicable to the Process Industries were discussed prior to the study. Semi quantitative method based onAPI 58I Base-Resource Document was employed. The risk associated with corrosion on the equipment in terms of its likelihood and its consequences were discussed. The corrosion risk analysis outcome used to formulate Risk Based Inspection (RBI) method that should be a part of the atmospheric storage tank operation at the plant. RBI gives more concern to inspection resources which are mostly on `High Risk' and `Medium Risk' criteria and less on `Low Risk' shell. Risk categories of the evaluated equipment were illustrated through case study analysis outcome.

  1. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks

  2. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  3. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  4. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  5. THE SOURCE OF ACID CONTAINED IN THE WATER OF STORAGE TANK BOTTOM%储罐罐底水含酸及对喷气燃料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵升红; 黄毅; 孙建章; 顾敏莉

    2001-01-01

    The source of aci d contained in the water of storage tank bottom and its harmful effect on jet fuel were studied. The low pH value of the tank bottom water was caused by the gro wing and breeding of thiobacillus thiooxidans that producing sulfuric acid. Hydr ogen sulfide was formed from the reaction of the sulfuric acid and sulfide, and resulted in silver strip corrosion unqualified of the jet fuel.%对喷气燃料储罐罐底含酸的原因及危害进行了研究, 指出氧化硫硫杆菌生长繁殖产生的硫 酸导致罐底水 pH 降低, 硫酸与罐底水中的硫化物反应生成硫化氢导致喷气燃料银片腐蚀不合格。

  6. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be...

  7. Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-22

    This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

  8. Dynamic analysis of multiple liquid-storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Mykoniou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The seismic analysis of liquid-storage tanks proceeds ordinarily on the basis of neglecting the dynamic interaction with adjacent tanks, although they are frequently arranged next to each other, for instance in tank farms. In this work, a study on the dynamic behavior of tanks is therefore carried out, which takes into account group interaction effects.To this aim, a refined substructure technique in the frequency domain is developed, which permits consideration of the interaction effects amo...

  9. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  10. A robotic end effector for inspection of storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, G.; Gittleman, M. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The structural integrity of waste storage tanks is of primary importance to the DOE, and is one aspect of the High-Level Waste Tank Remediation focus area. Cracks and/or corrosion damage in the inner tank walls can lead to the release of dangerous substances into the environment. The detection and sizing of corrosion and cracking in steel tank walls through remote non destructive evaluation (NDE) is the primary focus of this work.

  11. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-10-20

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results.

  12. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Weisberg, A H; Myers, B

    2000-07-22

    Lightweight hydrogen storage for vehicles is enabled by adopting and adapting aerospace tankage technology. The weight, volume, and cost are already acceptable and improving. Prototype tankage was demonstrated with 11.3% hydrogen by weight, 1.74 million inch (44.3 km) burst performance factor (P{sub b}V/W), and 3.77 kWh/kg specific energy for the tank and hydrogen (LHV). DOE cannot afford full scale aerospace development costs. For example, it costs many tens of $M to develop a rocket motor casing with a safety factor (SF) of 1.25. Large teams of experts are required to design, develop, and test new processes. Car companies are buying existing technology with only modest investments in research and development (R&D). The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) team is maximizing the leverage from DOE funding by joining with industry to solve technical risks at the component level. LLNL is developing fabrication processes with IMPCO Technologies, Thiokol Propulsion, and Aero Tec Laboratories (ATL). LLNL is creating commercial products that are close to adoption under DOE solicitation. LLNL is breaking ground to achieve greater than 10% hydrogen by weight tankage with safety that exceeds the requirements of NGV2 standards modified for hydrogen. Risk reduction is proceeding along three axes: (1) Commercializable products will be available next year with {approx}90% confidence; (2) R&D progress is pushing the envelope in lightweight tankage for vehicles; and (3) Integration challenges are being met with partners in industry and DOE demo programs. This project is a key part of LLNL's effort to develop high cycle life energy storage systems with >600 Wh/kg specific energy for various applications, including: high altitude long endurance solar rechargeable aircraft, zero emission vehicles, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems for spacecraft, energy storage for premium power, remote power sources, and peak shaving.

  13. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  14. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  15. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  16. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  17. Study of LNG evaporation phenomenon in aboveground storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariti, R.; Benbrik, A. [Boumerdes Univ., Boumerdes (Algeria). Physical Engineering of Hydrocarbons Laboratory; Lemonnier, D. [Poitiers Futuroscope Univ., Chasseneuil (France). National Engineering School for Mechanics and Aerotechnics, Laboratory of Thermal Studies

    2007-07-01

    Controlling the evaporation phenomenon of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in storage tanks is strongly related to heat transfer under ambient conditions. In the natural gas liquefaction complex of Skikda located in Algeria, control and follow-up in the exploitation of the LNG storage tanks is done only by observing a temperature profile of the internal wall of the tank, using thermocouples laid out according to the height. This practice is important to detect the defects of heat insulation in the tank wall and makes it possible to avoid all the risks of incidents due to excessive evaporation. This paper discussed the development of a simple numerical model that simulated the rate of evaporation of LNG in a storage tank under real storage conditions at a liquefaction complex in Skikda (Algeria). The paper presented the equations for the modelling of heat transfer in the storage tank taking into account all the modes of heat exchange between the ambient conditions and the stored LNG. The paper also discussed the method of resolution. It was concluded that the evaporation rates predicted by the model were in agreement with the configurations corresponding to the real operating conditions. In addition, the results demonstrated the sensitivity of the rate of evaporation to various parameters like the LNG liquid level in the tank, the atmospheric temperature, the emissivity coefficient or incidental solar flow. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  18. Study of Heat Transfer in Ice-storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anding He; Huanqun Qian; Zhihua Hu; Fangde Zhou

    2001-01-01

    The heat transfer process of ice formation on the outside of coil pipe in the ice storage tank with glycol solution as the second refrigerant was studied in this paper analytically and experimentally. A model was developed for the charging process and the conduction shape factor was applied. Also, the result obtained from the model was compared with the experimental data, both data were in agreement. The simple model is useful for the operation, design and optimization of the ice storage tank.

  19. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  20. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  1. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  2. Reduction of mixing in jet-fed water storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Brett; Lucey, A.

    2004-01-01

    Contrary to usual mains-water practice, mixing in water storage tanks used in rainwater harvesting systems is undesirable because pathogen die-off can occur in the unmixed water prior to its extraction for use. The principal cause of mixing in these tanks is the momentum of the inflow during a rainfall event. We investigate the effect of inflow-jet configuration on the proportion of stored water in a tank which mixes with the slightly cooler inflow of rooftop water. Scale experiments are cond...

  3. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  4. Failure analysis for JNK Boracic acid Tank Room of NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The JNK Boracic acid Tank Room is important safety equipment for Nuclear Power Plant. Corrosion,crack and leaked Boracic acid were found on the some welding area of the liners of the JNK Tank Room during operation.

  5. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  6. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank's highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format

  7. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs

  8. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  9. Juvenile turtles for mosquito control in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, G; Marten, G G; Fernandez, E; Portillo, H

    1993-09-01

    Juvenile turtles, Trachemys scripta, provided highly effective control of mosquito larvae in cement tanks (pilas) where water was stored for household cleaning. When single turtles were introduced to tanks with histories of high mosquito production, nearly all turtles remained in good health and no mosquito larvae survived to the pupal stage. Families welcome turtles in their water storage containers in Honduras. Humane conditions for turtles can be assured by providing small quantities of table scraps to supplement their diet and by placing a small floating platform in the tank for basking. Although turtles can serve as alternate hosts for Salmonella, available evidence suggests that turtles in tanks should not be a source of human infection. Further confirmation that there is no Salmonella hazard should precede routine use of turtles for mosquito control. PMID:7902872

  10. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A recommendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge

  11. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  12. Modeling and integration of a heat storage tank in a compressed air electricity storage process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Large-scale heat storage tank behavior is explored with a two dimensional model. • Thermal storage tank efficiencies are estimated thanks to dimensionless numbers. • Abacuses of the tank efficiency are provided. • The link between tank efficiency and A-CAES global efficiency is generated. - Abstract: In an adiabatic compressed air energy storage process (A-CAES), heat storage tank operation is a key factor that determines the overall energy performance of the process. To highlight energy issues linked to a correct tank design in the specific case of an A-CAES system, a two-dimensional thermal numerical model was developed. Thermal efficiencies of the tank are presented with abacus defined from the four dimensionless numbers defining the thermal behavior of the reservoir. Cycling effects are explored with a realistic case study corresponding to an A-CAES system design to deliver an electrical power of 250 MWel for 4 h, the daily peak demand. Extended beyond the thermal reservoir, A-CAES thermodynamic analysis combined with the dynamic simulation makes it possible to generate a direct quantitative link between reservoir sizing and A-CAES global efficiency

  13. Nondestructive examination technologies for inspection of radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of underground radioactive waste storage tank structural integrity poses a unique set of challenges. Radiation fields, limited access, personnel safety and internal structures are just some of the problems faced. To examine the internal surfaces a sensor suite must be deployed as an end effector on a robotic arm. The purpose of this report is to examine the potential failure modes of the tanks, rank the viability of various NDE technologies for internal surface evaluation, select a technology for initial EE implementation, and project future needs for NDE EE sensor suites

  14. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NE-F6, KSC, FL 32899 (United States); Tomsik, T. M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Conyers, H. J. [NASA Stennis Space Center, Building 3225, SSC, MS 39529 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  15. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Tomsik, T. M.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Conyers, H. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2014-01-01

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  16. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  17. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  18. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  19. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  20. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  1. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method. PMID:24640914

  2. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  3. Mechanistic modeling of destratification in cryogenic storage tanks using ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, T K; Mohanan, Srijith; Nagarajan, R

    2014-01-01

    Stratification is one of the main causes for vaporization of cryogens and increase of tank pressure during cryogenic storage. This leads subsequent problems such as cavitation in cryo-pumps, reduced length of storage time. Hence, it is vital to prevent stratification to improve the cost efficiency of storage systems. If stratified layers exist inside the tank, they have to be removed by suitable methods without venting the vapor. Sonication is one such method capable of keeping fluid layers mixed. In the present work, a mechanistic model for ultrasonic destratification is proposed and validated with destratification experiments done in water. Then, the same model is used to predict the destratification characteristics of cryogenic liquids such as liquid nitrogen (LN₂), liquid hydrogen (LH₂) and liquid ammonia (LNH₃). The destratification parameters are analysed for different frequencies of ultrasound and storage pressures by considering continuous and pulsed modes of ultrasonic operation. From the results, it is determined that use of high frequency ultrasound (low-power/continuous; high-power/pulsing) or low frequency ultrasound (continuous operation with moderate power) can both be effective in removing stratification. PMID:23810463

  4. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MW day·t-1. A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation; for a final temperature limited to 160 degree C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%; in the presence of H2O, HNO3, NOx and O2, the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO2) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  5. Technical aspects of underground storage tank closure. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered underground storage tanks containing: gasoline, diesel oil, and fuel oil. It obtained information in two phases. Phase I elicited data via telephone contacts with knowledgeable individuals including tank cleaning companies, from literature cited by these experts, on-site visits and from questionnaires completed by state representatives. Phase II monitored selected tank cleaning cases and made quantitative measurements of the amounts of residuals left in USTs before and after cleaning, characterizing the nature of the residuals and any rinses generated during the cleaning process. To support the objectives of the study, the following information was collected for each UST site included in the study: estimates of volumes of tank residuals and secondary wastes, hazardous characteristics and chemical composition of the residuals and secondary wastes, detailed descriptions of the cleaning methods used, and background information on the UST/site that relates to the nature of the residuals. The report documents the study findings in order to aid regulators and to assist those implementing/overseeing closure activities

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  7. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-30

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Aboveground Storage Tanks” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 03-01-04, Tank · CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain

  9. Earthquake-induced sloshing effects on seismic qualification of liquid storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a methodology to evaluate earthquake-induced sloshing effects for seismic qualification of liquid storage tanks. The modal sloshing properties are derived based on an 'Equivalent Rectangular Tank' method. Response spectrum analysis is used to be calculated the sloshing response. The total tank base shear and overturning moment are obtained which can be used for seismic qualification analysis of tanks and tank supports/foundations. This general approach is applicable to general tanks such as vertical-cylindrical, horizontal-cylindrical, spherical, elliptical, and other irregular practical tanks

  10. Second law characterization of stratified thermal storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, N [Departamento de Energia Nuclear-UFPE (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that fluid stratification in thermal storage tanks improves the overall performance of solar thermal systems, when compared with systems operating with uniform fluid temperature. From the point of view of the first law of thermodynamics, no difference exists between storage tanks with the same mass and average temperature, even if they have different stratified thermal structures. Nevertheless, the useful thermal energy that can be obtained from them might differ significantly. In this work, we derive an expression able to characterize the stratified configuration of thermal fluid. Using results obtained by thermodynamics of irreversible processes, the procedure adopted consists in calculating the maximum work available from the tank's thermal layer is able to develop. We arrive, then, at a dimensionless expression, the stratification parameter (SP), which depends on the mass fraction and absolute temperature of each thermal layer as well as the thermal fluid average temperature. Numerical examples for different types of tank stratification are given and it is verified that the expression obtained is sensitive to small differences in the reservoir thermal configuration. For example a thermal storage with temperatures equal to 74 Celsius degrees, 64 Celsius degrees and 54 Celsius degrees, with its mass equally distributed along the tank yields, for the parameter SP, a figure equal to 0.000294. On the other hand a storage tank with the same average temperature but with different layer's temperatures 76 Celsius degrees, 64 and 52 Celsius degrees, also with uniform mass distribution, yields for SP a value equal to quantitative evaluation of the stratification structure of thermal reservoirs. [Spanish] Es bien conocido que la estratificacion fluida en tanques de almacenamiento termico mejora el rendimiento total de los sistemas termicos solares en comparacion con sistemas que operan con temperatura uniforme del fluido. Desde el punto de vista

  11. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission.

  12. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission

  13. Using virtual objects to aid underground storage tank teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe an algorithm by which obstructions and surface features in an underground storage tank can be modeled and used to generate virtual barrier function for a real-time telerobotic system, which provides an aid to the operator for both real-time obstacle avoidance and for surface tracking. The algorithm requires that the slave's tool and every object in the waste storage tank be decomposed into convex polyhedral primitives, with the waste surface modeled by triangular prisms. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert's polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results using a PUMA 560 and a simulated waste surface validate the approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate smooth, realistic pseudo forces for the teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware

  14. Underground Storage Tanks, Underground Storage Tank point locations from various sources, Published in 2009, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009. It...

  15. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  16. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  17. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  18. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  19. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  20. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective

  1. Effect of entry of subcooled cryogen on thermal stratification in a cryogenic storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-lien

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict if subcooled cryogenic liquid entering the bottom of a storage tank will destroy the thermal stratification of the tank. After an extensive literature search, a formula for maximum critical Reynolds Number which used to predict the destratification of a cryogenic tank was found. Example of calculations and graphics to determine the mixing of fluid in the tank were presented.

  2. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C

  3. Model based, sensor directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensor rich, intelligent robots which function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories is performing experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of removing waste stored tanks. This paper describes the experimental environment employed at Saudi with particular attention to the computing and software control environment. Intelligent system control is achieved though the integration of extensive geometric and kinematic world models with real-time sensor based control. All operator interactions with the system are validate all operator commands before execution to provide a safe operation. Sensing is used to add information to the robot system's world model and to allow sensor based sensor control during selected operations. The results of a first Critical Feature Test are reported and the potential for applying advanced intelligent control concepts to the removal of waste in storage tanks is discussed

  4. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geber, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations.

  5. Light duty utility remote manipulator for underground storage tank inspection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remote manipulator system which is being designed and fabricated to perform surveillance and characterization activities in support of the remediation of underground storage tanks at the Hanford site as well as other DOE sites. The LDUA is a mechanical manipulator which utilizes an advanced control system to safely and reliably deploy a series of sensors to characterize underground storage tanks. The electrical components of the in tank system are radiation hardened and the mechanical components are designed to operate in the corrosive environment which exists in the tanks. The use of this system will allow the US Department of Energy to sample and characterize the waste material in the tanks prior to the initiation of waste retrieval operations. In addition to its use for inspecting and characterizing underground storage tanks, the system has the potential to be used in other environments where accessibility is limited and where high radiation levels exist

  6. Fluid dynamic studies for a simulated Melton Valley Storage Tank slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), are used for the collection and storage of remote-handled radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes, which were typically acidic when generated, were neutralized with the addition of sodium hydroxide to protect the storage tanks from corrosion, but this caused the transuranic and heavy metals to precipitate. These wastes will eventually need to be removed from the tanks for ultimate disposal. The objective of the research activities discussed in this report is to support the design of a pipeline transport system between the MVSTs and a treatment facility. Since the wastes in the MVSTs are highly radioactive, a surrogate slurry was developed for this study. Rheological properties of the simulated slurry were determined in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers of different diameters. Pressure drop data at varying flow rates were used to obtain shear stress and shear rate data. The data were analyzed, and the slurry rheological properties were analyzed by the Power Law model and the Bingham plastic model. The plastic viscosity and yield stress data obtained from the rheological tests were used as inputs for a piping design software package, and the pressure drops predicted by the software compared well with the pressure drop data obtained from the test loop. The minimum transport velocity was determine for the slurry by adding known nominal sizes of glass spheres to the slurry. However, it was shown that the surrogate slurry exhibited hindered settling, which may substantially decrease the minimum transport velocity. Therefore, it may be desired to perform additional tests with a surrogate with a lower concentration of suspended solids to determine the minimum transport velocity

  7. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  8. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Thanh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, Matt [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, Stephen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, Karen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  9. THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN SOLAR DOMESTIC STORAGE TANKS CAUSED BY DRAW-OFFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  10. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  11. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  12. Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Degraded Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Kim, M.K.; Choi, I-K.

    2011-05-16

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Brookhaven National Laboratory are conducting a collaborative research project to develop seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the goals of this collaboration endeavor is to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The essential part of this collaboration is aimed at achieving a better understanding of the effects of aging on the performance of SSCs and ultimately on the safety of NPPs. A recent search of the degradation occurrences of structures and passive components (SPCs) showed that the rate of aging related degradation in NPPs was not significantly large but increasing, as the plants get older. The slow but increasing rate of degradation of SPCs can potentially affect the safety of the older plants and become an important factor in decision making in the current trend of extending the operating license period of the plants (e.g., in the U.S. from 40 years to 60 years, and even potentially to 80 years). The condition and performance of major aged NPP structures such as the containment contributes to the life span of a plant. A frequent misconception of such low degradation rate of SPCs is that such degradation may not pose significant risk to plant safety. However, under low probability high consequence initiating events, such as large earthquakes, SPCs that have slowly degraded over many years could potentially affect plant safety and these effects need to be better understood. As part of the KAERI-BNL collaboration, a condensate storage tank (CST) was analyzed to estimate its seismic fragility capacities under various postulated degradation scenarios. CSTs were shown to have a significant impact on the seismic core damage frequency of a nuclear power plant. The seismic fragility capacity of the CST was developed

  13. Underground storage tank - Integrated Demonstration Technical Task Plan master schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides an integrated programmatic schedule (i.e., Master Schedule) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program. It includes top-level schedule and related information for the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50) UST-ID activities. The information is based upon the fiscal year (FY) 1994 technical task plans (TTPS) and has been prepared as a baseline information resource for program participants. The Master Schedule contains Level 0 and Level 1 program schedules for the UST-ID Program. This document is one of a number of programmatic documents developed to support and manage the UST-ID activities. It is composed of the following sections: Program Overview - provides a summary background of the UST-ID Program. This summary addresses the mission, scope, and organizational structure of the program; Activity Description - provides a programmatic description of UST-ID technology development activities and lists the key milestones for the UST-ID systems. Master Schedules - contains the Level 0 and Level 1 programmatic schedules for the UST-ID systems. References - lists the UST-ID programmatic documents used as a basis for preparing the Master Schedule. The appendixes contain additional details related to site-specific technology applications

  14. LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS: REMEDIATION WITH EMPHASIS ON IN SITU BIORESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current literature indicates that in situ biorestoration has great potential for remediation of aquifers contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks. In situ aquifer restoration involves the enhancement of the indigenous microflora to degrade subsurface pollutants. The ...

  15. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks Map Service, Region 9, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. The service is composed of three layers; one for each unique LUST...

  16. Numerical simulation on heat transfer characteristics of the storage tank for concentrating solar power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianjun Mao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating solar power plant coupling with energy storage is a new and emerging technology, which can solve two issues, that is, low flux density and intermittent of solar energy. Heat transfer characteristics of the storage tank in this system have a key effect on the system’s efficiency and cost. In this article, the heat transfer performance of a phase change thermal storage tank has been proposed, and the temperature distribution and liquid fraction of phase change material in the tank has numerically been investigated. The results show that the temperature increases with the increasing charge time. The results also show that there is a phase change process at the charge time of 200 min, and no phase change for the charge time of 250 and 300 min. The results of this article can provide a reference for future design and optimal operation of the storage tank in concentrating solar power plant.

  17. Numerical Investigation of Effective Heat Conductivity of Fluid in Charging Process of Thermal Storage Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, H.; Schmidt, F.P.; Gabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical case study of heat transfer mechanisms during the charging process of a stratified thermal storage tank applied in a specific adsorption heat pump cycle. The effective thermal conductivity of the heat transfer fluid during the charging process is analyzed through CFD simulations using Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS). The aim of the study is to provide an equivalent thermal conductivity for a one-dimensional storage tank model to be us...

  18. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  19. Analysis of embedded waste storage tanks subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site, High Activity Wastes are stored in carbon steel tanks that are within reinforced concrete vaults. These soil-embedded tank/vault structures are approximately 80 ft. in diameter and 40 ft. deep. The tanks were studied to determine the essentials of governing variables, to reduce the problem to the least number of governing cases to optimize analysis effort without introducing excessive conservatism. The problem reduced to a limited number of cases of soil-structure interaction and fluid (tank contents)-structure interaction problems. It was theorized that substantially reduced input would be realized from soil structure interaction (SSI) but that it was also possible that tank-to-tank proximity would result in (re)amplification of the input. To determine the governing seismic input motion, the three dimensional SSI code, SASSI, was used. Significant among the issues relative to waste tanks is the determination of fluid response and tank behavior as a function of tank contents viscosity. Tank seismic analyses and studies have been based on low viscosity fluids (water) and the behavior is quite well understood. Typical wastes (salts, sludge), which are highly viscous, have not been the subject of studies to understand the effect of viscosity on seismic response. The computer code DYNA3D was used to study how viscosity alters tank wall pressure distribution and tank base shear and overturning moments. A parallel hand calculation was performed using standard procedures. Conclusions based on this study provide insight into the quantification of the reduction of seismic inputs for soil structure interaction for a open-quotes softclose quotes soil site

  20. Analysis of heat storage with a thermocline tank for concentrated solar plants

    OpenAIRE

    Graells Vilella, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The storage system in a concentrated solar plant is considered an important concern to increase the capacity factor of the plant by producing power during the night or in cloudy days. This paper presents different storage materials, and introduces several storage systems available. Moreover, the paper is focused on the analysis of a thermocline system, which consists on a single tank that typically works with molten salt and quartzite rock as storage media. A simulation model of h...

  1. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  2. INVESTIGATIONS OF THE FLOW INTO A STORAGE TANK BY MEANS OF ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Advanced experimental methods were applied to study flow structures of a water jet entering a tank from the bottom. A squared experimental glass tank with a volume of about 140 l was used. Above the inlet pipe a flat plate was installed, as shown in the figure. The goal of the investigations is t...... investigations the validated CFD models can be utilized to develop more accurate simulation tank models for performance studies of solar domestic hot water systems and to enhance the geometry of inlet devices for solar storage tanks....

  3. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  4. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite trademark that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  5. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m−3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  6. Light duty utility remote manipulator for underground storage tank inspection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remote manipulator which is being designed and fabricated to perform surveillance and characterization activities in support of the remediation of underground storage tanks at the Hanford site as well as other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The LDUA is a highly dexterous manipulator which utilizes an advanced control system to safely and reliably deploy a series of sensors to characterize underground storage tanks. The electrical components of the in tank system are radiation hardened and the mechanical components are designed to operate in the corrosive environment which exists in the tanks. The use of this system will allow the DOE to sample and characterize the waste material in the tanks prior to the initiation of waste retrieval operations. (author) 2 figs

  7. Analysis of waste storage tanks subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site, High Activity Wastes are stored in carbon steel tanks that are within reinforced concrete vaults. These soil-embedded tank/vault structures are approximately 24m in diameter and 12m deep. Twenty-seven of these tanks required seismic analysis. The problem was reduced to a limited number of cases of soil-structure interaction and fluid-structure interaction problems. It was theorized that substantially reduced seismic input could be realized from soil structure interaction (SSI) but that it was also possible that tank-to-tank proximity could result in (re)amplification of the input. To determine the governing seismic input motion, the three dimensional SSI code, SASSI, was used. Also of concern was fluid response and tank behavior as a function of tank contents viscosity. Tank seismic analyses and studies have been based on low viscosity fluids (water) and the behavior is quite well understood. Typical wastes (salts, sludge), which are highly viscous, have not been the subject of studies to understand the effect of viscosity on seismic response. Conclusions based on this study provide insight into the quantification of the of seismic inputs for soil structure interaction for a 'soft' soil site and provides some conclusions for dealing with the viscosity variable. (author)

  8. Smart solar tanks - Heat storage of the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a smart solar tank concept for small SDHW-systems have been carried out. In the tank the operation of the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled by the hot water demand and by the consumption pattern. Water at the top of the tank is only heated by the auxiliary...... energy supply system to a required temperature in periods with hot water demand. The tank is heated by the auxiliary energy supply system from the top so that the volume of water heated to the required temperature can be controlled in a flexible way. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume...... can be large and in periods with a small hot water demand the volume can be small. For instance, the energy supply system can be controlled on measurements of the energy content of the tank during all hours of the week and based on a required hot water consumption and consumption pattern which can...

  9. Design and calculation of a new storage tank for concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new storage tank for concentrating solar power has been designed. • Mathematical model of unsteady state heat conduction has been established. • The charge time and the temperature of the tank have been investigated. - Abstract: Concentrating solar power plant coupling with thermal energy storage is a popular technology during the solar application process. A multitude of researches focus on improving heat transfer performance of the whole system for getting the higher efficiency and lower cost. In this paper, a new storage tank for concentrating solar power has been designed, and the mathematical model of one-dimensional unsteady state heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates has been established and validated. Also, the charge time and the temperature of the tank have been investigated in the designing conditions based on this model. The results show that the new storage tank has a superior performance for the system in the charge period. The charge time from unsteady state to steady state heat conduction for the tank is about 9923 s. It can be found that there is a relatively good agreement of about 18.9% for the charge time between the mathematical model and the reference. The curve of the temperature versus the charge time for different thermal properties of the materials based on the model of this paper has been investigated. The results can provide a good reference for designing, operating, and energy-saving of thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power plants

  10. Thermocline storage for concentrated solar power : Techno-economic performance evaluation of a multi-layered single tank storage for Solar Tower Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ferruzza, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Solar Tower Power Plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology for dispatchable renewable energy in the near future. Storage integration makes possible to shift the electricity production to more profitable peak hours. Usually two tanks are used to store cold and hot fluids, but this means both higher related investment costs and difficulties during the operation of the variable volume tanks. Another solution can be a single tank thermocline storage in a multi-layered configu...

  11. Preliminary Thermal Stress Analysis of a High-Pressure Cryogenic Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. Mark

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stresses on a cryogenic storage tank strongly affect the condition of the tank and its ability to withstand operational stresses. These thermal stresses also affect the growth of any surface damage that might occur in the tank walls. These stresses are particularly of concern during the initial cooldown period for a new tank placed into service, and during any subsequent thermal cycles. A preliminary thermal stress analysis of a high-pressure cryogenic storage tank was performed. Stresses during normal operation were determined, as well as the transient temperature distribution. An elastic analysis was used to determine the thermal stresses in the inner wall based on the temperature data. The results of this elastic analysis indicate that the inner wall of the storage tank will experience thermal stresses of approximately 145,000 psi (1000 MPa). This stress level is well above the room-temperature yield strength of 304L stainless steel, which is about 25,000 psi (170 MPa). For this preliminary analysis, several important factors have not yet been considered. These factors include increased strength of 304L stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures, plastic material behavior, and increased strength due to strain hardening. In order to more accurately determine the thermal stresses and their affect on the tank material, further investigation is required, particularly in the area of material properties and their relationship to stress.

