WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid sodium salt

  1. Inert Reassessment Document for Gluconic Acid and Sodium Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluconic acid and D-gluconic acid are classified as List 3 inert ingredients, sodium gluconate is classified as a List 4B inert ingredient, and D-gluconic acid, sodium salt has not been categorized as to inert ingredient list classification status.

  2. Molecular interactions between selected sodium salts of bile acids and morphine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Csanádi, János; Kövér, Katalin E; Guzsvány, Valéria; Batta, Gyula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the prolonged analgesic action of morphine hydrochloride observed in the presence of sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate. Based on literature, this phenomenon may be due to the formation of aggregates in the cell between the molecules of bile acids and morphine. In addition to the sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate, the present investigation also included salts of cholic and 7-oxodeoxycholic acids. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments showed that morphine binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt approaches the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of the affected protons decrease significantly in the presence of micellar solutions of the bile acid salts, and the most pronounced change in T(1) was observed for sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate. Diffusion-ordered NMR experiments suggested that morphine hydrochloride can interact only with sodium 7-oxochenodeoxycholate. It can be supposed that the molecular ratio of sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate and morphine hydrochloride in the mixed micelle is 2:1. The CMC values of mixed micelles do not differ from the CMC values of the micelle constituents, which suggests that the binding of morphine hydrochloride does not perturb the hydrophobic domain of the bile acid molecule. In the presence of bile acids, the transfer rate constant (k(12)) of morphine hydrochloride from the buffered aqueous solution to chloroform (model of the cell membrane) shows a decrease. A significant decrease of the k(12) was also observed in the presence of micellar solutions. Kinetic measurements indicated that, in addition to micellar interaction between morphine hydrochloride and sodium salts of bile acids, a complex may also be formed in chloroform via hydrogen bonds formed between the drug and bile acid molecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  4. Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in plasma and rumen tissue, and rumen epithelium development in lambs.

  5. Efficacious Intestinal Permeation Enhancement Induced by the Sodium Salt of 10-undecylenic Acid, A Medium Chain Fatty Acid Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Brayden, David J.; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11 > C10 = uC11. Five to t...

  6. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. 721.3130 Section 721.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in...

  8. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  9. Triboelectrification of active pharmaceutical ingredients: week acids and their salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinuma, Kenta; Ishii, Yuji; Yashihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Estuo; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Tarada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-30

    The effect of salt formulation on the electrostatic property of active pharmaceutical ingredients was investigated. The electrostatic property of weak acids (carboxylic acids and amide-enole type acid) and their sodium salts was evaluated by a suction-type Faraday cage meter. Free carboxylic acids showed negative chargeability, whereas their sodium salts showed more positive chargeability than the free acids. However, no such trend was observed for amide-enole type acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stereoselectivity in the salt-cocrystal products formed by phenylglycinol or phenylglycine with their respective sodium or hydrochloride salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2013-01-01

    The salt and stereoselective cocrystal phenomena associated with 2-phenylglycinol and 2-phenylglycine have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The chiral identities of the free acids and their sodium salts, or the free bases and their chloride salts, were found to play a determining role as to whether a salt-cocrystal product could or could not be formed. In particular, when cocrystallization of an enantiomerically pure basic or zwitterionic substance with its enantiomerically pure acid addition salt was attempted, a salt-cocrystal was only obtained when the absolute configuration of the two reactants is opposite. On the other hand, it has been found that no stereoselectivity in salt-cocrystal formation existed in the cocrystallization of an enantiomerically pure acidic or zwitterionic substance with its enantiomerically pure base addition salt. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  12. Linoleic acid and its potassium and sodium salts: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocen, Tuğba; Haman Bayarı, Sevgi; Haluk Guven, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Linoleic acid (cis, cis-9,12-octodecadienoic acid) is the main polyunsaturated -omega 6- essential fatty acid. The conformational behaviour of linoleic acid (LA) in the gas phase was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT). The structures of conformers of LA were fully optimized by using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The theory showed that the tttttts‧CssCs‧tt conformation of LA (conformer I) is the more stable than the other conformations. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectra of pure LA in liquid form were recorded in the region 4000-450 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The DFT calculations on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of the dimer form of most stable conformer of LA were also performed using the same method. The assignment of the vibrational modes was made based on calculated potential energy distributions (PEDs). The simulated spectra of dimer form of LA are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental spectra. The sodium and potassium salts of LA were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. Several molecular and electronic properties of LA and its salts such as HOMO-LUMO energies, chemical hardness and electronegativity were also calculated and interpreted.

  13. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  14. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Sadeghi, Rahmat; Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. → Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. → Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H 2 O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔS o and ΔG o ) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na 3 PO 4 are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  15. Kinetics study of thermal decomposition of sodium carboxylate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoll, Michael P.; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    The MixAlco™ process ferments lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts that are thermally decomposed into ketones, which are then chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. To perform these decompositions, suitable reaction models are necessary to properly design, scale, and optimize commercial reactors. For three salt types (sodium acetate, and two types of mixed sodium carboxylate salts), activation energy was determined using three isoconversional methods that employed TGA curves at different heating rates. For all three salt types, activation energy varied significantly with conversion. The average activation energy for sodium acetate was 226.65 kJ/mol, and the activation energies for the two mixed sodium carboxylate salts were 195.61, and 218.18 kJ/mol. In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak-Berggren model fits all three salt types best. -- Highlights: ► Sodium carboxylate salts from fermentation broth thermally decompose to ketones. ► Activation energy varies with conversion for all three salt types. ► Sestak-Berggren model provides best fit for all three salt types.

  16. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  17. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents test results concerning the selection of sodium salt for the technology of continuous modification of the EN AC-AlSi12 alloy, which is based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of the sodium salt dissociation and the electrolysis are ...

  18. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environmen...

  19. Sodium and potassium salts of dichloroisocyanuric acid and their hydrates as antimicrobials agents studied by 35Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, A.; Brycki, B.; Kaczmarek, M.; Poleshchuk, O.Kh.; Ostafin, M.; Nogaj, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structure of dichloroisocyanuric acid derivatives was analysed by 35 Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Here we concentrate our attention on three different factors: type of metallic substituent (sodium and potassium), temperature of the sample (liquid nitrogen and room) and degree of hydration (an amount of water molecules attached to analysed compounds). In particular, all the variations in 35 Cl-NQR frequencies upon hydration of salts containing sodium and potassium ions are explained as a consequence of H-bonds formation and accompanied effects of charge redistribution. Our studies can be useful in searching for the derivatives of dichloroisocyanuric acid revealing higher antimicrobial activity

  20. Characterization of reactive intermediates in laser photolysis of nucleoside using of sodium salt anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid as photosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianhua; Lin Weizhen; Wang Wenfeng; Han Zhenhui; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of triplet state of sodium salt of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) with nucleosides has been investigated in CH 3 CN using KrF(248 nm) laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained from the interaction of triplet AQS and nucleoside demonstrated that the primary ionic radical pair, radical cation of nucleosides and radical anion of AQS has been detected simultaneously for the first time

  1. Toxicological evaluation of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Rit Bahadur; Kim, Dae Hee; Kim, Lila; Lee, Albert W; Wang, Zhenhua; Gao, Yonglin

    2018-06-01

    We performed a series of toxicity studies on the safety of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt as a food ingredient. 6'-SL sodium salt, up to a maximum dose of 5000 μg/plate, did not increase the number of revertant colonies in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. A chromosomal aberration assay (using Chinese hamster lung cells) found no clastogenic effects at any concentration of 6'-SL sodium salt in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. An in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test in Kunming mice showed no clastogenic activities with 6'-SL sodium salt doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw). In an acute toxicity study, the mean lethal dose of 6'-SL sodium salt was greater than 20 g/kg bw in rats. In a 13-week subchronic toxicity investigation, no effects were found at doses up to 5.0 g/kg bw of 6'-SL sodium salt in food consumption, body weight, clinical signs, blood biochemistry and hematology, urinalysis, or ophthalmic and histological macroscopic examination of organs. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 5.0 g/kg bw/day in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Wang, Zhen; Tan, Fang; Guo, Yucong; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2018-04-01

    While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2) and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The nitrate salt / organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH), the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  3. Comparison of hydrogen isotope exchange reactions between HTO vapor and the sodium salts of o-, m-, and p-aminobenzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Tomoko

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange reaction between HTO vapor and one of the sodium salts of o-, m-, and p-aminobenzoic acid (solid) was observed at 50 ∼ 80 degC. The acidity (acidity based on kinetic logic) for the materials at each temperature has been obtained with the A''-McKay plots based on the respective data obtained. The followings have been clarified by comparing these acidities (and the acidities obtained previously). 1) The acidity of aromatic amines can be expressed in terms of the acidity based on kinetic logic. 2) The reactivity of aromatic amine is strongly affected by both I-effect and R-effect. 3) It can be deduced that aromatic amines are more reactive than aliphatic amines. (author)

  4. Exothermic potential of sodium nitrate salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-06-01

    High-Level radioactive liquid waste is being reduced to a liquid slurry by an evaporation and crystallization process and stored in the existing single-shell tanks. Continuous pumping of the waste storage tank will reduce the present 30 to 50% moisture to the minimum possible. The reduced waste is a relatively immobile salt cake consisting predominantly of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) with lesser amounts of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), sodium metaaluminate (NaAlO 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Trace amounts of fission products, transuranics, and a broad spectrum of organic materials in small but unknown amounts are also present. A program was initiated in 1973 to determine whether or not conditions exist which could lead to an exothermic reaction in the salt cake. Results of the latest series of tests conducted to determine the effects of mass and pressure are summarized. Hanford salt cake, as stored, cannot support combustion, and does not ignite when covered with a burning volatile hydrocarbon

  5. Investigation of the metabolism of 125I orthohippuric acid (sodium salt) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegl, W.; Stockhausen, K.; Censori, M.; Jahn, M.; Sander, B.

    1977-07-01

    100 μCi Iodine-125-labeled Orthoiodohippurate (sodium salt) were applied i.v. to two Wistar rats. Urine and faeces were collected during several days over periods of 24 hours in a metabolic cage. The urine was analysed both directly and after separation of the radioactive substances with an adsorbtive resin by means of TLC and HPLC. The faeces were extracted and then separated like the urine. The two main metabolites of I-125 Orthoiodohippurate (Hipp) were I-125 Orthoiodobenzoic acid (Benz) and J-125 Iodide (I). The mixture of metabolites in the first 24 hours urine urine was composed of: approximately 20% Benz, appeoximately 70% Hipp, approximately 10% I. During the following days, this composition showed a few changes. The most appropriate method for analyzing proved to be the direct HPLC of the metabolic urine and faeces extract. (orig./MG) [de

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are sodium and potassium salts of citric acid. The Panel considers that sodium and potassium salts of citric acid are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “acid-base balance and bone health”. The target...... using a higher dose of potassium citrate did not show an effect on bone mineral density. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of potassium or sodium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal...

  7. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO32 and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The nitrate salt ∕ organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH, the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  8. Resistance of polyvinyl alcohol blends stabilized by sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids against γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbora Bakajova; Jiri Kucerik; Michal Ilcin; Oga Hola

    2011-01-01

    The dried blends containing sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids (humates, 0.5-10% w/w) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were exposed to high dosage of γ-irradiation in the range of doses 127-806 kGy. Resulted products were then tested for their stability using thermogravimetrical analysis. As a reference the non-treated blends were used since the pure PVA exposed to γ-irradiation very quickly lost its stability and resulting consistence did not allow the stability tests. Stabilities showed a strong concentration and counterion dependency. While sodium counterion caused mostly destabilization with increasing dose, the ammonium counterion acted in an opposite way. The tests carried out in a moisturizing container revealed the changes in water absorbing capacity of irradiated samples and allowed partial explanation of humate stabilizing effect. Generally, at lower concentration of a humate the increase was observed with an increase in the γ-irradiation dose and vice versa. The results confirmed the antioxidant and stabilizing effect of humic acids added to some synthetic polymers and their applicability in materials exposed to γ-irradiation. (author)

  9. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  10. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  11. Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D.; Virkar, A.; Joshi, A.

    1994-08-01

    The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification

  12. Ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolites from sodium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtani, Tozo.

    1978-01-01

    The ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution has been studied in zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y, mordenite and clinoptilolite. The distribution of cesium into mordenite from about 1 -- 2 M sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions is considerably larger than that into zeolite A. The distribution coefficient for 2 M solution of sodium salts was about 300. Therefore, the separation of cesium from sodium salt solution is possible by using mordenite. The distribution of strontium into zeolites form 1 -- 2 M solutions of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate were in the order of zeolite A>zeolite X>zeolite Y asymptoticaly equals mordenite. The distribution coefficient of 230 was obtained for 1 M solutions of sodium salts. The anion in solutions had no effect on the distribution of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution. (author)

  13. Dietary sodium, added salt, and serum sodium associations with growth and depression in the U.S. general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Pavel; Leshem, Micah

    2014-08-01

    It is not known why salt is so attractive to humans. Here, guided by hypotheses suggesting that the attraction of salt is conditioned by postingestive benefits, we sought to establish whether there are such benefits in a population by analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 database (n = ~ 10,000). We focus on two potential benefits supported by the literature, growth and moderation of depression, and examine their relationship to sodium, dietary, added at table, and serum. We find that during growth (sodium intake, independent of caloric or other electrolyte intakes. We find that adding salt and depression are related. In contrast, and in women only, dietary sodium and depression are inversely related. The relationships are correlational, but we speculate that this constellation may reflect self-medication for depression by adding salt, and that men may be protected by their higher dietary sodium intake. Additional findings are that women add more salt than men below age ~30, after which men add more, and below 40 years of age, serum sodium is lower in women than in men. It remains possible that small but beneficial effects of sodium could condition salt preference and thus contribute to population-wide sodium intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermophysical property characterization of aqueous amino acid salt solution containing serine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Shanille S.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Soriano, Allan N.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions of serine were studied. • Density, viscosity, refractive index and electrolytic conductivity of the solution were measured. • The concentrations of amino acid salt ranges from x 1 = 0.009 to 0.07. • The temperature range studied was (298.15 to 343.15) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. - Abstract: Thermophysical property characterization of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions containing serine was conducted in this study; specifically the system’s density, refractive index, electrical conductivity, and viscosity. Measurements were obtained over a temperature range of (298.15 to 343.15) K and at normal atmospheric pressure. Composition range from x 1 = 0.009 to 0.07 for aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions containing serine was used. The sensitivity of the system’s thermophysical properties on temperature and composition variation were discussed and correlated based on the equations proposed for room temperature ionic liquids. The density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements of the aqueous systems were found to decrease as the temperature increases at fixed concentration and the values increase as the salt concentration increases (water composition decreases) at fixed temperature. Whereas, a different trend was observed for the electrical conductivity data; at fixed concentration, the conductivity values increase as the temperature increases and at fixed temperature, its value generally increases as the salt concentration increases but only to a certain level (specific concentration) wherein the conductivity of the solution starts to decrease when the concentration of the salt is further increased. Calculation results show that the applied models were satisfactory in representing the measured properties in the aqueous amino acid salt solution containing serine

  15. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  16. Search for new radioprotective agents. Part 34. Synthesis of Bunte's salts and isothicarbamides of aromatic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulecki, J.; Kalinowska-Torz, J.; Senczuk, L.; Skwarski, D.

    1977-01-01

    In exchange reactions involving sodium thiosulphate and the respective halogen derivatives, the following Bunte's salts hitherto undescribed in the available literature were obtained: sodium salt of 4-methyl-benzyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodium salt of 4-metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodum salt of 4 metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /3/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /5/, sodum salt of 2-methoxy-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /7/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-phenly-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /8/, sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /9/, sodium salt of 3-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /10/, and sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-thiosulphuric acid /11/. In exchange reactions involving thiourea and the respective halogenderivatives, the following isothiocarbamides were obtained: 4-methyl-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /2/, 4-methoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isotchiocarbamide hydrochloride /4/, 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /6/, 4-methosy-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /12/. (author)

  17. New therapeutic approaches for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: pharmacokinetics of diclazuril sodium salts in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, Levent; Karpiesiuk, Wojciech; Lehner, Andreas F; Hughes, Charlie; Woods, William E; Harkins, John D; Boyles, Jeff; Atkinson, Alfonza; Granstrom, David E; Tobin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Diclazuril is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent which may have clinical application in the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalomyelitis (EPM). In this study, the use of the sodium salt diclazuril to increase the apparent bioavailability of diclazuril for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other Apicomplexan mediated diseases is described. In this study, diclazuril sodium salt was synthesized and administered to horses as diclazuril sodium salt formulations. The absorption, distribution, and clearance of diclazuril sodium salt in the horse are described. Diclazuril was rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations occurring at 8-24 hours following an oral mucosal administration of diclazuril sodium salt. The mean oral bioavailability of diclazuril as Clinacox was 9.5% relative to oral mucosal administration of diclazuril sodium salt. Additionally, diclazuril in DMSO administered orally was 50% less bioavailable than diclazuril sodium salt following an oral mucosal administration. It was also shown that diclazuril sodium salt has the potential to be used as a feed additive for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other Apicomplexan mediated diseases.

  18. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.; Thomas Peters, T.; Fernando Fondeur, F.; Samuel Fink, S.

    2008-01-01

    During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached ∼10 psi while processing ∼1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and

  19. Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11 > C10 = uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials.

  20. Thermometric titration of thorium with EDTA in the presence of large excess of neutral sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K

    1980-11-01

    The thermometric titration of Th(IV) in the presence of neutral sodium salts, sulphuric acid or acetic acid with EDTA has been studied. The effect of each on the observed heat values for the titration is discussed. For sodium perchlorate media, DeltaH values of -9 and -21 kJ/mole have been estimated for the formation of the Th(IV)-EDTA chelate at mu --> 0 and mu = 0.5 (NaClO(4)), respectively. The -DeltaH values increase steadily with increase in concentration of sodium perchlorate up to at least 3M. For the titration of Th(IV) in the presence of a large excess of sodium nitrate the use of sodium iodide as a masking reagent has been examined: large amounts of Bi and Cu(II) are masked and a masking effect is observed for small amounts of Ni.

  1. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))

    1991-05-01

    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  2. Preparation of an amorphous sodium furosemide salt improves solubility and dissolution rate and leads to a faster Tmax after oral dosing to rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Gordon, Sarah; Holm, René

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous forms of furosemide sodium salt and furosemide free acid were prepared by spray drying. For the preparation of the amorphous free acid, methanol was utilised as the solvent, whereas the amorphous sodium salt was formed from a sodium hydroxide-containing aqueous solvent in equimolar...... amounts of NaOH and furosemide. Information about the structural differences between the two amorphous forms was obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The stability and devitrification...... tendency of the two amorphous forms were investigated by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). The apparent solubility of the two amorphous forms and the crystalline free acid form of furosemide in various gastric and intestinal stimulated media was determined. Moreover, the dissolution characteristics...

  3. Effect of alternative salt use on broiler breast meat yields, tenderness, flavor, and sodium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, P R; Behrends, J M; Schilling, M W

    2011-12-01

    Fresh chicken breast fillets were marinated with gourmet-style salts: Himalayan pink salt, Sonoma gourmet salt, sel gus de Guerande, and Bolivian rose salt to evaluate their effects on marination and cook loss yields, tenderness, sensory attributes, and sodium concentration. Fresh chicken breast fillets (48-h postmortem) were vacuum tumbled (137 kPa at 20 rpm for 17 min) in a solution of water, salt, and sodium tripolyphosphate at a level of 20% of the meat weights. Instrumental analyses showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in meat quality with respect to marination yield, cook yield, or shear-force value. There were also no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sensory descriptors between salt treatments. However, Sonoma gourmet salt showed a tendency (P = 0.0693) to score increased savory note values from panelists, whereas Bolivian rose salt received the lowest score. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sodium concentrations between salt treatments, but numerically, sel gus de Guerande had the lowest sodium concentration, which could be important in producing reduced sodium products. Understanding different salts and sodium concentrations allows the poultry industry to use gourmet salts in products and maintain overall meat quality and flavor.

  4. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  5. Thermometric titration of thorium with EDTA in the presence of large excess of neutral sodium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The thermometric titration of Th(IV) in the presence of neutral sodium salts, sulphuric acid or acetic acid with EDT has been studied. The effect of each on the observed heat values for the titration is discussed. For sodium perchlorate media, ΔH values of -9 and -21 kJ/mole have been estimated for the formation of the Th(IV)-EDTA chelate at μ → 0 and μ = 0.5 (NaClO 4 ), respectively. The -ΔH values increase steadily with increase in concentration of sodium perchlorate up to at least 3M. For the titration of Th(IV) in the presence of a large excess of sodium nitrate the use of sodium iodide as a masking reagent has been examined: large amounts of Bi and Cu(II) are masked and a masking effect is observed for small amounts of Ni. (author)

  6. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt: synthesis, analytical detection, and pharmacokinetics in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Tobin, T

    2012-06-01

    Toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent with clinical application in the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalomyelitis (EPM). In this study, we synthesized and determined the bioavailability of a sodium salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone that can be used for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM in horses. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was rapidly absorbed, with a mean peak plasma concentration of 2400 ± 169 (SEM) ng/mL occurring at 8 h after oral-mucosal dosing and was about 56% bioavailable compared with the i.v. administration of toltrazuril sulfone in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The relative bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water compared with toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was 46%, indicating approximately 54% less oral bioavailability of this compound suspended in water. In this study, we also investigated whether this salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone can be used as a feed additive formulation without significant reduction in oral bioavailability. Our results indicated that toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt is relatively well absorbed when administered with feed with a mean oral bioavailability of 52%. Based on these data, repeated oral administration of toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt with or without feed will yield effective plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and other protozoal diseases of horses and other species. As such, toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt has the potential to be used as feed additive formulations for both the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other apicomplexan diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryoprotection properties of salts of organic acids: a case study for a tetragonal crystal of HEW lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujacz, Grzegorz; Wrzesniewska, Blanka; Bujacz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the great majority of the data that are used for solving macromolecular structures by X-ray crystallography are collected at cryogenic temperatures. Selection of a suitable cryoprotectant, which ensures crystal stability at low temperatures, is critical for the success of a particular diffraction experiment. The effectiveness of salts of organic acids as potential cryoprotective agents is presented in the following work. Sodium formate, acetate, malonate and citrate were tested, as were sodium potassium tartrate and acetate in the form of potassium and ammonium salts. For each salt investigated, the minimal concentration that was required for successful cryoprotection was determined over the pH range 4.5-9.5. The cryoprotective ability of these organic salts depends upon the number of carboxylic groups; the lowest concentration required for cryoprotection was observed at neutral pH. Case-study experiments conducted using the tetragonal form of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) confirmed that salts of organic acids can successfully act as cryoprotective agents of protein crystals grown from high concentrations of inorganic salts. When crystals are grown from solutions containing a sufficient concentration of organic acid salts no additional cryoprotection is needed as the crystals can safely be frozen directly from the crystallizing buffers.

  10. Sodium transport and distribution in sweet pepper during and after salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.

    2000-01-01

    In hydroponic systems often saline water is used in nutrient solutions. Transpiration leads to a steady increase of the salt concentration. To avoid unfavourable salt conditions, solutions are renewed, regularly. So, plants are exposed to varying sodium concentrations. In this paper, the sodium

  11. Pyro-oxidation of plutonium spent salts with sodium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Godot, A.; Valot, C.; Devillard, D.

    2001-01-01

    The purification of plutonium generates spent salts, which are temporarily stored in a nuclear building. A development programme for pyrochemical treatment is in progress to stabilize and concentrate these salts in order to reduce the quantities for long-term disposal. The treatment, inspired by work previously done by LANL, consists of a pyro-oxidation of the salt with sodium carbonate to convert the actinides into oxides, then of a vacuum distillation to separate the oxides from the volatile salt matrix. Pyro-oxidation of NaCl/KCl base spent salts first produces a 'black salt' which contains more than 97% of the initial actinides. XRD analyses indicate PuO 2 as major plutonium species and sodium plutonates or plutonium sub-oxides PuO 2-x can also be identified. Next appears a 'white salt' containing less than 500 ppm of plutonium, which meets the operational criterion for LLW discard. For these salts, the pyro-oxidation process in and of itself is expected to reduce the quantities to be stored on-site by more than one-third. The pyro-oxidation of CaCl 2 /NaCl base americium extraction salts leads to oxides PuO 2 and probably AmO 2 , but the yield of concentration in the black salt is lower and the white salt cannot be discarded as LLW. During vacuum distillation, excess carbonate can dissociate and damage the efficiency of the process. Appropriate chlorine sparging at the end of the oxidation can eliminate this carbonate. (authors)

  12. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  13. Interaction of 1-pyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steblecka, Malgorzata, E-mail: gosia@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Wolszczak, Marian, E-mail: marianwo@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Szajdzinska-Pietek, Ewa, E-mail: espietek@mitr.p.lodz.pl

    2016-04-15

    Steady state and time-resolved techniques of optical spectroscopy were applied to examine the interaction between 1-pyrene sulfonic acid (PSA) sodium salt and human serum albumin (HSA). This work is directed towards finding a convenient fluorescent marker (or blocker) of hydrophobic binding sites within the protein, to be used in the in vitro studies of HSA−drug systems. The observed variation of PSA absorbance with HSA concentration was interpreted in terms of two possible probe/protein binding modes with the binding constants K{sub b,1}=(6.5±0.6)∙10{sup 6} M{sup −1} (a specific receptor site), and K{sub b,2}=(3.8±0.8)∙10{sup 5} M{sup −1} (non-specific binding of up to three probe molecules). The PSA fluorescence is quenched by the albumin (via both static and dynamic mechanisms), and also the HSA–Trp214 fluorescence is quenched by PSA (via resonance energy transfer). These results indicate that the probe is bound in the domain IIA of the secondary HSA structure. At lower [PSA]/[HSA] ratios the PSA fluorescence lifetime is longer than that in homogeneous buffer solutions (not containing HSA). Therefore, we conclude that lower affinity binding sites are distant from the tryptophan residue. This is confirmed by complementary studies on the transient T–T absorbance and on luminescence of the photosensitized singlet oxygen.

  14. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  15. FURFURAL YIELD AND DECOMPOSITION IN SODIUM 2,4DIMETHYLBENZENESULFONATE--SULFURIC ACID--WATER SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch-type microreactors (about 1/40 milliliter of reactants) were used to measure furfural yields from acidified xylose solutions containing sodium...It was found that presence of the salt did not affect the quantity of furfural produced, but greatly increased the rate of formation. The regular...increase in rate of furfural formation was directly related to the increase in the rate xylose decomposition, and furfural yields for all salt and acid

  16. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Effects of sodium salt types on the intermolecular interaction of sodium alginate/antarctic krill protein composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Yuanfa; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Sen; Yu, Yue

    2018-06-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) and antarctic krill protein (AKP) were blended to fabricate the SA/AKP composite fibers by the conventional wet spinning method using 5% CaCl 2 as coagulation solution. The sodium salt was added to the SA/AKP solution to adjust the ionization degree and intermolecular interaction of composite system. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of sodium salt types (NaCl, CH 3 COONa, Na 2 SO 4 ) on the intermolecular interaction of SA/AKP composite fibers. The intermolecular interaction, morphology, crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of SA/AKP composite fibers were analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results show that the types of sodium salt have obvious influences on the content of both β-sheet, intermolecular hydrogen bond, breaking strength and surface morphology in SA/AKP composite fibers, but have a negligible effect on the crystallinity and thermal stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  19. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Dahiya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control, T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate, T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate, T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate, T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate, T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen and body weight gain (g. Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05 improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05 in T4 and feed intake (kg per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05 in T5 as comparison to control (T1 group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05 improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05 increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids

  20. Salt tolerant green crop species for sodium management in space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Nose, Akihiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Ecological system and materials recycling loop of space agriculture are quite tight compared to natural ecological system on Earth. Sodium management will be a keen issue for space agricul-ture. Human nutritional requirements include sodium salt. Since sodium at high concentration is toxic for most of plant growth, excreted sodium of human waste should be removed from compost fertilizer. Use of marine algae is promising for harvesting potassium and other min-erals required for plant growth and returning remained sodium to satisfy human need of its intake. Farming salt tolerant green crop species is another approach to manage sodium problem in both space and terrestrial agriculture. We chose ice plant and New Zealand spinach. These two plant species are widely accepted green vegetable with many recipe. Ice plant can grow at the salinity level of sea water, and contain sodium salt up to 30% of its dry mass. Sodium distributes mainly in its bladder cells. New Zealand spinach is a plant species found in the front zone of sea shore, and tolerant against high salinity as well. Plant body size of both species at harvest is quite large, and easy to farm. Capability of bio-remediation of high saline soil is examined with ice plant and New Zealand spinach. Incubation medium was chosen to contain high concentration of sodium and potassium at the Na/K ratio of human excreta. In case Na/K ratio of plant body grown by this medium is greatly higher than that of incubation medium or soil, these halophytes are effective to remediate soil for farming less tolerant plant crop. Experimental results was less positive in this context.

  1. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ On May 31, 2012, we... order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in...

  2. Na/Cl molar ratio changes during a salting cycle and its application to the estimation of sodium retention in salted watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing; Huffine, Maria; Husch, Jonathan; Sinpatanasakul, Leeann

    2012-08-01

    Using soil column experiments and data from natural watersheds, this paper analyzes the changes in Na/Cl molar ratios during a salting cycle of aqueous-soil systems. The soil column experiments involved introducing NaCl salt at various initial concentrations into multiple soil columns. At the start of a salting cycle in the column experiments, sodium was adsorbed more than chloride due to cation exchange processes. As a result, the initial Na/Cl molar ratio in column effluent was lower than 1, but increased thereafter. One-dimensional PHREEQC geochemical transport simulations also were conducted to further quantify these trends under more diverse scenarios. The experimentally determined Na/Cl molar ratio pattern was compared to observations in the annual salting cycle of four natural watersheds where NaCl is the dominant applied road deicing salt. Typically, Na/Cl molar ratios were low from mid-winter to early spring and increased after the bulk of the salt was flushed out of the watersheds during the summer, fall and early winter. The established relationship between the Na/Cl molar ratios and the amount of sodium retention derived from the column experiments and computer simulations present an alternative approach to the traditional budget analysis method for estimating sodium retention when the experimental and natural watershed patterns of Na/Cl molar ratio change are similar. Findings from this study enhance the understanding of sodium retention and help improve the scientific basis for future environmental policies intended to suppress the increase of sodium concentrations in salted watersheds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microenvironmental pH measurement during sodium naproxenate dissolution in acidic medium by UV/vis imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Variable dissolution from sodium salts of drugs containing a carboxylic acid group after passing the acidic environment of the stomach may affect oral bioavailability. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to investigate pH effects in relation to the dissolution of sodium naproxenate...... in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. For this purpose a UV/vis imaging-based approach capable of measuring microenvironmental pH in the vicinity of the solid drug compact as well as monitoring drug dissolution was developed. Using a pH indicating dye real-time spatially resolved measurement of pH was achieved....... Sodium naproxenate, can significantly alter the local pH of the dissolution medium, is eventually neutralized and precipitates as the acidic species naproxen. The developed approach is considered useful for detailed studies of pH dependent dissolution phenomena in dissolution testing....

  4. Carbonic acid salts at 25 or 45 degrees C to control loquat decay under shelf life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Serusi, A; Venditti, T; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    Generally recognised as save compounds (G.R.A.S) are attractive substitutes to synthetic chemicals in postharvest control diseases. They meet safety requirements, are cheap and able to be integrated with other disease control technologies. Among G.R.A.S compounds, carbonic acid salts have been investigated on carrots, bell pepper, melons, sweet cherries and their efficacy was also evaluated when combined with biological control agents. Moreover, the possibility to use sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate to prevent P. digitatum an P. italicum spread on Citrus fruit was studied since the begin of the 20th century. We explored the possibility to extend the use of carbonate-bicarbonate salts on loquat fruit in order to control the pathogens and to extend postharvest life. Loquat is a very perishable fruit, susceptible to decay, mechanical damage, moisture and nutritional losses during its postharvest life. We tested the combined effect of temperature and sodium or potassium carbonate-bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate. The fruit was dipped in the salt solutions at variable concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2% w/v) at 25 or 45 degrees C for two minutes and than stored under shelf life conditions (25 degrees C and 70% RH). Decay, weight loss, pH, titrable acidity and sugar content were detected after twelve days. Preliminary data show that the combined treatments were effective in decay control depending on salts. Best results were obtained with 2% potassium and sodium carbonate solution at 25 degrees C. Weight losses were related to treatment temperature and salts concentrations whereas, no differences were detected in the chemical parameters compared to the control.