  12. Modeling and analysis of ORNL horizontal storage tank mobilization and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrieval and treatment of radioactive sludges that are stored in tanks constitute a prevalent problem at several US Department of Energy sites. The tanks typically contain a settled sludge layer with non-Newtonian rheological characteristics covered by a layer of supernatant. The first step in retrieval is the mobilization and mixing of the supernatant and sludge in the storage tanks. Submerged jets have been proposed to achieve sludge mobilization in tanks, including the 189 m3 (50,000 gallon) Melton Valley Storage tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the planned 378 m3 (100,000 gallon) tanks being designed as part of the MVST Capacity Increase Project (MVST-CIP). This report focuses on the modeling of mixing and mobilization in horizontal cylindrical tanks like those of the MVST design using submerged, recirculating liquid jets. The computer modeling of the mobilization and mixing processes uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics program (Trend and Eyler 1992). The goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents

  13. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  14. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ''Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,'' of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues

  15. Environmental and geometric optimisation of cylindrical drinking water storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan Delmás, David; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Hernando-Canovas, Elena; Pujadas, Pablo; De la Fuente, Albert; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11367-015-0963-y Purpose: Urban water cycle construction processes are an important element to consider when assessing the sustainability of urban areas. The present study focuses on a structural and environmental analysis of cylindrical water tanks. The goal is to optimise cylindrical water tanks from both an environmental (environmental impacts due of life cycle assessment (LCA)) and a geometric perspective (bu...

  16. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  17. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  18. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage...... options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits...

  19. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  20. Remote installation of risers on underground nuclear waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established to solidify 2120 m3 (560,000) gallons of high-level nuclear waste generated during six years of commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing. This liquid will be processed to remove radioactive elements which, with the remaining sludge, will be combined with glass formers and be converted into borosilicate glass. Risers were installed on the high-level tank for installation of pumps which will be used to remove the liquid and sludge. The extensive use of remote technology was required to install the risers and to minimize operator exposure to high levels of radiation and contamination. The riser installation required remotely: drilling through two feet of concrete shielding; installing pump access pipes which are welded to the tank top; and cutting holes in tanks located 3658 mm (12) feet below ground. These operations were successfully completed 13 times without exposing personnel to high-level radiation or contamination. Specially designed remote equipment was developed for each step of this operation. Extensive operator training in the use of this equipment was performed on a tank with low radiation prior to work on the high-level tank. This paper discusses the application of remote technology that assured a quality job was safely accomplished. 3 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitz, D.A. [Independent Consultant, Kirkland, WA (United States); Berry, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  2. ESTIMATING INTERNAL CORROSION RATE AND INTERNAL INSPECTION INTERVAL OF ABOVEGROUND HYDROCARBON STORAGE TANKS

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINEZ, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion of aboveground storage tanks (AST) in hydrocarbon service shortens the tank’s life cycle and can lead to leaks and release of hazardous materials into the environment. Internal inspection is one of the main means to keep the tank’s integrity. Determination of internal inspection interval is imminent for balancing the safe operation requirement and inspection costs. In most instances, the area most vulnerable to corrosion in upright atmospheric AST is the tank bottom. In this paper w...

  3. Thermal Performance Comparison of Glass Microsphere and Perlite Insulation Systems for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Fesmire, J. E.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    A technology demonstration test project was conducted by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide comparative thermal performance data for glass microspheres, referred to as bubbles, and perlite insulation for liquid hydrogen tank applications. Two identical 1/15th scale versions of the 3,200,000 liter spherical liquid hydrogen tanks at Launch Complex 39 at KSC were custom designed and built to serve as test articles for this test project. Evaporative (boil-off) calorimeter test protocols, including liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, were established to provide tank test conditions characteristic of the large storage tanks that support the Space Shuttle launch operations. This paper provides comparative thermal performance test results for bubbles and perlite for a wide range of conditions. Thermal performance as a function of cryogenic commodity (nitrogen and hydrogen), vacuum pressure, insulation fill level, tank liquid level, and thermal cycles will be presented.

  4. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

  5. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  6. A strategy for resolving high-priority Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-activity radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Eastern Washington State since 1944. Since then, more than 227,000 m3 (60 Mgal) of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes consist of many different chemicals. The waste forms include liquids, slurries, salt cakes, and sludges. A number of safety issues have been raised about these wastes, and resolution of these issues is a top priority of DOE. A Waste Tank Safety Program has been established to resolve these high-priority safety issues. This paper will deal with three of these issues. The issues described are the release of flammable vapors from single- and double-shell tanks, the existence of organic chemicals, and/or ferrocyanide ion-containing fuel-rich mixtures of nitrate and nitrite salts in single-shell tanks

  7. A strategy for resolving high-priority Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babad, H.; DeFigh-Price, C.; Fulton, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    High-activity radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Eastern Washington State since 1944. Since then, more than 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 Mgal) of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes consist of many different chemicals. The waste forms include liquids, slurries, salt cakes, and sludges. A number of safety issues have been raised about these wastes, and resolution of these issues is a top priority of DOE. A Waste Tank Safety Program has been established to resolve these high-priority safety issues. This paper will deal with three of these issues. The issues described are the release of flammable vapors from single- and double-shell tanks, the existence of organic chemicals, and/or ferrocyanide ion-containing fuel-rich mixtures of nitrate and nitrite salts in single-shell tanks.

  8. Assuring safe interim storage of Hanford high-level tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government established the Hanford Site in South-Eastern Washington near the City of Richland in 1943 to produce plutonium for national defense purposes. The Hanford Site occupies approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land North of the City of Richland. The production mission ended in 1988, transforming the Hanford Site mission to waste management, environmental restoration, and waste disposal. Thus the primary site mission has shifted from production to the management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste that exist at the Hanford Site. This paper describes the focus and challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program related to the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the tank associated waste. These wastes are presently stored in 2.08E+05 liters (55,000) to 4.16E+06 liters (1,100,000) gallon low-carbon steel tanks. There are 149 single- and 28 double-shell radioactive underground storage tanks, as well as approximately 40 inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks. In addition, the TWRS mission includes the storage and disposal of the inventory of 1,929 cesium and strontium capsules created as part of waste management efforts. Tank waste was a by-product of producing plutonium and other defense related materials. From 1944 through 1990, four (4) different major chemical processing facilities at the Hanford Site processed irradiated (spent) fuel from defense reactors to separate and recover plutonium for weapons production. As new and improved processes were developed over the last 50 years, the processing efficiency improved and the waste compositions sent to the tanks for storage changed both chemically and radiologically. The earliest separation processes (e.g., bismuth phosphate coprecipitation) carried out in T Plant (1944-1956) and B Plant (1945-1952) recovered only plutonium

  9. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  10. Pursing other deep pockets: California's underground storage tank cleanup fund and insurance policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When faced with a potentially very expensive environmental cleanup, most companies and individuals try to do the only sensible thing, which is to find out if anyone else will pay the bill. This presentation will outline two avenues that may provide a substantial financial contribution to environmental cleanups: (a) California's Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund and (b) insurance policies. The Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund was established in 1989 to help eligible owners and operators of petroleum underground storage tanks (USTs) to: (a) get reimbursed for costs of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; (b) get reimbursed for damages awarded to third parties as a result of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; and (c) meet federal and state requirements that the UST owner and/or operator be able to pay for cleanup costs and damages to third parties caused by unauthorized releases of petroleum

  11. Emission characteristics of VOCs from three fixed-roof p-xylene liquid storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chungsying; Huang, Hsiaoyun; Chang, Shenteng; Hsu, Shihchieh

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluates emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) caused by standing loss (L S) and working loss (L W) of three vertical fixed-roof p-xylene (p-X) liquid tanks during 1-year storage and filling operation. The annual net throughput of the tanks reached 70,446 t, resulting in 9,425 kg of p-X vapor emission including 5,046 kg of L S (53.54 %) and 4,379 kg of L W (46.46 %). The estimated L W of AP-42 displayed better agreement with the measured values of a VOC detector than the estimated L S of AP-42. The L S was best correlated with the liquid height of the tanks, while the L W was best correlated with the net throughput of the tanks. As a result, decreasing vapor space volume of the tanks and avoiding high net throughput of the tanks in a high ambient temperature period were considered as effective means to lessen VOC emission from the fixed-roof organic liquid storage tank.

  12. HYDRODYNAMIC LOADS ON OIL STORAGE TANKS WITH INTERIOR SEMI-POROUS BARRIERS UNDER EARTHQUAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The estimation of the hydrodynamic loading on cylindrical oilstorage tank during earthquakes is of fundamental importance in the anti-seismic design. Interior semi-porous barriers are considered being effective to reduce the hydrodynamic response of the inner fluid and the loading on the tank wall. A reduced two-dimensional source distribution method and sub-region matching technique are developed for the prediction of three-dimensional hydrodynamic forces on oil storage tanks of arbitrary sections with interior semi-porous barriers of different configurations under earthquake excitations.Excellent agreement is observed between the present results and the corresponding analytical results for a circular cylindrical oil tank with a concentric interior semi-porous barrier,which shows the validity and effectiveness of the present method. A clear view of the influence of semi-porous barriers on the hydrodynamic response of tanks during earthquakes is obtained by the analyses of computational results, which may offer some guidance to the corresponding anti-seismic design for oil storage tanks and similar structures. The method is also extended to include the effects of the elastic vibrations of the tank.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1253 - Standards: Storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... trucks and 49 CFR 173.31 for railcars. (3) Hazardous air pollutants must only be unloaded from tank... emission monitoring requirements of § 63.1258(b)(5). (e) Planned routine maintenance. The specifications... periods of planned routine maintenance. Periods of planned routine maintenance of the control...

  14. Erection of a Stainless-Steel Tank for Storing a Phosphoric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodič Tuma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A storage tank for 93 % phosphoric acid was built in Luka Koper from 7 mm thick ground hot-rolled plates of 316L stainless steel. The capacity of the storage tank is of the 750 m3, diameter of 11 m and the height of 8,2 m. The shell plates were welded manually using the shielded metal-arc and gas-metal-arc processes. Before the erection, welding procedure tests according to EN 288-3 were carried out. During the construction several non-destructive examination methods were used, such as radiographic testing and visual and liquid penetrant examination. After the entire tank and roof structure were completed, a hydrostatic leak test was carried out. The surfaces of all the welds on the internal surface of the vessel were ground and the roughness was checked on site. The surfaces of the base material and the ground welds were passivated and tested for resistance to corrosion with electrochemical measurements.

  15. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced materials are required to insulate cryogenic storage and distribution systems for liquid propellants such as hydrogen and oxygen, used in orbital transfer...

  16. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  17. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal Register of July 5, 2011, in 76 FR 39095, on page 39100, in the second column, correct the fourth... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction...

  18. 75 FR 70241 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... whose equipment may not be certified as compatible by an independent testing laboratory. \\1\\ See 74 FR 18228 (April 21, 2009). \\2\\ See 75 FR 68043 (November 4, 2010). Compatibility of Biodiesel-Blended Fuel... AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends AGENCY:...

  19. RCRA corrective action for underground storage tanks -- Subtitle C for Subtitle I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance to DOE and DOE contractor personnel responsible for planning and implementation of corrective measures addressing cleanup of releases of hazardous materials or regulated substances from underground storage tanks regulated under RCRA Subtitle C or Subtitle I

  20. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  1. FURY: ROBOTIC IN-SITU INSPECTION/CONDITION ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 280-281) required all underground storage tanks (USTs) containing petroleum products to be brought into compliance to prevent environmental contamination through leakage. Replacing all older USTs can, in some cases, be prohibitively expensi...

  2. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... availability was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35510). The NRC staff has developed... SRP- LR. On April 12, 2013, (78 FR 21980) the NRC requested public comments on draft LR-ISG-2012-02... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks,...

  3. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 130 are located within Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 130 is comprised of the following CASs: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective action investigations and provides data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 130 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implemented any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly disposed of corrective action and investigation-derived wastes. From August 4 through September 30, 2008, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 130, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, confirm that no residual contamination is present, and properly dispose of wastes. Constituents detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to identify

  5. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments. - Highlights: • Model optimising heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system. • Optimisation of both energy system investments and operation. • Heat storage in building structure and thermal storage tanks included. • Model well qualified for analysing system benefits of flexible heat pump operation. • Covers peak load shaving and operation prioritised for low electricity prices

  6. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  7. Experimental Analysis of Thermal Stratification in a Heat Storage Tank Using Stratification Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloņina, A.; Rochas, C.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    The heat storage tank is an important element in any heating system where the heat source is not able to provide heat accordingly to consumer demand (for example solar collector systems, solid fuel boilers etc). Better heat storage efficiency can be achieved by providing good thermal stratification in the heat storage tanks. One of the best methods of increasing the degree of thermal stratification is the stratification pipes. In the Environmental monitoring laboratory of the Institute of Energy Systems and Environment (Riga Technical University, an experimental heat storage system has been developed and used for testing and studying stratification devices under different thermodynamic and hydraulic conditions. The experimental study carried out on the efficiency of the stratification pipe produced by German company SOLVIS Solar Systeme GmbH under different flow parameters, has been analyzed. The main aim of the experimental study was to define optimal heating system operation parameters to achieve good performance of the stratification pipe and a high degree of thermal stratification in the heat storage tank.

  8. FTA of loss of cooling to a HALW storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fault tree analysis consisting of assumption of accident scenarios, construction of fault trees, and performing of analyses is given for a loss of cooling accident in a HALW (High Activity Liquid Waste) tank of a typical reprocessing facility. A systematic method is developed to avoid 'missing scenarios', and 'confused scenarios' which are major problems in these analyses. Model plant data, basic failure frequency data and a fault tree analysis code named FTL have been introduced from NUKEM GmbH, Germany. The analyzed occurrence frequencies for the assumed scenarios of the loss of cooling accident are discussed to show a design improvement measure to attain a more reliable system. These results are compared with general requirements to be selected as DBE (design basis event) used in the safety assessment of the facility design. DBE is an event which is considered to have relatively high occurrence probabilities and considerable effects on environment. (author)

  9. Optimal design and management of thermal storage tanks for multi-energy district boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Labidi, Mouchira; Eynard, Julien; Faugeroux, Olivier; Grieu, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    As part of the second phase of the OptiEnR research project, the present work deals with improving multi-energy district boilers operation, by adding optimally sized and controlled thermal storage tanks to the plants. Previous studies focused on both a sizing approach based on a parametric analysis and an operation strategy. The aim of the present work is to improve the design of the tanks, in particular by evaluating the thermal losses and finding the adequate insulating materials. We focuse...

  10. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  11. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Effects on Cryogenic Storage Tank Boil-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Frontier, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) routinely utilizes cryostat test hardware to evaluate comparative and absolute thermal conductivities of a wide array of insulation systems. The test method is based on measurement of the flow rate of gas evolved due to evaporative boil-off of a cryogenic liquid. The gas flow rate typically stabilizes after a period of a couple of hours to a couple of days, depending upon the test setup. The stable flow rate value is then used to calculate the thermal conductivity for the insulation system being tested. The latest set of identical cryostats, 1,000-L spherical tanks, exhibited different behavior. On a macro level, the flow rate did stabilize after a couple of days; however the stable flow rate was oscillatory with peak to peak amplitude of up to 25 percent of the nominal value. The period of the oscillation was consistently 12 hours. The source of the oscillation has been traced to variations in atmospheric pressure due to atmospheric tides similar to oceanic tides. This paper will present analysis of this phenomenon, including a calculation that explains why other cryostats are not affected by it.

  13. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Zollars, R.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  14. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids

  15. Performance improvement by discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Thür, Alexander;

    2005-01-01

    The thermal advantages by utilizing discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks are investigated, both for a small SDHW system and for a solar combisystem. The investigations showed that it is possible to increase the thermal performance of both types of systems by using two draw......-off levels from the solar tanks instead of one draw-off level at a fixed position. The best position of the second draw-off level is in the middle or just above the middle of the tank. For the investigated small SDHW system with a realistic draw off hot water temperature of 40°C and 45°C and an auxiliary...

  16. Methanoculleus spp. as a biomarker of methanogenic activity in swine manure storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Morissette, Bruno; Topp, Edward; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P J; Matias, Fernando; Massé, Daniel I; Masse, Lucie; Talbot, Guylaine

    2012-05-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major problem associated with manure management in the livestock industry. A prerequisite to mitigate methane emissions occurring during manure storage is a clearer understanding of how the microbial consortia involved in methanogenesis function. Here, we have examined manure stored in outdoor tanks from two different farms, at different locations and depths. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of these samples indicated differences between each tank, as well as differences within each tank dependent on the depth of sampling. The dynamics of both the bacterial and archaeal communities within these samples were monitored over a 150-day period of anaerobic incubation to identify and track emerging microorganisms, which may be temporally important in the methanogenesis process. Analyses based on DNA fingerprinting of microbial communities identified trends common among all samples as well as trends specific to certain samples. All archaeal communities became enriched with Methanoculleus spp. over time, indicating that the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methanogenesis predominated. Although the emerging species differed in samples obtained from shallow depths compared to deep samples, the temporal enrichment of Methanoculleus suggests that this genus may represent a relevant indicator of methanogenic activity in swine manure storage tanks.

  17. Dynamic modeling of а heating system using geothermal energy and storage tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Predrag D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a greenhouse heating system using geothermal energy and storage tank and the possibility of utilization of insufficient amount of heat from geothermal sources during the periods with low outside air temperatures. Crucial for these analyses is modelling of the necessary yearly energy requirements for greenhouse heating. The results of these analyses enable calculation of an appropriate storage tank capacity so that the energy efficiency of greenhouse heating system with geothermal energy could be significantly improved. [Acknowledgement. This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology Development of the Republic of Serbia through the National Energy Efficiency Program (Grant 18234 A. The authors are thankful to the stuff and management of the Company “Farmakom MB PIK 7. juli - Debrc” for their assistance during the realization of this project.

  18. Radiological assessment of worker doses during sludge mobilization and removal at the Melton Valley storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.; Coleman, R.L.; Kocher, D.C.; Wynn, C.C.

    1996-12-17

    This report presents an assessment of potential radiation doses to workers during mobilization and removal of contaminated sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assessment is based on (1) measurements of radionuclide concentrations in sludge and supernatant liquid samples from the waste storage tanks, (2) measurements of gamma radiation levels in various areas that will be accessed by workers during normal activities, (3) calculations of gamma radiation levels for particular exposure situations, especially when the available measurements are not applicable, and (4) assumed scenarios for worker activities in radiation areas. Only doses from external exposure are estimated in this assessment. Doses from internal exposure are assumed to be controlled by containment of radioactive materials or respiratory protection of workers and are not estimated.

  19. Chaotic behavior of LNG after stratification in main stream region of storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing WANG; Xiaoqian MA

    2008-01-01

    A study of the chaotic behavior of liquefied natural gas (LNG) after stratification in the main stream region of a storage tank was conducted. Based on non-linear dynamics, a 2-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard con-vection model was developed to simulate the convection, Lorenz equations of LNG convection were deduced from conservation equations, and the Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equations. The results showed that when Pr = 1.33, 106 < r < 1470, chaos was obtained, which meant that the velocity field and the temperature field were highly unsteady. In addition, the influence of temperature and scale factor on the solutions and the corresponding range of parameters were studied. The results revealed that the chaos in LNG convection resulted from the interaction of buoyancy and viscid forces. A small quantity of heat impacting the storage tank would lead to a strong and unstable convection of LNG in the main stream region.

  20. Mechanical Characteristics of 9% Ni Steel Welded Joint for Lng Storage Tank at Cryogenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yong-Keun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Shim, Kyu-Taek; Kim, Young-Kyun

    To confirm the safety performance of LNG storage tank, the change in fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness within X-grooved weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of newly developed 9% Ni steel, which was SMAW welded, was investigated. These materials were produced by QT (quenching, tempering) heat treatment. The weld metal specimens were prepared by taking the same weld procedure applied in actual inner shell of LNG storage tank. All tests were performed in the temperature ranging from R.T. and -162°C. The fatigue crack growth behavior was carried out using CT specimen. Investigation has been carried out to study the influence of temperature and weld effect on fatigue crack growth behavior. Also, Fracture surfaces after tests were observe by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  1. Transient Thermal Behavior of a Vertical Solar Storage Tank with a Mantle Heat Exchanger During No-Flow Operation

    OpenAIRE

    A. Barzegar; A. A. Dehghan

    2009-01-01

    Transient thermal behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the charging mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially filled with uniform cold water. At an instant of time, the hot fluid from collector outlet is uniformly injected in the upper section of the mantle heat exchanger and after heat transfer with the fluid inside the tank, withdrawn from the bottom part of the heat excha...

  2. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites

  3. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites.

  4. Retroactive Liability and Future Risk: The Optimal Regulation of Underground Storage Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, James; Kunreuther, Howard

    1995-01-01

    The optimal design of environmental liability policy focuses on two primary policy issues: the cleanup of existing sources of pollution and the definition and enforcement of policies to promote prospectively efficient environmental risk reduction. Through the analysis of a policy toward a pervasive environmental risk--leaking underground storage tanks--we analyze the effectiveness of an existing policy governing retroactive and prospective liability issues and suggest ways in which that polic...

  5. Control of stress corrosion cracking in storage tanks containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste, at the Savannah River Plant is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Cases of cracking have been observed in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 that were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh waste, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specified ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. Tanks designed and built since 1960 have been made of steels with greater resistance to stress corrosion; these tanks have also been heat treated after fabrication to relieve residual stresses from construction operations. Temperature limits are also specified to protect against stress corrosion at elevated temperatures

  6. Numerical Investigation of LO2 and LCH4 Storage Tanks on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Jeff; Barsi, Stephen; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Currently NASA is developing technologies to enable human exploration of the lunar surface for duration of up to 210 days. While trade studies are still underway, a cryogenic ascent stage using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) is being considered for the Altair lunar lander. For a representative Altair cryogenic ascent stage, we present a detailed storage analysis of the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks on the lunar surface for durations of up to 210 days. Both the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks are assumed to be pressurized with gaseous helium at launch. A two-phase lumped-vapor computational fluid dynamics model has been developed to account for the presence of a noncondensable gas in the ullage. The CFD model is used to simulate the initial pressure response of the propellant tanks while they are subjected to representative heat leak rates on the lunar surface. Once a near stationary state is achieved within the liquid phase, multizone model is used to extrapolate the solution farther in time. For fixed propellant mass and tank size, the long-term pressure response for different helium mass fractions in both the LO2 and LCH4 tanks is examined.

  7. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-steel tank walls and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduced from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report.

  8. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report.

  9. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report

  10. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  11. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (TIAX, LLC)

    2011-02-09

    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  12. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas

  13. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration work plan for Corrective Action Unit 126: Closure of aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan addresses the closure of several aboveground storage tanks in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The unit is currently identified as Corrective Action Unit 126 in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and is listed as having six Corrective Action Sites. This plan addresses the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration closure for five of the six sites. Four of the CASs are located at the Engine Test Stand complex and one is located in the Central Support Area. The sites consist of aboveground tanks, two of which were used to store diesel fuel and one stored Nalcool (an antifreeze mixture). The remaining tanks were used as part of a water demineralization process and stored either sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide, and one was used as a charcoal adsorption furnace. Closure will be completed by removal of the associated piping, tank supports and tanks using a front end loader, backhoe, and/or crane. When possible, the tanks will be salvaged as scrap metal. The piping that is not removed will be sealed using a cement grout

  14. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  15. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up

  16. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  17. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  18. Fusibacter bizertensis sp. nov., isolated from a corroded kerosene storage tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smii, Latifa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Joseph, Manon; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Strain LTF Kr01(T), a novel mesophilic, anaerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from a drain at the bottom of a corroded kerosene storage tank of the Société Tunisienne des Industries de Raffinage (STIR), Bizerte, northern Tunisia. Cells were Gram-positive-staining rods, occurred singly or in pairs, and were motile by one lateral flagellum. Strain LTF Kr01(T) grew at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C (optimum 30 °C), between pH 5.5 and 8.2 (optimum pH 7.2) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 50 g l(-1) (optimum 5 g l(-1)). It reduced thiosulfate and elemental sulfur into sulfide, but did not reduce sulfate or sulfite. It utilized a wide range of carbohydrates (cellobiose, d-glucose, d-fructose, d-mannitol, d-ribose, sucrose, d-xylose, maltose, d-galactose, starch and trehalose) and produced acetate, CO2 and H2 as end products from glucose fermentation. The DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that Fusibacter tunisiensis was the closest relative of strain LTF Kr01(T) (gene sequence similarity of 94.6%). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic taxonomic characteristics, strain LTF Kr01(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Fusibacter, order Clostridiales, for which the name Fusibacter bizertensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LTF Kr01(T) ( = DSM 28034(T) = JCM 19376(T)). PMID:25294821

  19. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  20. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Thomas Russell

    2002-08-01

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  1. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.R.

    2002-05-06

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  2. On the prolonged storage of highly concentrated liquid radioactive wastes in special tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations for determination and estimation of processes occur in liquid radioactive wastes when long period storage (1 - 5 years) are stated. These investigations were conducted at the Central station for radiation safety. Results are given for determination of physical state of solutions in tanks depending on the depth of sampling and also on chemical composition of wastes and composition of gas - air mixture ower the solution surface. Results of radio chemical analysis of samples are given. On the grounds of the results of investigations, conclusions are made and recomendations are given concerning prolonged storage of highly concentrated radioactive liquid wastes. Prolonged storage of this type of wastes is recognized potentially dangerous and hence unacceptable. (I.T.)

  3. Vibro Replacement, Dynamic Compaction, and Vibro Compaction case histories for petroleum storage tank facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, N; Scott, J. [Geopac West Ltd., Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed approaches to tank farm ground improvement via 3 Canadian ground improvement case histories in order to set forth the advantages of ground improvement for foundation support at petroleum storage tank facilities. Each case study featured a particular set of site conditions, performance criteria, and ground improvement techniques selected to attain the desired foundation performance. The first case study involved a Vibro Replacement stone column to meet strict seismicity requirements, the second employed Dynamic Compaction to mitigate deep variable fill within a former gravel pit, and the last encompassed Vibro Compaction applied to a site with a sand fill soil profile. The site conditions, the design requirements, the ground improvement solution, the execution, and the quality control techniques and results were presented for each case history. Soil reinforcement and ground improvement to treat loose and soft soils below heavy storage tanks can be an economical solution to foundation design challenges. However, it is important to select proper methods and tailor the densification programs to the specific subsoil conditions and design requirements. In each application, the selected ground improvement technique exceeded the specified in-situ testing requirements. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Cryograb: A Novel Approach to the Retrieval of Waste from Underground Storage Tanks - 13501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Luke; Baker, Stephen; Bowen, Bob [UK National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington (United Kingdom); Mallick, Pramod; Smith, Gary [US Department of Energy (United States); King, Bill [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Judd, Laurie [NuVision Engineering (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is investigating the use of cryogenic technology for the recovery of nuclear waste. Cryograb, freezing the waste on a 'cryo-head' and then retrieves it as a single mass which can then be treated or stabilized as necessary. The technology has a number of benefits over other retrieval approaches in that it minimizes sludge disturbance thereby reducing effluent arising and it can be used to de-water, and thereby reduce the volume of waste. The technology has been successfully deployed for a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear waste recovery operations. The application of Cryograb for the recovery of waste from US underground storage tanks is being explored through a US DOE International Technology Transfer and Demonstration programme. A sample deployment being considered involves the recovery of residual mounds of sludge material from waste storage tanks at Savannah River. Operational constraints and success criteria were agreed prior to the completion of a process down selection exercise which specified the preferred configuration of the cryo-head and supporting plant. Subsequent process modeling identified retrieval rates and temperature gradients through the waste and tank infrastructure. The work, which has been delivered in partnership with US DOE, SRNL, NuVision Engineering and Frigeo AB has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the approach (to TRL 2) and has resulted in the allocation of additional funding from DOE to take the programme to bench and cold pilot-scale trials. (authors)

  5. A large experimental apparatus for measuring thermal conductance of LH2 storage tank insulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, S.; Onishi, K.; Kawagoe, E.; Nishigaki, K.

    2000-01-01

    In the Japanese hydrogen project, WE-NET (World Energy Net Work), the conceptual design of the large mass liquid hydrogen storage systems for ground tanks and transportation, whose scales would reach to that of commercialized LNG (liquid national gas), has been studied. This study has concluded that the thermal insulation for a mass storage tank, providing the excellent thermal performance with the optimized strength, should be developed. In order to evaluate thermal conductance of various devised insulations, we have manufactured a large-scale experimental apparatus. This apparatus, which adopts a double guarded flat plate boil-off calorimeter method, can provide the thermal data needed for designing a full-scale tank. It would be possible to test various kinds of specimens with allowable dimensions: diameter 120 cm, thickness up to 30 cm. In the case of a rigid specimen contacting bottom surfaces of liquid hydrogen vessels, the good flatness of their bottom plates is desirable to reduce the thermal resistance between vessels and a specimen surface. This paper describes the abstract of the developed apparatus, its structural design and also the experimental results for verifying its structural design.

  6. Subsurface barrier technologies as potential interim actions for Department of Energy underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company administers the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program, which is designed to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval, treatment, and closure to DOE USTs and tank waste at five facilities throughout the US. In February 1992, Bovay Northwest conducted an UST workshop for Westinghouse Hanford. The scope of the workshop included a variety of applied subsurface barrier technologies that could be installed around an UST or series of USTs. This paper summarizes the information presented in the workshop. Once selected, screened technologies will be tested in the field in a full-scale demonstration and development project (also funded by the UST-ID program)

  7. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Flammable Gases in Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the field measurements for a screening of flammable gases in the vapor space of the inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) currently assigned to the River Protection Project (RPP). If a measurement exceeds 25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. This SAP also specifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for grab sampling. Technical bases for the sampling objectives are provided in the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (Dukelow et al 1995). The screening data will be used to determine if additional data are needed to support closure of a flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities

  8. The safe removal of frozen air from the annulus of an LH2 storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modelling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  9. Risk Based Inspection Methodology and Software Applied to Atmospheric Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalis, P.; Korneliussen, G.; Hermanrud, J.; Steo, Y.

    2012-05-01

    A new risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology and software is presented in this paper. The objective of this work is to allow management of the inspections of atmospheric storage tanks in the most efficient way, while, at the same time, accident risks are minimized. The software has been built on the new risk framework architecture, a generic platform facilitating efficient and integrated development of software applications using risk models. The framework includes a library of risk models and the user interface is automatically produced on the basis of editable schemas. This risk-framework-based RBI tool has been applied in the context of RBI for above-ground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) but it has been designed with the objective of being generic enough to allow extension to the process plants in general. This RBI methodology is an evolution of an approach and mathematical models developed for Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The methodology assesses damage mechanism potential, degradation rates, probability of failure (PoF), consequence of failure (CoF) in terms of environmental damage and financial loss, risk and inspection intervals and techniques. The scope includes assessment of the tank floor for soil-side external corrosion and product-side internal corrosion and the tank shell courses for atmospheric corrosion and internal thinning. It also includes preliminary assessment for brittle fracture and cracking. The data are structured according to an asset hierarchy including Plant, Production Unit, Process Unit, Tag, Part and Inspection levels and the data are inherited / defaulted seamlessly from a higher hierarchy level to a lower level. The user interface includes synchronized hierarchy tree browsing, dynamic editor and grid-view editing and active reports with drill-in capability.

  10. Corrosion resistance of tank material for flock storage in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of the storage tank made of SS400 is under planning in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant for the flock which was generated in the coagulation process for radioactive contaminated water. The flock contains the seawater and has a possibility to make a crevice and local corrosion on the surface of the tank. Air agitation will be applied in the storage tank to prevent the accumulation of the flock and hydrogen generated by radiolysis, which will increase the diffusion of oxygen and the corrosion of SS400. In addition, the effect of radiation from the flock on the corrosion should be considered. In this study, we investigated the corrosion behavior of SS400 in the flock under the aeration-agitation condition with γ-ray irradiation. Based on the flock storage condition announced by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), immersion tests were performed with SS400 coupons under several conditions and corrosion rates were estimated by the weight loss of the coupons. After the immersion tests, the surfaces of the coupons were observed by microscopy for evaluating the local corrosion. To evaluate corrosion mechanism in detail, electrochemical tests were also carried out. In all of these tests, the non-radioactive flock as a surrogate and artificial seawater were used. Corrosion rates of SS400 increased significantly with aeration flow rates in the seawater with/without the flock, but this tendency was weaker in the seawater with the flock, especially under the condition where coupons were buried in the flock. The electrochemical tests indicated the suppression of the cathodic reaction, i.e. dissolved oxygen reduction, in the seawater with the flock. The effect of γ-ray irradiation on the corrosion rates was not remarkable under the assumed dose rate. Microscopic analysis of the immersed coupons showed no severe corrosion including local corrosion occurred. The corrosion rate could be decreased effectively by suppressing the dissolved oxygen reduction

  11. Standard practice for examination of liquid-Filled atmospheric and Low-pressure metal storage tanks using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of new and in-service aboveground storage tanks of the type used for storage of liquids. 1.2 This practice will detect acoustic emission in areas of sensor coverage that are stressed during the course of the examination. For flat-bottom tanks these areas will generally include the sidewalls (and roof if pressure is applied above the liquid level). The examination may not detect flaws on the bottom of flat-bottom tanks unless sensors are located on the bottom. 1.3 This practice may require that the tank experience a load that is greater than that encountered in normal use. The normal contents of the tank can usually be used for applying this load. 1.4 This practice is not valid for tanks that will be operated at a pressure greater than the examination pressure. 1.5 It is not necessary to drain or clean the tank before performing this examination. 1.6 This practice applies to tanks made of carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum and oth...

  12. Transient Thermal Behavior of a Vertical Solar Storage Tank with a Mantle Heat Exchanger During No-Flow Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barzegar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient thermal behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the charging mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially filled with uniform cold water. At an instant of time, the hot fluid from collector outlet is uniformly injected in the upper section of the mantle heat exchanger and after heat transfer with the fluid inside the tank, withdrawn from the bottom part of the heat exchanger. The conservation equations in the cylindrical coordinate and in axis-symmetric condition have been used according to the geometry under investigation. Governing equations have been discretized by employing the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm has been used for coupling between momentum and pressure equations. The Low Reynolds Number (LRN k −ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. First, the transient thermal behavior of heat storage tank and the process of formation of thermal stratification in the heat storage tank were investigated. Then, the influence of Rayleigh number in the heat storage tank, Reynolds number in the mantle heat exchanger and vertical positioning of mantle on the flow and thermal fields and the formation of the thermal stratification was investigated. It is found that for higher values of Rayleigh number, a more suitable thermal stratification is established inside the tank. Also it is noticed that increasing the incoming fluid velocity through the mantle heat exchanger causes a faster formation of the thermal stratification. A superior thermal performance was achieved when the mantle heat exchanger is positioned at the middle height of the storage tank.

  13. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J. [ARES Corp. (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  14. The design and implementation of state underground storage tank assurance funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congress has required owners and operators of underground storage tanks (USTs) containing petroleum to demonstrate financial ability to pay for corrective action and third-party liability costs. This paper discusses these state funds. The first section contributes background information on the federal financial responsibility requirements several alternative types of state financial responsibility programs are discussed next: traditional programs that rely on private assurance, state reinsurance programs, and loan and other financial assistance programs. The next section describes variants of state assurance funds, the primary option adopted by state. The final section analyses several major issues faced by state in implementing their UST funds

  15. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences

  16. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document

  17. Performance testing of a system for remote ultrasonic examination of the Hanford double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile robotic inspection system is being developed for remote ultrasonic examination of the double wall waste storage tanks at Hanford. Performance testing of the system includes demonstrating robot mobility within the tank annulus, evaluating the accuracy of the vision based navigation process, and verifying ultrasonic and video system performance. This paper briefly describes the system and presents a summary of the plan for performance testing of the ultrasonic testing system. Performance test results will be presented at the conference

  18. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs

  2. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  3. Elastic-Plastic Thermal Stress Analysis of a High-Pressure Cryogenic Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. Mark; Field, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stresses on a cryogenic storage tank contribute strongly to the state of stress of the tank material and its ability to withstand operational stresses. These thermal stresses also affect the growth of any surface damage that might occur in the tank walls. These stresses are particularly of concern during the initial cooldown period for a new tank placed into service, and during any subsequent thermal cycles. A previous preliminary elastic analysis showed that the thermal stress on the inner wall would reach approximately 1,000MPa (145,000 psi). This stress far exceeds the ASTM specified room temperature values for both yield (170MPa) and ultimate (485 MPa) strength for 304L stainless steel. The present analysis determines the thermal stresses using an elastic-plastic model. The commercial software application ANSYS was used to determine the transient spatial temperature profile and the associated spatial thermal stress profiles in a segment of a thick-walled vessel during a typical cooldown process. A strictly elastic analysis using standard material properties for 304L stainless steel showed that the maximum thermal stress on the inner and outer walls was approximately 960 MPa (tensile) and - 270 MPa (compressive) respectively. These values occurred early in the cooldown process, but at different times, An elastic-plastic analysis showed significantly reducing stress, as expected due to the plastic deformation of the material. The maximum stress for the inner wall was approximately 225 MPa (tensile), while the maximum stress for the outer wall was approximately - 130 MPa (compressive).

  4. Electrical resistivity tomography for early vadose leak detection under single shell storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes planned testing with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). It is prepared in support of TTP RL46WT51 Rev. 1, funded by the Tank Focus Area through the Office of Technology Integration. The primary goal of the testing for fiscal year 1996 (FY96) is to develop and demonstrate the ability to place vertical electrode arrays (VEA) with the cone penetrometer technology (CPT) to depths below existing single shell tanks (SST) at the DOE Hanford Site. It is desirable to have the capability to use CPT for this application for obvious reasons. First, current methods of emplacement, drilled boreholes, are expensive with respect to the rest of the ERT operation. Cone penetrometer VEA emplacements offer the opportunity to significantly reduce installation costs. Second, use of CPT will reduce emplacement time from weeks or months to just several days depending on the number of VEAs and the depth of placement. ERT is preferable to other monitoring methods since operation costs and turn around time are less than the current baselines of either groundwater sampling networks or borehole logging techniques. ERT cost savings can be substantial and will continue into the future. ERT can also provide complete coverage under a tank or other facility which is an important supplement to existing monitoring methods. Groundwater sampling provides one data point per well and borehole logging provides data along a line in the ground. Neither provide information from beneath a facility and thus, are not able to locate release points. These electrode arrays are used to acquire subsurface electrical resistance data in a manner appropriate for tomographic inversion. The resulting tomograms can then be used to detect, monitor and track contaminated moisture plumes leaking from underground storage tanks during waste retrieval operations

  5. 800kt/a硫磺制酸装置液硫罐区及硫酸罐区设计探讨%Discussion on Design of Molten Sulfur Tank Yard and Sulfuric Acid Tank Yard in 800 kt/a Sulfur -burning Sulfuric Acid Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇顺

    2011-01-01

    Discussed the heating system for molten sulfur storage tank. Reasonable suggestions about heating system design, equipment ladder design as well as tank foundation design were put forward. Material selection, anti - corrosion and safety issues for sulfuric acid tank were discussed. Reasonable suggestions about sulfuric acid tank layout design, process design were put forward.%探讨了液硫储罐的加热系统,对于液硫储罐的加热系统设计,设备爬梯设计以及储罐基础的设计提出了一些合理建议;探讨了浓硫酸储罐的选材、防腐和安全问题,对于硫酸罐区的布置设计,工艺设计提出了一些合理建议。

  6. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility

  7. Heat release performance of heat storage water tank with phase-change material in solar drying system%太阳能干燥相变储热水箱的放热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海涛; 高建民; 陈瑶

    2015-01-01

    为降低传统干燥能耗,强化太阳能干燥用储热水箱的储放热能力,在普通储热水箱中添加了硬脂酸/膨胀石墨相变储热材料,研究了放热温差、储热单元体积对装置放热性能的影响。研究结果表明:相变储热水箱放热时间、放热量随着放热温差和储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加均有所提升,储热单元的添加对储热水箱的放热效果影响更为显著。放热效率则随着放热温差的增大而降低,随着储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加而显著提升;储热水箱中储热单元体积为35%时,相变储热水箱的放热时间比普通储热水箱最多提升了1.26倍,放热温度最大可提高8.7℃,热效率最多可提高22.56%。%Drying is an essential process for a large number of industrial and agricultural products. In order to reduce energy consumption of traditional drying, improve its utilization efficiency and strengthen the capacity of heat storage water tank for solar drying, the stearic acid/expanded graphite composite phase-change material (PCM) with melting point of 52.74℃ and latent heat of 169.90 J/g was added into the conventional heat storage water tank in this paper. The schematic structure of the solar drying system mainly consisted of solar collector, drying oven, heat storage water tank and phase-change thermal energy storage units. The effect of heat release temperature difference and heat storage unit volume on the heat release performance of the device was studied under the same heat release conditions. The total volume of the PCM containers in the heat storage water tank was 15%, 25% and 35%, respectively. The heat storage water tank was heated to 60, 65 and 75℃ by using solar collector in heat storage process. Then the heat storage water tank was used to provide heat for the drying oven, and the heat release process was finished when the temperature of drying oven was 40℃ . The results showed that the

  8. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC

    2010-03-03

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has been assessed and compared to the DOE 2010, 2015 and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The Gen-3 prototype system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was modeled to project the performance of a scaled-down 5.6-kg usable hydrogen storage system. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers 1.5 kg/min of liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm (4000 psi). The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) and by central electrolysis using electricity from renewable sources. The main conclusions from the assessment are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity and the 2015 target for system volumetric capacity (see Table I). The system compares favorably with targets for durability and operability although additional work is needed to understand failure modes for combined pressure and temperature cycling. The system may meet the targets for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. The high-volume manufacturing cost is projected to be 2-4 times the current 2010 target of $4/kWh. For the reference conditions considered most applicable, the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production and liquid H{sub 2} delivery scenario is 60%-140% higher than the current target of $2-$3/gge while the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  9. Experimental determination of the heat transfer and cold storage characteristics of a microencapsulated phase change material in a horizontal tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cold storage characteristics in latent and sensible heat storage mediums were studied. • Thermo-physical characterization of the phase change material was carried out. • A non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior of the phase change material was observed. • An energy storage enhancement (53%) was observed in the latent heat storage medium. - Abstract: In the present paper, the performance of a microencapsulated phase change material (in 45% w/w concentration) for low temperature thermal energy storage, suitable for air conditioning applications is studied. The results are compared to a sensible heat storage unit using water. Thermo-physical properties such as the specific heat, enthalpy variation, thermal conductivity and density are also experimentally determined. The non-Newtonian shear-thickening behavior of the phase change material slurry is quantified. Thermal energy performance is experimentally determined for a 100 l horizontal tank. The heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid and the phase change material was provided by a tube-bundle heat exchanger inside the tank. The results show that the amount of energy stored using the phase change material is 53% higher than for water after 10 h of charging, for the same storage tank volume. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient between the phase change material and the tube wall increases during the phase change temperature range, however it remains smaller than the values obtained for water

  10. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  11. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) If your gasoline storage tank is subject to, and complies with, the control requirements of 40 CFR... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category:...

  12. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  13. Underground Storage Tanks, Leaking Underground Tanks in Rhode Island; s44xlt99; This dataset shows the location of storage tanks and associated piping used for petroleum and certain hazardous substances that have experienced leaks as determined by RIDEM, Published in 1999, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1999. It is...

  14. Underground storage tank waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure waterjet scarifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD ampersand E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier, Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Simulant materials representative of tank waste have been used to test the performance of the scarifier over a wide range of waste types. This technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste simulants at desired retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of proposed deployment devices. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date

  15. Combined long reach and dexterous manipulation for waste storage tank applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the highest priority environmental restoration tasks within the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of single-shell waste storage tanks (WSTs), especially those suspected of, or documented as, leakers. Most currently proposed approaches for remediation of large underground WSTs require application of remotely operated long-reach (greater than 10 m), high-lift capacity (greater than 200 kg) manipulator systems. Because of the complexity of in-tank hardware, waste forms, remediation tasks, and variety of end-effector tools, these manipulator systems must also be capable of performing a diverse set of dexterous manipulations. This presentation will describe the integration of a Spar RMS 2500 manipulator system, a Schilling Titan-7F manipulator, and control systems developed at ORNL and SNL to provide a combined long reach and dexterous manipulation system. The purpose of integrating these two manipulator systems was to study and demonstrate their combined performance, evaluate design requirements for a deployed system, and provide a testbed for control and end-effector technologies that might be applicable to remediation of WSTs. 5 refs

  16. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-09-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author`s previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B {+-} $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author`s engineering judgment.

  17. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author's previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B ± $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author's engineering judgment

  18. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale

  19. Estimating heel retrieval costs for underground storage tank waste at Hanford. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 100 million gallons (∼400,000 m3) of existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned radioactive waste stored in underground tanks can not be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). The current plan for disposal of UST waste which can not be disposed of as LLW is immobilization as glass and permanent storage in an underground repository. Disposal of LLW generally can be done sub-surface at the point of origin. Consequently, LLW is significantly less expensive to dispose of than that requiring an underground repository. Due to the lower cost for LLW disposal, it is advantageous to separate the 100 million gallons of waste into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a large volume of LLW

  20. Corrosion damage at storage tanks for salt brine; Korrosionsschaeden an Lagertanks fuer Salzlake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, A.; Mietz, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM) Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    A tank made of stainless steel type X2CrNiMo17-12-2 for intermediate storage of salt brine for cheese production revealed significant pitting corrosion effects shortly after commissioning although comparable units have shown positive long-term behaviour. By means of electrochemical laboratory tests it could be demonstrated that the observed pitting corrosion was caused by the use of an oxidizing agent for desinfection purposes. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] An einem Tankbehaelter aus dem Werkstoff X2CrNiMo17-12-2, der zur Zwischenlagerung von Salzlake fuer die Kaeseherstellung dient, wurden trotz langjaehriger positiver Erfahrungen an vergleichbaren Anlagen bereits kurze Zeit nach der Inbetriebnahme Lochkorrosionserscheinungen festgestellt. Durch entsprechende elektrochemische Laboruntersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die vorgefundene Lochkorrosion durch den Einsatz eines Oxidationsmittels zu Desinfektionszwecken verursacht wurde. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  3. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction

  4. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  7. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

  8. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections

  10. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety

  11. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  12. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Wastewater Storage in Septic Tank on E. coli Concentration in Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Bradshaw

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS work by first storing the wastewater in a septic tank before releasing it to soils for treatment that is generally effective and sustainable. However, it is not clear how the abundance of E. coli changes during its passage through the tank. In this study, which was conducted under the UGA young Scholar Program in summer of 2010, we examined the change in wastewater quality parameters during the passage of the wastewater through the tank and after its release into soil. We collected wastewater samples at the inlet and outlet of an experimental septic tank in addition to obtaining water samples from lysimeters below trenches where the drainpipes were buried. We report that E. coli concentration was higher by 100-fold in the septic tank effluent than influent wastewater samples, indicating the growth of E. coli inside the tank under typical Georgian summer weather. This is contrary to the assumption that E. coli cells do not grow outside their host and suggests that the microbial load of the wastewater is potentially enhanced during its storage in the tank. Electrical conductivity, pH and nitrogen were similar between the influent and effluent wastewater samples. E. coli and total coliform concentrations were mainly below detection in lysimeter samples, indicating the effectiveness of the soil in treating the wastewater.

  13. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms

  14. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  15. REMOVING SLUDGE HEELS FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANKS BY OXALIC ACID DISSOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Fernando Fondeur, F; John Pareizs, J; Michael Hay, M; Bruce Wiersma, B; Kim Crapse, K; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S; Donald Thaxton, D

    2009-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will remove sludge as part of waste tank closure operations. Typically the bulk sludge is removed by mixing it with supernate to produce a slurry, and transporting the slurry to a downstream tank for processing. Experience shows that a residual heel may remain in the tank that cannot be removed by this conventional technique. In the past, SRS used oxalic acid solutions to disperse or dissolve the sludge heel to complete the waste removal. To better understand the actual conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of waste from carbon steel tanks, the authors developed and conducted an experimental program to determine its effectiveness in dissolving sludge, the hydrogen generation rate, the generation rate of other gases, the carbon steel corrosion rate, the impact of mixing on chemical cleaning, the impact of temperature, and the types of precipitates formed during the neutralization process. The test samples included actual SRS sludge and simulated SRS sludge. The authors performed the simulated waste tests at 25, 50, and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge over seven days. They conducted the actual waste tests at 50 and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge as a single batch. Following the testing, SRS conducted chemical cleaning with oxalic acid in two waste tanks. In Tank 5F, the oxalic acid (8 wt %) addition occurred over seven days, followed by inhibited water to ensure the tank contained enough liquid to operate the mixer pumps. The tank temperature during oxalic acid addition and dissolution was approximately 45 C. The authors analyzed samples from the chemical cleaning process and compared it with test data. The conclusions from the work are: (1) Oxalic acid addition proved effective in dissolving sludge heels in the simulant demonstration, the actual waste demonstration, and in SRS Tank 5F. (2) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 100% of the iron, and {approx} 40% of the manganese

  16. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  17. FSI effects and seismic performance evaluation of water storage tank of AP1000 subjected to earthquake loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Water sloshing and oscillation of water tank under earthquake are simulated by FEM. • The influences of various water levels on seismic response are investigated. • ALE algorithm is applied to study the fluid–structure interaction effects. • The effects of different water levels in reducing seismic response are compared. • The optimal water level of water tank under seismic loading is obtained. - Abstract: The gravity water storage tank of AP1000 is designed to cool down the temperature of containment vessel by spray water when accident releases mass energy. However, the influence of fluid–structure interaction between water and water tank of AP1000 on dynamic behavior of shield building is still a hot research question. The main objective of the current study is to investigate how the fluid–structure interaction affects the dynamic behavior of water tank and whether the water sloshing and oscillation can reduce the seismic response of the shield building subjected to earthquake. For this purpose, a fluid–structure interaction algorithm of finite element technique is employed for the seismic analysis of water storage tank of AP1000. In the finite element model, 8 cases height of water, such as 10.8, 9.8, 8.8, 7.8, 6.8, 5.8, 4.8, and 3.8 m, are established and compared with the empty water tank in order to demonstrate the positive effect in mitigating the seismic response. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is used to simulate the fluid–structure interaction, fluid sloshing and oscillation of water tank under the El-Centro earthquake. The correlation between seismic response and parameters of water tank in terms of height of air (h1), height of water (h2), height ratio of water to tank (h2/Hw) and mass ratio of water to total structure (mw/mt) is also analyzed. The numerical results clearly show that the optimal h2, h2/Hw and mw/mt to structure are 8.8 m, 0.7458 and 5.7235%, which can reduce the

  18. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  19. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  20. Stress analysis of a double bottom retrofit of an aboveground storage tank including effects of soil/structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.; Andreani, J.L. [BP Oil Co., Cleveland, OH (United States). Engineering Services

    1995-12-31

    Concern about differential settlement of aboveground atmospheric storage tanks and the effects of the resulting large strains on tank floor integrity has become an important issue in the refining industry, prompting much of the industry to undertake massive programs to retrofit substantial numbers of existing tanks with second floors. This is normally accomplished by cutting a horizontal slot in the tank shell parallel to the existing floor, placing a liner and fill material (such as sand) over the existing floor, installing annular plates through the slot in the shell, and then welding in the remaining floor plate. In this process, the decision whether or not to weld the bottom side of the new floor plate to the shell stub attached to the original floor is a key design consideration which can significantly impact the stress distribution in both the new floor and the existing shell stub. Finite element analysis is used to study operating stresses in a typical double-bottom aboveground atmospheric storage tank on a raised compacted earth pad and gravel ringwall foundation. Results are compared for cases in which the new floor is welded to the existing shell stub and in which the new floor simply rests on the shell stub without further attachment. Effects of soil/structure interaction for a typical granular soil are included in the analysis.

  1. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks - 12288

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    applicable to other similar tanks or underground concrete storage structures. This article presented the details of the finite element models and analysis approach followed during the ongoing effort to establish structural integrity of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. The details of the material constitutive models applicable to the underground Hanford concrete tanks that capture the thermal and creep induce degradation are also presented. The thermal profiles were developed based on the available tank temperature data for the Type II and Type III single-shell tanks, and they were chosen to yield conservative demands under the thermal and operating loads analysis of these tanks. Sensitivity studies were conducted to address two issues regarding the soils modeled around the single-shell tanks. The results indicate that excluding the boundary separating the backfill soil from the undisturbed soil will result in conservative demands (plots 14b and 14c green lines for circumferential Demand/Capacity ratios). The radial extent study indicated that the soil model extending to 240 ft gave more conservative results than the model with 62 ft of soil (plots 17a and 17c magenta lines for hoop Demand/Capacity ratios). Based on these results, a 240 ft far-field soil boundary with backfill throughout the lateral extent was recommended and used for the finite element models used in the Type-II and Type-III analyses of record. The modeling effort and sensitivity studies discussed in this article helped in developing bounding models for the structural integrity evaluation of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. (authors)

  3. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  4. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  5. Underground Storage Tanks, The dataset contains the locations of sites where Underground/Abovegroumd Storge Tanks are/were located., Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Alabama Department of Environmental Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is...

  6. An effect of a horizontal buoyant jet on the temperature distribution inside a hot water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A vortex is generated when the buoyant jet impinges the opposite wall linearly. • The vortex height “Zb” is nearly equal to the edge of the temperature gradient layer. • Empirical formulas were proposed between Zb and the buoyant jet’s length scale lM. • A 1D model for simulating temperature distribution was proposed. • The performance of the model was verified by comparing the unsteady test results. -- Abstract: The hot water storage tank (for stratified thermal storage) with a heat pump draws a lot of attention nowadays due to its high performance. In Japan, reheating of the bath is commonly used, and as this mode, the jet injects horizontally at the middle of the tank, so the temperature distribution of the tank changes complexly with time. Hence a model is needed to simulate this phenomenon, precisely. Additionally, in the process of designing a hot water storage system, it is necessary to simulate temperature distribution quickly, since a test run itself is a time consuming process. In this study, visualization experiments were performed using tracer particles and thermo-sensitive liquid crystals. Experiments were also carried out to find the unsteady temperature distribution in a tank when the positively or negatively buoyant jet was injected horizontally in the middle of the tank whose size is limited and has an influence from the opposite wall. If the momentum effect of the buoyant jet is stronger than that of buoyancy, the buoyant jet impinge against the opposite wall of the tank, and a vortex was observed near the opposite wall. Empirical formulas were proposed to predict the height of the vortex “Zb” under various conditions, such as the momentum and the buoyancy of the buoyant jet, and the Prandtl number of the tank water. Furthermore, the 3D-CFD was carried out to supplement the 3D behavior of the inner tank fluid. A one dimensional model, “uniformly distributed injection model”, for simulating temperature

  7. 储液罐子结构数值仿真分析%Liquid Storage Tanks Substructure Numerical Simulation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利剑; 范远刚; 高斌; 单明康; 王向英

    2013-01-01

    由于有限元仿真需要假设材料性能,难以真实全面的反映储液罐的地震响应;而振动台试验只能完成较小比例的模型试验,与储罐原型差距很大.为此,提出了储液罐子结构振动台试验方法.采用Malhotra力学模型,将储液罐划分为试验子结构(罐底和土体)和数值子结构(储罐和液体)两部分.试验子结构放在地震模拟振动台上进行试验研究,数值子结构部分由计算机进行模拟.仿真计算表明:储液罐子结构仿真结果与全结构的非常吻合,仿真计算的储罐基底剪力与规范算法接近.%Due to the finite element simulation assume that the material properties,difficult to truly comprehensive the seismic response of the liquid storage tanks is reflected.And the shaking table test can only complete a small scale model test,a large gap with the tank prototype.To this end,a method of the liquid storage tanks substructure shaking table test is proposed,used the Malhotra simplified model,the liquid storage tank is divided into the experimental substructure (the bottom of the tank and soil) and the numerical sub-structures (storage tanks and liquid) in two parts.The experimental substructure on earthquake simulation shaking table test,the numerical substructure in part by computer simulation are put out.Simulation results show that:liquid tank sub-structure simulation results are in good agreement with the whole structure and the tank base shear simulation is close with the specification algorithm.

  8. Revised corrective action plan for underground storage tank 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U, previously located at Building 9201-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2331-U, a 560-gallon UST, was removed on December 14, 1988. This document presents a comprehensive summary of all environmental assessment investigations conducted at the Building 9201-1 Site and the corrective action measures proposed for remediation of subsurface petroleum product contamination identified at the site. This document is written in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-15-.06(7)

  9. Hydrodynamically induced loads on components submerged in high-level waste-storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, E. O.; Julyk, J. L.; Rezvani, M. A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper addresses the effects of added mass on components submerged in fluids. In particular, as new equipment is designed for installation in the double-shell waste-storage tanks at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, the equipment and the tank must be evaluated for the anticipated loads. Seismically induced loads combined with loadings from other sources must be considered during this evaluation. A literature review shows that, for components in fluids confined to a narrow annulus or without a free surface, drastic reductions in response to seismic excitation are predicted by two-dimensional analysis. This phenomenon has been supported by testing. The reductions are explained in terms of mass coupling and buoyancy effects. For equipment submerged in fluids having a free surface and large annulus, practice suggest that it is appropriate to lump the added-mass terms with the component to address the hydrodynamic effects adequately. As in the case of a narrow annulus, this practice will reduce the natural frequency of the submerged component, but generally will increase the loads. This paper presents the structural evaluations of submerged components using computer models that employ mock fluid elements that determine the appropriateness of considering fluid added-mass and buoyancy effects. The results indicate that if a free surface exists and the submerged component has a wide fluid annulus about it, then the added mass should be lumped with the model, and buoyancy effects are not significant. The component then may be considered to be in an air environment, and the stresses are calculated from the application of standard response spectrum procedures.