  5. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. Interactions between the Tetrasodium Salts of EDTA and 1-Hydroxyethane 1,1-Diphosphonic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Philippe; Mohn, Dirk; Attin, Thomas; Zehnder, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    A clinically useful all-in-one endodontic irrigant with combined proteolytic and decalcifying properties is still elusive. In this study, the chemical effects of dissolving the tetrasodium salts of 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (Na 4 HEDP) or Na 4 EDTA directly in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigants in polypropylene syringes were assessed during the course of 1 hour. The solubility of the salts in water was determined. Their compatibility with 1% and 5% NaOCl was measured by iodometric titration and in a calcium complexation experiment by using a Ca 2+ -selective electrode. The salts dissolved within 1 minute. The dissolution maximum of Na 4 HEDP in water (wt/total wt) was 44.6% ± 1.6%. The corresponding dissolution maximum of Na 4 EDTA was 38.2% ± 0.8%. Na 4 HEDP at 18% in 5% NaOCl caused a mere loss of 16% of the initially available chlorine during 1 hour. In contrast, a corresponding mixture between NaOCl and the Na 4 EDTA salt caused 95% reduction in available chlorine after 1 minute. Mixtures of 3% Na 4 EDTA with 1% NaOCl were more stable, but only for 30 minutes. Na 4 HEDP lost 24% of its calcium complexation capacity after 60 minutes. The corresponding loss for Na 4 EDTA was 34%. The compatibility and solubility of particulate Na 4 HEDP with/in NaOCl solutions are such that these components can be mixed and used for up to 1 hour. In contrast, short-term compatibility of the Na 4 EDTA salt with NaOCl solutions was considerably lower, decreasing at higher concentrations of either compound. Especially for Na 4 HEDP but also for Na 4 EDTA, the NaOCl had little effect on calcium complexation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of morpholine derivatives and Bunte's salt as compounds of potential radioprotective activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelczyk, M.; Kucharski, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain several compounds possessing radioprotective activity. The syntheses yielded seven undescribed compounds i.e.: benzyl ester of the N-morpholinecarbathionothioglicol acid, ester bis S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-2-thioethyl, morpholine salt of the N-morpholinecarbothionothiolic acid, sodium and potassium salt of S-morpholine-4-carbonyl, methylthiosulfate, sodium and potassium salt of beta-hydroxyethyl thiosulfate. Moreover, with the aid of other methods following compounds were synthetized: beta-S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl) ethyl thiopropioniane, amide of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, acid S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, sodium salt of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid. The structure of these compounds was confirmed using elementary and spectral analysis.

  8. Altered regulation of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yong; Lee, Jay Wook; Kim, Sejoong; Jung, Eun Sook; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2009-12-01

    Uninephrectomy (uNx) in young rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). Alterations of sodium handling in residual nephrons may play a role in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the adaptive alterations of renal sodium transporters according to salt intake in uNx-SSH rats. uNx or sham operations were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and normal-salt diet was fed for 4 weeks. Four experimental groups were used: sham-operated rats raised on a high-salt diet for 2 weeks (CHH) or on a low-salt diet for 1 week after 1 week's high-salt diet (CHL) and uNx rats fed on the same diet (NHH, NHL) as the sham-operated rats were fed. Expression of major renal sodium transporters were determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Systolic blood pressure was increased in NHH and NHL groups, compared with CHH and CHL, respectively. Protein abundances of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the CHH group were lower than the CHL group. Expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-γ increased in the CHH group. In contrast, expressions of NKCC2 and NCC in the NHH group didn't show any significant alterations, compared to the NHL group. Expressions of ENaC-α and ENaC-β in the NHH group were higher than the CHH group. Adaptive alterations of NKCC2 and NCC to changes of salt intake were different in the uNx group, and changes in ENaC-α and ENaC-β were also different. These altered regulations of sodium transporters may be involved in the pathogenesis of SSH in the uNx rat model.

  9. The 'Salting Out' Effect: Investigating the Influence of Both the Nature and Concentration of Salt on the Partition Coefficient of Butan-1,4-Dioic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, John

    2018-01-01

    This sixth-form chemistry activity describes how students can use acid-base titrimetry to investigate how adding salt to the aqueous phase may change the value of the partition coefficient of an organic acid between water and 2-methylpropan-1-ol. While the presence of lithium chloride and sodium chloride increases the value of the partition…

  10. Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan R; Van Horn, Linda; Garside, Daniel B; Miura, Katsuyuki; Wu, Yangfeng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Antimicrobial Effects of Sodium Fluoride, Xylitol and Metals Salts on in Vitro Growth Inhibition, Acid Production and Ultrastructure of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mongy, T.M.; Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF), dietary sugars, sugar alcohols (xylitol and sorbitol) and different metals salts either separately or in combination, by different concentrations at different ph, on the growth inhibition, acid production and ultra structure of Streptococcus mutans. NaF was more effective at low ph, when NaF was added to actively growing Streptococcus mutans broth culture, the growth rate was unaffected by 75 ppm F-, slowed by 150 ppm F-, and immediately arrested by 300 or 600 ppm F-. On the other hand, the best effect of xylitol was at high ph. The effect of xylitol was more marked in the presence of NaF as the acid production was inhibited and the ph did not fall to 5.0. The response of Streptococcus mutans to metals salts was typical of this organism's response to a number of trace metals above optimum concentrations of which may be inhibitory. Synergistic effect observed by addition of metals salts by concentration ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 mML-1, 300 ppm NaF and 5% xylitol. This formula can work at any ph value and causes no drop of the broth culture ph to below 5.0 which is the optimal ph for growth and multiplication of Streptococcus mutans, so this formula worked as ph buffer regulation and growth inhibition for S. mutans. Low concentration of this combined formula after 5 min only at 5.0 and 7.0 ph values caused effective complete destruction of the bacterial viable cells and this effect was observed clearly by Electron Microscope photo graph

  12. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Phase Diagrams of the Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Poly(ethylene glycol/Sodium Polyacrylate/Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Pessoa Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA, and a salt have been studied. The effects of the polymer size, salt type (NaCl, Na2SO4, sodium adipate and sodium azelate and salt concentrations on the position of the binodal curve were investigated. The investigated PEG molecules had a molar mass of 2,000 to 8,000 g/mol, while that of NaPAA was 8,000 g/mol. Experimental phase diagrams, and tie lines and calculated phase diagrams, based on Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions are presented. Due to strong enthalpic and entropic balancing forces, the hydrophobicity of the added salt has a strong influence on the position of the binodal, which could be reproduced by model calculations.

  14. Effect of Microenvironmental pH Modulation on the Dissolution Rate and Oral Absorption of the Salt of a Weak Acid - Case Study of GDC-0810.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hao Helen; Jia, Wei; Liu, Lichuan; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Li, Jane; Nauka, Ewa; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of microenvironmental pH modulation on the in vitro dissolution rate and oral absorption of GDC-0810, an oral anti-cancer drug, in human. The pH-solubility profile of GDC-0810 free acid and pH max of its N-Methyl-D-glucamine (NMG) salt were determined. Precipitation studies were conducted for GDC-0810 NMG salt at different pH values. GDC-0810 200-mg dose NMG salt tablet formulations containing different levels of sodium bicarbonate as the pH modifier were tested for dissolution under the dual pH-dilution scheme. Three tablet formulations were evaluated in human as a part of a relative bioavailability study. A 200-mg dose of GDC-0810 was administered QD with low fat food. Intrinsic solubility of GDC-0810 free acid was found to be extremely low. The pH max of the NMG salt suggested a strong tendency for form conversion to the free acid under GI conditions. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that the dissolution rate and extent of GDC-0810 increased with increasing the level of sodium bicarbonate in the formulation. The human PK data showed a similar trend for the geometric mean of C max and AUC 0-t for formulations containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate, but the difference is not statistically significant. Incorporation of a basic pH modifier, sodium bicarbonate, in GDC-0810 NMG salt tablet formulations enhanced in vitro dissolution rate of GDC-0810 via microenvironmental pH modulation. The human PK data showed no statistically significant difference in drug exposure from tablets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate.

  15. Density, viscosity, and N2O solubility of aqueous amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronu, Ugochukwu E.; Hartono, Ardi; Svendsen, Hallvard F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Viscosity of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Henry’s law constant/N 2 O solubility of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Schumpe model. Correlations for density, viscosity, and N 2 O solubility. - Abstract: Physicochemical properties of aqueous amino acid salt (AAS), potassium salt of sarcosine (KSAR) and aqueous amine amino acid salt (AAAS), 3-(methylamino)propylamine/sarcosine (SARMAPA) have been studied. Densities of KSAR were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.25 for temperature range 298.15 K to 353.15 K, the viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N 2 O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 363.15 K). Densities of SARMAPA were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.23 for temperature range (298.15 K to 353.15 K), viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N 2 O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 343.15 K). Experimental results were correlated well with empirical correlations and N 2 O solubility results for KSAR were predicted adequately by a Schumpe model. The solubilities of N 2 O in AAS and AAAS are significantly lower than values for amines. The solubilities vary as: amine > AAAS > AAS.

  16. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  17. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin.

  18. Determination of pKa values of alendronate sodium in aqueous solution by piecewise linear regression based on acid-base potentiometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jing; Dou, Hanfei; Zhang, Ximin; Uhagaze, Dushimabararezi Serge; Ding, Xiali; Dong, Yuming

    2016-12-01

    As a mono-sodium salt form of alendronic acid, alendronate sodium presents multi-level ionization for the dissociation of its four hydroxyl groups. The dissociation constants of alendronate sodium were determined in this work by studying the piecewise linear relationship between volume of titrant and pH value based on acid-base potentiometric titration reaction. The distribution curves of alendronate sodium were drawn according to the determined pKa values. There were 4 dissociation constants (pKa 1 =2.43, pKa 2 =7.55, pKa 3 =10.80, pKa 4 =11.99, respectively) of alendronate sodium, and 12 existing forms, of which 4 could be ignored, existing in different pH environments.

  19. Sodium homeostasis in lymphocytes and blood pressure alterations before and during salt restriction in normotensives and in essential hypertensives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jest, P; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    Blood pressure, lymphocytic sodium content and sodium efflux were studied in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during salt restriction. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. In essential hypertension the initial high lymphocyte sodium content decreased during salt...... mechanisms with regard to lymphocyte sodium metabolism differs between hypertensive and normotensive subjects....

  20. Increases in wintertime PM2.5 sodium and chloride linked to snowfall and road salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Mattson, Claire N.; Peterson, Peter K.; May, Nathaniel W.; Prendergast, Rashad K.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of salts and salty brines to roads is common practice during the winter in many urban environments. Road salts can become aerosolized, thereby injecting sodium and chloride particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere. Here, data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network were used to assess temporal trends of sodium and chloride PM2.5 (PM road salt aerosols. Sodium and chloride PM2.5 concentrations were an average of three times higher in the winter, as compared to the summer, for locations with greater than 25 cm of average annual snowfall. Winter urban chloride PM2.5 concentrations attributed to road salt can even sometimes rival those of coastal sea spray aerosol-influenced sites. In most snow-influenced cities, chloride and sodium PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with snowfall; however, this relationship is complicated by differences in state and local winter maintenance practices. This study highlights the ubiquity of road salt aerosols in the United States and their potential impact on wintertime urban air quality, particularly due to the potential for multiphase reactions to liberate chlorine from the particle-phase. Since road salt application is a common practice in wintertime urban environments across the world, it is imperative that road salt application emissions, currently not included in inventories, and its impacts be investigated through measurements and modeling.

  1. Effect of oral salt loading on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium metabolism in borderline hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Jest, P; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    A randomized double-blind cross-over trial was performed to test the effects of oral salt loading (normal diet + 200 mmol NaCl/day for 4 weeks followed by normal diet + 400 mmol/day for 1 week) against placebo on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium homeostasis in 10 young borderline hypertensive...... men, genetically predisposed for essential hypertension. Salt loading caused no significant changes in blood pressure levels, lymphocyte sodium content and efflux. In conclusion, our subjects seem insensitive to a few weeks of excessive salt intake....

  2. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik; Choi, Hong Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability

  3. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Yeol [CJ Cheiljedang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability.

  4. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L -1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieves, G. A.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Herring-Captain, J.; Olanrewaju, B.; Aleksandrov, A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces

  6. Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieves, G. A.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Herring-Captain, J.; Olanrewaju, B.; Aleksandrov, A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2008-06-05

    A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces.

  7. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  8. Toxicological profile for o-phenylphenol and its sodium salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, H.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a health-hazard survey on the health risk of hospital cleaning workers from exposure to Lyorthol, a hazard assessment of o-phenylphenol (and its sodium salt), one of the constituents of Lyorthol, has been prepared, In this paper, the physical and chemical characteristics, kinetics and

  9. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  10. Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and Phosphate by a Diacylhydrazine. Ligand via the Formation of a Colour Alkali Metal Complex. Purnandhu Bose, Ranjan Dutta, I. Ravikumar and Pradyut Ghosh. ∗. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & 2B Raja ...

  11. A salting out system for improving the efficiency of the headspace solid-phase microextraction of short and medium chain free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Pacetti, Deborah; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Gabrielli, Serena; Ballini, Roberto

    2015-08-28

    Given the importance of short and medium chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in several fields, this study sought to improve the extraction efficiency of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of FFAs by evaluating salting out agents that appear promising for this application. The salts ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) were tried on their own and in combination (3.7/1), in four different total amounts, as salting out agents in the headspace-SPME-gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) analysis of the FFAs from acetic acid (C2) to decanoic acid (C10). Their performance in a model system of an aqueous standard mixture of FFAs at a pH of 3.5 was compared to that of the more commonly used sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). All of the salts and salt systems evaluated, in proper amount, gave improved results compared to NaCl (saturated), which instead gave interesting results only for the least volatile FFAs C8 and C10. For C2-C6, the salt system that gave the best results compared to NaCl was (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4, in the highest of the four amounts evaluated, with factor increases between 1.2 and 4.1-fold, and NaH2PO4, between 1.0 and 4.3-fold. The SPME extraction efficiency given by the mixture (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4 was also assessed on biological and food samples, confirming that overall it performed better than NaCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaa.turk@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: m.genisel@hotmail.com [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: serkanerdal25@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  13. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  15. Hideout of sodium salts in tubesheet crevices: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Campon, J.L.

    1987-07-01

    The hideout of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in tubesheet crevices was studied in single tube model boilers at CADARACHE. Radioactive Na 24 was used for the measurements. Crevices of 0.2 mm width were empty or packed. A hydraulically expanded crevice and a rolled crevice were also studied. The concentration rate depends on the bulk water concentration but the equilibrium concentration appears to be related only to thermal conditions. The equilibrium value of 25 moles per liter in the crevice was extrapolated, the sodium concentration in the bulk water being in the range of 5 to 50 ppM. This equilibrium will be obtained with an ''integrated pollution'' of 5000 to 10,000 ppM x hours. Flushing produced by the boiler depressurization was shown to be an effective way to remove salt from the crevice. Sodium hydroxide was shown to concentrate even in a residual crevice of few μm width

  16. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous modification of eutectic EN ... the plastic groundmass of the solid solution α (Al), have an effect on their ..... Onyia C, Okorie B, Neife S and Obayi C 2013 World J. Eng. Technol. 1 9. 35.

  17. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  18. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup.

  19. 76 FR 33243 - Sulfanilic Acid From India; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... and sodium salt of sulfanilic acid (sodium sulfanilate). Sulfanilic acid is a synthetic organic... additives. The principal differences between the grades are the undesirable quantities of residual aniline... materials. Sodium salt of sulfanilic acid (sodium sulfanilate) is a granular or crystalline material...

  20. 76 FR 66039 - Sulfanilic Acid From the People's Republic of China and India: Continuation of Antidumping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... and sodium salt of sulfanilic acid (sodium sulfanilate). Sulfanilic acid is a synthetic organic... principal differences between the grades are the undesirable quantities of residual aniline and alkali.... Sodium salt of sulfanilic acid (sodium sulfanilate) is a granular or crystalline material containing 75...

  1. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid...... the dietary intake of carbonate or bicarbonate salts of sodium or potassium and maintenance of normal bone....

  3. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  4. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirin, Dejan M; Poša, Mihalj M; Krstonošić, Veljko S

    2011-12-29

    In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  5. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  6. An alternative hypothesis to the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, O.; Tanaka, M.; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2016), s. 965-973 ISSN 0085-2538 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * kidney * salt * salt-resistance * salt-sensitivity * sodium * sodium chloride Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 8.395, year: 2016

  7. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan Dutta I ... Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India ...

  8. Alginate-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization: effect of the amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Weerapol, Yossanun; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-05-01

    Pellets containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), a model drug (theophylline) and a range of levels of sodium alginate (i.e., 10-50% w/w) were prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Two types of sodium alginate were evaluated with and without the addition of either calcium acetate or calcium carbonate (0, 0.3, 3 and 10% w/w). The effects of amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts on pellet properties, e.g., size, shape, morphology and drug release behavior, were investigated. Most pellet formulations resulted in pellets of a sufficient quality with respect to size, size distribution and shape. The results showed that the amounts of sodium alginate and calcium salts influenced the size and shape of the obtained pellets. However, different types of sodium alginate and calcium salt responded to modifications to a different extent. A cavity was observed in the pellet structure, as seen in the scanning electron micrographs, resulting from the forces involved in the spheronization process. Most of pellet formulations released about 75-85% drug within 60 min. Incorporation of calcium salts in the pellet formulations altered the drug release, depending on the solubility of the calcium salts used. The drug release data showed a good fit into both Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations.

  9. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  10. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalinska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    1987-01-01

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60 Co radiation. (author)

  11. Boric acid solubility in the presence of alkali metal nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvortsov, V G; Tsekhanskij, R S; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdinov, Sh V [Chuvashskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Cheboksary (USSR); Universitet Druzhby Narodov, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C have been applied to state that systems boric acid-lithium (sodium, potassium) nitrite-water are simple eutonic type systems. Nitrites salt in the acid and their lyotropic effect increases from lithium salt to potassium salt. The disclosed succession in change of the effect is determined by the character of cation hydration in the medium the acidic reaction of which is conditioned by boric acid polymerization and partial oxidation of nitrite ion into nitrate ion. Boric acid is salted out from solutions containing lithium and sodium cations with increase of nitrate ion.

  12. Boric acid solubility in the presence of alkali metal nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.G.; Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C have been applied to state that systems boric acid-lithium (sodiUm, potassium) nitrite-water are simple eutonic type systems. Nitrites salt in the acid and their lyotropic effect increases from lithium salt to potassium salt. The disclosed succession in change of the effect is determined by the character of cation hydration in the medium the acidic reaction of which is conditioned by boric acid polymerization and partial oxidation of nitrite ion into nitrate ion Boric acid is salted out form solutions containing lithium and sodium cations with increase of nitrate ion

  13. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Trica, Bogdan; Nitu, Sabina Georgiana; Somoghi, Raluca; Alexandrescu, Elvira; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-11-19

    The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na⁺ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol-gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids' final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules.

  14. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Trica, Bogdan; Nitu, Sabina Georgiana; Somoghi, Raluca; Alexandrescu, Elvira; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules. PMID:27869768

  15. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  16. Cesium Salts of Phosphotungstic Acid: Comparison of Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    acidity and lowest solubility in reaction media in comparison with the other cesium content salts. KEYWORDS. Polyoxometalates, cesium ... insoluble salt of HPA is cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid,. CsxH3-xPW12O40 (CsxPW), a ... of Cs2CO3, very fine particles (precipitates) were formed to make the solution milky.

  17. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the following...

  18. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Sedghi; Ali Mohamadi Sani; Masood Najaf Najafi; Mohammad Ali Shariati

    2014-01-01

    Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria tha...

  19. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  1. Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina.

  2. 76 FR 45510 - Sulfanilic Acid From India and the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ..., refined (or purified) sulfanilic acid and sodium salt of sulfanilic acid. Sulfanilic acid is a synthetic... concrete additives. The principal differences between the grades are the undesirable quantities of residual... maximum aniline and 0.25 percent maximum alkali insoluble materials. Sodium salt (sodium sulfanilate...

  3. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  4. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  5. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, A.R.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO 4 .7H 2 O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 as well as Mg(OH) 2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting

  6. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty...

  7. Hazard identification for human and ecological effects of sodium chloride road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) requested an evaluation of : the human and ecological risks associated with the application of sodium chloride (NaCl) road : salt to roadways. NaCl is the major de-icing agent used in NH to...

  8. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ilie Spataru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA and its alkaline salt (OLANa. Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA, with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1 required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC (TG-DSC analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules.

  9. τ - hydrogen phosphate of zirconia in sodium salt form and some of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S.M.; Ordonez R, E.

    2004-01-01

    It is reported the obtaining and characterization in the sodium salt form of the τ-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodium form, this compound it was synthesized, for a new technique developed in the laboratory of Dept. of Chemistry of the ININ. The characterization was carried out for XRD, IR, Sem and EDS the thermal gravimetric analysis is also reported. (Author)

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of sodium-carbonate salt gradient solar-pond performance under simulated solar-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Hueseyin; Ozkaymak, Mehmet [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Technical Education Faculty, 78200 Karabuk (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara University, Technical Education Faculty, 34722 Kuyubasi-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally and theoretically whether sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) salt is suitable for establishing a salinity gradient in a salt-gradient solar-pond (SGSP). For this purpose, a small-scale prismatic solar-pond was constructed. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory under the incident radiation from two halogen-lamps acting as a solar simulator. Furthermore, a one-dimensional transient mathematical model that describes the heat and mass transfer behaviour of the SGSP was developed. The differential equations obtained were solved numerically using a finite-difference method. It was found from the experiments that the density gradient, achieved using sodium carbonate salt, can suppress convection from the bottom to the surface of the pond. (author)

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of sodium-carbonate salt gradient solar-pond performance under simulated solar-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, Hueseyin; Ozkaymak, Mehmet; Binark, A. Korhan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally and theoretically whether sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) salt is suitable for establishing a salinity gradient in a salt-gradient solar-pond (SGSP). For this purpose, a small-scale prismatic solar-pond was constructed. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory under the incident radiation from two halogen-lamps acting as a solar simulator. Furthermore, a one-dimensional transient mathematical model that describes the heat and mass transfer behaviour of the SGSP was developed. The differential equations obtained were solved numerically using a finite-difference method. It was found from the experiments that the density gradient, achieved using sodium carbonate salt, can suppress convection from the bottom to the surface of the pond

  12. Diclofenac salts, part 6: release from lipid microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Rabasco Alvarez, Antonio M; Rodriguez, Marisa Gonzalez

    2011-08-01

    The release of diclofenac (20%, w/w) was studied from lipidic solid dispersions using three different chemical forms (acid, sodium salt, and pyrrolidine ethanol salt) and two different lipid carriers (Compritol 888 ATO or Carnauba wax) either free or together with varying amounts (10%-30%, w/w) of stearic acid. Microspheres were prepared by ultrasound-assisted atomization of the molten dispersions and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and hot stage microscopy. The effects of different formulations on the resulting drug release profiles as a function of pH were studied and the results were discussed. The formulation of the 18 systems and the chemical form of the drug were found to strongly affect the mode of the drug release. The solubility of the chemical forms in the lipid mixture is in the following order: pyrrolidine ethanol saltacid > sodium salt (according to the solubility parameters), and the nature of the systems thus obtained ranges from a matrix, for mutually soluble drug/carrier pairs, to a microcapsule, for pairs wherein mutual solubility is poor. Drug release from microspheres prepared by pure lipids was primarily controlled by diffusion, whereas the release from microspheres containing stearic acid was diffusion/erosion controlled at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Salt-Induced Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Liddle's Syndrome is Mediated by Epithelial Sodium Channels in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huysse, James W.; Amin, Md. Shahrier; Yang, Baoli; Leenen, Frans H. H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural precursor cell expressed and developmentally downregulated 4-2 protein (Nedd4-2) facilitates the endocytosis of epithelial Na channels (ENaC). Both mice and humans with a loss of regulation of ENaC by Nedd4-2 have salt-induced hypertension. ENaC is also expressed in the brain, where it is critical for hypertension on high salt diet in salt-sensitive rats. In the present studies we assessed whether Nedd4-2 knockout (−/−) mice have: 1) increased brain ENaC; 2) elevated CSF sodium on high salt diet; and 3) enhanced pressor responses to CSF sodium and hypertension on high salt diet, both mediated by brain ENaC. Prominent choroid plexus and neuronal ENaC staining was present in −/− but not in wild-type (W/T) mice. In chronically instrumented mice, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of Na-rich aCSF increased MAP 3-fold higher in −/− than W/T. Icv infusion of the ENaC blocker benzamil abolished this enhancement. In telemetered −/− mice on high salt diet (8% NaCl), CSF [Na+], MAP and HR increased significantly, MAP by 30-35 mmHg. These MAP and HR responses were largely prevented by icv benzamil, but only to a minor extent by sc benzamil at the icv rate. We conclude that increased ENaC expression in the brain of Nedd 4-2 −/− mice mediates their hypertensive response to high salt diet, by causing increased sodium levels in the CSF as well as hyper-responsiveness to CSF sodium. These findings highlight the possible causative contribution of CNS ENaC in the etiology of salt-induced hypertension. PMID:22802227

  14. Conductivities of poly(ethylene oxide)-alkali salts with aromatic and heterocyclic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J P [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, S V [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Patel, J P [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, P V [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1993-03-01

    Complexes of PEO with the sodium salts of imidazole, benzimidazole, 2-methylbenzimidazole, 4-phenylphenol and a mesogenic ester of benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid have been prepared. The latter forms a mixed organised phase with its uncharged analogue. Highest conductivities (ca. 5x10[sup -4] cm[sup -1] at 100 C) are observed with the sodium salt of benzimidazole; the corresponding complex with the lithium salt has a lower conductivity (5x10[sup -5] S cm[sup -1]). (orig.)

  15. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  16. Association between salt substitutes/enhancers and changes in sodium levels in fast-food restaurants: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Murphy, Sarah A; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-03-07

    Restaurant foods have high sodium levels, and efforts have been made to promote reductions. The objective of this study was to understand if salt substitutes and enhancers are associated with changes in sodium levels in fast-food restaurants. A longitudinal database (MENU-FLIP) containing nutrition information for Canadian chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationally was created in 2010 and updated in 2013 and 2016. In 2016, when available, ingredient lists were collected from restaurant websites and searched for the presence of salt substitutes/enhancers. Changes in sodium levels (per serving) and the prevalence of salt substitutes/enhancers in 222 foods from 12 of the leading fast-food restaurant chains were compared across 3 time points. Sixty-nine percent of foods contained a salt substitute/enhancer. Substitutes/enhancers were found in every restaurant chain ( n = 12) for which ingredient data were available. The most common substitutes/enhancers were yeast extracts (in 30% of foods), calcium chloride (28%), monosodium glutamate (14%) and potassium chloride (12%). Sodium levels in foods that contained substitutes/enhancers decreased significantly more (190 ± 42 mg/serving) over the study period than those in foods that did not contain a substitute/enhancer (40 ± 17 mg/serving, p restaurant foods and are one means by which restaurants may be lowering sodium levels in their foods. At this time, the potential consequences of these findings, if any, are uncertain. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  17. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  18. Pluronic®-bile salt mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vijay; Ray, Debes; Bahadur, Anita; Ma, Junhe; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of two bile salts viz. sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with three ethylene polyoxide-polypropylene polyoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with similar PPO but varying PEO micelles with a focus on the effect of pH on mixed micelles. Mixed micelles of moderately hydrophobic Pluronic ® P123 were examined in the presence of two bile salts and compared with those from very hydrophobic L121 and very hydrophilic F127. Both the bile salts increase the cloud point (CP) of copolymer solution and decreased apparent micelle hydrodynamic diameter (D h ). SANS study revealed that P123 forms small spherical micelles showing a decrease in size on progressive addition of bile salts. The negatively charged mixed micelles contained fewer P123 molecules but progressively rich in bile salt. NaDC being more hydrophobic displays more pronounced effect than NaC. Interestingly, NaC shows micellar growth in acidic media which has been attributed to the formation of bile acids by protonation of carboxylate ion and subsequent solubilization. In contrast, NaDC showed phase separation at higher concentration. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments provided information on interaction and location of bile salts in micelles. Results are discussed in terms of hydrophobicity of bile salts and Pluronics ® and the site of bile salt in polymer micelles. Proposed molecular interactions are useful to understand more about bile salts which play important role in physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  20. Effect of Hofmeister series salts on Absorptivity of aqueous solutions on Sodium polyacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrapati, Swathi; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Vijayalakshmi, U.

    2017-11-01

    Sodium polyacrylate (SPA) is a popular super absorbent commonly used in children diapers, sanitary pads, adult diapers etc. The use of SPA is in force from past 30 years and the newer applications like as food preservant are evolving. SPA is recently discovered by our group for improvement of sensitivity of colorimetric agents. Though the discovery of improvement in sensitivity is phenomenal, the mechanism still remains a puzzle. A typical assay reagent contains colorimetric/fluorescent reagents, buffers, salts, stabilizers etc. These chemicals are known to influence the water absorptivity of SPA. If we were to perform chemical/biochemical assays on SPA absorbed reagents effect of salts and other excipients on colorimetric/fluorescence compounds absorbed on SPA is very important. The hofmeister series are standard for studying effect of salts on permeability, stability, aggregation, fluorescence quenching etc. We recently studied affect of urea, sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, guanidine thiocayanate on fluorescence characteristics of fluorescence compounds and noted that except urea all other reagents have resulted in fluorescence quenching and urea had an opposite effect and increased the fluorescence intensity. This result was attributed to the different water structure around fluorescent in urea solution versus other chaotropic agents.

  1. Immobilization of LiCl-Li 2 O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, salt occlusion and hydrothermal processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reaction with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream following pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and aide in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an acid digestion vessel with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  2. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2008-01-01

    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied

  3. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.com; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied.

  4. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information on methods for protecting against such risk, into an MSDS as described in § 721.72(c) within 90... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance is any manner or method of manufacture, import, or processing associated with any use of this...

  5. Ambazone-lipoic acid salt: Structural and thermal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Racz, Csaba-Pal; Santa, Szabolcs [Babes-Bolyai' University, Faculty of Chemistry, 11 Arany Janos street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rus, Lucia [' Iuliu Hatieganu' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dadarlat, Dorin; Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ibratu@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-12-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt of Ambazone with lipoic acid obtained by solvent-drop grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ambazone lipoate salt crystallizes in monoclinic system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR data suggest the deprotonation of the lipoic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal behaviour different of ambazone salt as compared to the starting compounds. - Abstract: A suitable method for increasing the solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs is their salt formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural and thermal properties of the compound obtained by solvent drop grinding (SDG) method at room temperature, starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA). The structural characterization was performed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal behaviour of the obtained compound (AMB{center_dot}LA) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photopyroelectric calorimetry, in front detection configuration (FPPE), was applied to measure and compare the room temperature values of one dynamic thermal parameter (thermal effusivity) for starting and resulting compounds. Both structural and supporting calorimetric techniques pointed out a salt structure for AMB{center_dot}LA compound as compared to those of the starting materials.

  6. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  7. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M; Krstonošić Veljko S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, ...

  8. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  9. Structure and polymer form of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, I-Ching; Yang, Sheng-Pin; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yow

    2007-01-30

    PHAs (poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixed carbon sources were investigated. Mixed carbon sources were sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid. Effect of carbon source in pre-culture on PHAs structure was investigated. Main fermentation was conducted with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid, and PHA contained both saturated and unsaturated units. When more undecylenic acid was used in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated unit increased and the T(g) of the products also changed. The PHA grown with mixture of sodium octanoate and undecylenic acid was a random copolymer, which was determined by DSC analysis. Using mixed carbon sources of sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, highest dry cell weight and PHA concentration were obtained when 0.02g or 0.04g of 5-phenylvaleric acid were added in 50mL medium. Cultured with sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, PHA containing HO (3-hydroxyoctanoate) unit and HPV (3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) unit was produced. T(g) of the products fell between those of pure PHO and pure PHPV. By means of DSC analysis and fractionation method, the PHA obtained was regarded as a random copolymer.