  10. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  11. On the performance of CSP oil-cooled plants, with and without heat storage in tanks of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most-used thermodynamic CSP (concentrating solar plants) in the world, provided with linear parabolic collectors cooled by oil, have been analyzed in the two configurations employed: with heat storage in two tanks filled with molten salts and without heat storage. The performances and the costs of the plants have been analyzed in the paper according to solar multiple (ranging between 1 and 3) and to storage capacity (ranging between 0 and 24 h), in terms of annual electrical energy, average annual plant efficiency, charge factor, capital cost and levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Also a method of economic optimization, based on the evaluation of the minimum value of the levelized cost of energy is presented. The minimum LCOE value, in the case of heat storage, is obtained for a solar multiple of 2.2 and a storage capacity of 16 h. In the plants without storage, minimum LCOE is achieved for SM (solar multiple) equal to 1.2. - Highlights: • A model to analyze the performance of oil thermodynamic solar plant is presented. • Plants without heat storage and with storage in molten salts are considered. • Annual electricity production, efficiency, capital cost, CF and LCOE are estimated. • Storage capacity and solar multiple values which minimize LCOE have been found

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action

  14. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  15. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 124 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CR.

  17. Thermal-hydraulic analysis on Ex-Vessel fuel Storage Tank of MONJU at severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results of a thermal-hydraulic analysis on the Ex-Vessel fuel Storage Tank (EVST) of the fast breeder reactor MONJU at severe accident is described. Safety evaluations on this facility have ever been performed by using a one-dimensional flow network code. However, validation on a model of this code has been needed, because EVST has plenums and asymmetry equipment. Therefore we performed a CFD analysis under a condition of station blackout (SBO) in order to clarify the circulation flow rate and multidimensionality of the EVST. As a result, the following points were confirmed: 1) Circulation flow rate is maintained half of a flow rate at the rated operation condition at the minimum. 2) Thermal stratification arises in the lower plenum at SBO. 3) Circumferential distribution of flow rate at the lower plenum is made uniform at the inlet of the rotating rack. 4) Thermal-hydraulic behavior in the rotating rack is almost one-dimensional. (author)

  18. Suitability of using coir fiber/polymeric composite for the design of liquid storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single fiber pull-out test is employed experimentally to model the interfacial adhesion characteristics of natural fibers with synthetic resin. The current study investigates the possibility of using coir fiber as reinforcements for polyester composites under aging process. The main application would be in designing tanks storage for different types of liquid. A single fiber pull out samples were soaked in seven different solutions (water, salt water, gasoline, diesel, break oil, engine oil, and power staring oil) for 6 months, and the pull-out tests were then carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the damage features on the samples. The results revealed that the highest amount of liquid absorbed was water, followed by salt water, which is due to the low viscosity of those liquids compared to other liquids. In spite of that, the highest interfacial adhesion property was found in samples soaked in salt water, which was about 120 MPa followed by water. SEM images showed that no pulling out process taking place during the test indicating high interfacial adhesion properties of coir fibers to the polyester. However, the differences in the interfacial adhesion properties are due to the deterioration in the fiber strength during the aging process.

  19. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance

  20. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  1. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  2. Seismic Analysis of Elevated Water Storage Tanks Subjected to Six Correlated Ground Motion Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kalani Sarokolayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, rotational components of ground motion acceleration were defined according toimproved method from the corresponding available translational components based on transversely isotropicelastic wave propagation in the soil. With such improvement, it becomes possible to consider frequencydependent wave velocities on rotational components of ground motion. For this purpose, three translationalcomponents of El Centro earthquake (24 January 1951 were adopted to generate their relative rotationalcomponents based on SV and SH wave incidence by Fast Fourier transform with 4096 discrete frequencies.The translational and computed rotational motions were then applied to the concrete elevated water storagetanks with different structural characteristics and water elevations. The finite element method is used for thenonlinear analysis of water storage tanks considering the fluid-structure interaction using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach and the concrete material nonlinearities have been taken into account through William-Warnke model. The nonlinear response of these structures considering the six components of ground motionshowed that the rotational components of ground motion can increase or decrease the maximum displacementand reaction force of the structure. These variations are depending on the frequency of structure andpredominant frequencies of translational and rotational components of ground motion.

  3. Corrosion Verification Test for the Welds of CEFR Sodium Storage Tank and Sodium Drainage Under the First-Grade Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this test is to observe and analyze the compatibility between the welds and hightemperature sodium at the simulated realistic working conditions of CEFR sodium storage tank andsodium drainage under the first-grade accident. The observation and analysis are focused on theintergranular corrosion at the weld and its heat affection region, in order to provide the test basis for thesafe operation and analysis of CEFR.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-02-01

    CAU 127, Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, consists of twelve CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  5. Investigation of methods to transfer heat from solar liquid-heating collectors to heat storage tanks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horel, J. D.; de Winter, F.

    1978-04-20

    A study was made of the methods available to transfer heat from the collector to the water storage tank in water heating systems. In counterflow heat exchangers used in double loop water heating systems, it was found to be more important to use a high water flowrate than a high heat transfer fluid flowrate. It was earlier thought to be best to have matched WC/sub p/ (mass flowrate-specific heat) products in the loops. It was shown in this study that the water WC/sub p/ product should be about twice as large as that of the heat transfer fluid. It was found that neither the heat exchanger type nor the size was very critical, so that very simple criteria were adequate in determining optimum heat exchanger size. It was found that there is a definite system size below which one should use a traced tank or a coil in a tank. Equations and optimization criteria were developed for traced tanks or tanks with coils. At present, there is no quantitative understanding of liquid to liquid (direct contact) heat exchangers, though they are clearly quite effective. Draindown systems are discussed, and several appendices are included on heat transfer and other characteristics of fluid and of equipment.

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-05-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134, Aboveground Storage Tanks. CAU 134 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 03-01-04, Tank; (3) CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (4) CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain. CAS 03-01-03 consists of a mud tank that is located at the intersection of the 3-07 and the 3-12 Roads in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank and its contents are uncontaminated and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. This CAS will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 03-01-04 consists of a potable water tank that is located at the Core Complex in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 15-01-05 consists of an aboveground storage tank (AST) and associated impacted soil, if any. This CAS is located on a steep slope near the Climax Mine in Area 15 of the NTS. The AST is empty and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. Soil below the AST will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by chemicals at concentrations exceeding the action levels. It appears that the tank is not at its original location. Soil will also be sampled at the original tank location, if it can be found. If soil at either location has been impacted at concentrations that exceed the action levels, then the extent of contamination will be identified and a use restriction (UR) will be implemented. The site may be clean closed if contamination is less than one cubic yard in extent and can be readily excavated. If action levels are not exceeded, then no

  7. Numerical and experimental study of the fluid flow in porous medium in charging process of stratified thermal storage tank

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of an adsorption heat pump system, a stratified thermal heat storage can be used to enable regeneration of heat between the different phases of the process. It’s crucial to avoid mixing and to keep layers intact inside the storage tank. As mixing generally occurs during charging and discharging, the aim of this project is minimizing these effects by introducing porous media into the region of the inlet ports. The impact of porous media on laminar and turbul...

  8. Minimizing the level of butyric acid bacteria spores in farm tank milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A year-long survey of 24 dairy farms was conducted to determine the effects of farm management on the concentrations of butyric acid bacteria (BAB) spores in farm tank milk (FTM). The results were used to validate a control strategy derived from model simulations. The BAB spore concentrations were m

  9. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, te M.C.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses. The risk of late blowing can be decreased via control of the contamination level of FTM with BAB. A modeling approach was applied

  10. Underground Storage Tanks, haz mat data set attribute, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It...

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130, Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 130 consists of the seven following corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 130 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) finalized on April 3, 2008, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 130. The DQO process developed for this CAU

  12. Techno-economic performance evaluation of solar tower plants with integrated multi-layered PCM thermocline thermal energy storage - A comparative study to conventional two-tank storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedéz, Rafael; Ferruzza, Davide; Arnaudo, Monica; Rodríguez, Ivette; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Hassar, Zhor; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Solar Tower Power Plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology for dispatchable renewable energy in the near future. Storage integration makes possible to shift the electricity production to more profitable peak hours. Usually two tanks are used to store cold and hot fluids, but this means both higher investment costs and difficulties during the operation of the variable volume tanks. Instead, another solution can be a single tank thermocline storage in a multi-layered configuration. In such tank both latent and sensible fillers are employed to decrease the related cost up to 30% and maintain high efficiencies. This paper analyses a multi-layered solid PCM storage tank concept for solar tower applications, and describes a comprehensive methodology to determine under which market structures such devices can outperform the more conventional two tank storage systems. A detail model of the tank has been developed and introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results show that under current cost estimates and technical limitations the multi-layered solid PCM storage concept is a better solution when peaking operating strategies are desired, as it is the case for the two-tier South African tariff scheme.

  13. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  14. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Thawing of Soil in the Area of Placing Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov V.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with considering the influence of thawing of the soil. We have established that the thawing of the soil in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  15. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  16. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired

  17. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Brown, R.G.; Galbraith, J.; Jensen, C.; Place, D.E.; Reddick, G.W.; Zuroff, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired.

  18. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  19. Numerical Modeling of Propellant Boil-Off in a Cryogenic Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, A. K.; Steadman, T. E.; Maroney, J. L.; Sass, J. P.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical model to predict boil-off of stored propellant in large spherical cryogenic tanks has been developed. Accurate prediction of tank boil-off rates for different thermal insulation systems was the goal of this collaboration effort. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, integrating flow analysis and conjugate heat transfer for solving complex fluid system problems, was used to create the model. Calculation of tank boil-off rate requires simultaneous simulation of heat transfer processes among liquid propellant, vapor ullage space, and tank structure. The reference tank for the boil-off model was the 850,000 gallon liquid hydrogen tank at Launch Complex 39B (LC- 39B) at Kennedy Space Center, which is under study for future infrastructure improvements to support the Constellation program. The methodology employed in the numerical model was validated using a sub-scale model and tank. Experimental test data from a 1/15th scale version of the LC-39B tank using both liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen were used to anchor the analytical predictions of the sub-scale model. Favorable correlations between sub-scale model and experimental test data have provided confidence in full-scale tank boil-off predictions. These methods are now being used in the preliminary design for other cases including future launch vehicles

  20. Efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Remaining of crude oil in storage tanks usually results in accumulating oily sludge at the bottom of the tank, which should be treated and disposed of in a suitable manner. The efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated in the present study. Material and methods: The sludge was mixed with immature compost at the ratios of 1:0 (as control, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 (as dry basis with the initial C:N:P and moisture content of 100:5:1 and 55% respectively for a period of 10 weeks. The moisture adjustment and mixing process were done 3 times a day during the composting period. Sampling and analysis of TPH and pH were done every week and every two days, respectively. Results: TPH removal in the 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 composting reactors was 66.59, 73.19, 74.81, 80.20, and 79.91%, respectively. Thus, initial adjustment of sludge to immature compost ratios plays a great role in reduction of TPH. The results of the control reactors indicated that the main mechanism of TPH removal in the composting reactors was biological process. Conclusions: In-vessel composting by addition of immature compost as amendment is a viable choice for bioremediation of the bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

  1. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping.

  2. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping

  3. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  4. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... Charging is done bycirculating the water in the tank through the condenser of a heat pump several times and thereby graduallyheating the water. The charging is done with a higher mass flow rate than the discharging to reach severalcirculations of the water during the time frame of one discharging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented...

  5. Study on computation of optimal depth increase of embossed panels of stainless water tank for energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compute the optimal depth increase of the embossed panels of a stainless water tank used for an energy storage system. The pressing used to emboss the panels of the stainless water tank decreases their thickness. By assuming that the panels had the same volume before ( V o and after the change ( V c , we found an equation that computed how much the thickness of the panels decreased. According to the obtained thickness equation, the thickness of arch-embossed panels decreased by 50% relative to flat panels, and that of pyramid-embossed panels decreased by up to 30%. We also performed finite element method analyses of four flat panels, four arch-embossed panels, and four pyramid-embossed panels by applying the thickness equation for different depth increase. As a result, the optimal depth increase of the arch-embossed panels was 70–90 mm, and that of the pyramid-embossed panels was 150–200 mm. We concluded that these computed optimal depth increase could be useful in the economic design of a stainless water tank for an energy storage system.

  6. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, Lashanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2013-10-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC.

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  8. Acid Sphingomyelinase Inhibition Prevents Hemolysis During Erythrocyte Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Hoehn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: During storage, units of human red blood cells (pRBCs experience membrane destabilization and hemolysis which may cause harm to transfusion recipients. This study investigates whether inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase could stabilize erythrocyte membranes and prevent hemolysis during storage. Methods: Human and murine pRBCs were stored under standard blood banking conditions with and without the addition of amitriptyline, a known acid sphingomyelinase inhibitor. Hemoglobin was measured with an electronic hematology analyzer and flow cytometry was used to measure erythrocyte size, complexity, phosphatidylserine externalization, and band 3 protein expression. Results: Cell-free hemoglobin, a marker of hemolysis, increased during pRBC storage. Amitriptyline treatment decreased hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Standard pRBC storage led to loss of erythrocyte size and membrane complexity, increased phosphatidylserine externalization, and decreased band 3 protein integrity as determined by flow cytometry. Each of these changes was reduced by treatment with amitriptyline. Transfusion of amitriptyline-treated pRBCs resulted in decreased circulating free hemoglobin. Conclusion: Erythrocyte storage is associated with changes in cell size, complexity, membrane molecular composition, and increased hemolysis. Acid sphingomyelinase inhibition reduced these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest a novel mechanism to attenuate the harmful effects after transfusion of aged blood products.

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Functional Area includes the programmatic controls associated with the management and operation of the Hanford Tank Farm Facility. The driving management organization implementing the programmatic controls is the Tank Farms Waste Management (WM)organization whose responsibilities are to ensure that performance objectives are established; and that measurable criteria for attaining objectives are defined and reflected in programs, policies and procedures. Objectives for the WM Program include waste minimization, establishment of effective waste segregation methods, waste treatment technology development, radioactive (low-level, high-level) hazardous and mixed waste transfer, treatment, and storage, applicability of a corrective action program, and management and applicability of a decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) program in future years

  10. Dynamic modelling of an adsorption storage tank using a hybrid approach combining computational fluid dynamics and process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, J.P.B.; Esteves, I.A.A.C.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package has been coupled with the dynamic process simulator of an adsorption storage tank for methane fuelled vehicles. The two solvers run as independent processes and handle non-overlapping portions of the computational domain. The codes exchange data on the boundary interface of the two domains to ensure continuity of the solution and of its gradient. A software interface was developed to dynamically suspend and activate each process as necessary, and be responsible for data exchange and process synchronization. This hybrid computational tool has been successfully employed to accurately simulate the discharge of a new tank design and evaluate its performance. The case study presented here shows that CFD and process simulation are highly complementary computational tools, and that there are clear benefits to be gained from a close integration of the two. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermoeconomic analysis of storage systems for solar heating and cooling systems: A comparison between variable-volume and fixed-volume tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates different control strategies for the thermal storage management in SHC (Solar Heating and Cooling) systems. The SHC system under investigation is based on a field of evacuated solar collectors coupled with a single-stage LiBr–H2O absorption chiller; auxiliary thermal energy is supplied by a gas-fired boiler. The SHC is also equipped with a novel thermal storage system, consisting in a variable volume storage tank. It includes three separate tanks and a number of mixers and diverters managed by novel control strategies, based on combinations of series/parallel charging and discharging approaches. The aim of this component is to vary the thermal storage capacity as a function of the combinations of solar radiation availability and user thermal/cooling energy demands. The system allows one to increase the number of active tanks when the time shift between solar energy and user demand is high. Conversely, when this time shift is low, the number of active tanks is automatically reduced. In addition, when the solar energy in excess cannot be stored in such tanks, a heat exchanger is also used in the solar loop for producing DHW (Domestic Hot Water). The analysis is carried out by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed by using the TRNSYS software. In order to assess the operating and capital costs of the systems under analysis, an economic model is also proposed. In addition, in order to determine the set of the synthesis/design variables which maximize the system profitability, a parametric analysis was implemented. The novel variable-volume storage system, in both the proposed configurations, was also compared with a constant-volume storage system from the energy and economic points of view. The results showed that the presented storage system allows one to save up to 20% of the natural gas used by the auxiliary boiler only for very high solar fractions. In all the other cases, marginal savings are achieved by the

  12. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  13. Corrosion Control Measures For Liquid Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. J.; Subramanian, K. H.

    2012-11-27

    The Savannah River Site has stored radioactive wastes in large, underground, carbon steel tanks for approximately 60 years. An assessment of potential degradation mechanisms determined that the tanks may be vulnerable to nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Controls on the solution chemistry and temperature of the wastes are in place to mitigate these mechanisms. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented in this paper.

  14. Simulation model of stratified thermal energy storage tank using finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo, Joko

    2016-06-01

    Stratified TES tank is normally used in the cogeneration plant. The stratified TES tanks are simple, low cost, and equal or superior in thermal performance. The advantage of TES tank is that it enables shifting of energy usage from off-peak demand for on-peak demand requirement. To increase energy utilization in a stratified TES tank, it is required to build a simulation model which capable to simulate the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank precisely. This paper is aimed to develop a novel model in addressing the aforementioned problem. The model incorporated chiller into the charging of stratified TES tank system in a closed system. The model was developed in one-dimensional type involve with heat transfer aspect. The model covers the main factors affect to degradation of temperature distribution namely conduction through the tank wall, conduction between cool and warm water, mixing effect on the initial flow of the charging as well as heat loss to surrounding. The simulation model is developed based on finite difference method utilizing buffer concept theory and solved in explicit method. Validation of the simulation model is carried out using observed data obtained from operating stratified TES tank in cogeneration plant. The temperature distribution of the model capable of representing S-curve pattern as well as simulating decreased charging temperature after reaching full condition. The coefficient of determination values between the observed data and model obtained higher than 0.88. Meaning that the model has capability in simulating the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank. The model is not only capable of generating temperature distribution but also can be enhanced for representing transient condition during the charging of stratified TES tank. This successful model can be addressed for solving the limitation temperature occurs in charging of the stratified TES tank with the absorption chiller. Further, the stratified TES tank can be

  15. Thermal control for storage of cryogenic propellants in a common-bulkhead tank: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Simple, reliable ground-hold refrigeration system for common-bulkhead tank meets design criteria and objectives for ground-hold of oxygen difluoride and diborane. System is failsafe and malfunctions can be rectified without interruption of basic system functions.

  16. Analysis of heat exchanges in an LNG storage tank; Analyse de l'echange de chaleur dans un bac de stockage de GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djellas, N. [Institut Algerien du Petrole, Dept. Gaz, Boumerdes (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    Evaporation rates of cryogenic fluids in the storage tank are largely influenced by three factors: the thermodynamic properties of the fluid, the storage pressure and the rate of heat exchanged between the ambient air and the fluid through the tank walls. The study of the influence of each of these factors has required the development of two calculation programs. The first one estimates the LNG thermodynamic properties by using the Benedict Webb and Rubbin (BWR) equation of state [1], whereas in the second program, the rate of heat transfer in LNG tanks is calculated. In this communication, the procedure followed in the second program for modelling the heat transfer process will be presented. The analysis of the influence when modifying key parameters such as the LNG liquid level and the ambient air temperature on the rate of heat transfer to the tank and the temperature profile in the vapor side will be carried out. This analysis was done on LNG storage tanks located at Skikda (Algeria). This study will permit the LNG plant operators to be aware of the importance in keeping track of the measured parameters and this for a good monitoring of LNG storage tanks. (author)

  17. Cesium Sorption from Concentrated Acidic Tank Wastes Using Ammonium Molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile Composite Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Terry Allen; Mann, Nicholas Robert; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.,

    2002-10-01

    Ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) composite sorbents have been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) concentrated acidic tank waste. Batch contacts were performed to qualitatively evaluate the effects of increased nitric acid, sodium and potassium. An equilibrium isotherm was generated with simulated concentrated tank waste solutions and fit to the Langmuir equation. Additional batch contact experiments were performed to determine if mercury, plutonium and americium would sorb onto AMP-PAN. Dynamic sorption was evaluated in column tests employing 1.5 cm3 columns operating at 5, 10 and 20 bed volumes of flow per hour. Results indicate, as expected, that dynamic cesium sorption capacity is reduced as the flowrate is increased. Calculated dynamic capacities for cesium were 22.5, 19.8 and 19.6 mg Cs/g sorbent, for 5, 10 and 20 bed volume per hour flows, respectively. The thermal stability of loaded AMP-PAN was evaluated by performing thermogrovimetric analysis (TGA) on samples of AMP, PAN (polymer), and AMP-PAN. Results indicate that AMP-PAN is stable to 400 °C, with less than a 10% loss of weight, which is at least partially due to loss of water of hydration. The evaluation of AMP-PAN indicates that it will effectively remove cesium from concentrated acidic tank waste solutions.

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at two leaking underground storage tank sites in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of natural attenuation (NA) as a remedial approach for managing contaminated groundwater caused by two leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) was evaluated. The primary indicators used related to plume characterisation and migration. Statistical analyses of the plumes, using a Mann-Kendall test, indicated decreasing contaminant concentrations. Secondary indicators included an estimation of NA rates and an evaluation of the changes in groundwater geochemistry as a result of intrinsic bioremediation of the fuel hydrocarbons. Analysis of the data indicates that NA of dissolved hydrocarbons has been occurring and preventing the migration of the dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) plume at both sites

  19. The effect of nitric acid exposure on Galileo spacecraft titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V propellant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng; O'Donnell, Tim; Yavrouian, Andre

    1990-01-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V-constructed retropropulsion-module tanks of the Galileo spacecraft were purged with nitrogen tetroxide in order to wait out a major launch rescheduling; nitric acid is among the residual products of such an operation. A test program was conducted on representative samples to ascertain the fracture toughness and stress corrosion threshold of the tanks' material, in view of Space Shuttle safety and mission-reliability requirements. It was found that the tanks' structural integrity was not degraded by nitric acid exposure.

  20. Modeling and analysis of chill and fill processes for the cryogenic storage and transfer engineering development unit tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center, is a cryogenic fluid management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article comprises a flight-like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a test-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with LH2 as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during the summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the LH2 supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The test setup, modeling description, and comparison of model predictions with the test data are presented.

  1. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  2. DEVELOPING AN OPTIMIZED PROCESS STRATEGY FOR ACID CLEANING OF THE SAVANNAH RIVERSITE HLW TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E

    2006-12-04

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), there remains approximately 35 million gallons of High Level Waste (HLW) that was mostly created from Purex and SRS H-Area Modified (HM) nuclear fuel cycles. The waste is contained in approximately forty-nine tanks fabricated from commercially available carbon steel. In order to minimize general corrosion, the waste is maintained as very-alkaline solution. The very-alkaline chemistry has caused hydrated metal oxides to precipitate and form a sludge heel. Over the years, the sludge waste has aged, with some forming a hardened crust. To aid in the removal of the sludge heels from select tanks for closure the use of oxalic acid to dissolve the sludge is being investigated. Developing an optimized process strategy based on laboratory analyses would be prohibitively costly. This research, therefore, demonstrates that a chemical equilibrium based software program can be used to develop an optimized process strategy for oxalic acid cleaning of the HLW tanks based on estimating resultant chemistries, minimizing resultant oxalates sent to the evaporator, and minimizing resultant solids sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  3. Failure analysis of primary argon storage tanks for fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) at Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam [Paper IIIA-e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to bring out the details of the 'Failure Analysis' carried out on the four numbers of primary argon storage tanks made from AISI type 304L stainless steel for FBTR Project, after receipt at site. After inspection at site before erection, it was found that all the four tanks had suffered severe pitting and crevice corrosion on the inside surface. The study revealed that the corrosion from inside was caused by the presence of crevices formed due to weld spatters and excess or non-uniform penetration of weld beads along with the service water with a high chloride content, which had not been drained out fully, after the hydrostatic testing at the manufacture's shop. The water had remained in these tanks for about 12 months which caused the damage. Due to the severity of the corrosion attack, all the four tanks were rejected, new tanks were fabricated with modification suiting the requirement and since erected. (author)

  4. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  5. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  6. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability.

  7. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  8. Parametric performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation system equipped with a thermal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Both thermal and electrical powers varied by changing surface area of collector. • Thermal stratification and total system power were increased at critical flow rate. • Parametric analysis of the CPVC system offers to determine the desired outcome. • Thermal and electrical outputs varied by changing the focal length of Fresnel lens. - Abstract: This article presents a parametric study of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation (CPVC) system with an attached thermal storage tank. The CPVC system utilized dual-axis tracker and multiple solar energy collector (SEC) modules and forced cooling system. Each SEC module comprised 16 triple-junction solar cells, copper tube absorbers, and 16 Fresnel lenses were aligned against each solar cell. This study investigated all possible parameters that can affect the CPVC system performance, including the collector area, solar irradiation, inlet temperature, and mass flow rate. The surface area of the collector and the thermal power were increased by increasing the number of SEC modules connected in series; however, the electrical power output decreased from the first to the fourth SEC module consecutively. At the measured optimal flow rate, mixing and thermal diffusion in the storage tank were decreased, and the total power generation from the CPVC system was increased. Variations in the thermal and electrical power outputs were also observed when the focal length of the Fresnel lens was changed. This parametric analysis enables the CPVC system to obtain the desired output by varying the combination of operational and geometrical parameters

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc.

  11. 国内储罐清洗作业及对策%Domestic Storage Tank Cleaning Operations and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋生奎; 张永国; 王杰辉; 徐克明; 王文娟

    2014-01-01

    Storage tank cleaning was a regular work activity in the petrochemical industry and manual cleaning operation forms were still used for cleaning many domestic tanks.Manual cleaning methods and the main problems existing in the cleaning process were analyzed and the necessity of using automatic mechanical cleaning system and the advantages of its overall efficiency and no environmental pollution were pointed out.To narrow the gap with foreign countries , it recommended that a mobile , vehicle-mounted and integrated tank cleaning system should be developed to clean all kinds of medium and small tanks , which had broad market prospects and good social and economic benefits.%储罐清洗是石化行业一项经常性的作业活动,国内许多储罐依然采用人工清洗的作业形式,分析了人工清洗方式及其清洗过程中存在的主要问题,指出储罐采用自动机械清洗系统的必要性及其综合效益显著、无环境污染等优点;为缩小与国外的差距,建议开发研制机动性、车载式、集成化的油罐清洗系统以清洗各种中、小型的储油罐,其市场前景广阔并有良好的社会效益与经济效益。

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Areas 8, 15, and 16 Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 124 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 15, and 16 of the Nevada Test Site as follows: • 08-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 15-02-01, Irrigation Piping • 16-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 16-02-04, Fuel Oil Piping • 16-99-04, Fuel Line (Buried) and UST This plan provides the methodology of field activities necessary to gather information to close each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 124 using the SAFER process.

  13. Effect of viscosity on dynamic response of a liquid storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study on the effect of viscosity on the dynamic response of a liquid stomp tank is presented. The tank is assumed to be rigid. Both harmonic and earthquake excitations are used in the study. The finite clement method is employed to attack the problem. The response functions examined include the sloshing wave height and the impulsive and convective components of the hydrodynamic pressure. The study shows that the viscosity affects the sloshing wave height and the associated convective component of the pressure response, and it has a negligible effect on the impulsive component. A simple practical approach is proposed to take this effect into account

  14. INHIBITION OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL STORAGE TANKS AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-01-31

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of A537 tank steel was investigated in a series of environments designed to simulate the chemistry of legacy nuclear weapons production waste. Tests consisted of both slow strain rate tests using tensile specimens and constant load tests using compact tension specimens. Based on the tests conducted, nitrite was found to be a strong SCC inhibitor. Based on the test performed and the tank waste chemistry changes that are predicted to occur over time, the risk for SCC appears to be decreasing since the concentration of nitrate will decrease and nitrite will increase.