  10. The chemical, microbial, sensory and technological effects of intermediate salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in fresh pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, MacDonald; Steyn, Hannes; Charimba, George; Bothma, Carina; Hugo, Celia J; Hugo, Arno

    2016-09-01

    The reduction of sodium in processed meat products is synonymous with the use of salt replacers. Rarely has there been an assessment of the use of intermediate salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in itself. In this study, 1 and 1.5% salt levels were compared with 0 and 2% controls in fresh pork sausages for effects on chemical, microbial, sensory and technological stability. Although significant (P sausages stored at 4 °C on days 6 and 9 and stored at -18 °C on days 90 and 180; taste, texture and overall liking during sensory evaluation; and % cooking loss, % total loss and % refrigeration loss. Consumers were able to differentiate between the 2 and 1% added NaCl treatments in terms of saltiness. This study indicated that salt reduction to intermediate levels can be considered a sodium reduction strategy in itself but that further research with regards to product safety is needed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Characterization of starter-free Queso Fresco made with sodium-potassium salt blends over 12 weeks of 4°C storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Renye, J A; Tomasula, P M

    2017-07-01

    Development of reduced-sodium cheese to meet the demands of consumers concerned about sodium levels in their diet is challenging when a high-moisture, higher pH, fresh cheese, such as Queso Fresco (QF), depends on its NaCl salt content to obtain its signature flavor and quality traits. This study evaluated the effects of different Na-K salt blends on the compositional, sensorial, microbial, functional, and rheological properties of QF stored for up to 12 wk at 4°C. Queso Fresco curd from each vat was divided into 6 portions and salted with different blends of NaCl-KCl (Na-K, %): 0.75-0.75, 1.0-0.5, 1.0-1.0, 1.0-1.3, 1.0-1.5, and 2.0-0 (control). Within this narrow salt range (1.5 to 2.5% total salt), the moisture, protein, fat, and lactose levels; water activity; pH; and the textural and rheological properties were not affected by salt treatment or aging. The total salt, sodium, potassium, and ash contents reflected the different Na-K ratios added to the QF. Total aerobic microbial count, overall proteolysis, the release of casein phosphopeptides, and the level of volatile compounds were affected by aging but not by the salt treatment. Only the 1.0-1.3 and 1.0-1.5 Na-K cheeses had sensory saltiness scores similar to that of the 2.0-0 Na-K control QF. Loss of free serum from the cheese matrix increased steadily over the 12 wk, with higher losses found in QF containing 1.5% total salt compared with the higher Na-K blends. In conclusion, KCl substitution is a viable means for reduction of sodium in QF resulting in only minor differences in the quality traits, and levels of 1.0-1.3 and 1.0-1.5 Na-K are recommended to match the saltiness intensity of the 2.0-0 Na-K control. The findings from this study will aid cheese producers in creating reduced-sodium QF for health-conscious consumers. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid polymer microgels under various conditions of temperature, pH and salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor H. Farooqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the colloidal stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid [P(NIPAM-co-AAc] polymer microgels with different acrylic acid contents in aqueous medium under various conditions of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentrations. Three samples of multi-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AAc polymer microgels were synthesized using different amounts of acrylic acid by free radical emulsion polymerization. Dynamic laser light scattering was used to investigate the responsive behavior and stability of the prepared microgels under various conditions of pH, temperature and ionic strength. The microgels were found to be stable at all pH values above the pKa value of acrylic acid moiety in the temperature range from 15 to 60 °C in the presence and absence of sodium chloride. Increase in temperature, salt concentration and decrease in pH causes aggregation and decreases the stability of microgels due to the decrease in hydrophilicity.

  13. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Anna; Jorg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intak...

  14. Effect of a Sodium and Calcium DL-β-Hydroxybutyrate Salt in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Fischer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ketone body therapy and supplementation are of high interest for several medical and nutritional fields. The intake of ketone bodies is often discussed in relation to rare metabolic diseases, such as multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD, that have no alternatives for treatment. Case reports showed positive results of therapy using ketone bodies. The number of ketone body salts offered on the wellness market is increasing steadily. More information on the kinetics of intake, safety, and tolerance of these products is needed. Methods. In a one-dose kinetic study, six healthy subjects received an intervention (0.5 g/kg bw using a commercially available ketone body supplement. The supplement contained a mixture of sodium and calcium D-/L-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB as well as food additives. The blood samples drawn in the study were tested for concentrations of D-βHB, glucose, and electrolytes, and blood gas analyses were done. Data on sensory evaluation and observed side effects of the supplement were collected. The product also went through chemical food analysis. Results. The supplement led to a significant increase of D-βHB concentration in blood 2.5 and 3 h after oral intake (p=0.033;  p=0.043. The first significant effect was measured after 2 h with a mean value of 0.598 ± 0.300 mmol/L at the peak, which was recorded at 2.5 h. Changes in serum electrolytes and BGA were largely unremarkable. Taking the supplement was not without side effects. One subject dropped out due to gastrointestinal symptoms and two others reported similar but milder problems. Conclusions. Intake of a combination of calcium and sodium D-/L-βHB salt shows a slow resorption with a moderate increase of D-βHB in serum levels. An influence of βHB salts on acid-base balance could not be excluded by this one-dose study. Excessive regular consumption without medical observation is not free of adverse effects. The tested product can

  15. Effects of Spray Drying on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Acid Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Heinämäki, Jyrki; de la Paz, Nilia; López, Orestes; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Virtanen, Tommi; Hatanpää, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Nogueira, Antonio; Fundora, Jorge; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid were used as solvents in the process. The physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated by means of solid-state CP...

  16. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.T.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without

  17. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  18. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  19. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting under...

  1. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  2. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under this... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali...

  3. Preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of a forest mushroom Suillus luteus by sodium dodecyl sulfate based "salting-in" countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Hu, Xueqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    In the course of screening new anticancer natural products, an edible forest mushroom Suillus luteus (L. Ex Franch). Gray was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. However, the lipophilic sample made some countercurrent chromatography solvent systems emulsify, which caused difficulties in the separation of its cytotoxic components. Here, we found that the addition of an organic salt sodium dodecyl sulfate could efficiently shorten the settling time of the mushroom sample solutions by eliminating the emulsification of two-phase solvent systems. Moreover, we found that sodium dodecyl sulfate could play a new "salting-in" role and made the partition coefficients of the solutes decrease with the increased concentrations. Thus, a sodium dodecyl sulfate based salting-in countercurrent chromatography method has been successfully established for the first time for preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of the mushroom. The active component was identified as isosuillin. Whole results indicated that sodium dodecyl sulfate could be used as an efficient salting-in reagent for two-phase solvent system selection and targeted countercurrent chromatography isolation. It is very useful for current natural products isolation and drug discovery. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  5. Effect of temperature on solvation behaviour of diclofenac sodium salt in aqueous glycine and L-proline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Gardas, Ramesh L; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solvation behaviour of diclofenac drug studied in aqueous solutions. • Density and speed of sound of drug in aq. glycine and L-proline are measured. • Hydrophobic nature of diclofenac sodium salt is studied. • Effect of temperature on solvation of diclofenac sodium salt is analysed. - Abstract: Apparent molar volume (V 2,ϕ ) and apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K s,2,ϕ ) of diclofenac sodium salt (DSS) drug within the concentration range of (0.001 to 0.008) mol · kg −1 in (0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) mol · kg −1 aqueous glycine and L-proline solutions are computed from the experimental density (ρ) and speed of sound (u) values at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. Derived parameters such as partial molar properties, transfer partial molar properties, hydration numbers and Hepler’s constant are computed from the data of V 2,ϕ and K s,2,ϕ . These parameters have been used to understand the effect of temperature on interactions between DSS drug and aqueous glycine/L-proline solution. Furthermore, the structure making and breaking ability of DSS drug in probed solutions are analysed at experimental conditions

  6. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Modulating the nanorods protrusion from poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene microcapsules by 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Erjia; Wang, Tianxiang; Wang, Zhipeng; Gao, Changyou

    2013-09-01

    It was found previously that the Schiff base bonds in poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene (PAH-Py) microcapsules (MCs) are hydrolyzed at pH 2 within 1 h, leading to disassembly of the MCs and protrusion of pyrene aldehyde (Py) nanorods (NRs) on the capsule surface. Herein, we found a new way to modulate the protrusion of NRs by addition of 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt (PySO3Na). Along with the increase in PySO3Na to Py molar ratio in the MCs solution, the protrusion of NRs was progressively blocked and even inhibited at a ratio of 2.3, and at this condition, the microcapsules were stable under pH 2 for 24 h. After the composite microcapsules with excess PySO3Na were washed with a pH 10 solution and then incubated in a pH 2 solution, the NRs could be protruded from the MCs again. The fluorescence peak position of the PAH-Py/PySO3Na MCs gradually red-shifted with a decrease in pH value, and a sharp transition occurred at p H3.6, demonstrating the formation of pyrene excimers between the PySO3Na small molecules and the pendant Py groups on the PAH chain. The formed excimers take the role of blocking the self-assembly of cleaved Py molecules instead of inhibiting the hydrolysis of the Schiff base, whereas the MCs were stabilized by the charge interaction between PySO3Na and PAH backbone and the hydrophobic interaction between the pyrene rings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

  9. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-05-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

  10. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  11. Relationship between sodium influx and salt tolerance of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, S.K.; Reddy, B.R.; Thomas, J.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between sodium uptake and cyanobacterial salt (NaCl) tolerance has been examined in two filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing species of Anabaena. During diazotrophic growth at neutral pH of the growth medium, Anabaena sp. strain L-31, a freshwater strain, showed threefold higher uptake of Na+ than Anabaena torulosa, a brackish-water strain, and was considerably less salt tolerant (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 55 mM) than the latter (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 170 mM). Alkaline pH or excess K+ (more than 25 mM) in the medium causes membrane depolarization and inhibits Na+ influx in both cyanobacteria (S.K. Apte and J. Thomas, Eur. J. Biochem. 154:395-401, 1986). The presence of nitrate or ammonium in the medium caused inhibition of Na+ influx accompanied by membrane depolarization. These experimental manipulations affecting Na+ uptake demonstrated a good negative correlation between Na+ influx and salt tolerance. All treatments which inhibited Na+ influx (such as alkaline pH, K+ above 25 mM, NO3-, and NH4+), enhanced salt tolerance of not only the brackish-water but also the freshwater cyanobacterium. The results indicate that curtailment of Na+ influx, whether inherent or effected by certain environmental factors (e.g., combined nitrogen, alkaline pH), is a major mechanism of salt tolerance in cyanobacteria. (Refs. 27)

  12. Reduction of sodium and increment of calcium and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dry fermented sausages: effects on the mineral content, lipid profile and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Íñiguez de Ciriano, Mikel; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2013-03-15

    A combined technological approach was applied in the development of healthier dry fermented sausages: a partial substitution of the pork back fat by pre-emulsified linseed oil and a partial replacement of sodium chloride with calcium ascorbate at two different levels, leading to low amounts of salt (14gSalt and 10gSalt, with 14 g and 10 g NaCl per kg of mixture, respectively). The developed products (14gSalt and 10gSalt) showed adequate results for a(w) (0.85 and 0.87) and pH (4.98 and 5.21), and low lipid oxidation values (1.4 × 10(-4) and 1.5 × 10(-5) g malondialdehyde (MDA) kg(-1)). The lipid modification led to a significantly higher supply of ω-3 (23.3 g kg(-1) ) compared to the control (3.2 g kg(-1) ). Simultaneously, reductions of 38% and 50% in sodium content and a calcium supply of 4 and 5.2 g kg(-1) were achieved in the 14gSalt and 10gSalt formulations, respectively, compared to the control products (26 g salt and 0.87 g kg(-1) Ca). Instrumental analysis of colour and texture and sensory studies demonstrated that the organoleptic quality of the new formulations was similar to that of traditional products. The developed dry fermented sausages showed healthier properties than traditional ones owing to their reduced sodium and higher calcium content and a significant supply of ω-3 fatty acids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. VI. Effect of sodium chloride and abscisic acid on amino-acid and protein metabolism in leaves of Phaseolus aconitifolius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Kreutmeier, F.; Sankhla, N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) and abscisic acid (ABA) on protein synthesis, protein hydrolysis, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase and amino-acid composition was investigated in the leaves of four days old Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings. Both NaCl and ABA inhibited protein synthesis, but promoted the activities of leucine arylamidase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase. The results of the amino-acid analysis indicated following treatment with NaCl the amounts of proline, arginine, serine and glutamic acid increased significantly in the leaves. An increase of the proline concentration could be observed only up to a salt concentration of 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M. Increasing concentrations of ABA also brought a corresponding rise in proline, serine and glutamic acid content. Interestingly the decrease of proline concentration by a salt concentration of more than 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M is correlated with a decrease in endogenous ABA-content. The possible significance of the similarites between the action of abscisic acid and salinity in influencing the amino-acid and protein metabolism in Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings during stress is discussed. 31 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Formation of the reduced form of furaneol® (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one) during the Maillard reaction through catalysis of amino acid metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Wang, Xi; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-11-01

    Under pyrolytic conditions the acidity/basicity of Maillard reaction mixtures can be controlled through the use of hydrochloride or sodium salts of amino acids to generate a diversity of products. When the degradation of glucose was studied under pyrolytic conditions using excess sodium glycinate the reaction was found to generate a major unknown peak having a molecular ion at m/z 130. Subsequent in-depth isotope labelling studies indicated that acetol was an important precursor of this compound under pyrolytic and aqueous heating conditions. The dimerisation and cyclisation of acetol into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one was found to be catalysed by amino acid metal salts. Also, ESI/qTOF/MS studies indicated that the unknown peak has expected molecular formula of C6H10O3. Finally, a peak having the same retention time and mass spectrum was also generated pyrolytically when furaneol® was reduced with NaBH4 confirming the initial hypothesis regarding the unknown peak to be the reduced form of furaneol®. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    using a sodium borohydride–THF–methanol system. The alcohols ... rature using ethanol or methanol as solvent. Although, .... acids, phenylacetic acids, phenylpropanoic acid and cinnamic ... excess of reagent in water or alcohol, involved a.

  16. Sodium benzyl(monoethanol)ammonium bis(gluconatoborate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'zhenskaya, P.N.; Shvarts, E.M.; Vitola, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    Boron compounds with gluconic acid and monoethanol- and benzylamines are synthesized and investigated by physicochemical methods (IR-spectroscopy, thermal decomposition, conductometry, Fischer titration). Tetracoordinated boron has two free hydroxyl groups, dimer of boron-gluconate anion is held by hydrogen bonds, sodium ions and ammonium protonated salts are cations

  17. Dietary Sodium Modifies Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; MacGinley, Robert J; Kelly, Jaimon; Merriman, Tony R; Major, Tanya J; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-11-06

    Subjects with hypertension are frequently obese or insulin resistant, both conditions in which hyperuricemia is common. Obese and insulin-resistant subjects are also known to have blood pressure that is more sensitive to changes in dietary sodium intake. Whether hyperuricemia is a resulting consequence, moderating or contributing factor to the development of hypertension has not been fully evaluated and very few studies have reported interactions between sodium intake and serum uric acid. We performed further analysis of our randomized controlled clinical trials (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #12609000161224 and #12609000292279) designed to assess the effects of modifying sodium intake on concentrations of serum markers, including uric acid. Uric acid and other variables (including blood pressure, renin, and aldosterone) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks following the commencement of low (60 mmol/day), moderate (150 mmol/day), and high (200-250 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake. The median aldosterone-to-renin ratio was 1.90 [pg/ml]/[pg/ml] (range 0.10-11.04). Serum uric acid fell significantly in both the moderate and high interventions compared to the low sodium intervention. This pattern of response occurred when all subjects were analyzed, and when normotensive or hypertensive subjects were analyzed alone. Although previously reported in hypertensive subjects, these data provide evidence in normotensive subjects of an interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid. As this interaction is present in the absence of hypertension, it is possible it could play a role in hypertension development, and will need to be considered in future trials of dietary sodium intake. The trials were registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000161224 and ACTRN1260. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  19. Salt consumption and the effect of salt on mineral metabolism in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Parker, M T; Daniluk, P D; Pagan, K I; Williams, J; Soderholm, L V; Hintz, H F

    1987-04-01

    The voluntary salt consumption of mature unexercised horses was measured weekly for up to 45 weeks. Voluntary intake among horses was quite variable ranging from 19 to 143 g of salt per day and was inversely related to total salt intake (salt in feeds plus voluntary intake). Mean daily voluntary salt consumption was 53 g. Season of the year did not influence voluntary intake. In preference tests which evaluated every two choice combination of 0.2% and 4% NaCl in test diets fed daily for four days, ponies generally preferred diets containing the lower amount of salt. In similar preference studies which used NaHCO3 as a sodium source, ponies always preferred the diet containing the lower level of NaHCO3. Metabolism studies employing diets containing 1, 3 or 5% NaCl showed that urinary excretion was the major excretory pathway for sodium and chloride. Fecal excretion, intestinal absorption and retention of sodium were not affected by level of salt intake. Urinary calcium excretion was unaffected by salt intake but calcium and phosphorus absorption and retention were enhanced when ponies were fed diets containing 3 or 5% sodium chloride. Magnesium and copper metabolism were unaffected by salt intake. Horses voluntarily consume relatively large amounts of sodium chloride but it is likely that not all voluntary consumption is related to the salt requirement of the horse. Habit and taste preference could also be involved. Salt consumption at the levels used in these studies does not appear to be detrimental to the metabolism of other minerals in the horse.

  20. Sorption and pertechnetate by salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes was investigated. Distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 ml/g were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + salts. A saturation capacity of proportional 0,19 mmol/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was found from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase is supposed. (orig.)

  1. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  2. On catalysis of the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by salts of nontransition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, P.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Potekhin, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of salts formed by alkali and alkaline-earth metals with aliphatic acids on chain initiation during the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by air. The oxidation was carried out in an autoclave under 10 kg/cm 2 pressure in the temperature range 120-150 0 C, at catalyst concentrations in the range 0.0-2.36.10 -2 M. The inhibitor concentration was varied in the range 0.0-9.5.10 -4 M. Sodium, cesium, barium lithium and calcium stearates and sodium pelargonate (Pe) were used as catalysts. It was found that salts formed by nontransition metals with aliphatic acids having acid radicals with 9-16 carbon atoms are active catalysts of chain initiation. The catalytic activity of the salts increases with the ionic radius of the cation in the series LiSt 2 2 < CsSt. Radical formation is a first-order process with respect to the catalyst and is due to the polar group of the salt

  3. Intake of low sodium salt substitute for 3years attenuates the increase in blood pressure in a rural population of North China - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Webster, Jacqui; Fu, Ling-Yu; Wang, Hai-Long; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen-Li; Shi, Jing-Pu

    2016-07-15

    Lowering salt intake is one of the successful and cost-effective methods to reduce blood pressure (BP). In this randomized controlled study, we investigated the effects of a 3-year substitution of table salt with a low-sodium salt substitute in a rural population of North China. Subjects from 200 families residing in five villages in Liaoning, North China were registered in this study and randomly divided into two groups: normal salt (100% sodium chloride) and low salt substitute (65% NaCl, 25% KCl, 10% MgSO4). We compared the effects of the low-sodium salt substitute and normal salt on differences in BP from baseline to various follow-up time points during this 3-year study period. We also examined several factors that may affect the long-term changes in BP. Hypertension was defined per World Health Organization guidelines as BP≥140/90mmHg. The low sodium substitute significantly reduced the increase in both systolic and diastolic BP compared with the regular salt (P=0.000). Also, the population aged 40-70years showed most beneficial response to the salt substitute compared with those aged 70years. The low salt substitute had similar beneficial effects in both males and females. In addition, the salt type consumed and body mass index significantly affected the change in BP. Use of the salt substitute significantly reduces the increase in BP over a long term, and thus, the salt substitute can be used as a replacement for regular salt in the daily diet to prevent/diminish the incidence of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali...

  5. Ionic conductivity of ternary electrolyte containing sodium salt and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Minato; Asai, Takahito; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary electrolyte containing NaBF 4 , polyether and ionic liquid has been prepared. ► The conductivity of the electrolytes has been evaluated toward content of ionic liquid. ► The conductivity shows maximum 1.2 mS cm −1 and is varied in relation to solution structure. - Abstract: For the development of novel non-aqueous sodium ion conductor with safety of sodium secondary cell, non-flammable ionic liquid is attractive as electrolyte component. A preliminary study has been carried out for the purpose of constructing sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on ionic liquid. The solubility of sodium salt such as NaBF 4 in ionic liquid is poor, thus the ternary electrolyte has been prepared where NaBF 4 with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) as coordination former is dissolved with ionic liquid diethyl methoxyethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF 4 ). The maximum conductivity among the prepared solutions, ca. 1.2 mS cm −1 at 25 °C, was obtained when the molar ratio (ethylene oxide unit in PEGDME):NaBF 4 :DEMEBF 4 was 8:1:2. The relationship between the conductivity of the ternary electrolyte and its solution structure has been discussed.

  6. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN P-97-553...

  7. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  8. Anionic salts in the prepartum diet and addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum replacer, and their effects on immunoglobulin G absorption in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Marston, S P; Whitehouse, N L; Van Amburgh, M E; Schwab, C G; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine whether feeding anionic salts to prepartum Holstein cows affected their calf's colostral IgG passive transfer and whether adding sodium bicarbonate to a colostrum replacer (CR) would increase the efficiency of IgG absorption. Forty Holstein cows and their resulting calves were assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design based on expected date of calving. Three weeks before the projected due date, cows were placed on 1 of 2 treatments: a diet without anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of +77 mEq/kg) or a diet with anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of -100 mEq/kg). Within 45 min after birth, all calves received 1 dose of a commercially available CR (132g of IgG) without or with supplemental sodium bicarbonate (19.5 g/dose). A half-dose of CR (66g of IgG) and sodium bicarbonate (9.75g) was fed at 6h of age. Calves received milk replacer at 12, 24, 36, and 48h. Blood samples were obtained from calves at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h and were analyzed for IgG concentration. Cows fed the diet supplemented with anionic salts had lower DMI on d 8, 5, 4, and 1 and lower urine pH 2 and 1 wk before parturition compared with cows fed the diet without supplemental anionic salts. Calves born from dams receiving anionic salts had similar IgG concentrations (15.1 vs. 14.4g/L) and apparent efficiency of absorption values (29.2 vs. 28.2%) compared with calves born from dams not fed anionic salts. Calves receiving supplemental sodium bicarbonate in the CR had higher serum IgG concentrations at 12 (14.4 vs. 12.0g/L), 24 (16.3 vs. 13.2g/L), and 48h (14.6 vs. 11.2g/L) and higher apparent efficiency of absorption values (31.2 vs. 26.1%) than calves that did not receive sodium bicarbonate in the CR. Calves receiving sodium bicarbonate also had greater area under the curve values for IgG absorption compared with calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate. There was a trend

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts Against Microbial in Koji-Muro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Aya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro. Nine fatty acid salts were tested. The result, C12K was antibacterial effect against B. subtilis. C10K and C12K was antifungal effect against R. oryzae. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro.

  10. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  11. Study of lithium extraction from brine water, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia by the precipitation series of oxalic acid and carbonate sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, Eko; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Mayangsari, W.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium is one of the key elements in the development of batteries for electric car applications. Currently, the resources of the world's lithium are derived from brine water and lithium mineral based on spodumene rock. Indonesia which is located in the area of the ring of fire, has potential brine water resources in some area, such as brine water from Bledug Kuwu, Central Java that used in this research. The purposes of this research are to characterize brine water, Bledug Kuwu and to investigate the influence of chemical solvents on Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B ion precipitation from brine water. This research was done with 2 times the process of chemical precipitation that runs series as follows: 5 liters of brine water were chemically precipitated using 400 ml of 12.43 N oxalic acid and followed by chemical precipitation using 400 mL of 7.07 N sodium carbonate solutions. Evaporation and filtration processes were also done twice in an effort to separate white precipitate and filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed by ICP-OES and white precipitates (salts) were analyzed by SEM, XRD, and XRF. The result shows that oxalate precipitation process extracted 32.24% Al, 23.42% B, 22.43% Ca, 14.26% Fe, 3.21 % K, 9.86% Na and 14.26% Li, the following process by carbonate precipitation process extracted 98.86% Mg, 73% Ca, 22.53% Li, 82.04% Al, 14.38% B, 12.50% K, 2.27% Na. There is 63.21% lithium is not extracted from the series process. The SEM analysis shows that the structure of granules on the precipitated salts by oxalic acid form gentle cubic-shaped solid. In the other hand, oxalate precipitation followed by sodium carbonate has various particle sizes and the shape of crystals is fragments, prism and cube look like magnesium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcite's crystal respectively. This is in accordance with XRD analysis that phases of whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O), disodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), magnesite (MgCO3), calcium lithium aluminum (Al1.19 Ca1Li0.81), dolomite (CaCO3

  12. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  13. Using Aspen simulation package to determine solubility of mixed salts in TRU waste evaporator bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Nitric acid from plutonium process waste is a candidate for waste minimization by recycling. Process simulation software packages, such as Aspen, are valuable tools to estimate how effective recovery processes can be, however, constants in equations of state for many ionic components are not in their data libraries. One option is to combine single salt solubility`s in the Aspen model for mixed salt system. Single salt solubilities were regressed in Aspen within 0.82 weight percent of literature values. These were combined into a single Aspen model and used in the mixed salt studies. A simulated nitric acid waste containing mixed aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium and sodium nitrate was tested to determine points of solubility between 25 and 100 C. Only four of the modeled experimental conditions, at 50 C and 75 C, produced a saturated solution. While experimental results indicate that sodium nitrate is the first salt to crystallize out, the Aspen computer model shows that the most insoluble salt, magnesium nitrate, the first salt to crystallize. Possible double salt formation is actually taking place under experimental conditions, which is not captured by the Aspen model.

  14. Cerebral salt wasting: a report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younas, H.; Sabir, O.; Tarif, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia secondary to the Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) secretion is commonly observed in patients with various neurological disorders. Cerebral Salt Wasting (CSW) resulting in hyponatremia is also an infrequent occurrence in some patients with neurological disorders. Confusion in differentiating CSW from SIADH may arise since both results in similar electrolyte disturbances. Herein, we report three cases of CSW with intracranial afflictions. CSW was diagnosed on the basis of fractional excretion of urinary sodium and uric acid along with extremely low serum uric acid. Improvements in serum sodium levels after saline hydration and fludrocortisone administration further supported the diagnosis. (author)

  15. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  16. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, S.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [ 14 C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  17. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  18. Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Sablani, Shyam S

    2011-09-01

    Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. [Impact of a simultaneous application of anionic salts and rumen buffer on acid-base-balance and mineral metabolism in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Hauser, Simone; Löptien, Antje; Montag, Nicole; Passmann, Mareike; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of simultaneous application of anionic salts (AS) and rumen buffer (RB) on the metabolism of dairy cows was examined. Eleven rumen fistulated, non-pregnant and non-lactating dairy cows received equal amounts of one AS (CaCl2 or CaSO4) and one RB (NaHCO3 or KHCO3) via rumen cannula during feeding time over a period of eight days. Before the first application of AS and RB and on day eight of the treatment period, blood, urine and rumen fluid samples were taken. The following parameters were measured: whole blood: pH, base excess, bicarbonate; serum: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; urine: pH, net acid base excretion, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; rumen fluid: pH. The changes of each parameter were compared via ANOVA. The changes in acid-base balance on day eight were very small, although significant. But p-values showed that the statistical evidence was low. The most changes occurred when NaHCO3 was fed in combination with one of the AS used. In this case a small acidogenic load was seen in blood (p buffer must not be fed, if anionic salts are given for prevention of parturient paresis.

  20. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  1. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters

  3. Bile salt tolerance of Lactococcus lactis is enhanced by expression of bile salt hydrolase thereby producing less bile acid in the cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jie; Liu, Song; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Changes of bile salt tolerance, morphology and amount of bile acid within cells were studied to evaluate the exact effects of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) on bile salt tolerance of microorganism. The effect of BSHs on the bile salt tolerance of Lactococcus lactis was examined by expressing two BSHs (BSH1 and BSH2). Growth of L. lactis expressing BSH1 or BSH2 was better under bile salt stress compared to wild-type L. lactis. As indicated by transmission electron microscopy, bile acids released by the action of BSH induced the formation of micelles around the membrane surface of cells subject to conjugated bile salt stress. A similar micelle containing bile acid was observed in the cytoplasm by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. BSH1 produced fewer bile acid micelles in the cytoplasm and achieved better cell growth of L. lactis compared to BSH2. Expression of BSH improved bile salt tolerance of L. lactis but excessive production by BSH of bile acid micelles in the cytoplasm inhibited cell growth.

  4. Measurement and prediction of physical properties of aqueous sodium salt of L-phenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Sahil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties, such as density, refractive index and viscosity, of an aqueous sodium salt of (S-2-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid (L-phenylalanine, Na-Phe were investigated in this work. These properties were measured over a temperature range of 298.15–343.15 K at atmospheric pressure. The mass fractions (w of Na-Phe were 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40. The analysis of the experimental data showed that the values of density, refractive index and viscosity decreased with increasing temperature at any constant concentration of Na-Phe. However, these values increased with increasing concentration at any constant temperature. The density values were used to estimate the thermal expansion coefficient. The thermal expansion coefficient increased slightly with increasing temperature and concentration. The density and refractive index data were correlated using a modified Graber equation, while, the viscosity data were correlated using a modified Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF equation. In all the cases, quantitative analyses of the influence of temperature and concentration were performed.

  5. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  6. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  7. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  8. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate

  9. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  10. Study of sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) from basic hydrolysis of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela, José; Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Cao-Milán, Roberto; Herrera, José A.; Díaz, Jesús A.; Farías, Mario H.; Mikosch, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • S adlayer formation from descomposition of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt under alkaline conditions. • Quasi-rectangular octomers (eight sulfur atoms) coexist with another phase. • A DFT surface model of four S-dimers arranged as octomers reproduced real STM images. - Abstract: Sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) were obtained after the interaction of a gold substrate with an alkaline solution of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt. Characterization of the sulfur modified gold surface was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. XPS signals indicated the presence of S–Au bonds, monomeric and polymeric sulfur, and absence of nitrogen and sodium. Images from STM showed the formation of quasi-rectangular octomers in coexistence with another phase. A DFT model using the arrangement of sulfur dimers on the Au(1 1 1) surface effectively reproduced the experimental STM images

  11. Study of sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) from basic hydrolysis of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Javier A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Valenzuela, José [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E. [Laboratorio de Química Computacional y Teórica (LQCT), Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Cao-Milán, Roberto [Laboratorio de Bioinorgánica (LBI), Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Herrera, José A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Díaz, Jesús A.; Farías, Mario H. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Mikosch, Hans [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/E164-EC, 1060 Vienna (Austria); and others

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • S adlayer formation from descomposition of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt under alkaline conditions. • Quasi-rectangular octomers (eight sulfur atoms) coexist with another phase. • A DFT surface model of four S-dimers arranged as octomers reproduced real STM images. - Abstract: Sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) were obtained after the interaction of a gold substrate with an alkaline solution of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt. Characterization of the sulfur modified gold surface was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. XPS signals indicated the presence of S–Au bonds, monomeric and polymeric sulfur, and absence of nitrogen and sodium. Images from STM showed the formation of quasi-rectangular octomers in coexistence with another phase. A DFT model using the arrangement of sulfur dimers on the Au(1 1 1) surface effectively reproduced the experimental STM images.

  12. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  13. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  14. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvelds, MJC; Jorna, H; Verkade, HJ; Bot, AGM; Hofmann, F; Agellon, LB; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, HR

    2005-01-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal

  15. The use of approximation formulae in calculations of acid-base equilibria-II: salts of mono- and diprotic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaki, H

    1980-02-01

    The pH of solutions of salts of mono- and diprotic acids is calculated by use of approximation formulae and the theoretically exact equations. The regions for useful application of the approximation formulae (error monoprotic acids, areas are symmetrically equal to those of the acids. For salts of diprotic acids the ranges generally depend on K(2)/K(1).

  16. Salt taste adaptation: the psychophysical effects of adapting solutions and residual stimuli from prior tastings on the taste of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews how adaptation to sodium chloride, changing in concentration as a result of various experimental procedures, affects measurements of the sensitivity, intensity, and quality of the salt taste. The development of and evidence for the current model that the salt taste depends on an adaptation level (taste zero) determined by the sodium cation concentration is examined and found to be generally supported, despite great methodological complications. It would seem that lower adaptation levels elicit lower thresholds, higher intensity estimates, and altered quality descriptions with predictable effects on psychophysical measures.

  17. Effects of toxic levels of sodium, arsenic, iron and aluminum on the rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockard, R G; McWalter, A R

    1956-01-01

    The results of two sand culture experiments on rice plants are described. In one, the toxic effects of sodium, as sodium chloride, and of arsenic, as sodium arsenate, were tested; in the other, iron, chelated with the disodium salt of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid, and aluminium, as aluminium sulfate, were tried out. The former was undertaken because of the existence of these sub

  18. Evaluation tissue dissolution property of 2.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite Prepared by Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate: An in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires chemical preparation in addition to mechanical preparation. The most common material for chemical preparations is sodium hypochlorite. One way to reduce the effects of pH adjustment is the use of sodium hypochlorite. The present paper was conducted to examine the effect of dilution with hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate and reduce pH on ability of tissue solubility of sodium hypochlorite. The present study was conducted in vitro on bovine muscle tissue. Ability of tissue solubility was conducted in four groups respectively with active ingredient including 1 sodium hypochlorite diluted with distilled water 2 sodium hypochlorite diluted with sodium bicarbonate 3 sodium hypochlorite diluted with hydrochloric acid and finally 4 distilled water (control group. Each sample was firstly weighed and then placed in contact with 10 m/L solution for 60 minutes (five 12 -minute intervals. The sample was weighted every five minutes and solution was renewed. The results were analyzed using SPSS-21 Software based on variance analysis, Tukey and T-test (α=0.05. The findings showed that there was significant difference between first, second and third groups in terms of ability of tissue solubility. However, the tissue solubility in second and third groups was lower than first group and it was similar in second and third groups (P Value <0.001. Reduction of sodium bicarbonate PH using sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid reduces ability of tissue solubility in sodium hypochlorite.

  19. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  20. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...

  1. Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

  2. Effect of processing variables on the outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores in comminuted meat cured with sorbic acid and sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robach, M C

    1979-11-01

    The effects of the initial pH and a "short pump" on the outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores in comminuted cured pork were studied. Fresh ground pork was cured with salt, sugar, phosphate, ascorbate, and varying amounts of sodium nitrite and sorbic acid. The product was comminuted and inoculated with 1,000 spores of C. sporogenes per g. The meat was stuffed into 1-ounce (ca. 28.4-g) aluminum tubes, cooked to 58.5 degrees C, cooled, and incubated at 27 degrees C to observe for swells. Product cured with 0.2% sorbic acid in combination with 40 ppm sodium nitrite (40 microgram/g) had better clostridium inhibition than did product cured with 120 ppm nitrite within a pH range of 5.0 to 6.7. The sorbic acid-40 ppm nitrite combination also gave better clostridial protection than did the 120 ppm nitrite alone when reduced amounts of curing ingredients were present.

  3. Effect of processing variables on the outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores in comminuted meat cured with sorbic acid and sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robach, M C

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the initial pH and a "short pump" on the outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores in comminuted cured pork were studied. Fresh ground pork was cured with salt, sugar, phosphate, ascorbate, and varying amounts of sodium nitrite and sorbic acid. The product was comminuted and inoculated with 1,000 spores of C. sporogenes per g. The meat was stuffed into 1-ounce (ca. 28.4-g) aluminum tubes, cooked to 58.5 degrees C, cooled, and incubated at 27 degrees C to observe for swells. Product cured with 0.2% sorbic acid in combination with 40 ppm sodium nitrite (40 microgram/g) had better clostridium inhibition than did product cured with 120 ppm nitrite within a pH range of 5.0 to 6.7. The sorbic acid-40 ppm nitrite combination also gave better clostridial protection than did the 120 ppm nitrite alone when reduced amounts of curing ingredients were present. PMID:44445

  4. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

  5. Influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariutti, Lilian R B; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-04-01

    Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is a widely used additive in food industry due to its preservation and antimicrobial properties provided by its ability to reduce water activity. Moreover, the addition of salt to meat and seafood aims at improving water retention capacity and enhancing flavor due to its influence on the activity of some enzymes responsible for flavor development. On the other hand, salt added in meat and seafood can favor lipid oxidation, which is one of the main responsibles for quality losses in the food industry. In this review, the main mechanisms of fatty acids and cholesterol oxidation are described as well as the influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood. Besides, the possible mechanisms of the pro-oxidant action of sodium chloride are presented and potential solutions to inhibit the salt action in lipid oxidation and decrease the salt content in food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  7. Exogenous ascorbic acid increases resistance to salt of Silybum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, ...

  8. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  9. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Viscosities; oxalic acid and its salts; water + THF mixtures; structure-breakers. 1. Introduction ... has found its application in the organic syntheses as manifested from ... water. In other words, these results indicate that oxalic acid and its salts mix ...

  10. The ontogeny of salt hunger in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, M

    1999-05-01

    Salt hunger is the behaviour of an animal suffering sodium deficiency. It is characterised by an increased motivation to seek and ingest sodium, and the ability to distinguish between sodium and other salts. Here I review the development of salt hunger in the rat. Salt hunger develops rapidly between birth and weaning. It can first be demonstrated 72 h postnatally when an intracerebroventricular injection of renin elicits greater swallowing of NaCl solution than water and greater mouthing of solid fragments of NaCl than of an artificial sweetener. However, sodium deficit per se cannot arouse the hunger at this age, and first elicits increased intake of NaCl only at 12 days-of-age. The next landmark is at 17 days-of-age when the hormonal synergy of aldosterone and central angiotensin II first elicits salt hunger, as it does in the adult. The specificity of the hunger for the sodium ion also develops postnatally: the 72 h-old sodium-hungry neonate does not distinguish between NaCl and other mono- and di-valent chloride salts but, increasingly during development, the sodium hungry pup distinguishes salts and by weaning age NaCl is clearly preferred to other salts almost as it is in adults. Early development may also be a sensitive period for determining lifelong preferences, and indeed, acute perinatal sodium depletion induces a lifelong enhancement of salt intake. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how a behaviour develops precociously and how, when the behaviour becomes important at weaning, the rat pup is competent to meet its sodium requirements, and may be adapted to anticipate sodium deficit.

  11. N-Lauroyl sarcosine sodium salt mediated formation of hydroxyapatite microspheres via a hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xiufeng; Zheng Xuan; Liu Rongfang; Lu Yihua; Wu Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    Dandelion-like hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres were successfully prepared using Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 ·3H 2 O as raw materials and N-Lauroyl sarcosine sodium salt (Sar-Na) as template via a hydrothermal route. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and thermal properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. The results demonstrate that, Sar-Na has great impact on the morphology of HA. With increasing the amount of Sar-Na, the morphology of HA varies from nanograins to nanorods, finally grows into dandelion-like microstructure. The obtained dandelion-like HA microspheres about 6 μm in diameter are composed of radially oriented nanorods. Furthermore, the possible formation mechanism of morphology change is also discussed. - Highlights: ► N-Lauroyl sarcosine sodium salt is firstly used to control the morphology of hydroxyapatite. ► The mechanism of Sar-Na on the morphology of hydroxyapatite are discussed in this paper. ► The dandelion-like microsphere hydroxyapatite are obtained at suitable conditions.

  12. Molten salt combustion of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.; Richards, W.L.; Oldenkamp, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible β-γ contaminated transuranic waste by utilizing air in a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. Typically, incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are below detection limits (i.e., 3 ) is directly related to the sodium chloride vapor pressure of the melt; >80% of the particulate is sodium chloride. Essentially all metal oxides (combustion ash) are retained in the melt, e.g., >99.9% of the plutonium, >99.6% of the europium, and >99.9% of the ruthenium are retained in the melt. Both bench-scale radioactive and pilot scale (50 kg/hr) nonradioactive combustion tests have been completed with essentially the same results. Design of three combustors for industrial applications are underway

  13. Imidazolinium and amidinium salts as Lewis acid organocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sereda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of imidazolinium and amidinium salts as soft Lewis acid organocatalysts is described. These salts were suitable catalysts for the activation of unsaturated thioesters in a Diels–Alder reaction and in the ring opening of thiiranes and epoxides. The products were isolated in good yields. The mild catalysts did not cause desulfurization of the products containing a thiol or thiocarbonyl group.

  14. A gene-based analysis of variants in the serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK genes with blood pressure responses to sodium intake: the GenSalt Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Li

    Full Text Available Serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK plays a critical role in the regulation of renal sodium transport. We examined the association between SGK genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP using single-marker and gene-based association analysis.A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day was conducted among 1,906 Chinese participants. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Additive associations between each SNP and salt-sensitivity phenotypes were assessed using a mixed linear regression model to account for family dependencies. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated p-value method. The Bonferroni-method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses.In single-marker association analyses, SGK1 marker rs2758151 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 0.0010. DBP responses (95% confidence interval to high-sodium intervention for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were 2.04 (1.57 to 2.52, 1.79 (1.42 to 2.16, and 0.85 (0.30 to 1.41 mmHg, respectively. Similar trends were observed for SBP and MAP responses although not significant (P = 0.15 and 0.0026, respectively. In addition, gene-based analyses demonstrated significant associations between SGK1 and SBP, DBP and MAP responses to high sodium intervention (P = 0.0002, 0.0076, and 0.00001, respectively. Neither SGK2 nor SGK3 were associated with the salt-sensitivity phenotypes in single-maker or gene-based analyses.The current study identified association of the SGK1 gene and BP salt-sensitivity in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to identify causal SGK1 gene variants.

  15. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris, E-mail: luo105@psu.edu [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • XPS revealed that these fiber surfaces contain sodium carbonate weathering products. • IGC–MS data confirms the products of acetic acid reaction with sodium carbonate. • NMR data shows two closely spaced, but distinct sodium carboxylate peaks. • Acetic acid reacts with both sodium in the glass and sodium in the sodium carbonate. - Abstract: Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a {sup 13}C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC–MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H

  16. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  17. [Technological and pharmacotherapeutic properties of selected drugs with modified release of diclofenac sodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof; Kołodziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2012-01-01

    Diclofenac and its sodium salt is one of the best-known and popular therapeutic agents from the group of NSAIDs used in medicine in many various pharmaceutical forms. Therapeutic products containing diclofenac sodium salt in doses of 100 mg and 75 mg with a qualitatively and quantitatively diversified share of excipients and a variable dosage form of the drug (solid capsules, tablets with modified release) were subjected to technological and pharmaceutical analysis. The effect of solid formulation components of polymer character making the core and the coating of the pharmaceutical form of therapeutic products on the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability in pharmacopoeial receptor fluids was estimated. Market therapeutic products with diclofenac sodium in doses of 75 mg and 100 mg, technological analysis of the drug dosage form was conducted, disintegration time of solid oral dosage forms of the drug with diclofenac sodium salt was examined and research on pharmaceutical availability of diclofenac sodium salt from tested therapeutic products was conducted using the acid phase and the buffer phase according to the FP standards for delayed release enteral dosage forms. The experimental data was supplemented with the statistical analysis. There are three formulations in the form of solid capsules and one formulation in the form of a coated tablet. All therapeutic products bear features of a dosage form of modified release of diclofenac sodium salt, frequently of a delayed release formula in the duodenum or the small intestine with regard to the limitation of typical undesirable effects after taking NSAIDs. Considerable diversity between solid capsules and the tablet with modified release during disintegration or hydration and swelling has been observed. In the environment of a receptor fluid--purified water (pH = 7) the capsule Dicloberl retard disintegrates at the fastest rate in 5,49 minutes, and then in the order: DicloDuo 75 mg--8,13 minutes and

  18. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Safonov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid development of science, humanity has achieved remarkable success in various fields. This also applies to the synthesis of biological compounds. Over the centuries, scientists have invented many methods and drugs that are being actively used to date. Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole can be the foundation for the manufacture of new native drugs that will compete with foreign ones. The aim of work was synthesis and confirmation the structure of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetate acids salts. Materials and methods. As starting substances we used 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids, which were synthesized by previously described methods. The structure of synthesized compounds was confirmed by the complex use of modern physical-chemical methods of analysis: elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, HPLC-MS. Results. Salts of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids were synthesized by the interaction of the appropriate acids with organic (morpholin, methanamin, 2-hydroxyethanamin, inorganic basics (aqueous ammonia solution, sodium hydroxide and salts (zinc sulfate, ferrum (III chloride, magnesium sulfate, copper (II sulfate in alcoholic or aqueous media. Conclusions. A series of novel 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts were synthesized. The structure of synthesized compounds is established using modern physical-chemical methods of analysis.

  19. Study of the moderating effect of salts on the sodium-water reaction on the cleaning of irradiated fuel assemblies from fast neutron reactors, using fluid sodium heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of generation IV reactors one of the research tracks is related to the development of fast neutron reactors using fluid sodium heat transfer. The CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) plans to build a prototype of reactor of this type called 'ASTRID'. To address development requirements for this prototype, research is in progress on the reactor's availability and in particular on the reduction of the washing duration for residual sodium fuel assemblies during their discharge. In fact, because sodium is very reactive with water (presently the only available process), the washing is done, for example, by very gradual addition. A solution currently being studied at the CEA and which is the subject of this thesis report consists of the addition of an aqueous salts solutions to the washing water in order to slow down the kinetic reaction. This doctoral dissertation describes the various salts, which have been evaluated and aims to explain their action mode. (author) [fr

  20. Microencapsulated acids associated with essential oils and acid salts for piglets in the nursery phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Callegari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial blends of organic and inorganic acids combined with essential oils for piglets in the nursery phase. The formulations were administered as microcapsules or as acid salts. Ninety-six, Pen Ar Lan, barrow and female piglets, weaned at a body weight of 600 kg ± 12 kg and age of 23 days were subjected to four treatments. The animals were distributed in randomized blocks of three animals per pen and 8 replicates per treatment. The treatments consisted of four different diets: control (free of organic acids; acid and essential oil blends (fumaric acid 10,5%, malic acid 8.0%, essential oils; in microencapsulated form; microencapsulated acid blend (phosphoric acid 10%, citric acid 10%, malic acid 10%, fumaric acid 20%; in microencapsulated form; and acid salt blend (formic acid 40.5%, phosphoric acid 13.6%, propionic acid 4.9% and salts (23.2% calcium and 4.4% phosphorus available. The performance parameters, digestive transit time, weights of organs of the digestive tract, bacterial count of feces (Lactobacillus, E coli and Salmonella ssp and Clostridium, pH of the stomach and duodenal content did not differ between treatment groups (P > 005. All treatments containing organic acids exhibited positive effects on diarrhea control (P < 005. The cecal contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA were higher in piglets fed diets containing acids than in animals that received the control diet (P < 005, and blends containing essential oils improved the jejunum villus height compared with the control group. The use of diets containing acids improved diarrhea control and VFA production in the cecum, and specifically the diets containing microencapsulated acid blends required the lowest doses to be effective.

  1. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  2. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  3. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  4. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  5. Sodium Chloride Supplementation Is Not Routinely Performed in the Majority of German and Austrian Infants with Classic Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Has No Effect on Linear Growth and Hydrocortisone or Fludrocortisone Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfig, Walter; Roehl, Friedhelm; Riedl, Stefan; Brämswig, Jürgen; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Fricke-Otto, Susanne; Hübner, Angela; Bettendorf, Markus; Schönau, Eckhard; Dörr, Helmut; Holl, Reinhard W; Mohnike, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Sodium chloride supplementation in salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is generally recommended in infants, but its implementation in routine care is very heterogeneous. To evaluate oral sodium chloride supplementation, growth, and hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose in infants with salt-wasting CAH due to 21-hydroxylase in 311 infants from the AQUAPE CAH database. Of 358 patients with classic CAH born between 1999 and 2015, 311 patients had salt-wasting CAH (133 females, 178 males). Of these, 86 patients (27.7%) received oral sodium chloride supplementation in a mean dose of 0.9 ± 1.4 mmol/kg/day (excluding nutritional sodium content) during the first year of life. 225 patients (72.3%) were not treated with sodium chloride. The percentage of sodium chloride-supplemented patients rose from 15.2% in children born 1999-2004 to 37.5% in children born 2011-2015. Sodium chloride-supplemented and -unsupplemented infants did not significantly differ in hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose, target height-corrected height-SDS, and BMI-SDS during the first 2 years of life. In the AQUAPE CAH database, approximately one-third of infants with salt-wasting CAH receive sodium chloride supplementation. Sodium chloride supplementation is performed more frequently in recent years. However, salt supplementation had no influence on growth, daily fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone dose, and frequency of adrenal crisis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species

  7. High salt loading induces urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of epithelial sodium channel alpha in the bladder epithelium in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Yamamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether high salt intake affects bladder function via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC by using Dahl salt-resistant (DR and salt-sensitive (DS rats. Bladder weight of DR + high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl and DS + HS groups were significantly higher than those of DR + normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl and DS + NS groups after one week treatment. We thereafter used only DR + HS and DS + HS group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group after the treatment period. Cystometrogram showed the intercontraction intervals (ICI were significantly shorter in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group during infusion of saline. Subsequent infusion of amiloride significantly prolonged ICI in DS + HS group, while no intra-group difference in ICI was observed in DR + HS group. No intra- or inter-group differences in maximum intravesical pressure were observed. Protein expression levels of ENaCα in the bladder were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group. ENaCα protein was localized at bladder epithelium in both groups. In conclusion, high salt intake is considered to cause urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of ENaC in the bladder epithelium with salt-sensitive hypertension, suggesting that ENaC might be a candidate for therapeutic target for urinary storage dysfunction.

  8. A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

    2012-07-01

    Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70°C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  10. Selective Deletion of Sodium Salt Taste during Development Leads to Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves in the Adult Mouse Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengsan; Hummler, Edith; Hill, David L

    2017-01-18

    Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development. We used this model to test the hypothesis that the lack of activity elicited by sodium salt taste impacts the terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information from taste buds to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the medulla. The glossopharyngeal, chorda tympani, and greater superficial petrosal nerves were labeled to examine their terminal fields in adult control mice and in adult mice in which the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel was conditionally deleted in taste buds (αENaC knockout). The terminal fields of all three nerves in the NST were up to 2.7 times greater in αENaC knock-out mice compared with the respective field volumes in control mice. The shapes of the fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in αENaC knock-out mice. Overall, our results show that disruption of the afferent taste signal to sodium salts disrupts the normal age-dependent "pruning" of all terminal fields, which could lead to alterations in sensory coding and taste-related behaviors. Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. To date, there has been no direct test of whether taste-elicited neural activity has a role in shaping central gustatory circuits. However, recently developed genetic tools now allow an assessment of how specific taste stimuli, in this case sodium salt taste, play a role

  11. Spatial distributions of soluble salts in surface snow of East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Iizuka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To better understand how sea salt reacts in surface snow of Antarctica, we collected and identified non-volatile particles in surface snow along a traverse in East Antarctica. Samples were obtained during summer 2012/2013 from coastal to inland regions within 69°S to 80°S and 39°E to 45°E, a total distance exceeding 800 km. The spatial resolution of samples is about one sample per latitude between 1500 and 3800 m altitude. Here, we obtain the atomic ratios of Na, S and Cl, and calculate the masses of sodium sulphate and sodium chloride. The results show that, even in the coast snow sample (69°S, sea salt is highly modified by acid (HNO3 or H2SO4. The fraction of sea salt that reacts with acid increases in the region from 70°S to 74°S below 3000 m a.s.l., where some NaCl remains. At the higher altitudes (above 3300 m a.s.l. in the inland region (74°S to 80°S, the reaction uses almost all of the available NaCl.

  12. Deracemization of Axially Chiral Nicotinamides by Dynamic Salt Formation with Enantiopure Dibenzoyltartaric Acid (DBTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitoshi Yagishita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic atroposelective resolution of chiral salts derived from oily racemic nicotinamides and enantiopure dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA was achieved by crystallization. The absolute structures of the axial chiral nicotinamides were determined by X-ray structural analysis. The chirality could be controlled by the selection of enantiopure DBTA as a chiral auxiliary. The axial chirality generated by dynamic salt formation was retained for a long period after dissolving the chiral salt in solution even after removal of the chiral acid. The rate of racemization of nicotinamides could be controlled based on the temperature and solvent properties, and that of the salts was prolonged compared to free nicotinamides, as the molecular structure of the pyridinium ion in the salts was different from that of acid-free nicotinamides.

  13. Excess maternal salt intake produces sex-specific hypertension in offspring: putative roles for kidney and gastrointestinal sodium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Hypertension is common and contributes, via cardiovascular disease, towards a large proportion of adult deaths in the Western World. High salt intake leads to high blood pressure, even when occurring prior to birth - a mechanism purported to reside in altered kidney development and later function. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we tested whether increased maternal salt intake influences fetal kidney development to render the adult individual more susceptible to salt retention and hypertension. We found that salt-loaded pregnant rat dams were hypernatraemic at day 20 gestation (147±5 vs. 128±5 mmoles/L. Increased extracellular salt impeded murine kidney development in vitro, but had little effect in vivo. Kidneys of the adult offspring had few structural or functional abnormalities, but male and female offspring were hypernatraemic (166±4 vs. 149±2 mmoles/L, with a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (e.g. male offspring; 11.9 [9.3-14.8] vs. 2.8 [2.0-8.3] nmol/L median [IQR]. Furthermore, adult male, but not female, offspring had higher mean arterial blood pressure (effect size, +16 [9-21] mm Hg; mean [95% C.I.]. With no clear indication that the kidneys of salt-exposed offspring retained more sodium per se, we conducted a preliminary investigation of their gastrointestinal electrolyte handling and found increased expression of proximal colon solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger, member 3 (SLC9A3 together with altered faecal characteristics and electrolyte handling, relative to control offspring. On the basis of these data we suggest that excess salt exposure, via maternal diet, at a vulnerable period of brain and gut development in the rat neonate lays the foundation for sustained increases in blood pressure later in life. Hence, our evidence further supports the argument that excess dietary salt should be avoided per se, particularly in the range of foods consumed by physiologically immature young.

  14. Succinic acid production by escherichia coli under anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shafey, H.M.; Meleigy, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of alteration of growth conditions, addition of different sodium salts, and irradiation by gamma rays on succinic acid production by E. coli was studied. Twenty one isolates were obtained from buffalo's rumen, and anaerobic screening of the isolated bacterial strains showed the abilities of seventeen strains to produce succinic acid. The two bacterial strains having highest succinic acid production were identified as escherichia coli SP9 and SP16, and were selected for further studies. Results showed that growth conditions yielded highest succinic acid production for the two isolates were: 72 hours incubation, 37 degree c incubation temperature, initial ph of the fermentation medium 6.0,and 3% (v/v)inoculum size. Addition of 5 mm of nine different sodium salts to the fermentation medium showed stimulating effect on succinic acid production of the nine tried sodium salts, sodium carbonate was found to have the highest enhancing effect, especially if used at 15 mm concentration. Gamma irradiation doses tried were in the range of (0.25-1.50 kGy). An enhancing effect on succinic acid production was shown in the range of 0.25-0.75 kGy with a maximal production at 0.75 kGy (giving 8.36% increase) for e.coli SP9, and in the range of 0.25-1.00 kGy with a maximal production at 1.0 kGy (7.60% increase) for e.coli SP16. higher gamma doses led to a decrease in the enhancing effect. An overall increase in the succinic acid yield of 79.45% and 94.26% for e. coli SP9 and SP16, respectively, was achieved in implicating all optimized factors for succinic acid production in one time

  15. Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Elorriaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.

  16. Crystal structures of seven molecular salts derived from benzylamine and organic acidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianhong; Jin, Xiunan; Lv, Chengcai; Jin, Shouwen; Zheng, Xiuqing; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi; Guo, Ming; Xu, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic amine, benzylamine, with a series of organic acids gave a total of seven molecular salts with the compositions: (benzylamine): (p-toluenesulfonic acid) (1) [(HL)+ · (tsa-)], (benzylamine): (o-nitrobenzoic acid) (2) [(HL+) · (onba)-], (benzylamine): (3,4-methylenedioxybenzoic acid) (3) [(HL+) · (mdba-)], (benzylamine): (mandelic acid) (4) [(HL+) · (mda-)], (benzylamine): (5-bromosalicylic acid)2(5) [(HL+) · (bsac-) · (Hbsac)], (benzylamine): (m-phthalic acid) (6) [(HL+) · (Hmpta-)], and (benzylamine)2: (trimesic acid) (7) [(HL+)2 · (Htma2-)]. The seven salts have been characterised by X-ray diffraction technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the seven investigated crystals the NH2 groups in the benzylamine moieties are protonated when the organic acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond formation between the ammonium and the deprotonated acidic groups. Except the Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond, the Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) were also found at the salts 4-7. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different family of additional CHsbnd O/CH2sbnd O, CHsbnd π/CH2sbnd π, Osbnd O, and Osbnd Cπ associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional (2D-3D) framework structures. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions these structures adopted homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical supramolecular synthons, such as R42(8), R43(10) and R44(12), usually observed in organic solids of organic acids with amine, were again shown to be involved in constructing most of these hydrogen bonding networks.

  17. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  18. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  19. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  20. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Bo [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Yuquan Road, Shijingshan Dist., 100049 Beijing (China); Li Linfan; Yu Ming [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Li Jingye, E-mail: jingyeli@sinap.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  1. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan; Li Linfan; Yu Ming; Li Jingye

    2011-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  2. Thermodynamic and structural of the water - dodecane - bis(ethyl-2-hexyl) phosphoric acid and its sodium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the appearance and disappearance of the 'third phase' obtained during the salification of the bis(ethyl-2 hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) diluted in dodecane, by sodium aqueous solutions. After a large bibliographical study on the properties of the intervening compounds (extraction of metallic cation by the acid, parameters influencing the 'third phase' appearance, surfactant properties, direct and inverse micelles, formation of para-crystalline phases), the author presents chemical experimental methods: liquid-liquid extraction tests, tests by the synthetic way, preparation of reactants, dosing method, methods of chemical analysis). Then, she reports and discusses experimental results in terms of determination of phase diagrams at 25 C, of composition by weight of the third phase, of influence of the apolar diluent, and of influence of the electrolyte. Physical experimental methods are then presented (differential calorimetric analysis, NMR, small angle X-ray scattering, light scattering, polarised light microscopy, constrained phase microscopy, photography, infrared spectroscopy, conductometry, transmission electron micrography, volumetric mass measurements, surface and interface tension measurements, viscoelasticity measurements) and their results are discussed and interpreted [fr

  3. Effects of Saline and Sodic Stress on Yield and Fatty Acid Profile in Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the objectives concerned in this research, much importance has been attached to the assessment of the influence of soil type, irrigation water quality and leaching requirement on the production and composition in fatty acids of sunflower oil. The trial was run in 2001 on a sunflower crop (cv. HS 90 grown in cylindrical pots at the Campus of Bari University (Italy. 36 treatments obtained from the factorial combination of two clay soils with nine types of brackish water and two leaching fractions (10 and 20% were compared. The nine types of irrigation water were obtained by dissolving the proper amounts of NaCl and CaCl2 in de-ionized water, according to the factorial combination of three salt concentration levels (0.01, 0.032 and 0.064 M with three sodium levels (SAR = 5, 15 and 45. At ripening the main yield traits, oil yield and acid composition of seeds were analysed. At the highest salinity level about 70% yield reduction, in terms of seeds per plant was observed. The oil yield and the final acid composition of seeds were significantly affected by soil type, leaching requirement, salinity and the SAR levels of irrigation water. A progressive decline in oil yield was recorded as the salt concentration and sodium level of irrigation solutions increased. As to the fatty acid composition, a gradual increase in oleic and linolenic acid content and a corresponding decrease in the other fatty acids were found as the salinity and sodium levels of irrigation water increased. The oleic/linoleic acid ratio too increased as the salinity increased. The salt and sodium-induced stresses of irrigation water reduced the seed and oil yields while still favouring a progressive increase in the oleic acid content and a slight decrease of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, thus improving oil quality. The results point out both the influence of the soil and the positive effect of sodium and salt stress and of the leaching fraction on the food quality of

  4. Effects of Saline and Sodic Stress on Yield and Fatty Acid Profile in Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Tarantino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the objectives concerned in this research, much importance has been attached to the assessment of the influence of soil type, irrigation water quality and leaching requirement on the production and composition in fatty acids of sunflower oil. The trial was run in 2001 on a sunflower crop (cv. HS 90 grown in cylindrical pots at the Campus of Bari University (Italy. 36 treatments obtained from the factorial combination of two clay soils with nine types of brackish water and two leaching fractions (10 and 20% were compared. The nine types of irrigation water were obtained by dissolving the proper amounts of NaCl and CaCl2 in de-ionized water, according to the factorial combination of three salt concentration levels (0.01, 0.032 and 0.064 M with three sodium levels (SAR = 5, 15 and 45. At ripening the main yield traits, oil yield and acid composition of seeds were analysed. At the highest salinity level about 70% yield reduction, in terms of seeds per plant was observed. The oil yield and the final acid composition of seeds were significantly affected by soil type, leaching requirement, salinity and the SAR levels of irrigation water. A progressive decline in oil yield was recorded as the salt concentration and sodium level of irrigation solutions increased. As to the fatty acid composition, a gradual increase in oleic and linolenic acid content and a corresponding decrease in the other fatty acids were found as the salinity and sodium levels of irrigation water increased. The oleic/linoleic acid ratio too increased as the salinity increased. The salt and sodium-induced stresses of irrigation water reduced the seed and oil yields while still favouring a progressive increase in the oleic acid content and a slight decrease of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, thus improving oil quality. The results point out both the influence of the soil and the positive effect of sodium and salt stress and of the leaching fraction on the food quality of

  5. Investigations of the sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were made to investigate the sorption of pertechnetate on neutral and acid salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Particular, distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + salts, by the addition of non-electrolytes the distribution coefficients decrease. A saturation capacity of about 0.19 mmol Tc/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was determined from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase can be supposed. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721.1930 Section 721.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid,...

  7. Sea salt in aerosols over the southern Baltic. Part 2. The neutralizing properties of sea salt and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Urszula Lewandowska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2001-2007 aerosols were measured in the coastal zone (11 campaigns and over the open waters of the Gdańsk Basin (southern Baltic (5 campaigns. The marine aerosols contained nitrogen and sulphur compounds, which increased their acidity. This situation intensified during the cool months of the year, when fossil fuel emissions were higher, proportionate to energy and heat requirements. Irrespective of the season, these acidic aerosols were neutralized in the reaction with sea salt. The likelihood of sodium nitrate being formed increased at air humidities > 80% and nitrate concentrations > 30 nmol m-3. Sodium sulphate was present in aerosols mostly in autumn and winter, with northerly advection, and at the highest wind speeds. The excess of free ammonia resulted in the formation of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate in aerosols over the southern Baltic.

  8. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-122-853] Citric Acid and Certain... the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The... order on citric acid from Canada. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary...

  9. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  10. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  11. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Dihydroxyacetone to Lactic Acid Using Metal Salts in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Fachri, Boy A.; Makertihartha, I. Gusti B. N.; Adisasmito, Sanggono; Heeres, Hero J.

    2011-01-01

    We herein present a study on the application of homogeneous catalysts in the form of metal salts on the conversion of trioses, such as dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glyceraldehyde (GLY) to lactic acid (LA) in water. A wide range of metal salts (26 in total) were examined. Al(III) salts were identified

  13. The study of antimicrobial activity of 2-((4-R-3-(morpholinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Shcherbyna

    2016-08-01

    ,2,4-triazole-5-yl thio acetic acid salt (PKR-173, 174, 177, 234 only the presence of sodium cation (PKR-174 leads to a pronounced antimicrobial effect against studied strains. Conclusions. The study had found that the most effective in relation to the main groups of pathogenic bacteria are substances PKR-134, 135, 136, 139 and 174. Certain regularities based on "structure-action" have been established, this information can be integrated into future targeted search of substances with antimicrobial properties.