  15. Prevention of stress-corrosion cracking in nuclear waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrejcin, R S

    1984-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has occurred in the early versions of carbon steel primaries of nuclear waste tanks at the Savannah River Plant. (Secondary containment was provided by a vessel surrounding the lower portion of the primary tank.) Evaporated alkaline nitrate wastes in the form of crystallized salts are being dissolved from some of these tanks for transfer to new tanks of a different design. To prevent the SCC sequence from occurring during salt dissolution, the levels of inhibitors required to prevent cracking at yield stresses were determined. Special statistically designed experiments were performed to evaluate the probability of cracking under the combined influences of nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, and temperature. Experimentlly, samples were tested by a potentially controlled constant extension rate test and by wedge opening loaded samples. Two equations were derived by multivariable regression analyses that correlated probability of cracking as the dependent variable to nitrate, nitrite, and hydroxide concentrations and temperature as the independent variables. From these equations, simple operating standards were developed by setting the probability of cracking equal to zero and solving for the four independent variables. 15 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  17. Check and Test of Evaporation Rate for Large-scale LNG Storage Tank%大型LNG储罐蒸发率校核与测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王修康

    2011-01-01

    蒸发率是LNG储罐设计的一项重要性能参数.介绍了大型LNG储罐保冷设计和漏热量计算,提出BOG蒸发率核算方法,为大型LNG储罐保冷设计提供了依据.%The evaporation rate is an important performance parameter of the design for the scale LNG storage tank. The cold insulate design and heat leak calculation and the calculation method of the evaporation rate was introduced, which could be the basis for the cold insulation design of the large scale LNG storage tank.

  18. CFD simulation in emptying tanks for calculating submergence in the case of storage tanks, the CFD simulation is based on the modeling of the suction nozzle which affects the study and final part of the storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study consists in simulating the emptying of the tank when the water level is near the level of the suction nozzle. The objective pursued is to detect the harmful phenomena that may occur in aspiration, ranging from the appearance of vortices and bubble formation to excessive fluid accelerations. (Author)

  19. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121, Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 is currently listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996) and consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 are located to the west of the Area 12 Camp, and CAS 12-22-26 is located near the U-12g Tunnel, also known as G-tunnel, in Area 12 (Figure 1). The aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) present at CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil below the ASTs will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted with chemicals or radioactivity above action levels. If impacted soil above action levels is present, the soil will be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate facility. The CAS 12-22-26 site is composed of two overlapping areas, one where drums had formerly been stored, and the other where an AST was used to dispense diesel for locomotives used at G-tunnel. This area is located above an underground radioactive materials area (URMA), and within an area that may have elevated background radioactivity because of containment breaches during nuclear tests and associated tunnel reentry operations. CAS 12-22-26 does not include the URMA or the elevated background radioactivity. An AST that had previously been used to store liquid magnesium chloride (MgCl) was properly disposed of several years ago, and releases from this tank are not an environmental concern. The diesel AST will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil at the former drum area and the diesel AST area will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by releases, from the drums or the

  1. Foundation design of vertical steel storage tank%立式钢制储罐基础设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文武

    2014-01-01

    以某罐区立式钢制储罐基础设计为例,探讨预制桩、灌注桩和浅基础应用于储罐基础的设计方法。储罐基础设计可比拟为"板-柱结构"体系,借助pkpm结构软件分析两种桩型承载力、浅基础设计、场地条件影响及桩-土共同作用。储罐桩基设计应对水平承载力、竖向承载力和配筋量三控制设计,对于端承型桩基,一般情况下单桩水平承载力起控制作用。相同桩数时,采用方形布桩的边桩配筋比环形布桩的更易产生突变。应用于软土场地的砼预制桩不仅应进行桩基承载力计算,还应加强桩基配筋验算。%Based on a foundation design of vertical steel storage tank in a tank farm , the application of precast piles , pile and shallow foun-dation design method on the basis of the tank were discussed .Tank foundation design can be compared to "plate -column structure"sys-tem, by using PKPM structure software , analysis of bearing capacity , shallow foundation design , site condition and pile -soil interaction of two kinds of pile type were carried out .The horizontal bearing capacity , vertical bearing capacity and reinforcement amount should be controlled in the tank design .For end bearing type piles , single pile horizontal bearing capacity plays a general controlling role .The edge pile reinforcement ratio of square pile arrangement produces mutation more likely than annular arrangement under same number of pile .It is necessary to calculate not only foundation bearing capacity of pile but also foundation reinforcement when precast concrete piles are ap -plied in the soft soil ground .

  2. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  3. Effects of inlet momentum and orientation on the hydraulic performance of water storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Manoel Lucas Machado; Janzen, Johannes Gérson

    2016-07-01

    The influence of inlet momentum and inlet orientation on hydraulic performance of cylindrical water process tanks were investigated using a factorial design strategy. The hydraulic performance of the tanks was assessed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, which calculated the flow fields and the residence time distribution (RTD). RTDs were used to quantify the tanks hydraulic performance using hydraulic indexes that represent short-circuiting, mixing, and moment. These indexes were later associated with the effluent fraction of disinfectant (inlet and outlet disinfectant ratio). For small depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation and the inlet momentum were the most important factors regarding the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, respectively. A poor correlation was obtained between the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, indicating that they are not good predictors for water quality. For large depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation had the most significant effect on both the hydraulic indexes and effluent fraction of disinfectant. The short-circuiting and mixing indexes presented a good correlation with water quality for this case.

  4. Dehydration and desalting of heavy crude Maya into the TMDB by means of tanks of storage of 500 TB converted to type gun-barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros, L.F.L.; Abundes, A.A.; Aguinaga, C.A.L.; Monroy, J.D.A.; Jimenez, R.M.; Sanchez, M.R.; Medina, J.L.H.; Vazquez, J.V.; Montano, A.E.G.; Villanueva, A.G.; Moreno, W.N.C.; Maria, G.B.; Mendez, J.L.J.; Cordero, E.D.; Ponce, F.C.; Estrada, C.D.; Azuara, V.H.C. [Petroleos Mexicanos, PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    When crude oil emerges from the production well, it is polluted with congenital waters and in some cases with sea water. These waters can be present as free water or emulsified. When the water reaches the surface, the free water is eliminated by sedimentation. However, the reduction of emulsified water is not directly due to the stability presented by the drops of emulsified water in the crude, therefore chemical injection for the separation of both phases is required. This paper discussed the design of a system for dehydration and desalting of 750 TBD Maya heavy crude, by means of tanks type gun-barrel. The design was performed using the simulation packages HYSYS and computational fluid dynamics of ANSYS, considering the parameters that were studied in bottle tests and profiled in tanks storage of 500 TB. The design was based on the settling speed that affects the dehydration and desalting of crude. The paper discussed the production facilities used in the crude dehydration, with particular reference to the gun barrel tank; washer tank; heat treater tanks; free water separator; and electrostatic separator. The development of the system was described in terms of data compilation using Stokes' Law and interpretation of the field data using bottle tests. It was concluded that the gun barrel train was the best option to dehydrate and desalt Mayan oil in the TMDB, since this processing system takes advantage of the existing facilities, specifically the storage tanks of 500 TB capacity. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Tank designs for combined high pressure gas and solid state hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea

    for each storage solution investigated in this work. Attention is given to solutions that involve high-pressure solid-state and gas hydrogen storage with an integrated passive cooling system. A set of libraries is implemented in the modeling platform to select among different material compositions, kinetic......Many challenges have still to be overcome in order to establish a solid ground for significant market penetration of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles. The development of an effective solution for on-board hydrogen storage is one of the main technical tasks that need to be tackled. The present thesis...

  6. Passive Capillary Pumped Cryocooling System for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant cost and weight savings of a space mission can be achieved by improving the cryogenic storage technology. Added cryogen mass due to the cryogen...

  7. Fragility analysis methodology for degraded structures and passive components in nuclear power plantsIllustrated using a condensate storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the seismic fragility capacity for a condensate storage tank with various degradation scenarios. The conservative deterministic failure margin method has been utilized for the undegraded case and has been modified to accommodate the degraded cases. A total of five seismic fragility analysis cases have been described: (1) undegraded case, (2) degraded stainless tank shell, (3) degraded anchor bolts, (4) anchorage concrete cracking, and (5) a perfect correlation of the three degradation scenarios. Insights from these fragility analyses are also presented. An overview of the methods for seismic fragility analysis and generic approaches to incorporate time-dependent degradation models into a fragility analysis is presented. Fundamental concepts of seismic fragility analysis are summarized to facilitate discussions in later sections. The seismic fragility analysis of the undegraded CST, which is assumed to have all of its components in design condition, is described. The subject CST was located in an operating Korean NPP. The baseline fragility capacity of the CST is calculated and the basic procedure of seismic fragility analysis is established. This report presents the results and insights of the seismic fragility analysis of the CST under various postulated degradation scenarios

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  10. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively

  11. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection

  12. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  13. Measuring method and calculation of the evaporation rate for LNG storage tank%LNG储罐日蒸发率测量方法及计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 许燕; 姚淑婷; 王冰; 李国艳

    2013-01-01

    The evaporation rate is an important index of the insulation performance for LNG storage tank,and it is beneficial to better understand the evaporation rote for safe operation for LNG storage tank.Combined with the definition and standard of the evaporation rate of storage tank,and based on the actual operation situations,several measuring methods and calculation formulas of the evaporation rate for LNG storage tank were given in this paper,and the applicability and technological conditions of different measuring methods were also discussed.%日蒸发率是衡量LNG储罐绝热性能的重要指标,有效了解储罐日蒸发率,将有利于LNG储罐安全运行的维护.结合储罐日蒸发率的定义和标准,根据实际操作情况,给出了几种测量LNG储罐日蒸发率的方法及其计算公式,并论述了各种测量方法的适用性和工艺条件.

  14. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation.

  15. Pengaruh Lamanya Penyimpanan CPO Terhadap Perubahan Kandungan Asam Lemak Bebas Di Storage Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Sucinta, Widayan

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of free fatty acid is a lot of parameters which is use sa raw material.PTP.Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi is either of palm oil mill industry using palm oil as raw material, another one is Crude Palm Oil (CPO).Free fatty acid in palm oil influence quality of palm oil very much, because the high of free fatty acid makes oil has bed smell.in the scientific works definite concentration of free fatty acid with titrimetric methods in alkalimetri, which is use the bromot...

  16. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  17. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed

  18. Determination of Vitamin C and Organic Acid Changes in Strawberry by HPLC During Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali KOYUNCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC methods were used for measurement of vitamin C and organic acid changes of two strawberry cultivars (‘Dorit’ and ‘Selva’ during cold storage. Harvested strawberries at the last stage of commercial ripeness were placed in perforated (8 perforations, 10 mm diameter plastic boxes and stored at 0°C temperature and 90-95% relative humidity for 10 days. Vitamin C content decreased in both cultivars but no significant differences were found in ‘Dorit’ from the beginning to the end of the storage. The highest share of total acids was contributed by citric acid. It decreased with increase in storage time in both cultivars. Malic acid content of cultivars also decreased with storage time. Tartaric, oxalic and fumaric acid contents fluctuated during storage, but at the end of cold storage these organic acids had decreased in comparison to initial values.

  19. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection into Gas Storage Tanks made of Carbon Steel Following Resistive Transition of the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M

    1998-01-01

    A resistive transition (quench) of the LHC sector magnets will be followed by cold helium venting to a quench buffer volume of 2000 m3 at ambient temperature. The volume will be composed of eight medi um-pressure (2 MPa) gas storage tanks made of carbon steel, which constrains the temperature of the wall to be higher than -50oC (223 K). The aim of the analysis is the assessment of a possible spot c ooling intensity and thermo-mechanical stresses in the tank wall following helium injection.

  20. How to reduce vapor emissions from petroleum and derivatives storage tanks; Como reduzir a emissao de vapores em tanques de armazenamento de petroleo e derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Walber C. de; Albuquerque, Fabio A. [ASCA Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to illustrate the vapor reduction emissions on atmospheric tanks. Two systems are mentioned: the first one based on pressure vacuum valves applications, and the second based on vapors recovery. Our focus will lay mainly on the first system, seeing that it is largely applied on industrial plants. This paper presents the theoretical evaluation of the evaporation losses (emission) in low-pressure storage tanks used for low vapor-pressure flammable liquids (fuels). After that, the calculus will show the emission reduction rate applying pressure vacuum valves. (author)

  1. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  2. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2006-05-01

    The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products

  3. Scaling and parametric studies of condensation oscillation in an in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. In additon, the results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the IRWST for the Advanced Passive Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The scaling-related parameters experimentally considered were water temperatures, mass flux, discharge system volumes, tank sizes, source pressure, steam-jetting directions, and numbers of sparger discharge holes. To preserve the scaling similarity, the thickness of the minimum water volume created by the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Four key scaling parameters were identified and empirically correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation. They are as follows: Volume of the steam cavity, flow restriction coefficient, discharge hole area, and density ratio of steam to water. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multi-hole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger

  4. 接管腐蚀与贮罐风险防范%Risk Prevention of Storage Tank Caused by Pipe Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家福

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduced the regular inspection of the carbon dioxide storage tank. During the veriifcation of pressure gauge calibration, we found pipe corrosion and expansion of the pressure gauge on the top of the tank inadvertently. This article analyzed the status, the causes and dangers of the corrosion, and put forward the preventive measures. Our aim was to avoid nasty accidents on the tanks in our district, caused by small pipe.%本文介绍了在定期检验中发现二氧化碳贮罐罐顶压力表接管腐蚀膨胀,对该腐蚀的现状和产生的原因及危害性做了分析,提出了今后的防范措施,以避免小接管引发大事故。

  5. Recycling of underground storage tanks: a way-out to the risks; Reciclagem de tanques de combustiveis: solucoes para os riscos envolvidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano J.P.; Santos, Joao David [Companhia Brasileira de Petroleo Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In petrol stations, the removal of an underground storage tank happens when it becomes unnecessary or inappropriate. Among the several reasons which motivate this removal, we can mention the environmental license process. According to the Resolution CONAMA 273/00, all the petrol stations are subjected to the previous, installation and operation licenses (including the ones in operation). This will cause the substitution of a large number of tanks all over Brazil along the following years. However, so that the license process can be successful, it is necessary that the environmental impacts caused by its implementation are properly managed, avoiding safety problems and providing that there won't be any damage to the environment. This work shows alternatives for the recycling of the tank, the destination of residue and the maintenance of safety all over the process. (author)

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  7. Calculation Method for Static Capacity of Crude Oil Storage Tank%原油储罐静态容量计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德起; 崔立; 陈焱; 曹雪林; 高睿; 吴琨; 崔胜君

    2016-01-01

    原油储罐静态计量需要查阅罐容表,结合测量结果和化验数据,进行多步内插法计算方可得到储罐存油的体积、质量、毛桶等数据,涉及的数据参数多、计算量大.以往采用人工计算容易出错,商业化的软件往往不能满足用户的更多计算需求.为提高工作效率,节约人工成本,制作出相对应的Excel原油储罐静态自动计量表,并将罐容表值插入计算表中实现自动计算表格,只要输入液位高度、温度、密度(20℃)、水分,便可得到相对应的数据.该计算方法方便计量人员使用,计算数据准确可靠.%The static measurement of crude oil storage tank needs to consult the tank capaci-ty table with the measurement results and the test data. The method can obtain the volume, mass and the weight of the storage tank. In the past, the use of artificial calculation error prone, commercial software can not meet the needs of more users. To improve work effi-ciency, save labor costs, make out a corresponding crude oil storage tank static measure-ment automatic calculation table, and the tank capacity table is inserted into the calculation table to achieve automatic calculation, so as the input level height, temperature, density (20 ℃), moisture, that can get the corresponding data, this calcalation method is easy to use,the calculation data is accurate and reliable.

  8. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of a HP/ORC (heat pump/organic Rankine cycle) system with different hot water tank storage configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    2016-01-01

    -life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...... power. This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years. Based on the aforementioned model and real......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...

  9. Short report on an accident during sodium cleanup with ethyl carbitol in a storage tank of a research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of an accident which happened on 8 March 1996 during cleanup of a small amount of sodium (about 3 kg) within a 500 l storage tank of an FZK research facility, using ethyl carbitol (EC) as a reactant. An unexpected rapid decomposition of the compounds into ignitable gases which were then released through a safety valve into the building caused a deflagration event and, as a consequence, some damage to the building walls and to the research facility. The personnel were evacuated from the building before the event happened, and so nobody was injured. Sodium cleanup with ethyl carbitol was a well-established method, and cleaning procedures of the research facility were carried out since 1991 for more than twenty times without any problem. The advantage of heavy alcohol is low vapour pressure, high ignition point and mild reaction with sodium. In the paper, a short description is given of the main features of the research facility, of the usual cleanup procedure, and of the accident including its conditions. An analysis of the event (which is incomplete of course) is presented with regard to pressure, temperature and chemical composition. Finally, the consequences are addressed. The most important one is that sodium decommissioning with EC as reactant should be avoided until possible runaway reactions are sufficiently understood. (author)

  10. Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of a 9% Ni Steel for Large LNG Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. M.; Li, H.; Yang, F.; Chi, Q.; Ji, L. K.; Feng, Y. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, two different heat treatment processes of a 9% Ni steel for large liquefied natural gas storage tanks were performed in an industrial heating furnace. The former was a special heat treatment process consisting of quenching and intercritical quenching and tempering (Q-IQ-T). The latter was a heat treatment process only consisting of quenching and tempering. Mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing and charpy impact testing, and the microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that outstanding mechanical properties were obtained from the Q-IQ-T process in comparison with the Q-T process, and a cryogenic toughness with charpy impact energy value of 201 J was achieved at 77 K. Microstructure analysis revealed that samples of the Q-IQ-T process had about 9.8% of austenite in needle-like martensite, while samples of the Q-T process only had about 0.9% of austenite retained in tempered martensite.

  11. Failure analysis of primary argon storage tanks for fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) at Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (Paper IIIA-e)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeswaran, R.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to bring out the details of the Failure Analysis carried out on the four numbers of primary argon storage tanks made from AISI type 304L stainless steel for FBTR Project, after receipt at site. After inspection at site before erection, it was found that all the four tanks had suffered severe pitting and crevice corrosion on the inside surface. The study revealed that the corrosion from inside was caused by the presence of crevices formed due to weld spatters and excess or non-uniform penetration of weld beads along with the service water with a high chloride content, which had not been drained out fully, after the hydrostatic testing at the manufacture's shop. The water had remained in these tanks for about 12 months which caused the damage. Due to the severity of the corrosion attack, all the four tanks were rejected, new tanks were fabricated with modification suiting the requirement and since erected. 4 figures.

  12. Retention of ascorbic acid in fortified orange juice powers during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Siddappa

    1960-10-01

    Full Text Available Both Coorg and Sathgudi orange juice powders are good carriers for added ascorbic acid during prolonged storage at ordinary temperatures. There is not much difference between nitrogen and air packs as regards retention of ascorbic acid during storage. Nitrogen pack, however, helps to keep the power in a better free-flowing condition.

  13. A 400,000 lb crude oil storage tank was moved on an 11 in. air blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The British patented-system used to move the 55,000 bbl tank at the Cushing, Okla., tank farm of Getty Oil Co. uses the same airlift principle employed by various hovercraft. Representatives from 20 pipeline and oil companies watched the move, which placed the tank 22 ft higher and 600 ft away from its former location, to improve its gravity flow rate, an improvement spurred by greater crude demands placed on Cushing Terminal. Two 425 hp air compressors were attached to the tank's shell and produced 130,000 cu ft/min of air. The airflow was directed beneath the tank through a segmented skirt fixed to the circumference of the tank's base. Less than 0.5 psi air pressure across the tank floor was needed to lift the tank. Four large D-7 tractors pulled and guided the tank up the incline onto its new pad, where the vessel was rotated into alignment for piping connections. Preliminary rig-up, grading, and pad preparation took six days, but actual tank relocation required only two hours. Getty's Cushing terminal feeds to the 20 in. dia Osage pipeline that serves Getty's El Dorado, Kans., refinery as well as other carriers.

  14. Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, L.; Neng, Z. [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Guohui, F. [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

    2006-07-01

    Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transition temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have no obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

  15. Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Shilei; Zhu Neng [Tianjin University (China). School of Environmental Science and Technology; Feng Guohui [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

    2006-06-15

    Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transitions temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have not obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

  16. Substructure Shaking Table Test Simulation Analysis of Liquid Storage Tanks%储液罐子结构振动台试验仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利剑; 范远刚; 高斌; 单明康; 王向英

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to truly reflect the seismic response of the liquid storage tanks by the finite ele -ment simulation due to simplification of material properties .And the shaking table can only complete small scale model tests,the obtained results may quite different with what of the tank prototype .To this end,a method of the liquid storage tanks substructure shaking table test was proposed ,using the Malhotra simpli-fied model,the liquid storage tank is divided into two parts i .e.the experimental substructure and the nu -merical substructure.MATLAB program is used to simulate and analyze the liquid storage tank substruc -ture shaking table test.The results are in good agreement with what of the whole structure .The obtained tank base shear force is close with what of the specification algorithm .%  由于有限元仿真需要假设材料性能,难以真实全面地反映储液罐的地震响应;而振动台试验只能完成较小比例的模型试验,与储罐原型差距很大。为此,提出了储液罐子结构振动台试验方法,采用 Malhotra 力学模型,将储液罐划分为试验子结构和数值子结构两部分。运用 MATLAB 程序对储液罐子结构振动台试验进行了仿真试验分析。仿真计算表明:储液罐子结构仿真结果与全结构的计算结果有较好的吻合性,仿真计算的储罐基底剪力与规范算法接近。

  17. Characterization of uranium-contaminated sediments from beneath a nuclear waste storage tank from Hanford, Washington: Implications for contaminant transport and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Wooyong; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffery; Wang, Zheming; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2010-02-01

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate—P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated "background" sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange ( 233U) tests revealed that ˜51% to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by Micro-X-ray Fluorescence and Micro-X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XRF and μ-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched "hot spots" using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO 2) 2(SiO 3OH) 2(H 2O) 5

  18. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.M.B.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    Increased intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste are the most pronounced sensory changes during frozen storage of salmon (Refsgaard, H. H. F.; Brockhoff, P. B.; Jensen, B. Sensory and Chemical Changes in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) during Frozen Storage. J. Agric. Food...... the intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste. The added level of each fatty acid (similar to 1 mg/g salmon meat) was equivalent to the concentration of the fatty acids determined in salmon stored as fillet at -10 degrees C for 6 months. The effect of addition of the fatty acids on the intensity...... of train oil taste, bitterness and metal taste was in the order: DHA > palmitoleic acid > linoleic acid > EPA. Formation of free fatty acids was inhibited by cooking the salmon meat before storage. Furthermore, no changes in phospholipid level were observed during frozen storage. The results suggest...

  19. Review of Current State of the Art and Key Design Issues With Potential Solutions for Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Storage Tank Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2006-01-01

    Due to its high specific energy content, liquid hydrogen (LH2) is emerging as an alternative fuel for future aircraft. As a result, there is a need for hydrogen tank storage systems, for these aircraft applications, that are expected to provide sufficient capacity for flight durations ranging from a few minutes to several days. It is understood that the development of a large, lightweight, reusable cryogenic liquid storage tank is crucial to meet the goals of and supply power to hydrogen-fueled aircraft, especially for long flight durations. This report provides an annotated review (including the results of an extensive literature review) of the current state of the art of cryogenic tank materials, structural designs, and insulation systems along with the identification of key challenges with the intent of developing a lightweight and long-term storage system for LH2. The broad classes of insulation systems reviewed include foams (including advanced aerogels) and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems with vacuum. The MLI systems show promise for long-term applications. Structural configurations evaluated include single- and double-wall constructions, including sandwich construction. Potential wall material candidates are monolithic metals as well as polymer matrix composites and discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. For short-duration flight applications, simple tank designs may suffice. Alternatively, for longer duration flight applications, a double-wall construction with a vacuum-based insulation system appears to be the most optimum design. The current trends in liner material development are reviewed in the case that a liner is required to minimize or eliminate the loss of hydrogen fuel through permeation.

  20. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  1. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  2. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing...

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site

  4. Interim report on status of containment integrity studies for continued in-tank storage of Hanford high-level defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim report supplements technical information reported in RHO-LD-52, Status of Containment Integrity Studies for Continued In-Tank Storage of Hanford Defense High-Level Waste, September 1978. Only new data from the continuing laboratory programs and those studies initiated in the past year are included. Analyses of waste tank concrete integrity continued through the year. Laboratory tests to determine the effect of long-term elevated temperatures on the strength and elastic properties of concrete showed that the modulus of elasticity, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength continued to decrease as a function of temperature; Poisson's ratio was relatively unchanged. The durability tests of reinforced concrete specimens exposed to simulated waste chemicals showed no evidence of deterioration after 6 months exposure. Temperature cycling effects after 17 cycles showed little change in the compressive strength but a large reduction in the modulus of elasticity. A structural failure mode analysis was initiated to estimate the effect of constant dead load, elevated temperature, and aggressive chemicals on tank structural integrity after 100 years of waste storage. No results are presently available. A report is scheduled for completion in early 1980. An electron microscopy analysis was initiated to determine if microstructural changes in concrete can be detected which would provide a key for correlating relatively short-term laboratory data to predicting long-term structural behavior. Documented results are scheduled for late 1980

  5. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  6. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  7. Design and operation of an aluminium alloy tank using doped Na3AlH6 in kg scale for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, R.; Peinecke, K.; Meggouh, M.; Minne, P.; Peil, S.; Bathen, D.; Felderhoff, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this publication the authors present an aluminium alloy tank for hydrogen storage using 1921 g of Na3AlH6 doped with 4 mol% of TiCl3 and 8 mol% of activated carbon. The tank and the heat exchangers are manufactured by extrusion moulding of Al-Mg-Si based alloys. EN AW 6082 T6 alloy is used for the tank and a specifically developed alloy with a composition similar to EN AW 6060 T6 is used for the heat exchangers. The three heat exchangers have a corrugated profile to enhance the surface area for heat transfer. The doped complex hydride Na3AlH6 is densified to a powder density of 0.62 g cm-3. The hydrogenation experiments are carried out at 2.5 MPa. During one of the dehydrogenation experiments approximately 38 g of hydrogen is released, accounting for gravimetric hydrogen density of 2.0 mass-%. With this tank 15 hydrogenation and 16 dehydrogenation tests are carried out.

  8. A Calculation Method for the Sloshing Impact Pressure Imposed on the Roof of a Passive Water Storage Tank of AP1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large water storage tank installed at the top of containment of AP1000, which can supply the passive cooling. In the extreme condition, sloshing of the free surface in the tank may impact on the roof under long-period earthquake. For the safety assessment of structure, it is necessary to calculate the impact pressure caused by water sloshing. Since the behavior of sloshing impacted on the roof is involved into a strong nonlinear phenomenon, it is a little difficult to calculate such pressure by theoretical or numerical method currently. But it is applicable to calculate the height of sloshing in a tank without roof. In the present paper, a simplified method was proposed to calculate the impact pressure using the sloshing wave height, in which we first marked the position of the height of roof, then produced sloshing in the tank without roof and recorded the maximum wave height, and finally regarded approximately the difference between maximum wave height and roof height as the impact pressure head. We also designed an experiment to verify this method. The experimental result showed that this method overpredicted the impact pressure with a certain error of no more than 35%. By the experiment, we conclude that this method is conservative and applicable for the engineering design.

  9. 分区蓄热水箱应用于太阳能热泵中的蓄放热分析%Heat Storage Analysis of Solar Heat Pump Based on Partitioned Heat Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙书华; 金苏敏

    2013-01-01

    针对冬季太阳能辐射弱且不稳定的特点,提出一种应用于太阳能热泵的分区蓄热水箱,以水泵驱动蓄热水箱循环区与蓄热区的热量传递,并运用热力学原理对水箱循环区与蓄热区的运行状况进行模拟,分析了水箱两区在不同水泵体积流量下的逐时温度变化并与整体式水箱进行对比.结果表明,分区蓄热水箱克服了整体式水箱的热惰性,启动灵活,能在较短时间内达到热泵运行的理想温度,显著提高了系统的性能.%A type of the partitioned heat storage tank is presented to solve the problem of unstability and weakness of the solar radiation in winter. The heat transfer between the operating part and storage part is driven by water pump. The operation status of the tank is simulated by using the thermodynamic principle. It is analyzed that the changes of temperature of operating tank with times under different volume flow of the water pump, and compared with the operation of whole tank. The results show that the partitioned tank will overcome the problem of thermal inertia and start flexibly; the satisfactory temperature can be attained quickly for heat pump operating. Thus, it improves the property of the system.

  10. Application of a temperature selective storage tank solar system. Part 4. Fundamental experiment under a solar simulator; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 4. Solar simulator ni yoru kiso jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Endo, N.; Baba, H.; Okamoto, A. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The storage tank is classified into a mixed type and stratified type. The stratified type is judged to be more advantageous from a viewpoint of the effective energy utilization. An experiment was made using a solar simulator to put the system, consisting of a vacuum double-glass tube collector and temperature selective storage tank, to practical use. The ejection position of the storage tank at the top is superior to that at the bottom, in the 60{degree}C layer of three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C). The ejection position hardly varies with the shape (straight or elbow) of an ejection port. When the temperature stratified layer is formed in two layers (40 {times} 2, 20{degree}C) to three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C), heat can be stably stored as the flow rate is higher. The stratified storage tank is inferior to the mixed storage tank in heat collection efficiency, but the specific exergy increases. By increasing the number of heat storage layers, the result of this experiment can also be applied to the linear temperature gradient layer obtained in the practical use. As a result of the above experiment, the basic data for an automated system design during practical application was obtained. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan;

    2015-01-01

    is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...... that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab...