  14. Modification of Sodium Release Using Porous Corn Starch and Lipoproteic Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Josephine; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sodium consumption can result in hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, and kidney diseases. Various chips and extruded snacks, where salt is mainly applied on the product surface, accounted for almost 56% of snacks retail sales in 2010. Hence, it is important to target sodium reduction for those snack products. Past studies had shown that modifying the rate-release mechanism of sodium is a promising strategy for sodium reduction in the food industry. Encapsulation of salt can be a possible technique to control sodium release rate. Porous corn starch (PCS), created by enzymatic treatment and spray drying and lipoproteic matrix, created by gelation and freeze drying, were evaluated as carriers for controlled sodium release targeting topically applied salts. Both carriers encapsulated salt and their in vitro sodium release profiles were measured using a conductivity meter. The sodium release profiles of PCS treated with different enzymatic reaction times were not significantly different. Protein content and fat content altered sodium release profile from the lipoproteic matrix. The SEM images of PCS showed that most of the salt crystals coated the starch instead of being encapsulated in the pores while the SEM images and computed tomography scan of lipoproteic matrix showed salt dispersed throughout the matrix. Hence, PCS was found to have limitations as a sodium carrier as it could not effectively encapsulate salt inside its pores. The lipoproteic matrix was found to have a potential as a sodium carrier as it could effectively encapsulate salt and modify the sodium release profile. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Pre-sowing application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid to seed of pumpkin and seedling response to salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, N.; Raza, S.H.; Qasim, M.; Iqbal, N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of seed soaking with salicylic acid or ascorbic acid on pumpkin seedlings growth under saline (10 dS m/sup -1/) conditions were investigated. Seedlings fresh weight, protein contents, protease and nitrate reductase activities were significantly affected by 15 and 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid and 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid priming treatments, under both normal and saline conditions. Priming reduced the severity of the salt stress, the amelioration was better due to 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid or 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid treatments as these treatments showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry matter production under non-saline and saline environments. Application of seed priming with ascorbic acid and salicylic acid in pumpkin ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress. (author)

  16. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with polymorphisms in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D; Gildea, John J; Jones, John E; McGrath, Helen E; Gordon, Lindsay N; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S; Underwood, Patricia C; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Scott M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 185 whites consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days of low Na(+) (10 mmol/d) and 7 days of high Na(+) (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt sensitivity was defined as a ≥ 7-mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure during a randomized transition between high and low Na(+) diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt sensitivity revealed 3 variants that associated with salt sensitivity, 2 in SLC4A5 (P<0.001) and 1 in GRK4 (P=0.020). Of these, 2 SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These 2 SNPs had P values of 1.0 × 10(-4) and 3.1 × 10(-4) with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for body mass index and age (P=8.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4) and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Furthermore, the association of these SNPs with salt sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt sensitivity (rs7571842 [P=1.2 × 10(-5)]; rs1017783 [P=1.1 × 10(-4)]). In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 2 separate white populations.

  17. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    New solvents based on the salts of amino acids have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions, for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. But only few studies on amino acids as CO2 capturing agents have been performed so far. One of the interesting features of amino acid salt...... solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  18. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  19. In vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgóczy, L; Tóth, Liliána; Virágh, M; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C S

    2012-12-01

    The mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine) were tested with broth microdilution method against eight fungal isolates belonging to Zygomycetes (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Saksenaeavasiformis) and Aspergillus genus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus). These are known to be possible agents of central nervous fungal infections (CNFI). When used alone, the investigated nonantifungal drugs exerted slight antifungal effects. In their combinations with antifungal agents they acted antagonistically, additively and synergistically against zygomyceteous isolates. Primarily antagonistic interactions were revealed between the investigated drugs in case of Aspergilli, but additive and synergistic interactions were also observed. The additive and synergistic combinations allowed the usage of reduced concentrations of antifungal agents to inhibit the fungal growth in our study. These combinations would be a basis of an effective, less toxic therapy for treatment of CNFI.

  20. The role of tannic acid and sodium citrate in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Socha, Ewelina; Krzyczmonik, Pawel; Ignaczak, Anna; Orlowski, Piotr; Krzyzowska, Małgorzata; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw

    2017-08-01

    We describe herein the significance of a sodium citrate and tannic acid mixture in the synthesis of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Monodisperse AgNPs were synthesized via reduction of silver nitrate using a mixture of two chemical agents: sodium citrate and tannic acid. The shape, size and size distribution of silver particles were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Special attention is given to understanding and experimentally confirming the exact role of the reagents (sodium citrate and tannic acid present in the reaction mixture) in AgNP synthesis. The oxidation and reduction potentials of silver, tannic acid and sodium citrate in their mixtures were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Possible structures of tannic acid and its adducts with citric acid were investigated in aqueous solution by performing computer simulations in conjunction with the semi-empirical PM7 method. The lowest energy structures found from the preliminary conformational search are shown, and the strength of the interaction between the two molecules was calculated. The compounds present on the surface of the AgNPs were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results are compared with the IR spectrum of tannic acid theoretically calculated using PM6 and PM7 methods. The obtained results clearly indicate that the combined use of sodium citrate and tannic acid produces monodisperse spherical AgNPs, as it allows control of the nucleation, growth and stabilization of the synthesis process. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. pKa values of hyodeoxycholic and cholic acids in the binary mixed micelles sodium-hyodeoxycholate-Tween 40 and sodium-cholate-Tween 40: Thermodynamic stability of the micelle and the cooperative hydrogen bond formation with the steroid skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Pilipović, Ana; Bećarević, Mirjana; Farkaš, Zita

    2017-01-01

    Due to a relatively small size of bile acid salts, their mixed micelles with nonionic surfactants are analysed. Of the special interests are real binary mixed micelles that are thermodynamically more stable than ideal mixed micelles. Thermodynamic stability is expressed with an excess Gibbs energy (G E ) or over an interaction parameter (β ij ). In this paper sodium salts of cholic (C) and hyodeoxycholic acid (HD) in their mixed micelles with Tween 40 (T40) are analysed by potentiometric titration and their pKa values are determined. Examined bile acids in mixed micelles with T40 have higher pKa values than free bile acids. The increase of ΔpKa acid constant of micellary bound C and HD is in a correlation with absolute values of an interaction parameter. According to an interaction parameter and an excess Gibbs energy, mixed micelle HD-T40 are thermodynamically more stable than mixed micelles C-T40. ΔpKa values are higher for mixed micelles with Tween 40 whose second building unit is HD, related to the building unit C. In both micellar systems, ΔpKa increases with the rise of a molar fraction of Tween 40 in binary mixtures of surfactants with sodium salts of bile acids. This suggests that, ΔpKa can be a measure of a thermodynamic stabilization of analysed binary mixed micelles as well as an interaction parameter. ΔpKa values are confirmed by determination of a distribution coefficient of HD and C in systems: water phase with Tween 40 in a micellar concentration and 1-octanol, with a change of a pH value of a water phase. Conformational analyses suggests that synergistic interactions between building units of analysed binary micelles originates from formation of hydrogen bonds between steroid OH groups and polyoxyethylene groups of the T40. Relative similarity and spatial orientation of C 3 and C 6 OH group allows cooperative formation of hydrogen bonds between T40 and HD - excess entropy in formation of mixed micelle. If a water solution of analysed binary

  2. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  3. Sodium benzyl(monoethanol)ammonium bis(gluconatoborate). Bis(glyukonatoborat) natriya-benzil(monoehtanol)ammoniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tel' zhenskaya, P N; Shvarts, E M; Vitola, I M [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga (USSR). Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1990-01-01

    Boron compounds with gluconic acid and monoethanol- and benzylamines are synthesized and investigated by physicochemical methods (IR-spectroscopy, thermal decomposition, conductometry, Fischer titration). Tetracoordinated boron has two free hydroxyl groups, dimer of boron-gluconate anion is held by hydrogen bonds, sodium ions and ammonium protonated salts are cations.

  4. Synthesis, structural, solubility and anticancer activity studies of salts using nucleobases and sulfonic acids coformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Singh, Udai P.; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Singh, Hariji

    2017-10-01

    The reactions of natural and unnatural nucleobases (cytosine (Cyt), adenine (Ade), 5-aminouracil (AU) and caffeine (Caff)) with sulfonic acids coformer (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, NDSA; 5-sulfosalicylic acid, SSA) resulted in the formation of salts viz. [NDSA.Cyt] (1), [NDSA.Ade] (2), [NDSA.AU] (3), [NDSA.Caff] (4), [SSA.Cyt] (5), [SSA.Ade] (6), [SSA.AU] (7), and [SSA.Caff] (8). The structural analysis revealed that salts 1, 4, 6 and 7 have intermolecular interactions between adjacent nucleobases which form two different homodimer shown in R22 (8) motif and assembled via complementary Nsbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯N interactions. However, in all other salts an intermediate supramolecular synthon pattern was observed between nucleobases and sulfonic acids. The lattice energy was also calculated by DFT to investigate whether salts were thermodynamically more stable than its coformer. The same was further confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric (DSC-TG) analysis. The anticancer activity study of individual nucleobases and their NDSA salts were also performed on human breast (MCF-7) and lung (A 549) cancer cell. The salts formation of nucleobases with sulfonic acids improved their solubility, thereby demonstrating up to 8-fold increase in solubility of nucleobases.

  5. Effects of sodium chloride salinity on ecophysiological and biochemical parameters of oak seedlings (Quercus robur L.) from use of de-icing salts for winter road maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffray, Xavier; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Bourioug, Mohamed; Bourgeade, Pascale; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2018-04-04

    Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips. Seedlings growing in a quartz sand/vermiculite mixture were subjected to NaCl concentrations of 0, 50, or 100 mM for 5 weeks. The results showed that high NaCl concentrations caused a marked reduction in total leaf biomass 55 and 75% for 50 and 100 mM treatments, respectively, in dry weight of stems (84%) and roots (175%) for 100 mM treatment and modified root architecture, whereas no changes appeared in leaf number. A non-significant decrease in relative water content, with changes in ion balance was recorded. Comparison of stressed to control plants show an increase in sodium (3.5-8-fold), potassium (0.6-fold), and chloride (9.5-14-fold) concentrations in the root tips while the K + /Na + ratio decreased. In taproots, no significant biochemical differences were observed between the salt-treated and the control plants for acid invertase activity, reducing sugars, sucrose, or soluble protein contents. The significance of ion and sugar accumulations in relation to osmotic adjustment and the ability of oak seedlings to cope with salt stress are discussed.

  6. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  7. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—Experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S. H. M.; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford the formation of supersaturated droplets and generation of various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle, witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged M x (SCN)x + 1 - , doubly charged M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (M = Na, K), and triply charged K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - anion clusters (x, y, and z stand for the number of alkali atoms in the singly, doubly, and triply charged clusters, respectively) were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for the sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions M x (SCN)x + 1 - (M = Na and K) demonstrate that they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) was initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of M x (SCN)x + 1 - with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by the observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply charged clusters were found to become preferred, but at higher temperatures, those multiply charged

  8. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-122-853] Citric Acid and Certain... on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The period of review (POR) is May... INFORMATION: Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by this order is citric acid and certain citrate salts...

  9. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  10. Thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid, sodium nicotinate and its compounds with some bivalent transition metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A.L.C.S. do; Caires, F.J., E-mail: caires.flavio@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, D.J.C.; Gigante, A.C.; Ionashiro, M.

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The transition metal ion nicotinates were synthesized. • The TG–DTA curves provided previously unreported information about thermal behaviour. • The gaseous products released were detected by TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. - Abstract: Solid-state M(L){sub 2}·nH{sub 2}O compounds, where M stands for bivalent transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn), L is nicotinate and n = 0–4.5, have been synthesized. Characterization and thermal behaviour of these compounds were investigated employing elemental analysis based on the mass losses observed in the TG–DTA curves, complexometry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. The thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid and its sodium salt was also investigated. For the hydrated transition metal compounds, the dehydration and thermal decomposition of the anhydrous compounds occur in a single step. For the sodium nicotinate, the final residue up to 765 °C is sodium carbonate and for the transition metal nicotinates, the final residues are Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, CuO and ZnO. The results also provided information concerning the thermal stability, thermal decomposition and identification of the gaseous products evolved during the thermal decomposition of the compounds.

  11. Thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid, sodium nicotinate and its compounds with some bivalent transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, A.L.C.S. do; Caires, F.J.; Gomes, D.J.C.; Gigante, A.C.; Ionashiro, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The transition metal ion nicotinates were synthesized. • The TG–DTA curves provided previously unreported information about thermal behaviour. • The gaseous products released were detected by TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. - Abstract: Solid-state M(L) 2 ·nH 2 O compounds, where M stands for bivalent transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn), L is nicotinate and n = 0–4.5, have been synthesized. Characterization and thermal behaviour of these compounds were investigated employing elemental analysis based on the mass losses observed in the TG–DTA curves, complexometry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. The thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid and its sodium salt was also investigated. For the hydrated transition metal compounds, the dehydration and thermal decomposition of the anhydrous compounds occur in a single step. For the sodium nicotinate, the final residue up to 765 °C is sodium carbonate and for the transition metal nicotinates, the final residues are Mn 3 O 4 , Fe 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO and ZnO. The results also provided information concerning the thermal stability, thermal decomposition and identification of the gaseous products evolved during the thermal decomposition of the compounds

  12. Pd/C Synthesized with Citric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid/Sodium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells. PMID:22953041

  13. A facile synthesis of sodium 3-[1-[sup 14]C]-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan). Research Labs.; Okazaki, Mitsuo [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Applied Biology

    1994-01-01

    Sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1, a new therapeutic agent for stomatitis, pharyngitis and ophthalmia was labelled with carbon-14 in the ethyl group attached to the azulene ring for use in metabolic studies. [sup 14]C-labelled 1 with a specific activity of 1.98 GBq/mmol was prepared in four steps in 39.3% overall chemical yield from [1-[sup 14]C]acetic acid sodium salt. (Author).

  14. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids and its salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Today’s a creation of new domestic medicines is very important problem for pharmacy and medicine. Therefore, it is relevant to synthesize new domestic biologically active compounds. It is known that a large number of new 3-thio and 4-amino derivatives on the basis of 1,2,4-triazole have recently been synthesized, among which compounds with high pharmacological activity have been found. Based on the experience of previous studies and with the aim of creating new original drugs, our goal was to synthesize 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids series and to obtain salts on its basis, which have high indicators of pharmacological activity based on the literature data. The goal of the work is a targeted synthesis of potential low-toxic and highly effective compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity among 5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives, confirmation of their individuality and structure, as well as the study of physical-chemical properties, for the further pharmacological screening. Materials and methods. 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were prepared by heating 5- (hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiones with chloroacetic acid. Subsequently, the synthesized thioacetic acids were subject for modification. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were obtained by reacting thioacetic acids with equivalents of sodium or potassium hydroxides. To obtain Iron(II, Copper(II or Zinc(II salts, half-molar amounts of the appropriate sulfates were added to the obtained solutions. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids with organic bases were obtained by the reaction of acids with piperidine or morpholine in ethanol medium. Results. During the synthetic studies, 13 previously undescribed new compounds were obtained. The individuality of 2-((5-(hydroxy

  15. Avances en la reducción del consumo de sal y sodio en Costa Rica Advances in reducing salt and sodium intake in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Blanco-Metzler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describen los avances logrados en Costa Rica -así como los desafíos y limitaciones- en la reducción del consumo de sal. El establecimiento del Plan Nacional para la Reducción del Consumo de Sal/sodio en la Población de Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 se complementó con programas y proyectos multisectoriales específicos dirigidos a: 1 conocer la ingesta de sodio y el contenido de sal o sodio en los alimentos de mayor consumo; identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor respecto a la sal/sodio, su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricio-nal; evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de las medidas dirigidas a reducir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial; 2 implementar estrategias para disminuir el contenido de sal/sodio en los alimentos procesados y los preparados en casa; 3 promover cambios de conducta en la población para reducir el consumo de sal en la alimentación; y 4 monitorear y evaluar las acciones dirigidas a reducir el consumo de sal o sodio en la población. Para alcanzar las metas propuestas se debe lograr una exitosa coordinación interinstitucional con los actores estratégicos, negociar compromisos con la industria alimentaria y los servicios de alimentación, y mejorar la regulación de los nutrientes críticos asociados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, en los alimentos. Se espera que a partir de los avances logrados durante la ejecución del Plan Nacional, Costa Rica logre alcanzar la meta internacional de reducción del consumo de sal.This article describes the progress-as well as the challenges and limitations-in reducing salt intake in Costa Rica. The National Plan to Reduce Public Consumption of Salt/Sodium in Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 was complemented with multisectoral programs and projects specifically designed to: 1 determine sodium intake and the salt/sodium content of the most widely consumed foods; identify the consumer knowledge, attitudes

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions using tri-iso-octylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Young, E-mail: jinlee@kigam.re.kr [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Rajesh Kumar, J., E-mail: rajeshkumarphd@rediffmail.com [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-Soo; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Sung [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-30

    Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions was carried out using tri-iso-octylamine (Alamine 308) as an extractant diluted in kerosene. The percentage extraction of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) increased with increase in acid concentration up to 8 mol L{sup -1}. However, at 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl concentration, the extraction behavior was reversed, indicating the solvation type mechanism during extraction. The quantitative extraction of {approx}98% platinum(IV) and 36% rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L{sup -1} Alamine 308. The highest separation factor (S.F. = 184.7) of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L{sup -1} Alamine 308 at 1.0 mol L{sup -1} of hydrochloric acid concentration. Alkaline metal salts like sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate, lithium chloride, lithium nitrate, potassium chloride and potassium thiocyanate used for the salting-out effect. LiCl proved as best salt for the extraction of platinum(IV). Temperature effect demonstrates that the extraction process is exothermic. Hydrochloric acid and thiourea mixture proved to be better stripping reagents when compared with other mineral acids and bases.

  17. Effect of lithium and sodium salt on the performance of Nb2O5/rGO nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sultan; Rafat, M.

    2018-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of Nb2O5/rGO composite using hydrothermal method and thermal annealing process. The prepared composite was found to have suitable characteristics necessary to be used as electrode material in supercapacitors. These characteristics were ascertained employing the techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. Further, the electrochemical performance of the prepared composite was compared in two different organic electrolytes, of lithium and sodium salt using the techniques of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge measurements. The organic electrolyte solutions were prepared by dispersing 1 M LiClO4/NaClO4 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (1:1 by volume). The observed results indicate that the composite of Nb2O5/rGO offers higher value of specific capacitance in sodium salt electrolyte and higher cyclic stability in lithium salt electrolyte. This is probably due to ion properties of electrolyte. Specific capacitance is observed according to efficient ion/charge diffusion/exchange and relaxation time (Li+ Li+). Thus, the present study reveals the significant effect of electrolyte ions on electrochemical performance of Nb2O5/rGO composite.

  18. PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRY SALT WITH SEDIMENTATION – MICROFILTRATION PROCESS: OPTIMAZATION OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION BY USING SURFACE RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat Widayat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The salt of sodium chloride commonly used consumption in house , so as a raw material in industry. Thequality of salt depends on sodium chloride concentration. The objective of this research is obtained ofoptimum condition in production of salt industry by using sedimentation and microfiltration process. Theoptimization used surface response methodology and analysis by Statistica 6 software. The responseperceived is NaCl concentration in product. The experiments do by mixing stearic acid with NaOH solutionto product stearic sodium. Then, the solution mixed with sea water, so the white solid will be emerge, thereare stearic calcium and stearic magnesium. And so filtrate evaporated until to obtain salt. TheMathematical model for reduction of Ca2+ and Mg2+ are1 222 221 1 Y = 93,3185 + 1,0967 X + 0,1909 X +1,0682 X - 0,2333 X - 0,3376 X X , with maximum conversion is94,46% at temperature 82,42oC and stearic sodium concentration 14,16%(v/v. The maximum of NaClconcentration is 96,19% at temperature 81,54oC and stearic sodium concetration 13,11 %(v/v. Themathematical model for NaCl production is1 222 221 1 Y = 92,7596 − 0,3443 X − 3,3706 X + 2,9553 X - 0,9562 X - 1,9272 X X . The results of NaCl not yetfulfilled with SNI industry salt. The NaCl concetration in SNI is 98,5%. So, this process is nt aplicable forproductiob salt industry in Indonesia.

  19. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  20. Use of alternative curing salts for processing salamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Yim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to determine effects of different curing salts on the quality of salamis and to assess feasibility of using NaCl-alternative salts. Methods Various types of curing salts (KCl or MgCl2 as well as NaCl (sun-dried or refined were incorporated for processing of salamis. The proximate composition, fatty acids, nucleotide-related compounds, and free amino acids of the salamis were analyzed during 40 days of ripening. Results The substitution of NaCl by KCl caused higher fat and ash content, but lower moisture content of the salami after 20 days of ripening (p<0.05. Compared with the sun-dried NaCl, use of KCl in salami also led to greater inosine 5′-monophosphate whereas refined NaCl had more inosine (p<0.05. KCl-added salami also had a higher C12:0, C17:1, and C20:0 than other types of salami (p<0.05. MgCl2-added salami had higher content of free amino acids compared to the other salamis (p<0.05. Conclusion Alternative curing salts such as KCl and MgCl2 could substitute NaCl in consideration of quality factor of a fermented meat product. Especially replacement of NaCl with KCl will be a suitable strategy for developing relatively low sodium salami products without compromising product quality.

  1. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

  2. Transcriptomic and Physiological Evidence for the Relationship between Unsaturated Fatty Acid and Salt Stress in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Na; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Fang; Wan, Shubo

    2018-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the five major oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Salt stress is a common adverse condition for the growth of this crop in many countries and regions. In this study, physiological parameters and transcriptome profiles of peanut seedlings exposed to salt stress (250 mM NaCl for 4 days, S4) and recovery for 3 days (when transferred to standard conditions for 3 days, R3) were analyzed to detect genes associated with salt stress and recovery in peanut. We observed that the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII ( F v / F m ) decreased in S4 compared with the control, and increased in R3 compared with those in S4. Seedling fresh weight, dry weight and PSI oxidoreductive activity (Δ I / I o ) were inhibited in S4 and did not recover in R3. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased in S4 and increased in R3, whereas superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) contents increased in S4 and decreased in R3. Transcriptome analysis revealed 1,742 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under salt stress and 390 DEGs under recovery. Among these DEGs, two DEGs encoding ω-3 fatty acid desaturase that synthesized linolenic acid (18:3) from linoleic acid (18:2) were down-regulated in S4 and up-regulated in R3. Furthermore, ω-3 fatty acid desaturase activity decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery. Consistent with this result, 18:3 content decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery compared with that under salt treatment. In conclusion, salt stress markedly changed the activity of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid composition. The findings provide novel insights for the improvement of salt tolerance in peanut.

  3. The determination of the conduction mechanism and optical band gap of fluorescein sodium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin; Sekerci, Memet; Evin, Ertan

    2006-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and optical properties of fluorescein sodium salt in the temperature range of 295-370 K have been investigated. Various conduction models described in the literature were used to elucidate the charge transport mechanism of the compound. It is found that the charge transfer mechanism of the compound is understood in terms of grain boundary scattering. It can be evaluated that the obtained electronic parameters such as mobility, conductivity at room temperature, activation energy and optical band gap suggest that the compound is an organic semiconductor

  4. Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazki, Adi; Weintraub, Zalman; Reich, Dan; Gershon, Edith; Leshem, Micah

    2007-04-01

    Forty-one children aged 10.5 +/- 0.2 years (range, 8.0-15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 +/- 36.6 g (range, 765-1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = -0.445, P clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

  5. Parabrachial and hypothalamic interaction in sodium appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayawansa, S.; Peckins, S.; Ruch, S.

    2011-01-01

    Rats with bilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) fail to exhibit sodium appetite. Lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) also block salt appetite. The PBN projection to the LH is largely ipsilateral. If these deficits are functionally dependent, damaging the PBN on one side and the LH on the other should also block Na appetite. First, bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LH were needed because the electrolytic damage used previously destroyed both cells and axons. The ibotenic LH lesions produced substantial weight loss and eliminated Na appetite. Controls with ipsilateral PBN and LH lesions gained weight and displayed robust sodium appetite. The rats with asymmetric PBN-LH lesions also gained weight, but after sodium depletion consistently failed to increase intake of 0.5 M NaCl. These results dissociate loss of sodium appetite from the classic weight loss after LH damage and prove that Na appetite requires communication between neurons in the LH and the PBN. PMID:21270347

  6. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  7. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkkinen Essi S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP. Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%, magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%] (Smart Salt. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45 with systolic (SBP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (DBP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl or Smart Salt. The primary endpoint was the change in SBP. Secondary endpoints were changes in DBP, daily urine excretion of sodium (24-h dU-Na, potassium (dU-K and magnesium (dU-Mg. Results 24-h dU-Na decreased significantly in the Smart Salt group (-29.8 mmol; p = 0.012 and remained unchanged in the control group: resulting in a 3.3 g difference in NaCl intake between the groups. Replacement of NaCl with Smart Salt resulted in a significant reduction in SBP over 8 weeks (-7.5 mmHg; p = 0.016. SBP increased (+3.8 mmHg, p = 0.072 slightly in the Regular salt group. The difference in the change of SBP between study groups was significant (p Conclusions The substitution of Smart Salt for Regular salt in subjects with high normal or mildly elevated BP resulted in a significant reduction in their daily sodium intake as well as a reduction in SBP. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01739816

  8. Extensive cardinal parameter model to predict growth of pseudomonads in salt-reduced lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    Interest in and demand for preserved seafood with reduced salt/sodium content is increasing. As a consequence of the reduced salt content potential growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads to unacceptable high concentration where they cause product spoilage is an increasing challenge. Innovation...... include the effect of temperatures and salt. However, these simple secondary models do not include the effect of a broader range of product characteristics and therefore they cannot be used to predict how the inhibiting effect of salt can be replaced by changes in other environmental factors The objective...... and including terms for temperature, pH, aw/NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acids (Martinez-Rios et al., Int. J. Food Microbiol. 216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. The new and expanded...

  9. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    contribute to the high electrical conductivity of salt-affected lands3. ... the cellular mechanisms of the stress and its application at the .... Fig 2: Effect of salt and ascorbic acid on a) stem length, b) root length, c) root number, d) dry weight of ...

  10. The Study of Anti-/Pro-Oxidant, Lipophilic, Microbial and Spectroscopic Properties of New Alkali Metal Salts of 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalinowska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium salts of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 5-CQA were synthesized and described by FT-IR (infrared spectroscopy, FT-Raman (Raman spectroscopy, UV (UV absorption spectroscopy, 1H (400.15 MHz, 13C (100.63 MHz NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The quantum–chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level were done in order to obtain the optimal structures, IR spectra, NBO (natural bond orbital atomic charges, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital orbitals and chemical reactivity parameters for 5-CQA and Li, Na and K 5-CQAs (chlorogenates. The DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were used for the preliminary estimation of the antioxidant properties of alkali metal chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid. In the DPPH assay the EC50 parameter were equal to 7.39 μM for 5-CQA and was in the range of 4.50–5.89 μM for salts. The FRAP values for two different concentrations (5 and 2.5 μM of the studied compounds were respectively 114.22 and 72.53 μM Fe2+ for 5-CQA, whereas for salts they were 106.92–141.13 and 78.93–132.00 μM Fe2+. The 5-CQA and its alkali metal salts possess higher antioxidant properties than commonly applied antioxidants (BHA, BHT, l-ascorbic acid. The pro-oxidant action of these compounds on trolox oxidation was studied in the range of their concentration 0.05–0.35 μM. The lipophilicity (logkw of chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid was determined by RP-HPLC (reverse phase—high performance liquid chromatography using five different columns (C8, PHE (phenyl, CN (cyano, C18, IAM (immobilized artificial membrane. The compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against E. coli, Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus pyogenes and antifungal activity against Candida sp. The 5-CQA possessed lower antibacterial (minimal inhibitory

  11. Effect of sodium caproate on the volumetric and viscometric properties of glycine, DL-α-alanine, and DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianji; Yan Zhenning; Lu Jinsuo

    2004-01-01

    The apparent molar volumes (V m,2 ) and relative viscosities (η r ) at T=(298.15 and 308.15) K have been obtained for glycine, DL-α-alanine, and DL-α-amino-butyric acid in aqueous sodium caproate solutions from measurements of density and the flow time. The standard partial molar volumes (V 0 m,2 ), standard volumes of transfer (Δ t V 0 ), the viscosity B-coefficients, and the activation thermodynamic quantities (Δμ 2 0≠ and ΔS 2 0≠ ) of viscous flow have been calculated for the amino acids. It is shown that the standard partial molar volumes, viscosity B-coefficients, and activation free energies for viscous flow increase with increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the amino acids. An increase in V 0 m,2 and Δ t V 0 with increasing electrolyte concentrations have been explained due to the interactions of sodium caproate with the charged center of zwitterions for the amino acids. A comparison of the V 0 m,2 values for glycine, DL-α-alanine, and DL-α-aminon-n-butyric acid in different aqueous salts solutions showed that carboxylate ions have stronger interactions with amino acid than chloride, thiocyanate, and nitrate ions. Results of viscosity are discussed in terms of changes in solvent structure

  12. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  13. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of GHB, GHB-glucuronide in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of narcoleptic patients under sodium oxybate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tittarelli, Roberta; Pichini, Simona; Pedersen, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Sodium oxybate (Xyrem®), the sodium salt of γ- hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is a first-line treatment of the symptoms induced by type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) and it is highly effective in improving sleep architecture, decreasing excessive daytime sleepiness and the frequency of cataplexy attacks. Using ...

  14. A method for polymerizing insaturated monomers through irradiation in the presence of a salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalangas, C.J.; Restaino, A.J.; Yun, Hanbo.

    1975-01-01

    The method consists in irradiating an aqueous solution with a pH between about 2 and 12, comprising from 10 to 40% about an ethylene-insaturated monomer or of mixtures thereof with vinyl-sulfonic acid, an alkaline metal salt of said acid or acrylamide diacetone and at least 3% of a potassium, sodium, lithium, ammonium or aluminium salt, by means of highly powerful radiations, e.g. gamma rays, the radiation intensity being between 1000 and 200000 rads per hour and the overall radiation dose being in the 1000-30000 rads. The obtained product is a polymer aqueous solution either in the liquid state or in the form of a gel [fr

  15. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  16. Synthesis of zwitterionic salts of pyridinium-Meldrum acid and barbiturate through unique four-component reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Fang; Hui, Li; Hou, Hong; Yan, Chao-Guo

    2010-03-08

    An efficient synthetic procedure for the preparation of the unusual charge-separated pyridinium-Meldrum acid and N,N-dimethylbarbiturate acid zwitterionic salts was developed though a unique one-pot four-component reaction involving pyridine, aromatic aldehyde, Meldrum acid or N,N-dimethylbarbituric acid, and p-nitrobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. By varying combinations of four components involving nitrogen-containing heterocycles, we conveniently established reactive alpha-halomethylene compounds, aldehydes and beta-dicarbonyl compounds a library of zwitterionic salts.

  17. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061... announces the availability of EPA's final registration review decision for the lauryl sulfate salts. Sodium... product that contains sodium lauryl sulfate as an active ingredient. The product, Kleenex[reg] Brand...

  18. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea.... 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034, and methyl parathion, case no. 0153... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion...

  19. Hydrophobic interactions between polymethacrylic acid and sodium laureth sulfate in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaremko, Z. M.; Fedushinskaya, L. B.; Burka, O. A.; Soltys, M. N.

    2014-09-01

    The role of hydrophobic interaction in the development of associative processes is demonstrated, based on the concentration dependences of the viscosity and pH of binary solutions of polymethacrylic acid as an anionic polyelectrolyte and sodium laureth sulfate as an anionic surfactant. It is found that the inflection point on the dependence of the difference between the pH values of binary solutions of polymethacrylic acid and sodium laureth sulfate on the polyelectrolyte concentration is a criterion for determining the predominant contribution from hydrophobic interaction, as is the inflection point on the dependence of pH of individual solutions of polymethacrylic acid on the polyelectrolyte concentration.

  20. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... of citric acid from the PRC. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of...

  1. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain); Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.es; Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Smith, R.W. [Unidad de Microanalisis de Materiales, Parque Cientifico de Madrid (PCM), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M60 1QD England (United Kingdom); Lavia, A.; Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  2. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rubio, M.; Ocon, P.; Climent-Font, A.; Smith, R.W.; Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Lavia, A.; Garcia, I.

    2009-01-01

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  3. Molecular interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids in oils and their effects on reverse micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njauw, Ching-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Yang; Ivanov, Viktor A; Khokhlov, Alexei R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2013-03-26

    It has been known that the addition of bile salts to lecithin organosols induces the formation of reverse wormlike micelles and that the worms are similar to long polymer chains that entangle each other to form viscoelastic solutions. In this study, we further investigated the effects of different bile salts and bile acids on the growth of lecithin reverse worms in cyclohexane and n-decane. We utilized rheological and small-angle scattering techniques to analyze the properties and structures of the reverse micelles. All of the bile salts can transform the originally spherical lecithin reverse micelles into wormlike micelles and their rheological behaviors can be described by the single-relaxation-time Maxwell model. However, their efficiencies to induce the worms are different. In contrast, before phase separation, bile acids can induce only short cylindrical micelles that are not long enough to impart viscoelasticity. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids and found that different bile salts/acids employ different functional groups to form hydrogen bonds with lecithin. Such effects determine the relative positions of the bile salts/acids in the headgroups of lecithin, thus resulting in varying efficiencies to alter the effective critical packing parameter for the formation of wormlike micelles. This work highlights the importance of intermolecular interactions in molecular self-assembly.

  4. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Golabiazar, Roonak; Shekaari, Hemayat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 4 mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 4 mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na 3 Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C 4 mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na 3 Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C 4 mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na 3 Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na 3 Cit and [C 4 mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na 3 Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of entropy and enthalpy are the driving forces

  5. The effect of postirradiation application of aspartic acid salts on hemopoietic recovery in sublethally X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Vasku, J.; Urbanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspartic acid salts, especially of K and Mg aspartates, on certain hematological changes in the peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs of sublethally X-irratiated male mice of the strain C57Bl/10 was investigated. Salts of aspartic acid were administered in tap water after irradiation. A favorable effect of aspartic acid salts on erythropoietic recovery and on regeneration of thymus weight was found during the first two weeks after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  6. Study of isobutyric acid reactivity by electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopy of the sodium salt and of 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphoric acid; Etude de la reactivite de l`acide isobutyrique par spectroscopie infrarouge et resonance paramagnetique electronique du sel de sodium et de l`acide de l`ion 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphorique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabia, C.; Bettahar, M.M. [Universite des sciences et de technologies, Houari-Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria); Fournier, M. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, 59 - Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

    1997-11-01

    The alkaline salt 1-vanado-11-molybdo-phosphore acid as been investigated in isobutyric absorption-desorption-re-oxidation cycles by IR and ESR spectroscopies in comparison to the bulk acid compound. The stability of the active phase in catalysis seems to be related to the formation of a cubic phase depending strongly on the presence of water vapor in the gas stream. This phase can be generated from an alkali precursor subject to a moderate thermal treatment leading to a dispersion of di-oxovanadium cation into the alkali-12-molybdophosphate lattice. (authors) 14 refs.

  7. Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended

  8. Fractionated dose cholecystography: a comparison between iopanoic acid and sodium ipodate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, R.G.; Lawson, M.J.; Davies, G.T.; Tucker, W.G.; Mileski, O.; Read, T.R.; Grant, A.K. (Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide (Australia))

    1980-11-01

    Two randomised groups of 100 subjects each, undergoing oral cholecystography, were given either a 6 g fractionated dose of iopanoic acid (Telepaque) or sodium ipodate (Biloptin) to determine the relative merits of this dose schedule. Exclusions to the study were pregnancy and iodine sensitivity. Calculi or abnormal gall-bladder opacification were present in 45% of subjects. Both agents were equally effective in demonstrating abnormalities, although bile duct visualisation was better using iopanoic acid (P<0.05). Of 46 subjects with abnormal cholecystograms subsequently undergoing surgery, all had the diagnosis confirmed. Side effects occurred in 63% of all subjects, being twice as common in those taking iopanoic acid (P<0.01). Sodium ipodate in a large fractionated dose is favoured because of the lower occurrence of side effects without loss of diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Fractionated dose cholecystography: a comparison between iopanoic acid and sodium ipodate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiner, R.G.; Lawson, M.J.; Davies, G.T.; Tucker, W.G.; Mileski, O.; Read, T.R.; Grant, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Two randomised groups of 100 subjects each, undergoing oral cholecystography, were given either a 6 g fractionated dose of iopanoic acid (Telepaque) or sodium ipodate (Biloptin) to determine the relative merits of this dose schedule. Exclusions to the study were pregnancy and iodine sensitivity. Calculi or abnormal gall-bladder opacification were present in 45% of subjects. Both agents were equally effective in demonstrating abnormalities, although bile duct visualisation was better using iopanoic acid (P<0.05). Of 46 subjects with abnormal cholecystograms subsequently undergoing surgery, all had the diagnosis confirmed. Side effects occurred in 63% of all subjects, being twice as common in those taking iopanoic acid (P<0.01). Sodium ipodate in a large fractionated dose is favoured because of the lower occurrence of side effects without loss of diagnostic accuracy. (author)

  10. [Sodium restriction during pregnancy: an outdated advice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, P W; Peeters, L L

    1999-10-23

    Even in an early phase of pregnancy marked haemodynamic changes occur, including a fall in vascular resistance and blood pressure and a rise in cardiac output. To compensate for the increased intravascular capacity the kidney retains more sodium and water. Apparently, the set point of sodium homeostasis shifts to a higher level at the expense of an expansion of extracellular volume. Studies during the normal menstrual cycle have shown that these changes, albeit smaller, also occur during the luteal phase. These fluctuations with the menstrual cycle are less apparent if salt intake is low, suggesting that a high salt intake is needed to facilitate the process of sodium retention. In pregnancies complicated by hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia body fluid volumes are low with an enhanced tendency to retain sodium after a volume challenge. These data, together with the lack of an apparent benefit of sodium restriction, suggest that the practice of prescribing a low-salt diet to hypertensive pregnant women should be abandoned.

  11. Bile Salt and Acid Tolerant of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Proventriculus of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damayanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to obtain the lactic acid bacteria (LAB as probiotic candidates which have resistance to bile salt and acid condition. LAB was obtained using isolation method from proventriculus of broiler chicken. Selective MRS media with 0.2% CaCO3 addition were used for LAB isolation using pour plate sampling method under anaerobic condition. The result showed that four selected isolates had morphological and biochemical characteristics as LAB. The selected LAB was characterized as follow: antibacterial activities, antibiotic sensitivity, resistance on bile salt, gastric juice and acid condition, and biochemical identification. Antibacterial activities assay of cell free supernatant was confirmed using disc paper diffusion method which was arranged on factorial design and each treatment consisted of three replications. The cell free supernatant of LAB isolates had antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, and Salmonella pullorum. Molecular identification procedure using 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that R01 and R02 as Pediococcus acidilactici. The viability of the two isolates were tested by acid pH (pH 1, 2, and 3, gastric juice pH 2, and bile salt condition for digestives tract simulation. The result showed that R01 and R02 had a high viability percentages at pH 1, 2, and 3 (95.45%, 99.49%, 104.01%, and 67.17%, 120.74%, 103.4%, respectively and at bile salt simulation for 1-2 hours (100.35%-102.71% and 100.02%-102.65%, respectively, but at gastric juice simulation for 1-2 hours, the P. acidilactici R01 had higher viability than P. acidilactici R02 (59.69%-76.53% versus 43.57%-40.69%, respectively. In the antibiotic sensitivity test for three antibiotics (i.e. erythromicin 15 µg, penicillin G 10 µg, and streptomycin 10 µg, the P. acidilactici R02 showed resistance to Streptomycin and Penicillin. It is concluded that P. acidilactici R01 and P. acidilactici R02 isolated from proventriculus

  12. Dietary sodium loading impairs microvascular function independent of blood pressure in humans: role of oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Jody L; DuPont, Jennifer J; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon L; Sanders, Paul W; Edwards, David G; Farquhar, William B

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have reported dietary salt-induced reductions in vascular function independent of increases in blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to determine if short-term dietary sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function in normotensive adults with salt resistance. Following a control run-in diet, 12 normotensive adults (31 ± 2 years) were randomized to a 7 day low-sodium (LS; 20 mmol day−1) and 7 day high-sodium (HS; 350 mmol day−1) diet (controlled feeding study). Salt resistance, defined as a ≤5 mmHg change in 24 h mean BP determined while on the LS and HS diets, was confirmed in all subjects undergoing study (LS: 84 ± 1 mmHg vs. HS: 85 ± 2 mmHg; P > 0.05). On the last day of each diet, subjects were instrumented with two microdialysis fibres for the local delivery of Ringer solution and 20 mm ascorbic acid (AA). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure red blood cell flux during local heating-induced vasodilatation (42°C). After the established plateau, 10 mm l-NAME was perfused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. All data were expressed as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) at each site (28 mm sodium nitroprusside; 43°C). Sodium excretion increased during the HS diet (P sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function independent of BP in normotensive adults and suggest a role for oxidative stress. PMID:22907057

  13. In vitro salt stress induced production of gymnemic acid in callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is presented in this investigation. The highest efficiency of callus formation was observed in the medium containing different concentrations of 2,4-D. The gymnemic acid content increased with increasing concentration of 2,4-D along with NaCl. Key words: In vitro, Gymnema sylvestre, callus culture, gymnemic acid, salt ...

  14. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  15. Impact of the counterion on the solubility and physicochemical properties of salts of carboxylic acid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S E; Timmins, P; Conway, B R

    2012-01-01

    Salt formation is a widely used approach to improve the physicochemical and solid state properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In order to better understand the relationships between the active drug, the selected counterion and the resultant salt form, crystalline salts were formed using four different carboxylic acid drugs and a closely related series of amine counterions. Thirty-six related crystalline salts were prepared, characterized and the relationship between solubility and dissolution behaviour and other properties of the salt and the counterion studied. Salts of four model acid drugs, gemfibrozil, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and etodolac were prepared using the counterions butylamine, hexylamine, octylamine, benzylamine, cyclohexylamine, tert-butylamine, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1-ol, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1,3-diol and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. Salt formation was confirmed, the salts were characterized and their corresponding solubilities determined and rationalized with respect to the counterions' properties. The properties of the salt highly dependent on the nature of the counterion and, although there is considerable variation, some general conclusion can be drawn. For the alkyl amines series, increasing chain length leads to a reduction in solubility across all the acidic drugs studied and a reduction in melting point, thus contradicting simplistic relationships between solubility and melting point. Small, compact counterions consistently produce crystalline salts with high melting point accompanied with a modest improvement in solubility and the nature of hydrogen bonding between the ions has a major impact on the solubility.

  16. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  17. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  18. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  19. Similarity of salt influences on the pH of buffers, polyelectrolytes, and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinescu, Alina E; Bauduin, Pierre; Pinna, M Cristina; Touraud, Didier; Ninham, Barry W; Kunz, Werner

    2006-05-04

    Changes in pH induced by the addition of electrolytes to buffers, polyelectrolytes (a polycarboxy polymethylene and a polyethyleneimine), and proteins (casein, whey, and lysozyme) solutions are explored systematically. The two buffer systems are triethanolamine/triethanolammonium chloride and citric acid/sodium citrate. These are chosen because of the similarity of their acid-base equilibria with those of amino acids predominant in most proteins, that is, amino acids that include carboxylate or ammonium groups in their structures. The pH of triethanolamine and of citrate buffers respectively increases and decreases when salt is added. At low electrolyte concentrations (buffer solutions. It is even possible to qualitatively predict these changes in protein solutions simply from the primary protein structure. At least in the systems considered here, the specific ion effects on pH seem to correlate with the bulk activity coefficients of the added electrolytes, at least at moderate salt concentrations.

  20. Sterilization by Gamma-Radiation of the Sodium Salt of p-Amino-Salicylic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellion, B.; Denti, E.; Massagli, A.

    1963-01-01

    Sodium p-amino-salicylate cannot be sterilized thermally. During manufacture or packing for medical purposes it must therefore be handled under sterilized conditions, with all the difficulties which this involves. The paper quotes experimental data to show that, using gamma irradiation, the product may be sterilized without damage and without the formation of substances harmful from the medical standpoint. (author) [fr

  1. Salt and nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension: kidney dysfunction and brain anti-oxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktar, Süleyman; Ilhan, Selçuk; Meydan, Sedat; Aydin, Mehmet; Yönden, Zafer; Gökçe, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine the effects of salt-loading on kidney function and brain antioxidant capacity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control rats were given normal drinking water and no drug treatment for 2 weeks. LNNA group: rats were given normal drinking water and the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), 3 mg/kg/day. LNNA + Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and 3 mg/kg L-NNA. Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and no drug treatment. Basal blood pressure and the levels of serum BUN, creatinine, uric acid, cortisol, electrolyte, serum antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were measured. NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels were measured in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cerebellum. Salt overload increased the blood pressure of the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced BUN, creatinine, sodium retention. High salt produced an increase in uric acid levels and a decrease in cortisol levels in serum. Additionally, the oxidative stress index in serum increased in the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced brain NO levels, but not SOD and CAT activity. L-NNA increased brain SOD activity, but not CAT and NO levels. In conclusion, salt-loading causes hypertension, kidney dysfunction, and enhances oxidative stress in salt-sensitive rats.

  2. Mixed sodium nickel-manganese sulfates: Crystal structure relationships between hydrates and anhydrous salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Delyana M.; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N.; Kukeva, Rositsa R.; Markov, Pavel V. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nihtianova, Diana D. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, Radostina K., E-mail: radstoy@svr.igic.bas.bg [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-06-15

    The present contribution provides new structural and spectroscopic data on the formation of solid solutions between hydrated and dehydrated sulfate salts of sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese in a whole concentration range: Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·yH{sub 2}O, 0≤ x≤1.0. Using powder XRD, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), IR and Raman spectroscopy it has been found that double sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese salts form solid solutions Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O with a blödite-type of structure within a broad concentration range of 0≤x≤0.49, while the manganese rich compositions Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (0.97≤x≤1.0) crystallize in the kröhnkite-type of structure. The Ni-based blödites Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O dehydrate between 140 and 260 °C into anhydrous salts Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, 0≤ x≤0.44, with a structure where Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 6} octahedra are bridged into pairs by edge- and corner sharing SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups. Both TEM and EPR methods show that the Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions are homogenously distributed over three crystallographic positions of the large monoclinic cell. The dehydration of the kröhnkite phase Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O yields the alluaudite phase Na{sub 2+δ}Mn{sub 2-δ/2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, where the Na-to-Mn ratio decreases and all Ni{sup 2+} dopants are released from the structure. The process of the dehydration is discussed in terms of structural aspects taking into account the distortion degree of the Ni,MnO{sub 6} and SO{sub 4} polyhedra. - Graphical abstract: Thermal dehydration of the blödite phase Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O (0≤ x≤0.49) yields nickel-manganese sulfates Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (0≤ x≤0.44) with

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III) chloride as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III) chloride (Fe mTA) is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III) and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid we...

  4. Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Rawichar Chaipojjana; Suttipong Phosuksirikul; Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465 were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition 5 M HCl, pH 2 for 2 hours and bile salt 0.3%, pH 5.8 for 8 hour. ...

  5. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days.

  6. Foliar application of ascorbic acid mitigates sodium chloride induced stress in eggplant (solanum melongena l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work was designed to test the effect of sodium chloride on germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, yield, chemical contents and ionic composition of eggplant. The consequences of foliar application of ascorbic acid (AA) on mitigation of adverse effects of sodium chloride were also tested. The seeds of Solanum melongena were germinated using NaCl (60 mM, 100 mM) and ascorbic acid (100 and 200 mM). High levels of salinity significantly affected the seed germination and seedling fresh and dry weights. Plants grown under salinity stress with foliar application of ascorbic acid showed significant increase in germination percentage and seedlings growth as compare to control plants. Sodium chloride stress showed adverse effects on plant height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins as compared to untreated plants. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage were increased and Na+ and K+ ions balance was disturbed in different plant parts. Ascorbic acid (100 and 200ppm) enhanced all the growth parameters affected adversely by sodium chloride stress. (author)

  7. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain...) published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts, 74 FR 25705 (May 29...

  8. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic..., regarding ``Second Antidumping Administrative Review of Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  9. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P.C.; Holtz, E.V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of

  10. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ On [[Page...\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent to Rescind...

  11. Separation and recovery of sodium nitrate from low-level radioactive liquid waste by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kato, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    An advanced method, in which electrodialysis separation of sodium nitrate and decomposition of nitrate ion are combined, has been developed to remove nitrate ion from low-level radioactive liquid wastes including nitrate salts of high concentration. In the electrodialysis separation, the sodium nitrate was recovered as nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. When they are reused, it is necessary to reduce the quantity of impurities getting mixed with them from the waste fluid as much as possible. In this study, therefore, a cation exchange membrane with permselectivity for sodium ion and an anion exchange membrane with permselectivity for monovalent anion were employed. Using these membranes sodium and nitrate ions were effectively removed form a sodium nitrate solution of high concentration. And also it was confirmed that sodium ion was successfully separated from cesium and strontium ions and that nitrate ion was separated from sulfate and phosphate ions. (author)

  12. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg ( P  fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P  fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P  fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178  μ mol /24 hrs P  fructose predisposes rats to salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Study on the utilization of a sodium-sulfuric acid solution for the uranium minerals' leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, Patricia; Fruchtenicht, Fernando; Gil, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel; Bouza, Angel; Vert, Gabriela; Becquart, Elena

    1988-01-01

    Argentine uranium minerals have been leached at bench scale with a different agent trying to reduce sulfuric acid consumption. The leaching agent was a sodium sulfate-sulfuric acid solution and the ore was from Sierra Pintada (San Rafael - Mendoza). The work was performed in stirred vessel at atmospheric pressure. The influence of different variables, pH, temperature, oxidant agent, sodium sulfate concentration and time, in the sulfuric acid consumption and the uranium yield was studied. (Author) [es

  14. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  15. In vitro studies on interactions of iron salts and complexes with food-stuffs and medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisser, P

    1990-07-01

    It has been shown in the present study that food components such as phytic acid, oxalic acid, tannin, sodium alginate, choline and choline salts, vitamins A, D3 and E, soy oil and soy flour, do not undergo any interactions with iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex (Ferrum Hausmann). Phytic acid, oxalic acid, tannin and sodium alginate, however, react with iron(II) or iron(III)-salts at pH values of 3.0, 5.5 and 8.0, giving rise to iron complexes. Trimethylamine-N-oxide, which is present in fish meal, reacts with iron(II)-sulphate to produce iron(III) reaction products; it does not react with iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex. Special soybean flours show no irreversible adsorption or precipitation with iron(III)-hydroxyide polymaltose complex over the pH range 3.0-8.0, in contrast to iron(II)-sulphate. Antacids containing aluminium hydroxide, talc, ion exchange resins or other unabsorbable, insoluble components absorb iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex in the pH range 3.0-8.0 in a reversible manner, while the strong adsorption or precipitation observed with iron(II)-sulphate at pH 8.0 is irreversible. No interaction was observed between the steroid hormones studied and iron(II)-sulphate or iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex. On the basis of the measured compatibilities, iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex can be administered orally simultaneously with many other drugs, without prejudicing the absorption of iron or of the other drug as is often seen with iron(II) and iron(III) salts.

  16. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  17. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  18. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  19. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  20. Gibbs free energy of transfer of a methylene group on {UCON + (sodium or potassium) phosphate salts} aqueous two-phase systems: Hydrophobicity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverio, Sara C.; Rodriguez, Oscar; Teixeira, Jose A.; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbs free energy of transfer of a suitable hydrophobic probe can be regarded as a measure of the relative hydrophobicity of the different phases. The methylene group (CH 2 ) can be considered hydrophobic, and thus be a suitable probe for hydrophobicity. In this work, the partition coefficients of a series of five dinitrophenylated-amino acids were experimentally determined, at 23 o C, in three different tie-lines of the biphasic systems: (UCON + K 2 HPO 4 ), (UCON + potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7), (UCON + KH 2 PO 4 ), (UCON + Na 2 HPO 4 ), (UCON + sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7), and (UCON + NaH 2 PO 4 ). The Gibbs free energy of transfer of CH 2 units were calculated from the partition coefficients and used to compare the relative hydrophobicity of the equilibrium phases. The largest relative hydrophobicity was found for the ATPS formed by dihydrogen phosphate salts.

  1. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for... results of this review.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of...

  2. Inaugural Maximum Values for Sodium in Processed Food Products in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm; Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka; Nilson, Eduardo; L'Abbé, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Reducing dietary salt/sodium is one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve population health. There are five initiatives in the Americas that independently developed targets for reformulating foods to reduce salt/sodium content. Applying selection criteria, recommended by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Advisory Group on Dietary Salt/Sodium Reduction, a consortium of governments, civil society, and food companies (the Salt Smart Consortium) agreed to an inaugural set of regional maximum targets (upper limits) for salt/sodium levels for 11 food categories, to be achieved by December 2016. Ultimately, to substantively reduce dietary salt across whole populations, targets will be needed for the majority of processed and pre-prepared foods. Cardiovascular and hypertension organizations are encouraged to utilize the regional targets in advocacy and in monitoring and evaluation of progress by the food industry. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the bile acid sodium symporter ASBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Jen; Iwata, So; Cameron, Alexander D.; Drew, David

    2011-01-01

    High cholesterol levels greatly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. By its conversion into bile acids, about 50% of cholesterol is eliminated from the body. However bile acids released from the bile duct are constantly recycled, being reabsorbed in the intestine via the Apical Sodium dependent Bile acid Transporter (ASBT). It has been shown in animal models that plasma cholesterol levels are significantly lowered by specific inhibitors of ASBT1,2, thus ASBT is a target for hypercholesterolemia drugs. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of ASBT from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) at 2.2Å. ASBTNM contains two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices. A Core domain of six helices harbours two sodium ions while the remaining helices form a Panel-like domain. Overall the architecture of the protein is remarkably similar to the sodium-proton antiporter NhaA3 despite no detectable sequence homology. A bile acid molecule is situated between the Core and Panel domains in a large hydrophobic cavity. Residues near to this cavity have been shown to affect the binding of specific inhibitors of human ASBT4. The position of the bile acid together with the molecular architecture suggests the rudiments of a possible transport mechanism. PMID:21976025

  4. Investigation of cerium salt/sulfuric acid anodizing technology for 1420 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Li; Yue Peng Deng; Bao Lan Guo; Guo Qiang Li [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of cerium addition agent on the property of anodized coating of 1420 Al alloy has been studied by corrosion experiment (immersion test and neutral salt spray test), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and measurement of polarization curves. The result show that only pitting could be observed in all corrosion tests while intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion did not appear on 1420 Al-Li alloys. When organic carboxylic acid S or the cerium (IV) salt was added into sulfuric acid anodizing electrolyte separately, there was no significant improvement in corrosion resistance of anodized film. However, in the case of adding them into sulfuric acid anodizing electrolyte together, the corrosion resistance of anodized film increased greatly owing to synergistic effect. The synergistic effect may relate to the formation of cerium-organic carboxylic acid S complex compound and its effects on film growth and film structure. (orig.)

  5. The American Heart Association Scientific Statement on salt sensitivity of blood pressure: Prompting consideration of alternative conceptual frameworks for the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 11 (2017), s. 2214-2225 ISSN 0263-6352 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * salt * salt resistence * salt sensitivity * sodium * sodium sensitivity Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2016

  6. {tau} - hydrogen phosphate of zirconia in sodium salt form and some of its properties; {tau} - hidrogenofosfato de zirconio en forma sodica y algunas de sus propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez V, S.M.; Ordonez R, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is reported the obtaining and characterization in the sodium salt form of the {tau}-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodium form, this compound it was synthesized, for a new technique developed in the laboratory of Dept. of Chemistry of the ININ. The characterization was carried out for XRD, IR, Sem and EDS the thermal gravimetric analysis is also reported. (Author)

  7. Optimization of Fluorescent Silicon Nano material Production Using Peroxide/ Acid/ Salt Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuhassan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nano material was prepared using the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H 2 O 2 / HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nano material production, the amount of nano material produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml of an aqueous 1 mg/ L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nano material present. The results indicated that using 10 ml of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nano material. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nano material at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nano material is proposed. The auxiliary nano material is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nano material produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected. (author)

  8. Aromatic fluorine compounds. VI. Displacement of aryl fluorine in diazonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, G.C.; Oesterling, R.E.

    1956-01-01

    Several chlorofluorobenzenes have been isolated from the Schiemann synthesis of fluorobenzenes. These have been shown to be the products of two side reactions occurring during thermal decomposition of the dry benzenediazonium fluoborate salt containing coprecipitated sodium chloride, an unavoidable contaminant in large preparations involving the use of hydrochloric acid and sodium fluoborate. The major side reaction and its chloro product were unexpected; a unique displacement of fluorine ortho to the diazonium group was observed. Replacement of the diazo group with chlorine was the predicted side reaction which proved to be minor. Conditions causing the side reactions and the isolation and identification of the products are described.

  9. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be

  10. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabiazar, Roonak [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na{sub 3}Cit and [C{sub 4}mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na{sub 3}Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of

  11. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  12. Rural Latino caregivers' beliefs and behaviors around their children's salt consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S; Guerra, Claudia; Gonzalez-Vargas, M Judy; Barker, Judith C

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of high blood pressure has been increasing in U.S. children, with implications for long term health consequences. Sodium consumption, a modifiable risk factor for high blood pressure, is above recommended limits and increasing. Very little is known about Latino caregiver beliefs and behaviors around their children's salt consumption. In California's Central Valley, qualitative interviews in Spanish investigated low-income caregivers' views and understandings of their children's dietary salt consumption. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups were conducted (N=61). Interview transcripts were translated and transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed. Seven primary topic areas around children's salt intake and its impact on health were identified: children's favorite foods, children's dietary salt sources, superiority of home-cooked foods, salty and sweet foods, managing salt for health, developing children's tastes, and adding salt added at the table. Parents recognize common sources of sodium such as "junk food" and processed food and made efforts to limit their children's consumption of these foods, but may overlook other significant sodium sources, particularly bread, cheese, prepared soups and sports drinks. Caregivers recognize excess salt as unhealthy for children, but don't believe health problems (like high blood pressure) can occur in young children. Nevertheless, they made efforts to limit how much salt their children consumed through a variety of strategies; school meals were a source of high sodium that they felt were outside of their control. Latino caregivers are concerned about their children's salt intake and attempt to limit consumption, but some common sources of sodium are under-recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  15. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate pretreatment and 2-stage curing for improved quality of salted duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zixuan; Qiao, Longshan; Zhu, Guanghong; Deng, Yun; Qian, Bingjun; Yue, Jin; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-03-01

    The effects of use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing on the microbial, physicochemical, and microstructural qualities of salted duck eggs were studied. After pretreatment in 0.5% (w/v) SDS solution at room conditions for 15 min, no discolorations were observed and no microorganisms were detected on the egg shells. In the 2-stage curing process, 25% (w/v) and 30% (w/v) saline solutions were evaluated in the 1st step (Stage I, approximately 18 d), whereas 4% (w/v) saline solution was applied in the 2nd step (Stage II, approximately 15 d). Along with increased curing time, water content decreased and NaCl content increased in the egg yolks from approximately 0.40% to 0.86%, whereas the water content of egg albumen remained at approximately 85% during the 2-stage curing. More importantly, the NaCl content of albumen maintained at approximately 4.0% at Stage II curing. Yolk index as a sign of maturity for salted duck eggs reached 1 at the end of Stage I (18 d) and retained the same value during Stage II curing regardless of the NaCl concentration in the Stage I saline solution. Oil exudation in egg yolks increased as the time of curing increased. As seen from scanning electron microscopy, oil was released from yolk granules. This study indicated that SDS pretreatment is effective to reduce microbial load on the shells of fresh duck eggs and the 2-stage curing can improve physicochemical qualities of the salted duck eggs and shortened curing time to about 7 to 17 d as compared to the traditional 1-step curing method. Spoiled saline solution and uneven distribution of salt are the 2 major problems in producing salted duck eggs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing process have shown effective to solve these problems, respectively. The SDS pretreatment was able to remove microorganisms and soil from the surface of fresh egg shells, thus preventing the spoilage of the saline solution. The 2-stage curing process

  16. Conductometric investigation of salt-free solutions of polyriboguanylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.G.; Davydova, O.V.; Kargov, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    Salt-free solutions of various ionic forms of polyriboguanylic acid (poly(G)) were studied by the methods of conductometry and spectroscopy of annular dichroism. The Manning approach was employed to calculate transport characteristics and structural parameters of poly(G) on the basis of spectra permit putting poly(G) salts in two groups: the first one comprising NH 4 + -, Rb + -, K + -, Na + -, the second one - Cs + -, and Li + -poly(G). The assumption is made that Li + and Cs + ions, bound with concrete groups of polyanion in a specific way, can promote formation of a stable structure different from the one observed in the presence of the first group counterions. 25 refs., 3 figs

  17. Iron intake by rats using peroral administration of /sup 55/Fe-salts of phosphatidic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, P.; Kas, J. (Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Tykva, R. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Organicke Chemie a Biochemie)

    1984-03-15

    The utilization of /sup 55/Fe and its incorporation into rat organs was investigated after peroral administration of various salts of phosphatidic acids (PA). Iron of PA salts is utilized up to 58-94% comparing to /sup 55/Fe/sup 2 +/. The degree of iron utilization depends on the type of PA salts administered. 16 refs.

  18. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as L-Glutamic...

  19. Study of structural, surface and hydrogen storage properties of boric acid mediated metal (sodium)-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Demet; Köse, Dursun A.; Sahin, Onur; Oztas, Nursen A.

    2018-04-01

    Three boric acid mediated metal organic frameworks were synthesized by solution method with using succinic acid, fumaric acid and acetylene dicarboxylic acid as a ligand source and sodium as a metal source. The complexes were characterized by FT-IR, powder XRD, elemental analyses and single crystal measurements. The complexes with the formula, C4H18B2Na2O14, C4H16B2Na2O14 and C4H14B2Na2O14 were successfully obtained. BET surface area of complexes were calculated and found as 13.474 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-succinato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate), 1.692 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-fumarato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate) and 5.600 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-acetylenedicarboxylato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate). Hydrogen storage capacities of the complexes were also studied at 77 K 1 bar pressure and found as 0.108%, 0.033%, 0.021% by mass. When different ligands were used, the pore volume, pore width and surface area of the obtained complexes were changed. As a consequence, hydrogen storage capacities also changed.

  20. Association between Salt Intake and Albuminuria in Normotensive and Hypertensive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Khaledifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a little published data regarding the association between salt intake and albuminuria as an important alarm for progression of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. We aimed to assess this relationship to emphasize the major role of restricting salt intake to minimize albuminuria and prevent these life-threatening events. Methods. The study population comprised 820 individuals. Participants were assigned to groups as follows: normal albuminuria, slight albuminuria, and clinical albuminuria. Daily salt intake was assessed on the basis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, since urinary sodium excretion largely equals sodium intake. Results. In normotensive participants, the mean level of urine albumin was higher in those who had higher amounts of salt intake with a significantly upward trend (the mean urinary albumin level in low-salt-diet group, in medium-salt-intake group, and in high-salt-intake group was 42.70±36.42, 46.89±38.91, and 53.38±48.23, resp., (P=0.017. There was a significant positive correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium secretion and the level of urine albumin (beta = 0.130, P<0.001. The amount of salt intake was significantly associated with urine albumin concentration (beta = 3.969, SE = 1.671, P=0.018. Conclusion. High salt intake was shown to be associated with higher level of microalbuminuria even adjusted for potential underlying risk factors.