  12. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Wastewater Storage in Septic Tank on E. coli Concentration in Summer

    OpenAIRE

    James K. Bradshaw; David Radcliffe; Dominique Appling; Mussie Y. Habteselassie

    2013-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) work by first storing the wastewater in a septic tank before releasing it to soils for treatment that is generally effective and sustainable. However, it is not clear how the abundance of E. coli changes during its passage through the tank. In this study, which was conducted under the UGA young Scholar Program in summer of 2010, we examined the change in wastewater quality parameters during the passage of the wastewater through the tank and after it...

  13. Fragility Analysis Methodology for Degraded Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants - Illustrated using a Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y.; Kim, M.; Choi, I.

    2010-06-30

    determined to be risk significant to NPPs. Multiple models have been identified for concrete, carbon and low-alloy steel, and stainless steel. These models are documented in the Annual Report for the Year 2 Task, identified as BNL Report-82249-2009 and also designated as KAERI/TR-3757/2009. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 3 scope of work. The objective is for BNL to develop the seismic fragility capacity for a condensate storage tank with various degradation scenarios. The conservative deterministic failure margin method has been utilized for the undegraded case and has been modified to accommodate the degraded cases. A total of five seismic fragility analysis cases have been described: (1) undegraded case, (2) degraded stainless tank shell, (3) degraded anchor bolts, (4) anchorage concrete cracking, and (5)a perfect combination of the three degradation scenarios. Insights from these fragility analyses are also presented.

  14. Deployment of a fluidic pulse jet mixing system for horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Hylton, T.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Taylor, S.A. [AEA Technology, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Moore, J.W. [Bechtel Jacobs Co. LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A fluidic pulse jet mixing system, designed and fabricated by AEA Technology, was successfully demonstrated for mobilization of remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks (W-21, W-22, and W-23) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The pulse jet system is unique because it does not contain any moving parts except for some solenoid valves which can be easily replaced if necessary. The pulse jet system consisted of seven modular equipment skids and was installed and commissioned in about 7 weeks. The system used specially designed fluidic jet pumps and charge vessels, along with existing submerged nozzles for mixing the settled sludges with existing supernate in the tank. The operation also used existing piping and progressive cavity pumps for retrieval and transfer of the waste mixtures. The pulse jet system operated well and experienced no major equipment malfunctions. The modular design, use of quick-connect couplings, and low-maintenance aspects of the system minimized radiation exposure during installation and operation of the system. The extent of sludge removal from the tanks was limited by the constraints of using the existing tank nozzles and the physical characteristics of the sludge. Removing greater than 98% of this sludge would require aggressive use of the manual sluicer (and associated water additions), a shielded sluicer system that utilizes supernate from existing inventory, or a more costly and elaborate robotic retrieval system. The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and US Department of Energy sites.

  15. Deployment of a fluidic pulse jet mixing system for horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluidic pulse jet mixing system, designed and fabricated by AEA Technology, was successfully demonstrated for mobilization of remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks (W-21, W-22, and W-23) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The pulse jet system is unique because it does not contain any moving parts except for some solenoid valves which can be easily replaced if necessary. The pulse jet system consisted of seven modular equipment skids and was installed and commissioned in about 7 weeks. The system used specially designed fluidic jet pumps and charge vessels, along with existing submerged nozzles for mixing the settled sludges with existing supernate in the tank. The operation also used existing piping and progressive cavity pumps for retrieval and transfer of the waste mixtures. The pulse jet system operated well and experienced no major equipment malfunctions. The modular design, use of quick-connect couplings, and low-maintenance aspects of the system minimized radiation exposure during installation and operation of the system. The extent of sludge removal from the tanks was limited by the constraints of using the existing tank nozzles and the physical characteristics of the sludge. Removing greater than 98% of this sludge would require aggressive use of the manual sluicer (and associated water additions), a shielded sluicer system that utilizes supernate from existing inventory, or a more costly and elaborate robotic retrieval system. The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and US Department of Energy sites

  16. Shear conditions in clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in stirred tank and airlift bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, M O; Badino, A C

    2012-08-01

    In biochemical processes involving filamentous microorganisms, the high shear rate may damage suspended cells leading to viability loss and cell disruption. In this work, the influence of the shear conditions in clavulanic acid (CA) production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was evaluated in a 4-dm(3) conventional stirred tank (STB) and in 6-dm(3) concentric-tube airlift (ALB) bioreactors. Batch cultivations were performed in a STB at 600 and 800 rpm and 0.5 vvm (cultivations B1 and B2) and in ALB at 3.0 and 4.1 vvm (cultivations A1 and A2) to define two initial oxygen transfer conditions in both bioreactors. The average shear rate ([Formula: see text]) of the cultivations was estimated using correlations of recent literature based on experimental data of rheological properties of the broth (consistency index, K, and flow index, n) and operating conditions, impeller speed (N) for STB and superficial gas velocity in the riser (UGR) for ALB. In the same oxygen transfer condition, the [Formula: see text] values for ALB were higher than those obtained in STB. The maximum [Formula: see text] presented a strong correlation with a maximum consistency index (K (max)) of the broth. Close values of maximum CA production were obtained in cultivations A1 and A2 (454 and 442 mg L(-1)) with similar maximum [Formula: see text] values of 4,247 and 4,225 s(-1). In cultivations B1 and B2, the maximum CA production of 269 and 402 mg L(-1) were reached with a maximum [Formula: see text] of 904 and 1,786 s(-1). The results show that high values of average shear rate increase the CA production regardless of the oxygen transfer condition and bioreactor model.

  17. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  18. THE INSPECTION METHOD OF INTERCELL CONNECTIONS AND POLE TERMINALS OF LEAD-ACID STORAGE BATTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dzenzersjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The inspection method of intercell connections and pole terminals of lead-acid storage batteries is upgraded. The method allows reducing losses from rejects, increasing reliability of check of intercell connections and pole terminals, improving the quality of storage batteries.

  19. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  20. Effect of storage of rice seeds on solute leaching and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) seeds of early varieties 'Ratna' and 'Jaya' and late varieties 'Suakalma' and 'Pankaj' remained viable for 12 to 16 months in normal storage. Conductivity of pooled leachates, leaching of soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen increased with duration of storage. While 32P uptake in isolated embryos and endosperms of fresh, 1-year and 2-year-old seeds showed a declining trend, its incorporation in nucleic acids did not vary significantly. The content of nucleic acid of seeds, however, decreased with an increase in the storage period. (auth.)

  1. STUDY ON A SOLAR PRESSURE TANK'S HEAT STORAGE%一种太阳能承压水箱的储换热特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学真; 杨远林

    2012-01-01

    Phase change-heat exchange numerical model was established to study the characteristics of heat charge and discharge in this solar heatstorage tank. Results of simulation and experiments gave the best combination of tank' s volume, collector' s area and heat exchanger' s area. The tank could work in projects of solar energy and industrial waste thermal energy, HVAC thermal storage and other energy saving techniques.%以所研制的新型太阳能承压储换热水箱为研究对象,通过数值模拟和实验研究的方法对该水箱的储换热过程进行模拟分析与实验验证,提出一种太阳能储换热水箱的传热计算方法,并详细描述计算过程,最终得出太阳能储热水箱、太阳集热器面积、水箱换热器面积三者之间的最优配置为100 ~ 150L水箱配置2m2集热器、0.133m2换热面积的换热器.

  2. Denitrification in nitric-acid-treated cattle slurry during storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Oenema, O.; G. L. Velthof

    1993-01-01

    Lowering the pH of cattle slurry with HNO3 was used to reduce NH3 volatilization during storage and after application. Incubation studies were carried out to examine possible NO3 losses and N2O emission from HNO3 treated slurry during storage. Batches of cattle slurry were treated with various amounts of HNO3 to obtain a pH range of 6.0 to 3.0. The slurries were stirred once or twice a week and stored for 6 months at 15 degrees C. Changes in pH, Eh, NO3- and NH4 concn, and emissions of N2O, C...

  3. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Fire Protection functional area for the Hanford Site Tank Farm facilities and support structures is based on the application of relevant DOE orders, regulations, and industry codes and standards. The fire protection program defined in this document may be divided into three areas: (1) organizational, (2) administrative programmatic features, and (3) technical features. The information presented in each section is in the form of program elements and orders, regulations, industry codes, and standards that serve as the attributes of a fire protection program for the Tank Farm facilities. Upon completion this document will be utilized as the basis to evaluate compliance of the fire protection program being implemented for the Tank Farm facilities with the requirements of DOE orders and industry codes and standards.

  4. An Assessment of Technologies to Provide Extended Sludge Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JA Bamberger

    2000-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify sludge mobilization technologies that can be readily installed in double-shell tanks along with mixer pumps to augment mixer pump operation when mixer pumps do not adequately mobilize waste. The supplementary technologies will mobilize sludge that may accumulate in tank locations out-of-reach of the mixer-pump jet and move the sludge into the mixer-pump range of operation. The identified technologies will be evaluated to determine if their performances and configurations are adequate to meet requirements developed for enhanced sludge removal systems. The study proceeded in three parallel paths to identify technologies that: (1) have been previously deployed or demonstrated in radioactive waste tanks, (2) have been specifically evaluated for their ability to mobilize or dislodge waste simulants with physical and theological properties similar to those anticipated during waste retrieval, and (3) have been used in similar industrial conditions, bu t not specifically evaluated for radioactive waste retrieval.

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards and Security (S ampersand S) Functional Area address the programmatic and technical requirements, controls, and standards which assure compliance with applicable S ampersand S laws and regulations. Numerous S ampersand S responsibilities are performed on behalf of the Tank Farm Facility by site level organizations. Certain other responsibilities are shared, and the remainder are the sole responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. This Requirements Identification Document describes a complete functional Safeguards and Security Program that is presumed to be the responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. The following list identifies the programmatic elements in the S ampersand S Functional Area: Program Management, Protection Program Scope and Evaluation, Personnel Security, Physical Security Systems, Protection Program Operations, Material Control and Accountability, Information Security, and Key Program Interfaces

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Safeguards and Security (S&S) Functional Area address the programmatic and technical requirements, controls, and standards which assure compliance with applicable S&S laws and regulations. Numerous S&S responsibilities are performed on behalf of the Tank Farm Facility by site level organizations. Certain other responsibilities are shared, and the remainder are the sole responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. This Requirements Identification Document describes a complete functional Safeguards and Security Program that is presumed to be the responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. The following list identifies the programmatic elements in the S&S Functional Area: Program Management, Protection Program Scope and Evaluation, Personnel Security, Physical Security Systems, Protection Program Operations, Material Control and Accountability, Information Security, and Key Program Interfaces.

  7. An Assessment of Technologies to Provide Extended Sludge Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify sludge mobilization technologies that can be readily installed in double-shell tanks along with mixer pumps to augment mixer pump operation when mixer pumps do not adequately mobilize waste. The supplementary technologies will mobilize sludge that may accumulate in tank locations out-of-reach of the mixer-pump jet and move the sludge into the mixer-pump range of operation. The identified technologies will be evaluated to determine if their performances and configurations are adequate to meet requirements developed for enhanced sludge removal systems. The study proceeded in three parallel paths to identify technologies that: (1) have been previously deployed or demonstrated in radioactive waste tanks, (2) have been specifically evaluated for their ability to mobilize or dislodge waste simulants with physical and theological properties similar to those anticipated during waste retrieval, and (3) have been used in similar industrial conditions, but not specifically evaluated for radioactive waste retrieval

  8. 大型液化天然气储气罐沉降分析%SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS ON LARGE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超; 杨建江

    2012-01-01

    随着我国天然气利用的不断增长,对大型液化天然气储气罐的研究显得越来越重要.本文介绍了Randolph和Worth提出的单桩及群桩基础沉降公式并结合Ansys有限元分析软件对高承台大型液化天然气储气罐进行沉降分析.Ansys模型分析得出的沉降结果与已有工程经验有很好的吻合.%With the growing use of natural gas, the study of large-scale liquefied natural gas storage tank is becoming increasingly important. This paper introduces the formula of single pile and group pile foundation settlement proposed by Randolph and Worth, and also analysis the settlement of the high cap foundation of the large-scale liquefied natural gas storage tank with Ansys finite element analysis software. The sedimentation results educed from Ansys model analysis are in good agreement with the existing engineering experience.

  9. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  10. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  11. Determination of organic acids during the fermentation and cold storage of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, E; McGregor, J U

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the present study was the separation and quantification of orotic, citric, pyruvic, lactic, uric, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and hippuric acids in a single isocratic analysis by HPLC. Two methods of extraction were compared: 1) acetonitrile and water and 2) .01N H2SO4. Recoveries of orotic, lactic, acetic, and propionic acids were 90% for both methods. Recoveries of citric, pyruvic, uric, butyric, and hippuric acids were not satisfactory with the acetonitrile method, but were acceptable using the H2SO4 extraction procedure. Yogurts were manufactured under laboratory-scale conditions, and samples were analyzed during fermentation and after storage at 4 degrees C. Samples were analyzed for pH and organic acids. All of the organic acids exhibited varying degrees of increases and decreases during fermentation and storage. Formic and butyric acids were not detected under the conditions of this study.

  12. Process optimization for effective column separation of 106Ru from aqueous waste associated with spent reprocessing solvent in storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with another waste stream resulting from reprocessing operations, viz. the aqueous solution present in substantial quantities as the bottom layer in tanks storing spent TBP-dodecane solvent. The effective separation of 106Ru from aqueous waste streams generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is difficult because of its complex aqueous chemistry

  13. Application of a temperature selective heat storage tank to a solar system. Part 3. Solar heat collecting system; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 3. Shunetsu hoshiki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan); Kanayama, K. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The tank system and tank-less system when the temperature selective heat storage tank is applied to a solar system were considered. In the tank system, the simulation shows that the annual supplementary heat consumption is reduced as the tank capacity becomes lower. The most suitable operating time set for determining the reference time is about five hours in winter and about nine hours in summer. The annual operating time is about 6.5 hours. In the tank-less system, the most suitable minimum flow rate per solar collector area of a heating medium in Tokyo and its districts is 10 L/hm{sup 2} for both three-step flow control and constant flow control. The tank-less system is slightly lower in annual supplementary heat consumption than the tank system. For the three-step flow control, a change in the annual supplementary heat consumption is lower than that in the minimum flow rate. For the constant flow control, however, the annual supplementary heat consumption rapidly increases when the flow rate more decreases than the optimum value. The number of pump start/stop counts for the three-step flow control is less than two times as high as for the constant flow control. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF SOME STORAGE CONDITIONS UPON ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT IN WHITE AND RED CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Avramiuc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it has searched the influence of storage conditions upon ascorbic acid content in cabbage. Theascorbic acid content and pH evolution for 16 weeks has been carried out using, as biological material, cabbage samplesfrom two varieties: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. f. alba DC. and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L. f. rubra (L. Thell. The cabbage samples were kept in containers of glass and wood, constituting, for eachsample, variants of experiences, in the presence and in the absence of oxygen, at following thermal thresholds: 4°C, 8°Cand 15°C. The ascorbic acid content of cabbages was determined through a method based on reduction by the ascorbicacid of 2.6-Dichlorphenol-indophenol (2.6-DCFIF to the corresponding leucoderivate. The investigations have beencarried out on freshly harvested material (week 0 and then every two weeks, for a total of 16 weeks. Compared to freshharvested cabbage, at the end of the analysed interval (after 16 weeks of storage, the ascorbic acid content has registereddifferent rates of diminution in the both varieties, depending on storage temperature, on storage length, and on variety.The ascorbic acid in white cabbage has registered losses, compared to red variety, so much the bigger as the temperaturewas higher and the storage duration was longer.

  15. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Vieira

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR, Viçosa (AV e Lavras (AD], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids, which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8 g/100g fatty acids and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7 g/100g fatty acids contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31 that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0 g/100g fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality.

  16. 液体硝酸铵储存输送工艺与储罐的设计%Design of the Storage and Transportation Technology for Liquid Ammonium Nitrate and Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨民刚; 夏光; 粟峰雷

    2012-01-01

    通过对直接用于工业炸药生产的液体硝酸铵工艺参数的分析,提出液体硝酸铵储存输送的工艺途径,有泵送或高位差输送或两者结合等形式;论述了适合液体硝酸铵储存的储罐结构形式,储罐为薄壁容器,设计多采用立式圆筒形结构,封头多采用平盖,半椭圆形和锥形;文章还研讨了液体硝酸铵储罐和储存输送控制系统的设计方法.%Based on the analysis of the process parameters of liquid ammonium nitrate used directly in the production of industrial explosive, the store and transportation processes of liquid ammonium nitrate were advanced, such as pumping, high potential difference transportation or both. The structure of storage tank suitable for liquid ammonium nitrate was usually designed as thin walled and vertical cylindrical type, and the head was flat, semi elliptic or cone shaped. The design method of storage tank and the control system of store and transportation were also discussed.

  17. Protective effect of hop ß-acids on microbial degradation of thick juice during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Justé, Annelies; Krause, M.S.; Lievens, Bart; Klingeberg, M; Michiels, Christiaan; Willems, Kris

    2008-01-01

    Storing sugar extracts as thick juice, a form of sucrose syrup, is common practice in the sugar industry. However, thick juice storage commonly faces problems due to microbial degradation. In this study the value of a commercial alkaline solution of hop β-acids (HBA) was assessed for prevention of microbial degradation of thick juice. The antimicrobial effect of different concentrations of HBA against juice degradation was tested in a pilot-scale thick juice storage experiment. Thick juice de...

  18. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  19. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, August 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-08-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Offices's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of 12 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at Test Cell C; the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility; the X-Tunnel in Area 25; the Pluto Disassembly Facility; the Pluto Check Station; and the Port Gaston Training Facility in Area 26. These CASs include: CAS 25-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank (AST); CAS 25-02-02, Underground Storage Tank (UST); CAS 25-23-11, Contaminated Materials; CAS 25-12-01, Boiler; CAS 25-01-06, AST; CAS 25-01-07, AST; CAS 25-02-13, UST; CAS 26- 01-01, Filter Tank (Rad) and Piping; CAS 26-01-02, Filter Tank (Rad); CAS 26-99-01, Radioactively Contaminated Filters; CAS 26-02-01, UST; CAS 26-23-01, Contaminated Liquids Spreader. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for CAU 127 include radionuclides, metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Additionally, beryllium may be present at some locations. The sources of potential releases are varied, but releases of contaminated liquids may have occurred and may have migrated into and impacted soil below and surrounding storage vessels at some of the CASs. Also, at several CASs, asbestos-containing materials may be present on the aboveground structures and may be friable. Exposure pathways are limited to ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact (adsorption) of soils/sediments or liquids, or inhalation of contaminants by site workers due to disturbance of

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, August 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Offices's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of 12 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at Test Cell C; the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility; the X-Tunnel in Area 25; the Pluto Disassembly Facility; the Pluto Check Station; and the Port Gaston Training Facility in Area 26. These CASs include: CAS 25-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank (AST); CAS 25-02-02, Underground Storage Tank (UST); CAS 25-23-11, Contaminated Materials; CAS 25-12-01, Boiler; CAS 25-01-06, AST; CAS 25-01-07, AST; CAS 25-02-13, UST; CAS 26- 01-01, Filter Tank (Rad) and Piping; CAS 26-01-02, Filter Tank (Rad); CAS 26-99-01, Radioactively Contaminated Filters; CAS 26-02-01, UST; CAS 26-23-01, Contaminated Liquids Spreader. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for CAU 127 include radionuclides, metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Additionally, beryllium may be present at some locations. The sources of potential releases are varied, but releases of contaminated liquids may have occurred and may have migrated into and impacted soil below and surrounding storage vessels at some of the CASs. Also, at several CASs, asbestos-containing materials may be present on the aboveground structures and may be friable. Exposure pathways are limited to ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact (adsorption) of soils/sediments or liquids, or inhalation of contaminants by site workers due to disturbance of

  2. 常压氨罐排放气分析及紧急排放气的处理%Analysis on Venting Gas of Atmospheric Ammonia Storage Tank and Treatment of Emergency Venting Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雁; 蔡晓峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了常温压力储存、低温压力储存及低温常压储存等3种储存液氨的方式;简述了低温常压液氨贮罐的主要参数和常压氨罐排放气的类型、对比了采用不同保冷材料对排放气量的影响;探讨了常压氨罐紧急排放气的处理方案;提供了采用不同排放方案的投资分析。%Author has introduced the 3 kinds of type for storing liquid ammonia : They were pressure storage at atmospheric temperature, pressure storage at low temperature and atmospheric storage at low temperature ;has briefly described the main parameters for atmospheric liquid ammonia storage tank at low temperature and the types for venting gas of atmospheric liquid ammonia storage tank;has compared the influence of adopting different cold insulation materials on venting gas quantity ; has discussed the treating scheme for emergency venting gas of atmospheric liquid ammonia storage tank ; has proposed the investment analysis for adopting different venting gas schemes.

  3. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R. A. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schweitzer, J. S. [Physics Dept., U. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States); Parsons, A. M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt (United States); Arens, E. E. [John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  4. Nevada test site underground storage tank number 12-13-1: Nevada division of emergency management case number H931130E corrective action unit 450. Closure report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The project site was identified as an abandoned Underground Storage Tank (UST) to be closed under the Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Program during Fiscal Year 1993. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that before permanent closure is completed an assessment of the site must take place. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requires assessment and corrective actions for a petroleum substance in the soil which exceeds 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Subsequent to the tank removal, a hydrocarbon release was identified at the site. The release was reported to the NDEP by DOE/NV on November 30, 1993. Nevada Division of Environmental Management (NDEM) Case Number H931130E was assigned. This final closure report documents the assessment and corrective actions taken for the hydrocarbon release identified at the site. The Notification of Closure, EPA Form 7530-1 dated March 22, 1994, is provided in Appendix A. A 45-day report documenting the notification for a hydrocarbon release was submitted to NDEP on April 6, 1994.

  5. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal

  6. Application of Mechanical Cleaning Method of Crude Oil Storage Tank%机械方法清理原油储罐的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笛; 李文辉; 马小兵

    2014-01-01

    通过对人工及机械方法清理原油储罐的特点进行对比分析,提出了机械清理方法的原理及方法。通过试验研究发现,机械清理方法在安全性、环境保护、节约能源及成本控制等方面具有突出的优势。%By way of artificial and mechanical characteristics of crude oil storage tank cleaning comparative analysis of mechanical cleaning methods proposed principles and methods,the study found that mechanical cleaning methods,in safety,environmental protection,energy conserva-tion,cost control,has outstanding advantages.

  7. 大型油品储罐进出口管线柔性设计%Flexible Design in the Inlet and Outlet Pipeline of Large Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋义伟; 郭慧军; 张永东; 田鹤; 杨振东; 安宗旺

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of flexible design in the inlet and outlet pipeline of large storage tank was analyzed. The structure, function and selection of equipment of metal hose and corrugatedpipe compensator were presented. The matters that needed attention about installation of metal hose and corrugated-pipe compensator were also introduced simply.%分析了大型储罐进出口管线柔性设计的必要性,介绍了金属软管和波纹补偿器的结构形式、作用及设备选型需考虑的因素,提出了在进行储罐罐前柔性安装时应注意的问题.

  8. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  9. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  10. Analysis of nodalization effects on the prediction error of generalized finite element method used for dynamic modeling of hot water storage tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołowicz Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents dynamic model of hot water storage tank. The literature review has been made. Analysis of effects of nodalization on the prediction error of generalized finite element method (GFEM is provided. The model takes into account eleven various parameters, such as: flue gases volumetric flow rate to the spiral, inlet water temperature, outlet water flow rate, etc. Boiler is also described by sizing parameters, nozzle parameters and heat loss including ambient temperature. The model has been validated on existing data. Adequate laboratory experiments were provided. The comparison between 1-, 5-, 10- and 50-zone boiler is presented. Comparison between experiment and simulations for different zone numbers of the boiler model is presented on the plots. The reason of differences between experiment and simulation is explained.

  11. 化工企业可燃液体储罐区的通用安全要求%The General Safety Requirements of Chemical Companies Flammable Liquid Storage Tank Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article mainly introduce the selection,layout and security monitoring equipment of chemical companies flammable liquid storage tank.%  介绍在化工装置可燃液体罐区储罐的选型、布置和安全监控装备的设置。

  12. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  13. Sugar-and-acid profile of Penjar tomatoes and its evolution during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Casals Missio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The alcobaça mutation in the Penjar tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. variety alters the ripening process and confers a long shelf life (more than four months. Storage of Penjar tomatoes leads to a distinctive sensory profile valued by local consumers, who prefer aged tomatoes to fresh ones. To study chemical changes occurring during storage, we characterized the complete sugar-and-acid profile of 25 accessions at harvest and at 2 and 4 months after harvest. We found considerable variability in the sugar-and-acid profile within the Penjar variety, especially for fructose and glucose. Some accessions presented exceptionally high values for sugars, making them especially interesting for breeding programs. During postharvest, the concentration of glucose, fructose, and citric acid decreased, whereas the concentration of malic and glutamic acids increased. Data from this study offer novel insights into postharvest changes in tomato quality parameters and help elucidate the reasons for the appreciation of this variety by consumers.

  14. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  15. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  16. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M E; Scheele, R D; Tingey, J M

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Economics of acid gas reinjection: an innovative CO{sub 2} storage opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Wong; David Keith; Edward Wichert; Bill Gunter; Tom McCann [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Acid gas streams, consisting primarily of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), are commonly generated as a by-product of the gas sweetening process used to bring produced gases and solution gases up to pipeline specifications for sales and transport. In the past, the conventional methods for acid gas disposal are to use a Claus process or to flare the acid gas. A new technology called acid gas reinjection has emerged over the past ten years in Canada as an effective way of ensuring that acid gases are not emitted into the atmosphere. There are 38 acid gas reinjection projects presently operating in Alberta. This technology involves compressing the acid gas and injecting it into a suitable underground zone, similar to deep well disposal of produced water. Essentially, the sulfur compounds and CO{sub 2} are permanently stored in the deep geological formation preventing their release to the atmosphere. Therefore most acid gas reinjection projects can be considered as existing examples of CO{sub 2} geological storage projects. These projects provide important practical experience with CO{sub 2} storage. In addition, this technology could be extended to capture a significant fraction of the natural gas-associated CO{sub 2} stream at low cost. In this paper, a cursory economic analysis is made on one of the Alberta acid gas reinjection projects relative to sulfur recovery for determining the amount of CO{sub 2} avoided. 4 refs.

  18. Evolution of Acetic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Joyeux, A.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria were present at all stages of wine making, from the mature grape through vinification to conservation. A succession of Gluconobacter oxydans, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter aceti during the course of these stages was noted. Low levels of A. aceti remained in the wine; they exhibited rapid proliferation on short exposure of the wine to air and caused significant increases in the concentration of acetic acid. Higher temperature of wine storage and higher wine pH ...

  19. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this Requirements Identification Document (RID) section is to identify, in one location, all of the facility specific requirements and good industry practices which are necessary or important to establish an effective Issues Management Program for the Tank Farm Facility. The Management Systems Functional Area includes the site management commitment to environmental safety and health (ES&H) policies and controls, to compliance management, to development and management of policy and procedures, to occurrence reporting and corrective actions, resource and issue management, and to the self-assessment process.

  20. Technical transformation of double absorption cycling acid tank after sulfuric acid leakage in 300 kt/a SA plant%300kt/a硫酸装置二吸循环酸槽槽底漏酸后的技改

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建国

    2012-01-01

    The tank bottom of double absorption cycling acid tank repeatedly leak sulfuric acid, the cause of sulfuric acid leakage is analyzed, the purpose of seepage prevention is achieved through using joist steel for strengthening baseboard stiffness and preventing baseboard deformation.%300kt/a硫酸装置二吸循环槽槽底多次漏酸,分析漏酸的原因,采用工字钢加强槽底板的刚度,以防止底板变形,达到防酸渗漏的目的。

  1. Fatty acids, sterols, and antioxidant activity in minimally processed avocados during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Lucía; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2009-04-22

    Avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) is a good source of bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids and sterols. The impact of minimal processing on its health-promoting attributes was investigated. Avocados cut into slices or halves were packaged in plastic bags under nitrogen, air, or vacuum and stored at 8 degrees C for 13 days. The stabilities of fatty acids and sterols as well as the effect on antioxidant activity were evaluated. The main fatty acid identified and quantified in avocado was oleic acid (about 57% of total content), whereas beta-sitosterol was found to be the major sterol (about 89% of total content). In general, after refrigerated storage, a significant decrease in fatty acid content was observed. Vacuum/halves and air/slices were the samples that maintained better this content. With regard to phytosterols, there were no significant changes during storage. Antioxidant activity showed a slight positive correlation against stearic acid content. At the end of refrigerated storage, a significant increase in antiradical efficiency (AE) was found for vacuum samples. AE values were quite similar among treatments. Hence, minimal processing can be a useful tool to preserve health-related properties of avocado fruit.