  1. Amplification of acid formation from diphenyliodonium salt in γ-irradiated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Iino, K.; Koizumi, H.; Ichikawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    The G values of acid formation from diphenyliodonium salt in γ-irradiated polymers have been measured for developing chemically amplified radiation resists that have abilities of not only amplifying chemical reactions of polymers by the acid as a catalyst but also amplifying the formation of acid itself by a radiation-induced radical chain reaction. Addition of secondary alcohols as amplifiers for acid formation, to poly(alkyl methacrylates) results in the increase of the G value, though the increase is not so significant as that expected from a liquid-phase amplification reaction. The diffusion of free radicals and added molecules is difficult in the polymers due to cage effects by polymer molecules, which causes increases of the radical combination reaction and therefore decrease of the turnover number of the chain reaction. The G values of acid formation for poly(vinyl acetals) are much higher than those for poly(alkyl methacrylates) even the amplifiers are not added in the former polymers. Poly(vinyl acetals) are synthesized by acetalyzation of poly(vinyl alcohol), a polymer composed of secondary alcohol monomer unit, so that the secondary alcohol remaining in the polymer skeleton acts as an efficient amplifier for acid formation. The secondary alcohol acts as stepping-stones for the diffusion of free radical, so that the free radical can encounter a new iodonium salt molecule to continue the radical chain reaction. (authors)

  2. Effect of Na2CO3 degumming concentration on LiBr-formic acid-silk fibroin solution properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt-acid system has been proved to be of high efficiency for silk fibroin dissolution. Using salt-acid system to dissolve silk, native silk fibrils can be preserved in the regenerated solution. Increasing experiments indicate that acquirement of silk fibrils in solution is strongly associated with the degumming process. In this study, the effect of sodium carbonate degumming concentration on solution properties based on lithium bromide-formic acid dissolution system was systematically investigated. Results showed that the morphology transformation of silk fibroin in solution from nanospheres to nanofibrils is determined by sodium carbonate concentration during the degumming process. Solutions containing different silk fibroin structure exhibited different rheological behaviors and different electrospinnability, leading to different electrospun nanofibre properties. The results have guiding significance for preparation and application of silk fibroin solutions.

  3. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  4. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masayuki; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-11-28

    We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students ( n = 66) collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not ( p for trend trend = 0.005). The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods ( p for trend < 0.05). Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  5. Strategies to reduce sodium consumption: a food industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Mariska; Busch, Johanneke; Batenburg, Max; Liem, Gie; Tareilus, Erwin; Mueller, Rudi; Meijer, Gert

    2009-11-01

    The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products. Significant sodium reduction is not without complications as salt plays an important role in taste, and in some products is needed also for preservation and processing. The most promising sodium reduction strategy is to adapt the preference of consumers for saltiness by reducing sodium in products in small steps. However, this is a time-consuming approach that needs to be applied industry-wide in order to be effective. Therefore the food industry is also investigating solutions that will maintain the same perceived salt intensity at lower sodium levels. Each of these has specific advantages, disadvantages, and time lines for implementation. Currently applied approaches are resulting in sodium reduction between 20-30%. Further reduction will require new technologies. Research into the physiology of taste perception and salt receptors is an emerging area of science that is needed in order to achieve larger sodium reductions.

  6. Synergy of boric acid and added salts in the catalytic dehydration of hexoses to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.......Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural....

  7. Zoledronic acid and alendronate sodium and the implications in orthodontic movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, J S; Soares, F M P; Zaniboni, E; Vedovello Filho, M; Santamaria, M P; Dos Santos, G M T; Esquisatto, M A M; Felonato, M; Mendonca, F A S; Franzini, C M; Santamaria, M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats treated with two types of bisphosphonates (BPs), alendronate sodium (A) and zoledronic acid (Z). In all, 15 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group OTM+A: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of alendronate sodium (2.5 mg/kg); Group OTM+Z: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of zoledronic acid (0.02 mg/kg), and Group OTM: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous injection of saline. The BPs were administered once a day during 25 days before OTM started and during 10 days of OTM. The left upper first molar was moved with a stainless-steel closed coil spring which delivered an initial force of 0.4N. OTM was measured with a digital caliper comparing the moved and the contralateral side. The histomorphometric analysis counted the number of osteoclasts, inflammatory cells, blood vessels and fibroblasts (n/10 4  m 2 ) in periodontal ligament (PDL) of the distobuccal root. A reduction of 58.3% of OTM was found in Group OTM+A and 99.6% in Group OTM+Z, when compared with Group OTM. There was a significant decrease of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells in BP-treated groups. Blood vessels and fibroblastic cells decreased mainly in Group OTM+Z. Alendronate sodium and zoledronic acid have similar effects on the periodontal tissue during orthodontic treatment in rats. Especially, zoledronic acid can affect orthodontic tooth movement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Potentiometric and Conductometric Study of Aqueous Solutions of Lithium and Sodium Salts of Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, Gregor; Vlachy, Vojko; Bondarev, Dmitrij; Jiří, Vohlídal; Cerar, Janez

    2012-09-01

    The title polymer, PTAA, practically free of ester groups was obtained by oxidative polymerization of methyl thiophen-3-ylacetate and subsequent basic hydrolysis of primary polymer. Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid) has been thoroughly characterized by NMR, IR, Raman, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The polyacid behavior during neutralization titrations with lithium and sodium hydroxides, carried out under nitrogen atmosphere, has been studied by conductometry and potentiometry. Henderson-Hasselbach plots of potentiometric titration curves show a break point at pH around 6, where the curve slope drops from 1.8 (at lower pH) to a value from 1.05 to 1.3 (at higher pH values). The UV/Vis spectra monitored during back titration show: (i) monotonous decrease of both λmax and εmax as pH decreases, (ii) the presence of the isosbestic point at 401 nm that can be ascribed to conformational transition of PTAA chains, and (iii) absence of the isosbestic point at 392 nm reported previously by other authors.

  9. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  10. Viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kombucha Tea Against Low pH and Bile Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Puspawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha tea is a functional drink fermented by various types of microbes. Kombucha tea is also a source of lactic acid bacteria that can maintain the balance of the microflora of the digestive tract which can improve the health of the human body. Lactic acid bacteria can act as a probiotic if it is able to survive to the human gastrointestinal tract, where in order to reach the digestive tract, lactic acid bacteria has to be resistant to the low pH in the stomach and bile salts. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of resistance of lactic acid bacteria in kombucha tea against low pH and bile salts. This study uses 20 isolates, each of these isolates were tested to the resistance of low pH 2.0 and 0.5 % bile salts with incubation time of 4 hours. The results indicated that from 20 isolates of lactic acid bacteria that were obtained from kombucha tea, 15 isolates were resistant to low pH and 13 isolates were resistant to bile salts. The isolates have a huge potential to be developed as a probiotic candidate that can contribute greatly to the health of the digestive tract.

  11. Optogenetic Inhibition of Ventral Pallidum Neurons Impairs Context-Driven Salt Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E; Smedley, Elizabeth B; Stansfield, Katherine J; Stott, Jeffrey J; Smith, Kyle S

    2017-06-07

    Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013). However, it is not known whether the VP is necessary for salt appetite in terms of seeking out salt or consuming salt following sodium depletion. Here, we used a conditioned place-preference procedure to investigate the effects of optogenetically inhibiting the VP on context-driven salt seeking and the consumption of salt following deprivation. Male rats learned to associate one context with sucrose and another context with less-desirable salt. Following sodium depletion, and in the absence of either sucrose or salt, we found that inhibiting the VP selectively reduced the elevation in time spent in the salt-paired context. VP inhibition had minimal effects on the consumption of salt once it was made available. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the VP or any brain region is necessary for the ability to use contextual cues to guide salt seeking. These results highlight a dissociation between deficit-driven reward seeking and reward consumption to replenish those deficits, with the former process being particularly sensitive to on-line VP activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Salt appetite, in which rats will immediately seek out a once-undesirable concentrated salt solution after being depleted of bodily sodium despite never having tasted salt as a positive reward, is a phenomenon showing how animals can update their motivational goals without any new learning or conditioning. This salt-seeking behavior is also observed when the animal

  12. Synthesis of novel acid electrolytes for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, James L.

    1988-11-01

    A 40 millimole per hour scale aerosol direct fluorination reactor was constructed. F-Methyl F-4-methoxybutanoate and F-4-methoxybutanoyl fluoride were synthesized by aerosol direct fluorination of methyl 4-methoxybutanoate. Basic hydrolysis of the perfluorinated derivatives produce sodium F-4 methoxybutanoate which was pyrolyzed to F-3-methoxy-1-propene. Purification and shipment of 33 grams of F-3-methoxy-1-propene followed. Syntheses by analogous methods allowed production and shipment of 5 grams of F-3-ethoxy 1-propene, 18 grams of F-3-(2-methoxy.ethoxy) 1-propene, and 37 grams of F-3,3-dimethyl 1-butene. Eighteen grams of F-2,2-dimethyl 1-chloropropane was produced directly and shipped. As suggested by other contractors, 5 grams of F-3-methoxy 1-iodopropane, and 5 grams of F-3-(2-methoxy.ethoxy) 1-iodopropane were produced by converting the respective precursor acid sodium salts produced for olefin synthesis to the silver salts and pyrolyzing them with iodine. Each of these compounds was prepared for the first time by the aerosol fluorination process during the course of the contract. These samples were provided to other Gas Research Institute (GRI) contractors for synthesis of perfluorinated sulfur (VI) and phosphorous (V) acids.

  13. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  14. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. PMID:16346592

  15. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Jhe Hao; Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua; Hsu, Chih Chin; Yang, Kai Chiang; Yang, Chun Chen; Chen, Ko Shao; Chen, Szi Wen; Wang, Jong Shyan

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1 day seeded. Cell–cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  16. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jen Ming, E-mail: jmyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Jhe Hao [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Chih Chin [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Kai Chiang [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Chun Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming-Chi University of Science and Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ko Shao [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Szi Wen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong Shyan [Department of Physical Therapy and the Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-09-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1 day seeded. Cell–cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  17. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  18. Ion pair recognition by Zn-porphyrin/crown ether conjugates: visible sensing of sodium cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Hwan; Hong, Jong-In

    2002-03-07

    Synthesis and complexation behavior of ditopic neutral receptors composed of both a Lewis-acidic binding site (zinc porphyrin moiety) and a Lewis-basic binding site (crown ether moiety) are reported; the receptors bound only NaCN in a ditopic fashion with a color change, and in contrast other sodium salts bound to the receptors in a monotopic fashion without a color change.

  19. [Salt, renal function and high blood pressure--reflections on a current issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Mattias

    2002-11-21

    The role of salt intake for blood pressure control has been discussed for a long time. A brief review is given of some pertinent physiological facts to explain this relationship and evolutionary aspects of renal function are emphasized. Salt intake is very high in the modern society, often as high as 15 g sodium chloride per 24 hours while 3-6 g may be more than enough to maintain an adequate salt balance. If the kidneys cannot cope with this severe sodium overload, blood pressure will rise. Therefore, the kidneys' ability to excrete sodium is a key factor and the salt excretion capacity is the kidneys' major barostatic function. As barostats, the kidneys control the blood pressure by ultimately determining the sodium excretion. Reducing sodium intake is, however, difficult as more than 50% of the intake is contained in the food we buy such as bread, sausages, canned food, chips and fast-food. Food products should therefore be "salt declared", but information on this aspect is generally lacking. If the population's salt intake could be reduced by 50%, the prevalence of hypertension will be much reduced, perhaps also by as much as 50%. The cost to society for treating hypertension would be reduced accordingly. Salt intake is also an important aspect of the overweight problem among today's youth. Salt and overweight impose great health risks later in life. Preventive measures in this area must be given high priority in future health care work.

  20. An experimental screen for quinoline/fumaric acid salts and co-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beko, S. L.; Schmidt, M. U.; Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    . Characterised products include the previously published 1 : 1 salt, C9H8N+center dot C4H3O4-, and a new 2 : 1 quinoline/fumaric acid co-crystal, (C9H7N)(2)center dot C4H4O4. Attempts to influence the crystallisation outcome by addition of 6-methylquinoline yielded a second co-crystal, also with an inherent 2......An experimental screen has been carried out for salts and co-crystals of quinoline (C9H7N) and fumaric acid (C4H4O4), including solution-based co-crystallisation from a variety of solvents, solvent-assisted and solvent-free co-grinding, and direct co-crystallisation of the starting materials...... : 1 quinoline/fumaric acid ratio, as a solid solution containing ca. 75% 6-methylquinoline and 25% quinoline. The corresponding co-crystal with pure 6-methylquinoline, (C10H9N)(2)center dot C4H4O4, was prepared, but the analogous structure with pure quinoline could not be obtained. Energy minimisation...

  1. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Countervailing Duty... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...

  2. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Shcherbyna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s medicine and pharmacy undoubtedly need new and effective drugs. The 1,2,4-triazole derivatives occupy a special place among the wide variety of active organic compounds. This interest is caused primarily by high biological activity of these derivatives, low toxicity and high accessibility in terms of synthesis. Thus, drugs from 1,2,4-triazoles are known and are used extensively in medicine. It is important that a sufficiently large number of scientists-synthetics are paying attention on the heterocyclic system. Although a huge amount of information in the scientific literature is devoted to the 1,2,4-triazole derivatives, the 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts are virtually unexplored. The purpose of the work. Synthesis and establishing of the physical and chemical parameters of new 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts. Materials and methods. The study of physical and chemical properties of the obtained compounds was conducted by the methods that are listed in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine 2.0. The melting point was defined on the device which determines the melting point MPA100. The elemental composition of the compounds was found on the analyzer Elementar Vario ЕL cube (CHNS . 1H NMR specters of obtained compounds were recorded by using a spectrometer Varian Mercury VX-200 (1H, 200 MHz and decrypted by a computer program SpinWorks 3.1.8. Chromatography-mass spectral studies were conducted on the gas-liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC equipped with a mass spectrometer Agilent 6120 (ionization in electrospray (ESI. Results and discussion. As the source (starting compounds 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acids (where, R = H, CH3, C2H5, C6H5, NH2 were taken. Further, by the action of ammonia hydroxide, sodium and potassium hidrogen carbonates, piperidine, morpholine, methylamine, monoethanolamine and tributylamine in

  3. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  4. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the... duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China, covering the...

  5. Separation and recovery of uranium ore by chlorinating, chelate resin and molten salt treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Tomohiro

    2000-12-01

    Three fundamental researches of separation and recovery of uranium from uranium ore are reported in this paper. Three methods used the chloride pyrometallurgy, sodium containing molten salts and chelate resin. When uranium ore is mixed with activated carbon and reacted for one hour under the mixed gas of chlorine and oxygen at 950 C, more than 90% uranium volatilized and vaporization of aluminum, silicone and phosphorus were controlled. The best activated carbon was brown coal because it was able to control the large range of oxygen concentration. By blowing oxygen into the molten sodium hydroxide, the elution rate of uranium attained to about 95% and a few percent of uranium was remained in the residue. On the uranium ore of unconformity-related uranium deposits, a separation method of uranium, molybdenum, nickel and phosphorus from the sulfuric acid elusion solution with U, Ni, As, Mo, Fe and Al was developed. Methylene phosphonic acid type chelate resin (RCSP) adsorbed Mo and U, and then 100 % Mo was eluted by sodium acetate solution and about 100% U by sodium carbonate solution. Ni and As in the passing solution were recovered by imino-diacetic acid type chelate resin and iron hydroxide, respectively. (S.Y.)

  6. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; LEITE, Fábio Renato Manzolli; ZANDIM, Daniela Leal; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; RACHED, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; SAMPAIO, José Eduardo Cezar

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. Material and Methods A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group). After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. Results Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning. PMID:22858707

  7. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cavassim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group. After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. RESULTS: Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning.

  8. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  9. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium

  10. [How does salt intake influence blood pressure? Associated aetiopathogenic mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, P; Calero, F

    2017-12-15

    Abundant evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has established a link between salt and blood pressure. However, there is heterogeneity in the blood pressure responses of humans to changes in sodium intake. Those individuals in whom a severe, abrupt change in salt intake causes the least change in arterial pressure and are termed salt-resistant, whereas in those in whom this leads to large changes in blood pressure, are called salt sensitive. Classically, Guyton's theory of the pressure-natriuresis phenomenon has been accepted to explain the pressor effect of salt, as well as the fundamental role played by the different protein sodium transporters of the renal tubules. In recent years, new theories have emerged pointing to the possible role of the immune system and the existence of a third sodium store in the body as aetiopathogenic factors. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    OpenAIRE

    PAWAR, Vijay; NAIK, Prashant; GIRIDHAR, Rajani; YADAV, Mange Ram

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanol-amine, and diethylamine) had lowered ...

  12. Comparative Effects of Water, Acid and Sodium Benzoate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of water, sulphuric acid and sodium benzoate as additives on the micelle-catalyzed aquation reactions of the complexes:Fe(Me2Phen)3 2+ and FE(Me4Phen) were studied in acetone using Triton X-100 (TX-100), as the surfactant-catalyst. FE(Me4Phen)2+ equates faster than FE(Me2Phen)2+ in the ...

  13. Molten salt power towers operating at 600–650 °C: Salt selection and cost benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bauer, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    This analysis examines the potential benefit of adopting the supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycle at 600-650 degrees C compared to the current state-of-the-art power tower operating a steam-Rankine cycle with solar salt at approximately 574 degrees C. The analysis compares a molten-salt power tower configuration using direct storage of solar salt (60:40 wt% sodium nitrate: potassium nitrate) or single-component nitrate salts at 600 degrees C or alternative carbonate- or chloride-based salts at 650 degrees C.

  14. RNA interference of GhPEPC2 enhanced seed oil accumulation and salt tolerance in Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yumei; Cui, Yupeng; Liu, Zhengjie; Hua, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression profile of GhPEPC2 transgenic seeds were investigated using RNA-seq, most lipid synthesis related genes were up-regulated, but amino acid metabolic related genes were down-regulated. In addition, the GhPEPC2 transgenic cotton seedlings were stressed using sodium salts at seedling stage, and the salt tolerance was significantly enhanced. Our observations of GhPEPC2 in cotton would shade light on understanding the regulation of oil content, protein accumulation and salt tolerance enhancement in other plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing Base Cations in Streams: Another Legacy of Deicing Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, A. M.; Barclay, J. R.; Bellucci, C.; Rittenhouse, C.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated use of deicing salts directly increases sodium chloride inputs to watersheds. Sodium can accumulate in soils over time and has the potential to leach other cations (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) from the soil through cation exchange. We hypothesize that increased use of deicing salts results in a legacy of soils depleted in non-sodium base cations with loss of cations to receiving waters. The goal of this project is to quantify temporal trends in base cations and chloride in streams and rivers across the United States. We used Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) to analyze trends in base cations. Our preliminary analysis of 10 rivers in Connecticut with chemical periods of record ranging from 24 - 64 years (median = 55 years), shows that the flux of base cations is increasing in all sites (25 - 366 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), driven largely by increases in sodium (23 - 222 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), the dominant cation in 7 of the sites. Chloride is also increasing at all sites (26 - 261 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), which, in combination with salt use trends, suggests a road salt source for the increased sodium. Non-sodium cations are also increasing in 9 of the sites (8 - 54 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), though they are not directly added with most deicing salts. We will compare these trends to other long-term sites across the United States, and quantify relationships between cation trends and land cover, road density, and snowfall.

  16. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Borowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H 2 TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10 5 mol −1 . The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H 2 TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated

  17. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena, E-mail: makarska@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Borowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H{sub 2}TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} mol{sup −1}. The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H{sub 2}TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated.

  18. Characterization of Laboratory Prepared Concrete Pastes Exposed to High Alkaline and High Sodium Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-30

    The objective of this study was to identify potential chemical degradation mechanisms for the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) concretes, which over the performance life of the structures may be exposed to highly alkaline sodium salt solutions containing sulfate, hydroxide, and other potentially corrosive chemicals in salt solution and saltstone flush water, drain water, leachate and / or pore solution. The samples analyzed in this study were cement pastes prepared in the SIMCO Technologies, Inc. concrete laboratory. They were based on the paste fractions of the concretes used to construct the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs). SDU 1 and 4 concrete pastes were represented by the PV1 test specimens. The paste in the SDU 2, 3, 5, and 6 concrete was represented by the PV2 test specimens. SIMCO Technologies, Inc. selected the chemicals and proportions in the aggressive solutions to approximate proportions in the saltstone pore solution [2, 3, 5, and 6]. These test specimens were cured for 56 days in curing chamber before being immersed in aggressive solutions. After exposure, the samples were frozen to prevent additional chemical transport and reaction. Selected archived (retrieved from the freezer) samples were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for additional characterization using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Characterization results are summarized in this report. In addition, a correlation between the oxide composition of the pastes and their chemical durability in the alkaline salt solutions is provided.

  19. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  20. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  1. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Zeyner

    Full Text Available The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0, 50 (NaCl-50 or 100 (NaCl-100 g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50 at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05. This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  2. CO2 Capture from Flue gas using Amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    to storage. Typical solvents for the process are based on aqueous solutions of alkanolamines, such as mono-ethanolamine (MEA), but their use implies economic disadvantages and environmental complications. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamines, partlybecause...... for measuring of CO2 solubility based on the semi-flow method. A validation study of CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions of MEA is presented. Chapter 5 focuses on the determination of the chemical compositions of the precipitations, which arise in the five amino acid salt solutions upon CO2 absorption...

  3. Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Citric Acid and Sodium Carbonate with Deicers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at −20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at −20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose. PMID:26319879

  4. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Dimethylglycine Sodium Salt and Its Role in Providing Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Kaiwen; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Jingfei; Kou, Tao; Niu, Yu; Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the free radical scavenging activities (against 1,1-diphenyl-2-pierylhydrazy (DPPH), 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonate) (ABTS+), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) of dimethylglycine sodium salt (DMG-Na) were measured and compared with those of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), a commonly used antioxidant. The radical scavenging activities of DMG-Na were found to be the highest at 40 mg/ml. In Experiment 2, gastric intubation in mice with 12 mg DMG-Na/0.3 ml sterile saline solution significantly increased (P DMG-Na/0.3 ml sterile saline solution, which showed the highest antioxidant capacity, was further studied using a mice model. In Experiment 3, the mice CL (CON+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) group showed a significant decrease (P DMG+LPS) group showed a significant decrease (P DMG-Na could protect against the LPS-induced oxidative stress by enhancing the free radical scavenging capacity, and increasing the activity of antioxidant defense system.

  5. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc...

  6. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  7. High temperature salting of fish mince

    OpenAIRE

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  8. Prenatal programming of renal salt wasting resets postnatal salt appetite, which drives food intake in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwasel, Saleh H; Barker, David J P; Ashton, Nick

    2012-03-01

    Sodium retention has been proposed as the cause of hypertension in the LP rat (offspring exposed to a maternal low-protein diet in utero) model of developmental programming because of increased renal NKCC2 (Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 2) expression. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more rather than less sodium than controls, leading us to hypothesize that LP rats ingest more salt in order to maintain sodium balance. Rats were fed on either a 9% (low) or 18% (control) protein diet during pregnancy; male and female offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. LP rats of both sexes held in metabolism cages excreted more sodium and urine than controls. When given water to drink, LP rats drank more and ate more food than controls, hence sodium intake matched excretion. However, when given a choice between saline and water to drink, the total volume of fluid ingested by LP rats fell to control levels, but the volume of saline taken was significantly larger [3.8±0.1 compared with 8.8±1.3 ml/24 h per 100 g of body weight in control and LP rats respectively; Psodium content and ECF (extracellular fluid) volumes were greater in LP rats. These results show that prenatal programming of renal sodium wasting leads to a compensatory increase in salt appetite in LP rats. We speculate that the need to maintain salt homoeostasis following malnutrition in utero stimulates greater food intake, leading to accelerated growth and raised BP (blood pressure).

  9. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or

  10. Sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Eugenio A.; Olivares, Octavio; Likhanova, Natalya V.; Dominguez-Aguilar, Marco A.; Nava, Noel; Guzman-Lucero, Diego; Corrales, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → N-Alkyl-sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for industry in acidic medium. → Compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. → Efficiencies were proportional to aliphatic chain length and inhibitor concentration. → Iron complexes and chelates with phthalamates contributed to carbon steel protection. - Abstract: Three compounds of N-alkyl-sodium phthalamates were synthesized and tested as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid. Tests showed that inhibitor efficiencies were related to aliphatic chain length and dependent on concentration. N-1-n-tetradecyl-sodium phthalamate displayed moderate efficiency against uniform corrosion, 42-86% at 25 deg. C and 25-60% at 40 o C. Tests indicated that compounds behave as mixed type inhibitors where molecular adsorption on steel followed Langmuir isotherm, whereas thermodynamic suggested that a physisorption process occurred. XPS analysis confirmed film formation on surface, where Fe +2 complexes and Fe +2 chelates with phthalamates prevented steel from further corrosion.

  11. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  12. Comparison of intraerythrocyte and intraleucocyte Sodium content and erythrocyte fragility in normotensive subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, A.; Cocci, F.; Cristofani, R.; Piras, F.; Balzan, S.; Mezzasalma, L.; Ghione; Giachetti, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Sodium content of mononuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes and the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were measured in 22 young male volunteers before and after three days of increased Sodium intake. Analysis of variance for repeated measurements showed no significant correlations between intraleucocyte and intraerythrocyte Sodium and between intraerythrocyte Sodium and osmotic fragility. On the other hand, a highly significant relation was present between osmotic fragility and intraleucocyte Sodium before high salt intake, which disappeared after 3 days of increased salt intake

  13. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  14. Stimulation of Intestinal Cl- Secretion Through CFTR by Caffeine Intake in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: High salt consumption is a major risk factor for hypertension, and sodium homeostasis is regulated by both intestinal sodium absorption and urinary sodium excretion. Chronic caffeine intake has been reported to attenuate salt-sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion; however, its exact role in intestinal sodium absorption remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether and how chronic caffeine consumption antagonizes salt-sensitive hypertension by inhibiting intestinal sodium absorption. Methods: Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed 8% NaCl chow and 0.1% caffeine in their drinking water for 15 days. The blood pressure and fecal sodium content were measured. The effect of caffeine on the movement of Cl- in enterocyte cells was determined with the Ussing chamber assay. Results: Rats that were treated with caffeine displayed significantly lower mean blood pressure and higher fecal sodium content than the controls. Consistent with these findings, caffeine intake decreased fluid absorption by the intestine in the fluid perfusion experiment. Further, the results from the Ussing chamber assay indicated that caffeine promoted Cl- secretion through enterocyte apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and thus inhibited sodium absorption. Moreover, depletion of cAMP or inhibition of CFTR completely abolished the effect of caffeine on Cl- secretion. Conclusion: The results indicate that chronic caffeine consumption reduces sodium absorption by promoting CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in the intestine, which contributes to the anti-hypertensive effect of caffeine in salt-sensitive rats.

  15. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  16. Immobilization of LiCl-Li2O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, hydrothermal and salt-occlusion processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reactions with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream generated from pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and to aid in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an autoclave with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  17. Nonequimolar Mixture of Organic Acids and Bases: An Exception to the Rule of Thumb for Salt or Cocrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratik, Saied Md; Datta, Ayan

    2016-08-04

    Formation of salt and/or cocrystal from organic acid-base mixtures has significant consequences in the pharmaceutical industry and its related intellectual property rights (IPR). On the basis of calculations using periodic dispersion corrected DFT (DFT-D2) on formic acid-pyridine adduct, we have demonstrated that an equimolar stoichiometric ratio (1:1) exists as a neutral cocrystal. On the other hand, the nonequimolar stoichiometry (4:1) readily forms an ionic salt. While the former result is in agreement with the ΔpKa rule between the base and the acid, the latter is not. Calculations reveal that, within the equimolar manifold (n:n; n = 1-4), the mixture exists as a hydrogen bonded complex in a cocrystal-like environment. However, the nonequimolar mixture in a ratio of 5:1 and above readily forms salt-like structures. Because of the cooperative nature of hydrogen bonding, the strength of the O-H···N hydrogen bond increases and eventually transforms into O(-)···H-N(+) (complete proton transfer) as the ratio of formic acid increases and forms salt as experimentally observed. Clearly, an enhanced polarization of formic acid on aggregation increases its acidity and, hence, facilitates its transfer to pyridine. Motion of the proton from formic acid to pyridine is shown to follow a relay mechanism wherein the proton that is far away from pyridine is ionized and is subsequently transferred to pyridine via hopping across the neutral formic acid molecules (Grotthuss type pathway). The dynamic nature of protons in the condensed phase is also evident for cocrystals as the barrier of intramolecular proton migration in formic acid (leading to tautomerism), ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 17.1 kcal/mol in the presence of pyridine is half of that in free formic acid (cf. ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 34.2 kcal/mol). We show that an acid-base reaction can be altered in the solid state to selectively form a cocrystal or salt depending on the strength and nature of aggregation.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  19. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analy...

  20. Optimum level of salt in French-type bread. Influence of income status, salt level in daily bread consumption, and test location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, M; Flores, A; Hough, G; Apro, N; Ferreyra, V; Orbea, M M

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to measure the ideal salt concentration in French-type bread among Argentine consumers in a home-usage-test (HUT) considering income status and salt content of daily bread consumption as covariables, and to compare the ideal salt concentrations measured in a HUT and a central-location test (CLT). For the HUT, 420 consumers each received a sample of bread with a single salt concentration, and for the CLT, 100 consumers each received 7 samples with different salt concentrations. For each sample, consumers responded if they found the bread "not-salty-enough,"okay," or "too-salty." Neither income level nor salt content of daily bread influenced probability of rejection. The optimum sodium concentrations (milligrams per 100 g of bread dry basis) +/- 95% confidence limits for the HUT and CLT were 980 +/- 74 and 1157 +/- 87, respectively. These values are substantially higher than 628, the mean sodium content of the bread sampled from the bakery shops where consumers bought their daily bread.

  1. The Effect of Salt on the Complex Coacervation of Vinyl Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Perry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex coacervation is an electrostatically-driven phase separation phenomenon that is utilized in a wide range of everyday applications and is of great interest for the creation of self-assembled materials. Here, we utilized turbidity to characterize the effect of salt type on coacervate formation using two vinyl polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid sodium salt (pAA and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (pAH, as simple models for industrial and biological coacervates. We confirmed the dominant role of salt valence on the extent of coacervate formation, while demonstrating the presence of significant secondary effects, which can be described by Hofmeister-like behavior. These results revealed the importance of ion-specific interactions, which are crucial for the informed design of coacervate-based materials for use in complex ionic environments, and can enable more detailed theoretical investigations on the role of subtle electrostatic and thermodynamic effects in complex coacervation.

  2. The Effect of Salt on the Complex Coacervation of Vinyl Polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Sarah; Li, Yue; Priftis, Dimitrios; Leon, Lorraine; Tirrell, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Complex coacervation is an electrostatically-driven phase separation phenomenon that is utilized in a wide range of everyday applications and is of great interest for the creation of self-assembled materials. Here, we utilized turbidity to characterize the effect of salt type on coacervate formation using two vinyl polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid sodium salt) (pAA) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (pAH), as simple models for industrial and biological coacervates. We confirmed the dominant role of salt valence on the extent of coacervate formation, while demonstrating the presence of significant secondary effects, which can be described by Hofmeister-like behavior. These results revealed the importance of ion-specific interactions, which are crucial for the informed design of coacervate-based materials for use in complex ionic environments, and can enable more detailed theoretical investigations on the role of subtle electrostatic and thermodynamic effects in complex coacervation.

  3. Continuous Preparation of 1:1 Haloperidol-Maleic Acid Salt by a Novel Solvent-Free Method Using a Twin Screw Melt Extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung Lin; Vasoya, Jaydip M; Cirqueira, Marilia de Lima; Yeh, Kuan Lin; Lee, Tu; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-04-03

    Salts are generally prepared by acid-base reaction in relatively large volumes of organic solvents, followed by crystallization. In this study, the potential for preparing a pharmaceutical salt between haloperidol and maleic acid by a novel solvent-free method using a twin-screw melt extruder was investigated. The pH-solubility relationship between haloperidol and maleic acid in aqueous medium was first determined, which demonstrated that 1:1 salt formation between them was feasible (pH max 4.8; salt solubility 4.7 mg/mL). Extrusion of a 1:1 mixture of haloperidol and maleic acid at the extruder barrel temperature of 60 °C resulted in the formation of a highly crystalline salt. The effects of operating temperature and screw configuration on salt formation were also investigated, and those two were identified as key processing parameters. Salts were also prepared by solution crystallization from ethyl acetate, liquid-assisted grinding, and heat-assisted grinding and compared with those obtained by melt extrusion by using DSC, PXRD, TGA, and optical microscopy. While similar salts were obtained by all methods, both melt extrusion and solution crystallization yielded highly crystalline materials with identical enthalpies of melting. During the pH-solubility study, a salt hydrate form was also identified, which, upon heating, converted to anhydrate similar to that obtained by other methods. There were previous reports of the formation of cocrystals, but not salts, by melt extrusion. 1 H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed that a salt was indeed formed in the present study. The haloperidol-maleic acid salt obtained was nonhygroscopic in the moisture sorption study and converted to the hydrate form only upon mixing with water. Thus, we are reporting for the first time a relatively simple and solvent-free twin-screw melt extrusion method for the preparation of a pharmaceutical salt that provides material comparable to that obtained by solution

  4. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2011, through... and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Countervailing Duty Order, 74... subsidy, i.e., a government-provided financial contribution that gives rise to a benefit to the recipient...

  5. Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian J; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Candeias, Vanessa; Elliott, Paul

    2009-06-01

    High levels of dietary sodium (consumed as common salt, sodium chloride) are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health. Despite this, public health efforts to reduce sodium consumption remain limited to a few countries. Comprehensive, contemporaneous sodium intake data from around the world are needed to inform national/international public health initiatives to reduce sodium consumption. Use of standardized 24-h sodium excretion estimates for adults from the international INTERSALT (1985-87) and INTERMAP (1996-99) studies, and recent dietary and urinary sodium data from observational or interventional studies--identified by a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature--presented separately for adults and children. Review of methods for the estimation of sodium intake/excretion. Main food sources of sodium are presented for several Asian, European and Northern American countries, including previously unpublished INTERMAP data. Sodium intakes around the world are well in excess of physiological need (i.e. 10-20 mmol/day). Most adult populations have mean sodium intakes >100 mmol/day, and for many (particularly the Asian countries) mean intakes are >200 mmol/day. Possible exceptions include estimates from Cameroon, Ghana, Samoa, Spain, Taiwan, Tanzania, Uganda and Venezuela, though methodologies were sub-optimal and samples were not nationally representative. Sodium intakes were commonly >100 mmol/day in children over 5 years old, and increased with age. In European and Northern American countries, sodium intake is dominated by sodium added in manufactured foods ( approximately 75% of intake). Cereals and baked goods were the single largest contributor to dietary sodium intake in UK and US adults. In Japan and China, salt added at home (in cooking and at the table) and soy sauce were the largest sources. Unfavourably high sodium intakes remain prevalent around the world. Sources of dietary sodium vary largely worldwide

  6. Production of gaseous radiotracers CH3I and I2 through Na123I salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeiro, R.E.M.; Pereira, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop, separately, methodology for production of two gaseous tracers through the sodium iodide NaI marked with 123 I. Found in the nature in form different, the iodine has been used in diverse works in the area of the industry and health. These two forms of the gaseous iodine, the methyl iodide, CH 3 I, and molecular iodine, I 2 , are very unstable and volatile in the ambient temperature and presents different problems in clean-up and monitoring systems. The syntheses were processed with sodium iodide (NaI) 1M aqueous solution marked with 1 23I . The production of gas I 2 was realized with in chlorine acid (HCl) and sodium iodate salt (NaIO 3 ) and the CH 3 I was used, the salt of NaI and the reagent (CH 3 ) 2 SO 4 . The production of gases was initially realized through in unit in glass with an inert material and the purpose was to study the kinetic of reaction and to determine the efficiency of production. The two synthesis occurs in the reaction bottle and after of produced, the gas is stored in the collect bottle that contains a starch solution for fixed the I 2 , and in syntheses of CH 3 I contains a silver nitrate solution for your fixation. To determine the efficiency of production of gases, analytic tests were realized, where the consumption of iodide ions of the bottle of reaction are measured. The optimization of production of the each gaseous tracer was studied varying parameter as: concentration of iodide, concentration of acid and temperature. After, the syntheses of the radiotracers were realized in the compact unit, having been used as main reagent the salt radiated of sodium iodide, Na 123 I. The transportation of elementary iodine and methyl iodine was studied by a scintillation detector NaI (2 x 2)' positioned in the reaction bottle. (author)

  7. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Okuda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students (n = 66 collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not (pfor trend < 0.05. A number of foods to which the students added seasonings were positively associated with Na excretion (pfor trend = 0.005. The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods (pfor trend < 0.05. Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  8. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter that transports Na+ into the vacuole and exports H+ into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiporter that exports Na+ to the extracellular space and imports H+ into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na+ out of the cell or to sequester Na+ into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na+ in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

  9. Normotensive blood pressure in pregnancy: the role of salt and aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari-Moser, Carine; Escher, Geneviève; Kramer, Simea; Dick, Bernhard; Eisele, Nicole; Baumann, Marc; Raio, Luigi; Frey, Felix J; Surbek, Daniel; Mohaupt, Markus G

    2014-02-01

    A successful pregnancy requires an accommodating environment. Salt and water availability are critical for plasma volume expansion. Any changes in sodium intake would alter aldosterone, a hormone previously described beneficial in pregnancy. To date, it remains ambiguous whether high aldosterone or high salt intake is preferable. We hypothesized that increased aldosterone is a rescue mechanism and appropriate salt availability is equally effective in maintaining a normotensive blood pressure (BP) phenotype in pregnancy. We compared normotensive pregnant women (n=31) throughout pregnancy with young healthy female individuals (n=31-62) and performed salt sensitivity testing within the first trimester. Suppression of urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone levels by salt intake as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and urinary sodium excretion corrected for creatinine, respectively, was shifted toward a higher salt intake in pregnancy (Ppregnancy, neither high urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone nor sodium excretion was correlated with higher BP. In contrast, in nonpregnant women, systolic BP rose with aldosterone (Ppregnancy without causing aldosterone-induced hypertension. Second, salt seems to aid in BP lowering in pregnancy for reasons incompletely elucidated, yet involving renin suppression and potentially placental sensing mechanisms. Further research should identify susceptible individuals and clarify effector mechanisms.

  10. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with 14C or 3H in the taurine moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Zhang; Griffiths, W.J.; Sjoevall, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ 4 or 3β, 7α-dihydroxy-Δ 5 structures. Taurine labeled with 14 C or 3 H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with 14 C- or 3 H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author)

  11. Mitigating salt damage in lime-based mortars with mixed-in crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Laue, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the most important results of a research project which
    focused on the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in lime mortar to mitigate
    salt crystallization damage. The research focused on two of the most damaging
    salts, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, and

  12. Salicylic acid promotes plant growth and salt-related gene expression in Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) grown under different salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xule; Hu, Qingdi; Qian, Renjuan

    2018-03-01

    Salt stress is a critical factor that affects the growth and development of plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the negative effects of salt stress on plants. To elucidate salt tolerance in large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) and the regulatory mechanism of exogenous SA on D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to evaluate leaf biomass, leaf anatomy, soluble protein and sugar content, and the relative expression of salt-induced genes in D. superbus under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions with and without 0.5 mM SA. The result showed that exposure of D. superbus to salt stress lead to a decrease in leaf growth, soluble protein and sugar content, and mesophyll thickness, together with an increase in the expression of MYB and P5CS genes. Foliar application of SA effectively increased leaf biomass, soluble protein and sugar content, and upregulated the expression of MYB and P5CS in the D. superbus , which facilitated in the acclimation of D. superbus to moderate salt stress. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl), no significant difference in plant physiological responses and relevant gene expression between plants with and without SA was observed. The findings of this study suggest that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effects of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  13. Cation exchange process for molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    A new method, utilizing a cation exchange technique, has been developed for processing molten salt extraction (MSE) chloride salt residues. The developed ion exchange procedure has been used to separate americium and plutonium from gross quantities of magnesium, potassium, and sodium chloride that are present in the residues. The recovered plutonium and americium contained only 20 percent of the original amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium and were completely free of any detectable amounts of chloride impurity. (U.S.)

  14. Lecithin inhibits fatty acid and bile salt absorption from rat small intestine in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D R; Sillery, J

    1976-12-01

    During digestion of a fatty meal, long chain free fatty acids (FFA) and lecithin are among the lipids solubilized in intestinal contents as mixed micelles with bile salts. We hypothesized that if lecithin were not hydrolyzed, the mixed micelles would be abnormal, and absorption of FFA and bile salts would be depressed. To test this hypothesis, isolated segments of rat small intestine were infused in vivo with micellar solutions of 2 mMolar linoleic acid and 10 mMolar taurocholate to which was added 3 mMolar 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl lecithin (a common lecithin in bile and food), or 1-palmitoyl lysolecithin (the hydrolytic product of lecithin). Absorption of FFA and bile salt was measured under steady state conditions using a single-pass technique. Lecithin depressed the rate of FFA absorption by 40% (p less than 0.025) in jejunal and ileal segments whereas lysolecithin was associated with normal rates of FFA absorption. Lecithin also reduced taurocholate absorption from the ileum by 30% (p less than 0.05). These data support the idea that lecithin may depress FFA and bile salt absorption from the small intestine in pancreatic insufficiency.

  15. Physiological Mechanism of Salicylic Acid for Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important problems of crop production in estuarine and coastal zones. Improvement in salt tolerance of major food crops is an important way for the economic utilization of coastal zones. This study proved that the application of salicylic acid (SA improved the growth and yield under salt stress conditions and investigated its physiological mechanisms for salt tolerance. The investigation on the effect of SA for salt tolerance during germination showed that the decreased rates of germination and growth (in terms of shoot and root lengths by the salt stress were significantly increased by the SA application (SA + NaCl. The treatment of SA to the high and low saline soils enhanced the growth, yield and nutrient values of rice. The effects of SA on Na+, K+ and Cl– ionic accumulation were traced under salt stress condition by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. It was revealed that the increased accumulation of Na+ and Clˉ ions by the salt stress were reduced by SA application. An increased concentration of endogenous SA level was detected from the SA-treated rice varieties (ASD16 and BR26 by liquid chromatography electrospray Ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase were increased by salt stress whereas decreased by the SA application. The study proved that the application of SA could alleviate the adverse effects of salt stress by the regulation of physiological mechanism in rice plants. In spite of salt stress, it can be applied to the coastal and estuarine regions to increase the rice production.

  16. Endocrine control of active sodium transport across frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetz, J.

    1959-01-01

    I. Action of the neurohypophyseal peptides on sodium transport. 1) On Rana Esculenta, oxytocin alone is active on the sodium transport (not vaso pressin). 2) The post hypophysis of R.e. contains an hormonal factor even more specific on Na transport (12 times more active than oxytocin). 3) This new factor must be closely related to oxytocin. II. Action of the adrenal corticoids. 1) The skin of frogs adapted to a salt-rich external medium, shows a considerable diminution in sodium uptake. 2) This decreased sodium uptake is brought back to normal by the injections of aldosterone. 3) This suggests that salt loading of amphibians (as well as mammals) inhibits the mineralocorticoid activity of the adrenals. (author) [fr

  17. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  18. Effect of Fatty acids and beeswax addition on properties of sodium caseinate dispersions and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, M J; Jiménez, A; Atarés, L; Talens, P; Chiralt, A

    2009-06-08

    Edible films based on sodium caseinate and different saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, or beeswax were formulated. Film-forming emulsions were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, rheological behavior and surface tension. In order to evaluate the influence of lipids on sodium caseinate matrices, mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties were studied, taking into account the effect of water content and film structure on such properties. Saturated fatty acids affected the film properties in a particular way due to the formation of bilayer structures which limited water vapor permeability, giving rise to nonflexible and more opaque films. Oleic acid and beeswax were less effective as water vapor barriers, although the former imparted more flexibility to the caseinate films and did not reduce the film transparency notably.

  19. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-11-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at -20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at -20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Alternative natural seasoning to improve the microbial stability of low-salt beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lomillo, Javier; González-SanJosé, M A Luisa; Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, M A Dolores; Muñiz-Rodríguez, Pilar

    2017-07-15

    The meat industry is seeking new strategies to reduce the sodium content of meat products without shortening their shelf-life. Natural seasonings as salt alternatives are more appreciated than chemical preservatives and also enable the incorporation of interesting nutrients. The present work studies the potential of a new red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS), derived from wine pomace, to inhibit spoilage growth in beef patties with different salt levels (2%, 1.5% and 1%) held in storage at 4°C. The use of RWPS (2% w/w) improved the microbial stability of the patties, delaying total aerobic mesophilic, and lactic acid bacteria growth, especially in samples with low salt levels. Satisfactory results were obtained in modified-atmosphere and air-packaged patties. RWPS also enabled the incorporation of fiber and phenolic compounds, and increased potassium and calcium levels. In summary, RWPS presented an interesting potential as a seasoning in meat products, enabling salt reduction without compromising their microbial stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coexpression of bile salt hydrolase gene and catalase gene remarkably improves oxidative stress and bile salt resistance in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohong; Yin, Sheng; An, Haoran; Chen, Shangwu; Hao, Yanling

    2011-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) encounter various types of stress during industrial processes and gastrointestinal transit. Catalase (CAT) and bile salt hydrolase (BSH) can protect bacteria from oxidative stress or damage caused by bile salts by decomposing hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or deconjugating the bile salts, respectively. Lactobacillus casei is a valuable probiotic strain and is often deficient in both CAT and BSH. In order to improve the resistance of L. casei to both oxidative and bile salts stress, the catalase gene katA from L. sakei and the bile salt hydrolase gene bsh1 from L. plantarum were coexpressed in L. casei HX01. The enzyme activities of CAT and BSH were 2.41 μmol H(2)O(2)/min/10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) and 2.11 μmol glycine/min/ml in the recombinant L. casei CB, respectively. After incubation with 8 mM H(2)O(2), survival ratio of L. casei CB was 40-fold higher than that of L. casei CK. Treatment of L. casei CB with various concentrations of sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDCA) showed that ~10(5) CFU/ml cells survived after incubation with 0.5% GDCA, whereas almost all the L. casei CK cells were killed when treaded with 0.4% GDCA. These results indicate that the coexpression of CAT and BSH confers high-level resistance to both oxidative and bile salts stress conditions in L. casei HX01.

  2. Reactions of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and formation of sodium carbonate sulfate double salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinsheng; Wu, Yinghai; Anthony, Edward J. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    High-temperature chemical reactions in mixtures of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were investigated in order to explore the mechanisms of enhanced sulfur capture by limestones doped with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in fluidized bed combustion. Drastic weight loss of the mixtures was observed in a thermogravimetric analyzer near the melting temperature of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, indicating chemical reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis for a mixture of the solids following a heat treatment at 850 C revealed the existence of two sodium carbonate sulfate double salts that have not been reported before for the present system. The formation of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the melt of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} appears to precede the formation of the double salts. The two double salts are believed to have high porosity and specific surface area similar to those of a better-known double salt, burkeite. The implications of these findings for the enhancement of limestone sulfation by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are also discussed. (author)

  3. Reactions of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and formation of sodium carbonate sulfate double salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada)]. E-mail: jiwang@nrcan.gc.ca; Wu Yinghai [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada); Anthony, Edward J. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    High-temperature chemical reactions in mixtures of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were investigated in order to explore the mechanisms of enhanced sulfur capture by limestones doped with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in fluidized bed combustion. Drastic weight loss of the mixtures was observed in a thermogravimetric analyzer near the melting temperature of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, indicating chemical reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis for a mixture of the solids following a heat treatment at 850 deg. C revealed the existence of two sodium carbonate sulfate double salts that have not been reported before for the present system. The formation of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the melt of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} appears to precede the formation of the double salts. The two double salts are believed to have high porosity and specific surface area similar to those of a better-known double salt, burkeite. The implications of these findings for the enhancement of limestone sulfation by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are also discussed.

  4. Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.

    2006-12-01

    A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

  5. Characterization of reaction products in sodium-oxygen batteries : An electrolyte concentration study

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the discharge products formed at the cathode and the performance and cell chemistry of sodium-oxygen batteries have been studied. This was carried out using different NaOTf salt concentrations. The influence of different salt concentrations on sodium-oxygen batteries was investigated since it has been shown that increasing the salt concentration beyond conventional concentrations could result in advantages such as increased stability of the electrolytes towards decomposition, ...

  6. Low-sodium meat products: retaining salty taste for sweet health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Banerjee, Rituparna

    2012-01-01

    There is a positive correlation between excessive intake of sodium and incidence of hypertension. As diet is the main source of sodium, awareness among people regarding its possible role upon health has driven demand for various low sodium foods including meat products. Meat products contribute a significant amount of dietary sodium, thus maligning their own image. However, this is not an easy task as common salt affects taste and flavor, functional attributes, stability, and food safety of meat products. The various properties such as taste and flavor, binding, as well as microbiological characteristics should be given due care while developing low salt meat products and accordingly different approaches have been proposed for processing of such products. Potassium chloride has been mostly used to replace sodium; however, a number of other salts, flavor enhancers, bitter blockers and water, as well as fat binders have also been attempted either alone or in different combinations. A number of low sodium meat products have been developed but their economy and consumer acceptability are the major concerns needing proper attention. In future it is anticipated that these challenges would be overcome to provide well acceptable and cost-effective healthier meat products to the consumers.

  7. Mitigating salt damage in lime-based mortars with mixed-in crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Quist, W.J.; Granneman, S.J.C.; van Hees, R.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes some of the most important results of a four year PhD research on the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in lime mortar to mitigate salt crystallization damage. The research focused on two of the most damaging salts, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, and suitable

  8. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, in a mixture containing water and an organic, water miscible or partly water miscible solvent, which solvent influences the transition temperature below which sodium...

  9. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Abscisic Acid as a Dominant Signal in Tomato During Salt Stress Predisposition to Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress predisposes plants to Phytophthora root and crown rot in an abscisic acid (ABA-dependent manner. We used the tomato–Phytophthora capsici interaction to examine zoospore chemoattraction and assessed expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA following a salt-stress episode. Although salt treatment enhances chemoattraction of tomato roots to zoospores, exudates from salt-stressed roots of ABA-deficient mutants, which do not display the predisposition phenotype, have a similar chemoattraction as exudates from salt-stressed, wild-type roots. This suggests that ABA action during predisposing stress enhances disease through effects on plant responses occurring after initial contact and during ingress by the pathogen. The expression of NCED1 (ABA synthesis and TAS14 (ABA response in roots generally corresponded to previously reported changes in root ABA levels during salt stress onset and recovery in a pattern that was not altered by infection by P. capsici. The PR genes, P4 and PI-2, hallmarks in tomato for SA and JA action, respectively, were induced in non-stressed roots during infection and strongly suppressed in infected roots exposed to salt-stress prior to inoculation. However, there was a similar proportional increase in pathogen colonization observed in salt-stressed plants relative to non-stressed plants in both wild-type and a SA-deficient nahG line. Unlike the other tomato cultivars used in this study that showed a strong predisposition phenotype, the processing tomato cv. ‘Castlemart’ and its JA mutants were not predisposed by salt. Salt stress predisposition to crown and root rot caused by P. capsici appears to be strongly conditioned by ABA-driven mechanisms in tomato, with the stress compromising SA-and JA-mediated defense-related gene expression during P. capsici infection.

  11. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Taurocholate Deconjugation and Cholesterol Binding by Indigenous Dadih Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USMAN PATO

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available High serum cholesterol levels have been associated with an increased risk for human coronary heart disease. Lowering of serum cholesterol has been suggested to prevent the heart disease. To reduce serum cholesterol levels one may consumed diet supplementat of fermented dairy product such as dadih. Lactic acid bacteria present in dadih may alter serum cholesterol by directly bind to dietary cholesterol and/or deconjugation of bile salts. Acid and bile tolerance, deconjugation of sodium taurocholate, and the cholesterol-binding ability of lactic acid bacteria from dadih were examined. Among ten dadih lactic acid bacteria tested, six strains namely I-11, I-2775, K-5, I-6257, IS-7257, and B-4 could bind cholesterol and deconjugate sodium taurocholate. However, the last four strains were very sensitive to bile. Therefore, Lactobacillus fermentum I-11 and Leuconostoc lactis subsp. lactis I-2775 those were tolerant to acid and oxgall (bile and deconjugated sodium taurocholate and bound cholesterol could be recommended as probiotic to prevent coronary heart disease.

  13. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Bayandina, Yu.E.; Toptygina, G.M.; Shepot'ko, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In 2 S 3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  14. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller...

  15. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  16. Redox-initiated poly(methyl methcrylate) emulsion polymerizations stabilized with block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide), e-caprolactone and linoleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, B.H.; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  17. Impact of the application of humic acid and sodium nitroprusside on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nickel (Ni) is an essential micronutrient for plants but in high concentrations may turn toxic. This paper discusses the potential role of humic acid (HA) and sodium nitroprusside in modulating or preventing oxidative stress in rice plants. Three genes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate ...

  18. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  19. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate

  20. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V G; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdinov, Sh V

    1986-11-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate.

  1. Sulfonic acid-functionalized golf nanoparticles: A colloid-bound catalyst for soft lithographic application on self-assembled monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Paraschiv, V.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    In this report, we present a new lithographic approach to prepare patterned surfaces. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the acid-labile trimethylsilyl ether (TMS-OC11H22S)2 (TMS adsorbate) was formed on gold. 5-Mercapto-2-benzimidazole sulfonic acid sodium salt (MBS-Na+) was used as a ligand for

  2. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H in the taurine moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Zhang; Griffiths, W.J.; Sjoevall, Jan [Karolinska Inst., Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics Dept., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-{Delta}{sup 4} or 3{beta}, 7{alpha}-dihydroxy-{Delta}{sup 5} structures. Taurine labeled with {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with {sup 14}C- or {sup 3}H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author).

  3. The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M

    2007-07-01

    Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is

  4. Synthesis of High Purity Nonsymmetric Dialkylphosphinic Acid Extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlian; Xie, Meiying; Liu, Xinyu; Xu, Shengming

    2017-10-19

    We present the synthesis of (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid as an example to demonstrate a method for the synthesis of high purity nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid extractants. Low toxic sodium hypophosphite was chosen as the phosphorus source to react with olefin A (2,3-dimethyl-1-butene) to generate a monoalkylphosphinic acid intermediate. Amantadine was adopted to remove the dialkylphosphinic acid byproduct, as only the monoalkylphosphinic acid can react with amantadine to form an amantadine∙mono-alkylphosphinic acid salt, while the dialkylphosphinic acid cannot react with amantadine due to its large steric hindrance. The purified monoalkylphosphinic acid was then reacted with olefin B (diisobutylene) to yield nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid (NSDAPA). The unreacted monoalkylphosphinic acid can be easily removed by a simple base-acid post-treatment and other organic impurities can be separated out through the precipitation of the cobalt salt. The structure of the (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was confirmed by 31 P NMR, 1 H NMR, ESI-MS, and FT-IR. The purity was determined by a potentiometric titration method, and the results indicate that the purity can exceed 96%.

  5. Sodium Bicarbonate-Ascorbic Acid Combination for Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Kota; Ashikaga, Takashi; Inagaki, Dai; Miyabe, Tomonori; Arai, Marina; Yoshida, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Satoshi; Nakada, Akihiro; Kawamura, Iwanari; Masuda, Shinichiro; Nagamine, Sho; Hojo, Rintaro; Aoyama, Yuya; Tsuchiyama, Takaaki; Fukamizu, Seiji; Shibui, Takashi; Sakurada, Harumizu

    2017-01-25

    Sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid have been proposed to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The present study evaluated the effect of their combined use on CIN incidence.Methods and Results:We prospectively enrolled 429 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD: baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) prior to elective coronary catheterization. CIN was defined as absolute (≥0.5 mg/dL) or relative (≥25%) increase in serum creatinine within 72 h. In the saline hydration (n=218) and combined sodium bicarbonate+ascorbic acid (n=211) groups, a total of 1,500-2,500 mL 0.9% saline was given before and after the procedure. In addition, the combination group received 20 mEq sodium bicarbonate and 3 g ascorbic acid i.v. before the procedure, followed by 2 g ascorbic acid after the procedure and a further 2 g after 12 h. There were no significant differences between the basic characteristics and contrast volume in the 2 groups. CIN occurred in 19 patients (8.7%) in the saline group, and in 6 patients (2.8%) in the combined treatment group (P=0.008). Combined sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid could prevent CIN following catheterization in CKD patients.

  6. US Food Industry Progress During the National Salt Reduction Initiative: 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Christine J; Clapp, Jenifer; Niederman, Sarah A; Ng, Shu Wen; Angell, Sonia Y

    2016-10-01

    To assess the US packaged food industry's progress from 2009 to 2014, when the National Salt Reduction Initiative had voluntary, category-specific sodium targets with the goal of reducing sodium in packaged and restaurant foods by 25% over 5 years. Using the National Salt Reduction Initiative Packaged Food Database, we assessed target achievement and change in sales-weighted mean sodium density in top-selling products in 61 food categories in 2009 (n = 6336), 2012 (n = 6898), and 2014 (n = 7396). In 2009, when the targets were established, no categories met National Salt Reduction Initiative 2012 or 2014 targets. By 2014, 26% of categories met 2012 targets and 3% met 2014 targets. From 2009 to 2014, the sales-weighted mean sodium density declined significantly in almost half of all food categories (43%; 26/61 categories). Overall, sales-weighted mean sodium density declined significantly (by 6.8%; P industry progress was modest. The US Food and Drug Administration's proposed voluntary targets will be an important step in achieving more substantial sodium reductions.

  7. Inactivation of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium dodecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05 among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  8. Synthesis of water-soluble poly [acrylic acid-co-vinyl butyl ether] and its applications in cement admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negim, S.M.; Mun, G.A.; Nurkeeva, Z.S.; Danveesh, H.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Three composition ratios of poly[acrylic acid (AA)-co-vinyl butyl ether)] were prepared in alcoholic solution using azo-bis-isobutyro-nitrile as initiator (ABIN). The water-soluble copolymers were characterized through FT-IR, 1 H NMR, Mass spectra, ESEM as well as viscosity. The effect of water-soluble copolymers and their sodium salts on the physico-mechanical properties of Ordaniary Portland Cement (O.P.C) pastes was investigated. The results showed that the addition of aqueous solutions from the prepared copolymers and their sodium salts to the cement improve most of the specific characteristics of (O.P.C). As the concentration of the water-soluble copolymer increases, the setting time increases. The combined water content enhances the addition of copolymer to the mixing water. The compressive strength was she increased at all any hydration. The results of the solution of the prepared sodium salt copolymers are better than its copolymers. (author)

  9. Estimation of salt intake from spot urine samples in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura Makoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salt intake in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD may cause high blood pressure and increased albuminuria. Although, the estimation of salt intake is essential, there are no easy methods to estimate real salt intake. Methods Salt intake was assessed by determining urinary sodium excretion from the collected urine samples. Estimation of salt intake by spot urine was calculated by Tanaka’s formula. The correlation between estimated and measured sodium excretion was evaluated by Pearson´s correlation coefficients. Performance of equation was estimated by median bias, interquartile range (IQR, proportion of estimates within 30% deviation of measured sodium excretion (P30 and root mean square error (RMSE.The sensitivity and specificity of estimated against measured sodium excretion were separately assessed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results A total of 334 urine samples from 96 patients were examined. Mean age was 58 ± 16 years, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 53 ± 27 mL/min. Among these patients, 35 had CKD stage 1 or 2, 39 had stage 3, and 22 had stage 4 or 5. Estimated sodium excretion significantly correlated with measured sodium excretion (R = 0.52, P 170 mEq/day (AUC 0.835. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that spot urine can be used to estimate sodium excretion, especially in patients with low eGFR.

  10. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  11. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel; Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg -1 = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10 -8 to 143 . 10 -8 ) mol . kg -1 . Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol -1 . The standard molar Gibbs free energies, Δ tr G o , enthalpies, Δ tr H o , and entropies, Δ tr S o , for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated Δ tr G o values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol -1 ]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  12. Selective complexometric determination of titanium(IV) using sodium potassium tartrate or ascorbic acid as masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, N.V.; Bhat, N.G.; Narayana, B.; Nazareth, R.A.; Hegde, P.; Manjunatha, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate complexometric method is proposed for the determination of titanium(IV) where sodium potassium tartrate or ascorbic acid were used as masking agents. In the presence of diverse metal ions, titanium is first complexed with excess of EDTA and surplus EDTA is then titrated at pH 5-6 with zinc sulfate, xylenol orange being used as indicator. An excess of 5 % aqueous sodium potassium tartrate is then added to displace the complexed EDTA from the Ti-EDTA complex quantitatively, which is titrated with zinc sulfate. Also, ascorbic acid may be used as the releasing agent. The methods work well in the range 1-53 mg of Ti(IV) for sodium potassium tartrate with relative errors ± 0.28 % and standard deviations 0.16 mg. For ascorbic acid the range is 1.00-30.00 mg of Ti(IV) with relative errors of ± 0.40 % and standard deviations of 0.05 mg. (author)

  13. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium docecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mnyandu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health. A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of four sanitizers, used individually or combined, against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The contact times for bacteria and sanitizer were varied to 1, 3 and 5 minutes. Levulinic acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine and a combination of SDS and levulinic acid (mixture were tested. Results revealed that 0.5% levulinic acid, when used individually, is capable of reducing the surviving colonies by 3.63 log CFU/mL, 4.05 log CFU/mL, 6.71 log CFU/mL after exposure for 1, 3 and 5 minutes respectively.SDS resulted in an 8 log CFU/mL reduction after 1, 3 and 5 minutes. A combination of 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% SDS caused a 3.69 log CFU /mL reduction, 4.4 log CFU/mL reduction, 7.97 log CFU/mL reduction for 1, 3 and 5 minutes respectively. Chlorine was the least effective with 2.93 log CFU/mL reduction, 3.16 log CFU/ mL reduction and 4.53 log CFU/ mL reduction respectively. When stored for up to 72 hours at 4°C, the surviving colonies remained viable and decreased in number significantly P < 0.05 = 0.001. The titratable acidity of samples treated with levulinic acid and samples treated with SDS/Lev mixture was lowered significantly compared to the control sample. No significant differences were noted in these same parameters for samples treated with chlorine or SDS. The application of SDS in the fresh produce industry as a sanitizing agent may be successful in eradicating or reducing the viability of L. monocytogenes on fresh produce, thereby replacing the routine chlorine washing.

  14. Antimicrobial activity optimization of nisin, ascorbic acid and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA against Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongpanga Sangcharoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a commercial bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and widely used as a natural preservative in the food industry. However, while nisin alone cannot inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, it can in combination with a chelating agent or organic acid. This study combined nisin with some chelating agents, weak organic acids and their salts to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076. The combinations of nisin (2000 parts per million; ppm and ascorbic acid (2000 ppm or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA; 7400 ppm showed significant inhibitory effects on the target strain. Due to regulatory limits, the second part of the study reduced the concentrations of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA to 500 ppm, 2000 ppm and 250 ppm, respectively. The mixture of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA showed the highest inhibitory effect with a reduction number of 3.41 log colony forming units (p < 0.05. To minimize the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to investigate the combined effect of nisin (0–500 ppm, ascorbic acid (0–2000 ppm, and EDTA (0–250 ppm on the target strain growth. Among the three factors, nisin had a higher antimicrobial effect than ascorbic acid or EDTA, while an increase in nisin resulted in a decrease in S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 growth. The optimum concentration was 500 ppm nisin with 1515 ppm ascorbic acid and 250 ppm EDTA. Under these conditions, the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 predicted by the model was 24.99%. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Ascorbic acid, Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA, Nisin, Salmonella enteritidis

  15. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De-Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey tolerance and sensitivity remain largely unknown. To investigate this issue, potted olive plants of Leccino (salt-sensitive) and Frantoio (salt-tolerant) cultivars were grown in a phytotron chamber and treated with 0, 60 and 120mM NaCl. After forty days of treatment, growth analysis was performed and the concentration of sodium in root, stem and lea