  2. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity.

  3. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi sil...

  4. Effect of curd freezing and packaging methods on the organic acid contents of goat cheeses during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Balkir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of freezing and packaging methods on organic acid content of goat cheese during 12 weeks of storage were determined. Goat cheese milk curds were divided into two batches; one of the batches was directly processed in to goat cheese while the other was frozen at -18 °C and stored for six months and processed into cheese after being thawed. Cheese samples were packed in three parts and stored at 4 °C refrigerated control sample and at -18 °C for six months frozen experimental samples. Cheese samples were packed in three different packaging methods: aerobic, vacuum or modified atmosphere. Citric, malic, fumaric, acetic, lactic, pyruvic and propionic acids were analyzed using HPLC method after 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week of storage period. Lactic acid was the main organic acids while pyruvic acid had the lowest content in all cheese samples. Citric and fumaric acid levels of frozen samples increased during storage whereas malic, acetic, pyruvic and propionic acid amounts were decreased compared to the beginning of storage. Packaging methods and freezing process also effected lactic acid levels statistically (p<0.05. Fumaric, acetic and lactic acid concentration of refrigerated samples were increased but citric, malic and propionic acids decreased during storage. Pyruvic acid level did not change significantly. It was determined that organic acid concentrations were effected by freezing process, storage time and packaging methods significantly (p<0.05.

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Assurance Functional Area Requirements Identification Document (RID), addresses the programmatic requirements that ensure risks and environmental impacts are minimized, ensure safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the Tank Farm Facility and its operation. This RID incorporates guidance intended to provide Tank Farms management with the necessary requirements information to develop, upgrade, or assess the effectiveness of a Quality Assurance Program in the performance of organizational and functional activities. Quality Assurance is defined as all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a facility, structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily and safely in service. This document will provide the specific requirements to meet DNFSB recommendations and the guidance provided in DOE Order 5700.6C, utilizing industry codes, standards, regulatory guidelines, and industry good practices that have proven to be essential elements for an effective and efficient Quality Assurance Program as the nuclear industry has matured over the last thirty years

  6. Injector for CESAR (2 MeV electron storage ring): 2-beam, 2 MV van de Graaff generator; tank removed.

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    The van de Graaff generator in its tank. For voltage-holding, the tank was filled with pressurized extra-dry nitrogen. 2 beams emanated from 2 separate electron-guns. The left beam, for injection into the CESAR ring, was pulsed at 50 Hz, with currents of up to 1 A for 400 ns. The right beam was sent to a spectrometer line. Its pulselength was also 400 ns, but the pulse current was 12 microA, at a rate variable from 50 kHz to 1 MHz. This allowed stabilization of the top-terminal voltage to an unprecedented stability of +- 100 V, i.e. 6E-5. Although built for a nominal voltage of 2 MV, the operational voltage was limited to 1.75 MV in order to minimize voltage break-down events. CESAR was terminated at the end of 1967 and dismantled in 1968. R.Nettleton (left) and H.Burridge (right) are preparing the van de Graaff for shipment to the University of Swansea.

  7. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Quality Assurance Functional Area Requirements Identification Document (RID), addresses the programmatic requirements that ensure risks and environmental impacts are minimized, ensure safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the Tank Farm Facility and its operation. This RID incorporates guidance intended to provide Tank Farms management with the necessary requirements information to develop, upgrade, or assess the effectiveness of a Quality Assurance Program in the performance of organizational and functional activities. Quality Assurance is defined as all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a facility, structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily and safely in service. This document will provide the specific requirements to meet DNFSB recommendations and the guidance provided in DOE Order 5700.6C, utilizing industry codes, standards, regulatory guidelines, and industry good practices that have proven to be essential elements for an effective and efficient Quality Assurance Program as the nuclear industry has matured over the last thirty years.

  8. Tank characterization technical sampling basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-04-28

    Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis (this document) is the first step of an in place working process to plan characterization activities in an optimal manner. This document will be used to develop the revision of the Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) (Winkelman et al. 1997) and ultimately, to create sampling schedules. The revised WIRD will define all Characterization Project activities over the course of subsequent fiscal years 1999 through 2002. This document establishes priorities for sampling and characterization activities conducted under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Characterization Project. The Tank Waste Characterization Project is designed to provide all TWRS programs with information describing the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the contents of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. These tanks contain radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons materials at the Hanford Site. The waste composition varies from tank to tank because of the large number of chemical processes that were used when producing nuclear weapons materials over the years and because the wastes were mixed during efforts to better use tank storage space. The Tank Waste Characterization Project mission is to provide information and waste sample material necessary for TWRS to define and maintain safe interim storage and to process waste fractions into stable forms for ultimate disposal. This document integrates the information needed to address safety issues, regulatory requirements, and retrieval, treatment, and immobilization requirements. Characterization sampling to support tank farm operational needs is also discussed.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF TAILING UNDERWATER SEDIMENTS AND LIQUID INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN STORAGE TANK ON THE BASIS OF ECHOLOCATION AND GPS-SYSTEMS AT JSC “BELARUSKALI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to calculate volume of tailing underwater sediments and liquid industrial wastes on the basis of innovative technologies. Two theodolites which are set at various points and a boat with a load for measuring water depth have been traditionally used for topographic survey of slime storage bottom. Horizontal directions have been simultaneously measured on the boat marker while using theodolites. Water depth has been determined while using  a 2-kg circular load which was descended into brine solution with the help of rope. In addition to rather large time and labour costs such technology has required synchronization in actions on three participants involved in the work: operators of two theodolites and boat team in every depth measuring point. Methodology has been proposed for more efficient solution of the problem. It presupposes the use of echolocation together with space localization systems (GPS-systems which can be set on a boat with the purpose to measure depth of a storage tank bed. An echolocation transducer has been installed under the boat bottom at the depth of 10 cm from the brine solution level in the slime storage.  An aerial of GPS-receiver has been fixed over the echo-sounder transducer. Horizontal positioning of bottom depth measuring points have been carried out in the local coordinate system. Formation of digital model for slime storage bottom has been executed after data input of the coordinate positioning that corresponded to corrected depths in the software package LISCAD Plus SEE. The formation has been made on the basis of a strict triangulation method.  Creation of the digital model makes it rather easy to calculate a volume between a storage bottom and a selected level (height of filling material. In this context it is possible to determine a volume and an area not only above but also lower of the datum surface. For this purpose it is recommended to use digital models which are developed

  10. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  11. FDS软件对LNG储罐泄漏火灾后果的模拟%FDS software simulation for fire consequences of LNG storage tank leaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄建华; 陈方兼

    2013-01-01

    采用FDS火灾模型软件分析了在设定的LNG火灾场景下火焰的发展规律,以广州某燃气公司3个LNG储罐中的中间储罐为研究对象,设定火灾场景,建立LNG储罐区细化模型,对火势总体情况、温度场测量点、云图动画、等值面动画、热辐射以及烟气危险区域进行模拟分析.结果表明:火灾发生时,罐区总控室附近的温度远高于危险判断值,火灾发生30 s、110 s时的危险区域范围变化较大,烟气层温度高于180℃及烟气危险等区域均出现在储罐与总控室之间的有限范围内,在人员疏散过程中应远离面向火源侧的建筑墙面.%FDS fire modeling software has been used to analyze development law of the flame in the LNG fire scenarios set. The middle one of 3 LNG storage tanks of a gas company in Guangzhou was taken as a study object to set up fire scenarios and build a refined model for LNG storage tankfarms, so as to carry out simulation analysis on overall fire situation, temperature field measuring point, cloud picture animation, isosurface animation, thermal radiation and hazardous flue gas areas. The results display that when a fire breaks out, the temperature in the vicinity of the tankfarm control room will be much higher than the danger judgement value, scope of hazardous area will follow a large change after 30 s and 110 s and the areas for smoke layer temperature higher than 180℃ and flue gas hazard will be within the limited range between the storage tank and control room. Therefore, the wall of a building facing the side of the fire source shall be kept away in the process of evacuation.

  12. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  13. Fatty acid content, vitamins and selenium in bulk tank milk from organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds during the indoor season

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Nils; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids, vitamins and minerals in milk are important for the human consumer, the calf and the cow. Studies indicate that milk from organic and conventional dairy herds may differ in these aspects. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether there are differences in the fatty acid composition and concentration of vitamins and selenium in milk between organic and conventional herds in Sweden. Bulk tank milk was sampled in 18 organic and 19 conventional dairy herds on three oc...

  14. Characterization of Solids in Residual Wastes from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid phase physical and chemical characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes from several single-shell underground waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Because these wastes are highly-radioactive dispersible powders and are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or co-precipitated within oxide phases, their detailed characterization offers an extraordinary technical challenge. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) are the two principal methods used to characterize solid phases and their contaminant associations in these wastes. Depending on the specific tank, numerous solids (such as eejkaite; Na2U2O7; clarkeite; gibbsite; boehmite; dawsonite; cancrinite; Fe oxides such as hematite, goethite, and maghemite; rhodochrosite; lindbergite; whewellite; nitratine; and several amorphous phases) have been identified in residual wastes studied to date. Because many contaminants of concern are heavy elements, SEM analysis using the backscattered electron (BSE) signal has proved invaluable in distinguishing phases containing elements, such as U and Hg, within the complex assemblage of particles that make up each waste. XRD, SEM/EDS, and synchrotron-based methods provide different, but complimentary characterization data about the morphologies, crystallinity, particle sizes, surface coatings, and compositions of phases in the wastes. The impact of these techniques is magnified when each is used in an iterative fashion to help interpret the results from the other analysis methods and identify additional, more focused analyses

  15. 大型储油罐运行费用计算分析%The Calculative Analysis on Large Oil Storage Tank Running Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芙; 刘德俊; 李小月; 高钊; 马焱; 高吉庆; 王升

    2014-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth of the national economy ,energy consumption had been going up .At present ,the petroleum reserve system in china was gradually perfect ,and a large number of crude oil depots would be put into operation . The consumption of steam was very huge during storage ,because of the large increase in crude oil storage .Saving energy and reducing consumption had become the most important task .The petroleum storage temperature affected the holding time and heating time ,directly related to the consumption of steam .The influence of the storage temperature on the cost of the oil storage tank on different frequency of operation were calculated and analyzed .A premium scheme to provide some reference for energy saving was found ,which could complete the task in time and ensure safety by comparing different schemes .%随着国家经济的快速发展,石油能源的需求量也越来越大。目前我国的石油储备体系正在逐渐完善,一大批原油储备库也将随之投入运营。原油储量的大量增加使储存期间消耗的蒸汽量非常巨大,所以库区的节能降耗成为当下的重要任务。油品储存温度影响维温温度和加热时间,直接关系到蒸汽的消耗量。通过计算分析,研究了在不同周转次数下储存温度对储罐运行费用的影响,对比了不同储油运行方案。在确保安全运行的前提下,对储罐的运行方案进行优化,可降低运行费用,达到节能降耗的目的。

  16. Seismic analysis of the acid liquid waste tanks at the Western New York State Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared at the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of a review of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., at West Valley, NY. The report discusses the seismic integrity evaluation by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of two high-level, acid liquid-waste tanks, 8D-3 and 8D-4, adjacent to the plant. It describes the tanks and discusses the techniques used to model and analyze the structures and to combine the loads. Limiting criteria, results, and conclusions are presented

  17. The role of phytic acid in storage of acorns of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.)

    OpenAIRE

    Žitnik, Sašo; Kraigher, Hojka

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the research is to develop new cheap and practical methods for long-term storage of acorns of sessile oak, because today it is possible to store them only for few months (recalcitrant seeds). The research is based on the hypothesis, that the vitality of acorns after long-term storage is in positive correlation with the content of phytic acid in them, which is in positive correlation with the content of available phosphorus in soil. The experiment is established as a case study on t...

  18. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  19. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  20. Changes in Ascorbic Acid Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Sensory Quality of Fresh-cut Mangosteens During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supranee MANURAKCHINAKORN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut mangosteens, stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 5% O2 + 9% CO2, in vacuum packaging (VAC and in air (AIR were examined for ascorbic acid content, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality during 14 days of storage at 4oC. After 4 days-storage, fresh-cut fruits with MAP resulted in better retention of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity than those stored in AIR throughout the storage. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in ascorbic acid contents between fruits stored in MAP and VAC, as well as antioxidant capacities, during the remaining period of storage. Fresh-cut fruits with MAP treatment obtained the highest sensory scores, compared with other treatments, throughout the entire period of storage. Fresh-cut mangosteens stored in MAP resulted in the best overall retention of ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality.

  1. Estimating of the Insulation Thickness about the Steel Concrete Ice Storage Tank%关于钢筋混凝土蓄冰池保温厚度的测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣海

    2014-01-01

    本文分三种情况测算了在冰蓄冷空调系统中经常用到的钢筋混凝土蓄冰池保温层的厚度,根据工程的设计施工经验,提出了合理的蓄冰池结构及置放方式,可以减少蓄冰池热量损失,达到节能、节省空间和节省费用的目的。%In this paper , the insulation thickness of the steel concrete ice storage tank which often used in the ice thermal energy storage air -condition system is estimated by three cases , and proposed a reasonable structure and placing method of the ice storage tank according to the designing and constructing experience , in which the heat loss in the ice storage tank can be reduced , and achieved the purpose to save the energy , spaces and cost.

  2. The change of fatty acids composition of Polish biscuits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczoń, Piotr; Lipińska, Edyta; Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Ewa; Mikuła, Małgorzata; Bartyzel, Bartłomiej J

    2016-07-01

    Commercially available Polish biscuits were stored for 10months under different storage conditions i.e. in temperatures of 5°C and 20°C. The chemical quality alteration caused by chemical reactions occurring within biscuits were studied in terms of change of composition of fat extracted from studied samples in one-month intervals. Correlation of data from standard methods e.g. gas chromatography or classic titration with FT-IR spectroscopy, was followed by calculation of four statistical models that accurately predicted peroxide value, oxidative stability, polar fraction content and unsaturated trans fatty acid content in any samples. On the basis of data obtained, scheme of chemical reactions involved in oxidation process was suggested. A critical time of storage was proposed as an indicator of the period of the highest rate of chemical changes. Among factors considered to influence oxidative stability, the following had the greatest impact: initial water content, initial fat content, and time of storage.

  3. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  4. Parametric and scaling studies of condensation oscillation in subcooled water of the in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensation oscillation by jetting the steam into subcooled water through spargers is studied. To provide a suitable guideline for oscillation phenomena in the IRWST of the next generation reactor, scaling methodology is introduced. Through scaling methodology and subsequent tests, it shows that the volume of steam cavity determines the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. The second-order linear differential equation for frequency analysis is derived and its results are compared with those from the test data. Two types of condensation phenomena exist according to steam flow rates. At subsonic jet, condensation interface becomes irregular in shape and upper system volumes affect the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. At sonic jet, a regular steam cavity forms at the exit of discharge holes. Parametric effects and subsequent dynamic responses of the pool tank are investigated through experiments in applicable test ranges. When the temperature of pool water becomes lower, the amplitude becomes larger. Critical parameters are derived from the scaling methodology and are system volume, cavity volume, discharge hole area, and density ration. It is found that system friction factors affect frequency components of condensation oscillation. Oscillations of a steam cavity occur mainly on the face of the axial direction and pressure amplitudes become larger than that of the lateral direction

  5. Dynamic Failure Analysis on Hazardous Chemicals Storage Tank Overflow%危险化学品储罐溢流失效动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛晶

    2013-01-01

    Storage tank overflow of hazardous chemicals can cause fire and explosion accidents.Though conventional quantitative risk assessment method may identify the potential hazards and ensure safety of the process system,it fails to capture the variation of risks as deviations or changes in the process and the chemical plant take place.Those deviations will result in incidents and near misses,and are identified as one of the main causes of many accidents.Bayesian theory was applied to update the failure probability of hazardous chemicals storage tank overflow.First,potential accident scenarios were represented in terms of an event tree.Next,the end-state probabilities were estimated using deterministic approach.Subsequent-ly,the failure probabilities of event tree end-state probabilities were revised using the available accident precursor data for ten years and Bayesian theory.Case study shows that there is the significant deviation in system failure frequency throughout the life time of the process unit.%危险化学品储罐溢流易引发火灾和爆炸事故。虽然传统的定量风险评估方法能辨识潜在危害,确保化工厂工艺单元的安全,但是它不能捕获工艺过程的波动或工厂变化引起的风险变化,这些变化往往是事故的主要原因。采用贝叶斯理论更新系统失效概率,首先采用事件树分析方法构建危险化学品储罐溢流的潜在场景;然后利用确定性方法估计三种可能后果的概率;最后,应用危险化学品储罐溢流事故十年的前兆数据,采用贝叶斯理论更新各场景的动态概率。实例分析表明,系统失效概率随着时间的推移整体上呈现上升趋势。

  6. Ageing Management and Preventice Measures for Reactor Pool Liners, Beam Tubes and Spent Fuel Storage Tank at the Dalat Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, Nguyen Nhi; Dien, Nguyen Minh; Su, Trang Cao [Nuclear Research Institute, Henoi (Viet Nam)

    2013-07-01

    The 500-kw Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) was reconstructed from the original 250-kW TRIGA Mark II as named of VN-001. In the framework of the reconstruction project during the 1982-1984 period, some structures of the TRIGA reactor constructed in the early sixties, such as the aluminum tank, graphite reflector, thermal column, four horizontal beam tubes, etc. have been remained. It means, such components are more than 50 years old and are facing with ageing issues. The structural materials of the pool liner and other components of TRIGA were made of aluminum alloy 6061 and aluminum cladding fuel assemblies. Some other parts, such as reactor core, irradiation rotary rack around the core, vertical irradiation facilities, etc. were replaced by the former Soviet Union's design with structural materials of aluminum alloy CAV-1. The reactor core has been loaded with HEU VVR-M2 fuel assemblies of 36% enrichment alloy CAV-1. The reactor core has been loaded with HEU VVR-M2 fuel assemblies of U-Al alloy 36% and of UO{sub 2} 19.75% enrichment used aluminum as fuel cladding. For ageing management and preventive measures of corrosion, an underwater high-resolution video camera system had been designed for visual inspections. A home-made cleaning system was also designed for cleaning the pool and other components. Water chemistry of the reactor pool and spent fuel storage was monitored regularly. In September-November 2011, all four horizontal channels were cleaned inside and visual inspection was done using special camera system. It was the first time from 1963 such activity could be done. Based on results obtained we could convince that inside all horizontal channels are in good condition and leakage could not be occurred. All 106 HEU spent fuel assemblies stored in the spent fuel pool in good condition. The visual inspection was done using under water camera too. The results obtained show that the surface of all HEU SFA is good and leakage was not occurred. The

  7. 地震作用下储罐参数对其应力影响分析%ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT ON STRESS UNDER SEISMIC ACTION CAUSED BY STORAGE TANKS' PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程旭东; 胡晶晶; 朱兴吉

    2011-01-01

    Considering solid-liquid coupling and the interaction between tanks and foundation, the finite element numerical models of storage tanks with three different volumes and different liquid storing depths are built by the computer program ADINA. The stress responses of tank wall under horizontal seismic action are analyzed and some conclusions are obtained.%考虑固液耦合以及储罐与地基的相互作用,运用ADINA有限元软件建立了三种不同体积储罐的有限元数值分析模型,设置不同的储液高度,分析储罐罐壁在水平地震作用下的应力响应,得到了相关结论.

  8. Dealloying of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses in Acidic Solutions: Products and Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dealloying, a famous ancient etching technique, was used to produce nanoporous metals decades ago. With the development of dealloying techniques and theories, various interesting dealloying products including nanoporous metals/alloys, metal oxides and composites, which exhibit excellent catalytic, optical and sensing performance, have been developed in recent years. As a result, the research on dealloying products is of great importance for developing new materials with superior physical and chemical properties. In this paper, typical dealloying products from Cu-based metallic glasses after dealloying in hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions are summarized. Several potential application fields of these dealloying products are discussed. A promising application of nanoporous Cu (NPC and NPC-contained composites related to the energy storage field is introduced. It is expected that more promising dealloying products could be developed for practical energy storage applications.

  9. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  10. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  11. Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder–associated biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal bioma...

  12. Effectiveness of a positive pressure respirator for controlling lead exposure in acid storage battery manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogel, L W

    1986-02-01

    Effective protection factors for lead-acid storage battery manufacturing workers using powered air-purifying respirators and their corresponding blood lead histories are reported and compared with results for half-mask, negative pressure respirators. Airborne lead protection factors for the powered, air-purifying respirator ranged from 2 to 74, while lead levels in the blood remained stable or decreased for 8 of the 13 workers monitored when compared to negative pressure respirator use levels.

  13. Effects of Fixation and Storage of Human Tissue Samples on Nucleic Acid Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Soo Kyung; Im, Joon; Kwak, Yoonjin; Han, Nayoung; Nam, Kyung Han; Seo, An Na; Lee, Hye Seung

    2014-01-01

    Background Because of recent advances in the molecular diagnosis of cancer patients, tissue quality has become more important in daily practice. Methods To evaluate the effects of fixative, duration of fixation, decalcification, and storage periods on nucleic acid integrity, DNA and RNA were extracted from gastrointestinal cancer tissue. The yield and purity were analyzed, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; 60 bp), β-actin (148 bp), and hu...

  14. Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage Factors: Effects of Depot, Sex and Fat Cell Size

    OpenAIRE

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Koutsari, Christina; Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Patterns of postabsorptive adipose tissue fatty acid storage correlate with sex-specific body fat distribution. Some proteins and enzymes participating in this pathway include CD36 (facilitated transport), acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS; the first step in fat metabolism), and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT; the final step of triglyceride synthesis). Our goal was to better define CD36, ACS and DGAT in relation to sex, subcutaneous fat depots, and adipocyte size. Subje...

  15. ACID VALUE OF VEGETABLE OILS AND POULTRY FEED AS AFECTED BY STORAGE PERIOD AND ANTIOXIDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan, Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess acid values in soyabean, cotton seed and sunflower oil commonly used in poultry ration was conducted. It was observed that mean acid value of oils ~ept in open were significantly high (7.67 than oil kept in sealed form (1.296. The mean acid value was higher in soyabean oil (P<0.01 than the values in cotton seed oil and sunflower oil. While determining the effect of Santaquin, BHT and Oxistat as antioxidant, in the ration stored at 40 °C for 2 months, it was observed that the acid values in untreated control ration was 18.20 while with the added antioxidants were 4.88, 4.85 and 4.83, respectively showing a significant increase with each week of the storage.

  16. Application of medium-sized single capacity LNG storage tank in Zhuhai natural gas liquefaction plant%中型单容 LN G储罐在珠海天然气液化装置的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁清; 姜伟强

    2014-01-01

    单容LNG储罐在中小型天然气液化装置中应用广泛,且造价低廉,但其安全性较低。静态日蒸发率的高低及压力控制系统是否能够控制储罐压力在正常范围内是衡量单容罐性能优良与否的重要表征。珠海天然气液化装置拥有两座相同的中型单容LNG储罐,从该装置的实际运行情况出发,测算了储罐的静态日蒸发率随充满率的变化情况,并分析说明造成储罐压力快速变化的原因以及压力控制系统的控制效果。%Single capacity LNG storage tanks are widely used in small and medium-sized natu-ral gas liquefaction plants .T he cost of tank is low ,but the security is poor .T he discretion of the static daily evaporation rate and w hether the pressure control system can control the tank pres-sure within the normal range are the important characterization to evaluate the performance of single capacity tank .Zhuhai LNG plant includes two medium single LNG storage tank with the same size ,based on the practical operation of the device ,the change of static daily evaporation rate with filling level were measured ,the cause of the rapid change of the tank pressure was ana-lyzed ,and the control effects of pressure control systems were demonstrated .

  17. Effect of storage temperature in a Cambodian field setting on the fatty acid composition in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurhasan, Mulia; Roos, Nanna; Aristizabal Henao, J J;

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis requires standardized collection and storage of samples, which can be a challenge under field conditions. This study describes the effect of storage temperature on fatty acid composition in two sets of whole blood samples collected from 66 children in a rural area in Cambodia....... The samples were stored with butylated hydroxytoluene at -20°C and -80°C and the latter required extra transfers due to storage facility limitation. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by high-throughput gas-chromatography and evaluated by paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots. Total amounts of fat in -20°C...

  18. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gonzalez-Fandos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v or distilled water (control. Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0, L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05 inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  19. Suggestions About Improvement of the Mechanical Cleaning System for Storage Tanks%关于改进完善储罐机械清洗系统的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高易; 王树国

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了传统储罐在机械清洗过程中所遇到的难点问题,通过多年来对储罐机械清洗过程中的经验总结,针对传统机械清洗方式中部分环节存在的不足之处提出改进方法,使其能够更好的解决储罐在实际清洗过程中的问题,满足储罐机械清洗作业的需要.%Some difficulties during traditional mechanical cleaning for storage tanks were introduced. Based on mechanical cleaning experiences for storage tanks, aiming at disadvantages of traditional mechanical cleaning method,some improved methods were put forward, which can better solve actual problems during cleaning process to meet the need of storagetank mechanical cleaning.

  20. Analysis of Influence of Heat Insulation on the Thermal Regime of Storage Tanks with Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova, Tatiana A.; Glazyrin, Viktor P.; Shestakov, Igor A.

    2016-02-01

    Is numerically investigated the process of convective heat transfer in the reservoirs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The regimes of natural convection in a closed rectangular region with different intensity of heat exchange at the external borders are investigated. Is solved the time-dependent system of energy and Navier-Stokes equations in the dimensionless variables "vorticity - the stream function". Are obtained distributions of the hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures, that characterize basic regularities of the processes. The special features of the formation of circulation flows are isolated and the analysis of the temperature distribution in the solution region is carried out. Is shown the influence of geometric characteristics and intensity of heat exchange on the outer boundaries of reservoir on the temperature field in the LNG storage.

  1. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil

  2. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the site characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 25-3101-1, 25-3102-3, and 25-3152-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 25 at Buildings 3101, 3102, and 3152. The characterization was completed to support administrative closure of the sites. Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of hydrocarbon impact. Clean closure had been previously attempted at each of these sites using backhoe equipment without success due to adjacent structures, buried utilities, or depth restrictions associated with each site. Although the depth and extent of hydrocarbon impact was determined to be too extensive for clean closure, it was verified through drilling that the sites should be closed through an administrative closure. The Nevada Administrative Code ''A Through K'' evaluation completed for each site supports that there is no significant risk to human health or the environment from the impacted soils remaining at each site

  3. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  4. Approximative methods for the stability analysis of anchored liquid storage tanks under earthquake excitation; Naeherungsmethoden zur Stabilitaetsuntersuchung von erdbebenerregten verankerten Fluessigkeitsbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, C.

    2001-07-01

    This doctoral thesis presents approximative methods for the stability analysis of anchored liquid storage tanks under earthquake excitation. By first introducing a quasistatic model well known phenomena of collapse are analysed with little numerical effort and the underlying mechanisms of collapse are explained. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis of the structural behavior in the time domain is obtained by a complete interactive model and by employing a suitable time integration method. In this context, the dynamic stability behavior is calculated by defining a problem oriented criterion. Performing an extensive parameter study the approximative methods are discussed and the results lead to a new empirical design concept which may be implemented in the current draft of Eurocode 8, part 4 for stability verifications. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das Stabilitaetsverhalten von verankerten Fluessigkeitsbehaeltern unter seismischer Einwirkung mit Hilfe unterschiedlicher Naeherungsmethoden behandelt. Die Einfuehrung eines quasistatischen Ersatzmodells bietet zunaechst die Moeglichkeit, bekannte Versagensphaenomene mit geringem numerischen Aufwand zu berechnen und die zugrundeliegenden Versagensmechanismen zu erklaeren. Zu einer genaueren Analyse des Tragverhaltens im Zeitbereich wird anschliessend ein vollstaendiges Interaktionsmodell in Verbindung mit einem geeigneten Zeitintegrationsverfahren herangezogen. Das dynamische Stabilitaetsverhalten wird dabei mit einem Kriterium beurteilt, das problemorientiert definiert wird. Eine umfangreiche Parameterstudie stellt die vorgestellten Naeherungsverfahren gegenueber und dient als Datenbasis fuer ein neu entwickeltes empirisches Bemessungskonzept, das in die aktuelle Normengebung des EC 8, Teil 4 in bezug auf die erforderlichen Stabilitaetsnachweise aufgenommen werden koennte. (orig.)

  5. Simulation study on thermal response of a certain type of LNG storage tank for ship%某型船用LNG储罐热响应仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚寿广; 闫兴武; 叶勇; 张连伟

    2016-01-01

    We simulate the thermal response of a certain type of LNG storage tank with 1 100 m3 in a normal tem-perature environment.According to the characteristics of this type of ship with LNG storage tank,the relevant as-sumptions are put forward and the physical model and mathematical model are built.According to the evaporation between phases,simulation studies are carried out with VOF method and the phase evaporation model defined by ourselves.Through the simulation,the preliminary result of flow and heat transfer characteristics of the fluid in the LNG storage tank is obtained,providing data for the design and use of LNG storage tanks.%针对某型1100 m3船用LNG(液化天然气)储罐在常温环境中的热响应过程进行了仿真模拟。根据该型船用LNG储罐的特点基于相关假设条件建立了物理模型和数学模型,并针对相间自由界面蒸发,采用VOF方法结合自定义的相间蒸发模型进行了仿真研究。通过仿真模拟,得到了LNG储罐内气液两相流动、传热与蒸发等随储存时间变化的初步规律,为该型号船用LNG储罐的设计和改进提供了依据。

  6. Calculus of cathodic protection system for a storage tank of 42,500 m{sup 3}; Calculo del sistema de proteccion catodica para un tanque de almacenamiento de 42,500 m{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C. R.; Mondragon C, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: carlos.arganis@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    This work presents the calculations carried out to install a cathodic protection system for a storage tank of 42,500 m{sup 3}, including the methodology, the taken data of supplier catalogs and finally the realized adjustments at to install the system in field. Also, the data of electrochemical potential in field at to carry out the installation are included, as well as the interference between a system of galvanic current and other of printed current. (Author)

  7. Solar Thermal Power Generation 2000: solar-assisted district heating, tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete; Solarthermie 2000, TP3: Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung: Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton. Erdbeckenspeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineck, K.H.; Lichtenfels, A.; Schlaich, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Konstruktion und Entwurf 2

    1998-12-31

    In 1996 the two large heat storage tanks in Hamburg-Bramfeld (4,750 cubic metres) and Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen (12,000 cubic metres) were built out of concrete with an inner stainless steel lining. This was a big step towards economic efficiency. The research project ``Tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete`` was launched by the BMBF in order to show that the concrete construction will not only bear loads but also ensure sealing. Building costs for underground hot water storage tanks could then be reduced by at least 25%. The first results of this research project are presented. The paper also contains recommendations for the further development of heat storage tanks built with pre-stressed concrete. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1996 wurden die beiden grossen Waermespeicher in Hamburg-Bramfeld mit einem Volumen von 4.750 m{sup 3} und in Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen mit 12.000 m{sup 3} aus Beton mit innenliegender Edelstahlauskleidung fertiggestellt. Mit dem Bau dieser beiden Grossspeicher konnte ein richtungsweisender Schritt hin zur Wirtschaftlichkeit gemacht werden, wie man es in Studien vor 15 Jahren nicht fuer moeglich hielt. Mit dem BMBF - Forschungsvorhaben `Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton` soll gezeigt werden, dass das Betontragwerk nicht nur Lasten abtragen sondern auch die Funktion der Abdichtung uebernehmen kann. Damit sollen die Baukosten fuer unterirdische Heisswasser-Waermespeicher um mindestens 25% gesenkt werden. Es werden die ersten Ergebnisse dieses Forschungsvorhabens mitgeteilt und Empfehlungen fuer die weitere Entwicklung von Waermespeichern aus Hochleistungsbeton gegeben. (orig.)

  8. Applicability assessment of ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ to the eradication of Legionella in rainwater storage tanks for household use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kozue Oana,1,2 Michiko Kobayashi,1 Dai Yamaki,3 Tsukasa Sakurada,3 Noriyuki Nagano,1,2 Yoshiyuki Kawakami1,2 1Division of Infection Control and Microbiological Regulation, Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 3Shinshu Ceramics Co., Ltd., Kiso, Nagano, Japan Abstract: Water environments appear to be the habitats of Legionella species. Legionellosis is considered as a preventable illness because bacterial reservoirs can be controlled and removed. Roof-harvested rainwater has attracted significant attention not only as a groundwater recharge but also as a potential alternative source of nonpotable water. We successfully developed ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ using the thermal spraying method. The ceramic microbeads were demonstrated to have bactericidal activities against not only Legionella but also coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. Immersing the ceramic microbeads in household rainwater storage tanks was demonstrated to yield the favorable eradication of Legionella organisms. Not only rapid-acting but also long-lasting bactericidal activities of the ceramic microbead were exhibited against Legionella pneumophila. However, time-dependent attenuation of the bactericidal activities against Legionella were also noted in the sustainability appraisal experiment. Therefore, the problems to be overcome surely remain in constantly managing the Legionella-pollution by means of immersing the ceramic microbeads. The results of our investigation apparently indicate that the earthplus™-coated ceramic microbeads would become the favorable tool for Legionella measures in household rainwater storage tanks, which may become the natural reservoir for Legionella species

  9. Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank%不同规格罐体内食用植物油储存品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽琼; 朱启思; 吴秋婷; 曾彩虹; 邓常继

    2015-01-01

    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil,stored in non -standard oil tank with standard oil tank.The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non -standard tank was bet-ter than stored in standard tank.With stored in non -standard tank,the quality of soybean oil and rape-seed oil,was better than peanut oil.%监测食用油储存期间相关指标,对存放在标准油罐与非标油罐花生油的品质变化进行研究,非标罐中花生油、大豆油、油菜籽油的品质变化进行比较。结果表明非标准油罐存放的花生油品质好于标准罐存放;同是非标油罐存放,大豆油和油菜籽油储存品质优于花生油储存品质。

  10. Applicability assessment of ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ to the eradication of Legionella in rainwater storage tanks for household use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oana, Kozue; Kobayashi, Michiko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Nagano, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Water environments appear to be the habitats of Legionella species. Legionellosis is considered as a preventable illness because bacterial reservoirs can be controlled and removed. Roof-harvested rainwater has attracted significant attention not only as a groundwater recharge but also as a potential alternative source of nonpotable water. We successfully developed ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ using the thermal spraying method. The ceramic microbeads were demonstrated to have bactericidal activities against not only Legionella but also coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. Immersing the ceramic microbeads in household rainwater storage tanks was demonstrated to yield the favorable eradication of Legionella organisms. Not only rapid-acting but also long-lasting bactericidal activities of the ceramic microbead were exhibited against Legionella pneumophila. However, time-dependent attenuation of the bactericidal activities against Legionella were also noted in the sustainability appraisal experiment. Therefore, the problems to be overcome surely remain in constantly managing the Legionella-pollution by means of immersing the ceramic microbeads. The results of our investigation apparently indicate that the earthplus™-coated ceramic microbeads would become the favorable tool for Legionella measures in household rainwater storage tanks, which may become the natural reservoir for Legionella species. Our investigation would justify further research and data collection to obtain more reliable procedures to microbiologically regulate the Legionella in rainwater storage tanks. PMID:26346201

  11. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...... different heat storage types is compared. Design/methodology/approach - The thermal performance of Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems is calculated with the simulation program TRNSYS. Two different TRNSYS models based on measurements were developed and used....... Findings - Based on the calculations it is concluded that low flow solar combisystems based on bikini tanks are promising for low energy buildings, while solar combisystems based on tank-in-tank stores are attractive for the houses with medium heating demand and old houses with high heating demand...

  12. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  13. Seismic Response Simplified Analysis of a Cylindrical Storage Tank Considering the Soil-Pile Interaction%圆柱形储罐考虑桩土相互作用地震响应的简化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 翁大根; 张瑞甫

    2013-01-01

    Based on Penzien's lumped mass model, the simplified mechanical model of a cylindrical anchored storage tank which has taken into account the effects of soil-pile interaction and tank wall flexibility was established, the FEM (finite element method) software ABAQUS was used to establish the soil-pile-tank mechanical model, the natural vibration properties and dynamic response under bedrock seismic wave was analyzed. Comparing with the resultant of storage tank mounted on rigid foundation, when considering the soil-pile interaction, the convective frequency was almost invariant, the first order flexible impulsive frequency was reduced slightly; for dynamic response, the maximum value of total base shear force and moment of the storage tank was decreased slightly, but the maximum value of its convective component and rigid impulsive component were increased. Therefore, the paper suggests that the favorable and unfavorable changes of dynamic response after considering soil-pile interaction should be fully considered in design of storage tank to ensure the seismic safety.%以Penzien集中质量模型为基础建立了某圆柱形锚固储罐考虑桩-土-罐相互作用及罐壁柔性的简化分析模型,采用有限元软件ABAQUS建立了该桩-土-罐力学模型,分析了其自振特性及在水平基岩波激励下的动力响应.分析结果得知,相比于刚性地基,考虑桩土相互作用的储液罐对流频率几乎不变,第一阶柔性脉动频率略有减小;在动力响应方面,储液罐基底剪力和力矩最大值略有减小,但其对流分量和刚性脉动分量最大值均有增大,所以本文建议在储液罐进行设计时应充分考虑桩土相互作用后储罐动力响应的有利和不利变化,从整体上把握来确保储液罐的抗震安全性.

  14. Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistent trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs)

  15. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  16. Storage stability of ascorbic acid incorporated in edible whey protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Min, Sea C; Krochta, John M

    2011-12-14

    The stability of ascorbic acid (AA) incorporated in whey protein isolate (WPI) film and the related color changes during storage were studied. No significant loss of AA content was found in any films prepared from pH 2.0 casting solution stored at 30% relative humidity (RH) and 22 °C over 84 days. Total visible color difference (ΔE*(ab)) of all films slowly increased over storage time. The ΔE*(ab) values of pH 3.5 films were significantly higher than those of pH 2.0 films. The stability of AA-WPI films was found to be mainly affected by the pH of the film-forming solution and storage temperature. Oxidative degradation of AA-WPI films followed Arrhenius behavior. Reduction of the casting solution pH to below the pK(a1) (4.04 at 25 °C) of AA effectively maintained AA-WPI storage stability by greatly reducing oxidative degradation, whereas anaerobic and nonenzymatic browning were insignificant. The half-life of pH 2.0 AA-WPI film at 30% RH and 22 °C was 520 days.

  17. Transfer of sludge radioactive of the storage tank to a tank of experimental in JCR Ispra (Italy); Transferencia de Fangos Radiactivos de un Tanque de Almacenamiento a un Tanque Experimental en el JRC de ISPRA (Italia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Martinez, J. T.; Verdu Company, G. J.; Pineda Rodriguez, S.

    2013-07-01

    The project consisted of designing an air transfer system for transferring from a 42 m{sup 3} tank called L1 to an experimental tank at the JRC Ispra (Italy). The transfer system should ensure that in case of breakage of the pipe, there would be no uncontrolled discharge to the environment at the same time the internal tank decontamination L1 is presented by through a decontamination technique with CO{sub 2} to a minimum level of Bq/cm{sup 2} 0.4 for α and β and 4 Bq/cm{sup 2} for minimizing liquid and solid waste.

  18. CFD simulation in emptying tanks for calculating submergence in the case of storage tanks, the CFD simulation is based on the modeling of the suction nozzle which affects the study and final part of the storage tank; Aplicacion de simulacion CFD en el analisis del vaciado de tanques de almacenamiento para determinacion del nivel de sumergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz Iglesias, J.; Gavilan Moreno, C.; Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2014-07-01

    The study consists in simulating the emptying of the tank when the water level is near the level of the suction nozzle. The objective pursued is to detect the harmful phenomena that may occur in aspiration, ranging from the appearance of vortices and bubble formation to excessive fluid accelerations. (Author)

  19. Engineering study of a 20 MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Final report for the period ending October 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The Research and Engineering Operation of Bechtel Corporation conducted an engineering study of a 20-MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Ten alternative designs were evaluated. Basically, the configurations proposed for the demonstration plants are those of the mature plants which would follow. The designs of the individual plants are based on the cell designs and the means used to house the cells. Initially, proposed cell designs from five manufacturers were considered. To conform with the level of effort allowed for this engineering study, two manufacturers' cells (one open-tank design and one sealed cell design) were selected by ERDA and Bechtel as being representative. These designs formed the basis for the detailed evaluation conducted in this study. The plant and battery configurations evaluated in the study are a large open-tank cell, configured in rows and housed in four buildings; a sealed cell, configured in a single layer of close packed rows in a single building; a sealed cell, configured in a three-tiered arrangement in a single building; and a sealed cell, configured with groups of cells housed in weatherproof modules and placed outdoors. Annual operating costs based on these mature plant costs show lead--acid load-leveling plants are generally not economically competitive with the alternatives when no consideration is given to their other possible benefits to the power system. However, application of credits (e.g., transmission line or spinning reserve credits) can make such plants economically competitive with gas turbine peaking units in specific situations. 46 figures, 25 tables. (RWR)

  20. Lauric and palmitic acids eutectic mixture as latent heat storage material for low temperature heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadir Tuncbilek; Ahmet Sari [Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry; Sefa Tarhan; Gazanfer Ergunes [Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery; Kamil Kaygusuz [Karadeniz University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2005-04-01

    Palmitic acid (PA, 59.8{sup o}C) and lauric acid (LA, 42.6{sup o}C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting temperatures which can limit their use in low temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of the lauric and the palmitic acids. In the present study, the thermal analysis based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique shows that the mixture of 69.0 wt% LA and 31 wt% PA forms a eutectic mixture having melting temperature of 35.2 {sup o}C and the latent heat of fusion of 166.3 J g{sup -1}. This study also considers the experimental determination of the thermal characteristics of the eutectic mixture during the heat charging and discharging processes. Radial and axial temperature distribution, heat transfer coefficient between the heat transfer fluid (HTF) pipe and the PCM, heat recovery rate and heat charging and discharging fractions were experimentally established employing a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe energy storage system. The changes of these characteristics were evaluated with respect to the effect of inlet HTF temperature and mass flow rate. The DSC thermal analysis and the experimental results indicate that the LA-PA eutectic mixture can be a potential material for low temperature thermal energy storage applications in terms of its thermo-physical and thermal characteristics. (author)

  1. Lauric and palmitic acids eutectic mixture as latent heat storage material for low temperature heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncbilek, K.; Sari, A. [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Tokat (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry; Tarhan, S.; Erguenes, G. [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Tokat (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2005-04-01

    Palmitic acid (PA, 59.8 {sup o}C) and lauric acid (LA, 42.6 {sup o}C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting temperatures which can limit their use in low temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of the lauric and the palmitic acids. In the present study, the thermal analysis based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique shows that the mixture of 69.0 wt% LA and 31 wt% PA forms a eutectic mixture having melting temperature of 35.2 {sup o}C and the latent heat of fusion of 166.3 J g{sup -1}. This study also considers the experimental determination of the thermal characteristics of the eutectic mixture during the heat charging and discharging processes. Radial and axial temperature distribution, heat transfer coefficient between the heat transfer fluid (HTF) pipe and the PCM, heat recovery rate and heat charging and discharging fractions were experimentally established employing a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe energy storage system. The changes of these characteristics were evaluated with respect to the effect of inlet HTF temperature and mass flow rate. The DSC thermal analysis and the experimental results indicate that the LA-PA eutectic mixture can be a potential material for low temperature thermal energy storage applications in terms of its thermo-physical and thermal characteristics. (author)

  2. Influence Mechanism of Endogenous Abscisic Acid on Storage Softening Process of Hardy Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shuqian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relation of Abscisic Acid (ABA with other biochemistry factors during hardy kiwifruit softening process. The changing trend of ABA under the fruits storage conditions of 20 and 0C was analyzed. A conclusion is drawn as below: During storage under 20C, it shows the highest content of ABA in 4 days to 222.19 &mu g/L, which reaches the almost same content in 3 and 5 days. The value keeps inclining since 5 days and decline rate is lower in 7 and 8 days. The lowest value is reached to 20.88 &mug/L in 10 days. During storage under 0C, ABA content is at a relatively high level but shows the slow down trend. ABA content falls greatly from 9 to 11 days. After this period, ABA content still follows up-trend and declining then. The peak appears in 15 days to 90.49 &mug/L, but it is lower than that in the first nine days. Moreover, peak during storage in environment under 0C is lower than that during the storage in environment at normal temperature, accordingly delaying fruit softening. As the ABA content rises to the highest level, the fruit hardness drops drastically. When ABA content slightly changes, the hardness decreases gently. ABA content is featured that same changing trend of ethylene content, respiratory intensity, pectase content and amylase content. Moreover, ABA has the same peak appearance time as amylase but it is later than appearance of both pectase and ethylene, they basically match each other. The rule of peak appearance time is not obvious for ABA and amylase. Mutual inhibition exists between peak appearance time of ABA and respiratory intensity. Quick ABA rise is accompanied with slow amylase rise and vice versa.

  3. A simple sonochemical method for fabricating poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guxia; Xu, Weibing; Hou, Qian; Guo, Shengwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, stearic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was nanoencapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. The nanocapsules were prepared using a simple ultrasonically initiated in situ polymerization method. The morphology and particle size of the poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules (PMS-PCESNs) were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The latent heat storage capacities of stearic acid and the PMS-PCESNs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The chemical composition of the nanocapsules was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All of the results show that the PMS-PCESNs were synthesized successfully and that the latent heat storage capacity and encapsulation efficiency were 155.6 J/g and 83.0%, respectively, and the diameter of each nanocapsule was 80-90 nm.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 consists of twelve corrective action sites (CASs). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 24, 2003, through May 2, 2003, with additional sampling conducted on June 6, 2003, June 9, 2003, and June 24, 2003. Analytes detected during these investigation activities were evaluated against preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS, resulting in the determination that only two of the CASs did not have COCs exceeding regulatory levels. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action is the preferred corrective action for the two CASs (25-02-13, 26-02-01) identified with no COCs; (2) Clean Closure is the preferred corrective action for eight of the CASs (25-01-05, 25-23-11, 25-12-01, 25-01-06, 26-01-01, 26-01-02, 26-99-01, 26-23-01); and (3) Closure in Place is the preferred corrective action for the remaining two CASs (25-01-07, 25-02-02). These three alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, these alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites at CAU 127 and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media.

  5. Direct Free Fatty Acid Storage in Different Sized Adipocytes from the Same Depot

    OpenAIRE

    Rajjo, Tamim I.; Harteneck, Debra A.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Human adipocytes take up free fatty acids (FFA) directly from the circulation, even at times of high lipolytic activity. Whether these processes occurs simultaneously within the same cells or are partitioned between different cells, for example large and small cells, is unknown. Design and Methods We measured direct FFA storage in subcutaneous fat in 13 adults using a continuous infusion of [U-13C]palmitate and a bolus of [1-14C]palmitate followed 30 min later by abdominal and femor...

  6. Survival of acid adapted and non-acid adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in pasteurized orange juice and yogurt under different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Valdés, Lorena; Bernardo, Ana; Prieto, Miguel; López, Mercedes

    2013-10-01

    The survival capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells was monitored in pasteurized yogurt (pH 4.1) and orange juice (pH 3.6) during storage at different temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 37 ). Acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells were obtained by means of their growth for 36 h in Brain Heart Infusion broth acidified at pH 4.8 with citric acid and buffered (pH 7.0) Brain Heart Infusion broth, respectively. S. typhimurium showed a great ability to survive in both foodstuffs and, especially, in yogurt, where both acid adapted and non-acid adapted populations suffered only a reduction of about 1.3-1.9 log10 cycles after 43 days of storage in the range of temperatures 4-25 . At 37  a higher bacterial inactivation was observed (4.0-4.4 log10 cycles). In orange juice, a different behaviour was observed for acid-adapted and non-acid adapted cells. Whereas non-acid adapted cells survived better than acid adapted cells at 4 and 10 , acid adapted cells showed enhanced survival abilities at higher temperatures (25 and 37 ). Thus, the times required to achieve a 5 log10 cycles reduction for non-acid adapted and acid adapted cells were 10.2 and 6.0 (4 ), 6.3 and 4.2 (10 ), 0.6 and 1.0 (25 ) and 0.10 and 0.15 (37 ) days, respectively. Evidence found in this study demonstrates that refrigeration temperatures protect S. typhimurium from inactivation in acid foods and indicates that S. typhimurium acid tolerance response (ATR) is determined by storage temperature and food composition.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of starch microencapsulated fatty acids as phase change materials thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable starch-oil composites can be prepared from renewable resources by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials. Fatty acids such as stearic acid are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage applica...

  8. Dynamic buckling of vertical storage tanks with floating roof under 3-D earthquake excitation%三向地震激励下浮顶储罐动力屈曲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 崔利富; 孙建刚; 赵颖华

    2012-01-01

    为进行三向地震激励作用下非隔震与隔震浮顶储罐动力屈曲特性对比分析,验证基础隔震提高储罐抗震安全度的有效性.以150 000 m3大型立式浮顶储罐为研究对象,应用ADINA有限元分析软件建立数值仿真分析模型,采用加速度激励加载方式,应用Newmark数值积分方法进行动力响应分析,根据B-R动力屈曲准则确定相应的临界屈曲加速度峰值.结果表明:非隔震与隔震情况下罐壁发生屈曲均为弹性屈曲,采用基础隔震可以有效提高储罐的动力屈曲临界荷载及塑性屈服荷载,提高幅度分别为69%和60%;对于罐壁的许用临界应力,我国规范安全等级高于美国和日本的规范要求.%To verify the effectiveness of base isolation of storage tank,the comparative analysis of dynamic buckling characteristics between non-isolation and isolation situation is carried out under three-dimensional seismic excitation.A 150 000 m3 large vertical floating roof storage tank is selected as the research object using the acceleration excitation loading mode,the finite element analysis model is established by ADINA.The seismic response of vertical storage tank is analyzed by Newmark numerical method.According to B-R dynamic buckling criteria,the critical acceleration peak value of dynamic buckling is determined.Results show that the buckling modes of these two types of tank are all elastic buckling,the critical load of dynamic buckling and plasticity yielding are all effectively increased by using base isolation,and the increasing rates are up to 69% and 60% respectively.For the allowable stress of storage tank wall,our country code safety rating is higher than that of the United States and Japan's specification.

  9. Influence of dietary arachidonic acid combined with light intensity and tank colour on pigmentation of common sole (Solea solea L.) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) is known to cause hypopigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L.). This study examined a possible link between dietary ARA supplementation - light intensity and tank colour on pigment defects in common sole larvae. Larval tissue ARA and...... prostaglandin PGE(2) content increased significantly when fed Artemia enriched by a fish oil emulsion supplemented with 24% dietary ARA during premetamorphosis (until 11 days post hatch, dph) as compared to larvae fed on Artemia enriched by a fish oil based emulsion. More than 90% of all larvae in groups...... treated with the ARA supplemented emulsion during premetamorphosis showed partly or complete dorsal hypopigmentation. There were no significant effects of light intensity or tank background colour in combination with ARA on malpigmentation. Larval hypopigmentation was below 10% in the groups not treated...

  10. Performance investigation of the capric and lauric acid mixture as latent heat storage for a cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimaano, M.N.R. [University of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, Takayuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors

    2002-07-01

    The thermal performance of the capric acid and lauric acid mixture (C-L acid) in the respective composition of 65% and 35% by mole was investigated for its cooling capacity. Pentadecane was used for comparison. A vertical cylindrical storage capsule was employed for the study. The temperature distribution of the C-L acid during charging and discharging inside a vertical tube was experimentally determined in both radial and axial directions. A melting point of 18-19.5{sup o}C was observed. This value corroborates with the DSC-obtained values for the C-L acid. The calculated stored energy based on the radial temperature distribution during charge and discharge processes indicates that the C-L acid is a potential latent heat storage material. (author)

  11. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R. [Sonnenschein GmbH, Buedingen (Germany). EXIDE German Group Research and Development Centre; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T. [EUS Gesellschaft fuer Innovative Energieumwandlung und -Speicherung mbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Handschin, E. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application. (orig.)

  12. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  13. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Maestre, Salvador E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es

    2006-03-15

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l{sup -1} in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l{sup -1} for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min.

  14. Comparison between Chinese and American design standards of anti-seismic calculation for large-scale storage tank%中美大型储罐设计标准抗震计算对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 袁玲; 唐悦影; 卢向红

    2013-01-01

    基于石油储罐设计日益大型化和浮放式的现状,对比分析了现行中美大型储罐设计标准GB 50341-2003和API 650-2012关于抗震计算的相关规定,总结了其在抗震设防基准、设计准则、数学模型及其参数和计算方法等方面的差异.依据两国标准规定的方法,对某项目5 000 m3内浮顶罐的抗震计算不同,尤其是罐壁临界许用应力,两标准的计算结果相差近3倍,是所有计算结果中差别最大的参数,也是两者设防目标不同在数值上的表现.GB 50341-2003规定储罐上部自由空间即为晃动波高,而API 650-2012规定储罐上部自由空间的确定需要充分考虑储罐地震用途组别等因素,更有针对性地定义了储罐上部自由空间与晃动波高的关系.%Based on the status quo of increasingly upsizing and free standing oil tank, contrastive analysis is conducted for relevant regulations of Chinese and American design standards (GB 50341 -2003 and API 650-2012) for large-scale storage tank on the seismic calculation to summarize the differences in the seismic fortification basis, design criteria, mathematical model as well as its parameters and calculation methods. The methods specified in Chinese and American standards produce different seismic calculations for the 5 000 m3 covered floating roof tank in the project. Especially with respect to the critical allowable stress of the tank wall, the difference in calculation results of both standards can be nearly 3 times as large. It is the parameter with the biggest difference of calculation results but also the numerical reflection of different fortification objectives in both standards. GB 50341-2003 specifies the top free space of the storage tank as the sloshing wave height, while API 650-2012 specifies that the top free space of the storage tank shall be determined in full consideration of tank seismic purpose, group and other factors to more accurately define the relationship between the top

  15. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations.

  16. The capric and lauric acid mixture with chemical additives as latent heat storage materials for cooling application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas-Dimaano, M.N. [University of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines). Research Center for the Natural Sciences; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors

    2002-09-01

    The mixture of capric acid and lauric acid (C-L acid), with the respective mole composition of 65% and 35%, is a potential phase change material (PCM). Its melting point of 18.0{sup o}C, however, is considered high for cooling application of thermal energy storage. The thermophysical and heat transfer characteristics of the C-L acid with some organic additives are investigated. Compatibility of C-L acid combinations with additives in different proportions and their melting characteristics are analyzed using the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Among the chemical additives, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and cineole presented the relevant melting characteristics. The individual heat transfer behavior and thermal storage performance of 0.1 mole fraction of these additives in the C-L acid mixture are evaluated. The radial and axial temperature distribution during charging and discharging at different concentrations of selected PCM combinations are experimentally determined employing a vertical cylindrical shell and tube heat exchanger. The methyl salicylate in the C-L acid provided the most effective additive in the C-L acid. It demonstrated the least melting band width aimed at lowering the melting point of the C-L acid with the highest heat of fusion value with relatively comparable rate of heat transfer. Furthermore, the thermal performance based on the total amount of transferred energy and their rates, established the PCM's latent heat storage capability. (author)

  17. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  18. INHIBITION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND / OR BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS DURING MILK FERMENTATION AND STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaf S. Al-Delaimy; Yaser M. Hamamdeh

    2013-01-01

    Survival and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture (Sterptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus delbrukii subsp. bulgaricus) and/ or probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis during milk fermentation to yoghurt and storage up to 12 days was studied. Adding S. aureus (initial count log 6.64/ ml) with LAB (initial count log 6.8/ ml) in milk during yoghurt processing and storage resulted in no significant change in the counts of both S. aureus an...

  19. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  20. Reconnaissance investigations of potential ground-water and sediment contamination at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J.F.; Nagle, Douglas D.; Rhodes, Liesl C.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations to provide initial qualitative delineation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, were made during March 1994. Ground-water and sediment samples were collected using direct-push technology and analyzed on-site with a gas chromatograph, which provided real-time, semi-quantitative data. In addition, ground-water and sediment samples were collected at selected sites for laboratory analyses to provide a confirmation of the on-site data. These analyses provided qualitative data on the lateral distri- bution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in ground-water samples from nine locations at Site 1062, suggesting the presence of a contaminant plume. Concentrations ranged from less than the minimum detection limit to 4,511 mg/L (micrograms per liter) for benzene, 15,594 mg/L for toluene, 16,501 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 19,391 mg/L for total xylenes. Concentrations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics ranged from 323 mg/L to 3,364 mg/L; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics were not detected. Three samples from this site were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes at a laboratory and results showed concentrations ranging from less than the minimum detection limit to 1,070 mg/L for benzene, 7,930 mg/L for toluene, 6,890 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 1,524 mg/L for total xylenes. Petroleum hydro- carbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one sample at Site 2438. A concentration of 131,000 micrograms per kilogram Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics was detected in sample number GP-2-4-13.5. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one ground-water sample from Site 2444. A concentration of 3,145 mg/L Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics was detected at sampling location GP-3-2.