WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid rock discharges

  1. Ionization and Corona Discharges from Stressed Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, M. J.; Kulahci, I.; Cyr, G.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Freund, F. T.

    2008-12-01

    Pre-earthquake signals have long been observed and documented, though they have not been adequately explained scientifically. These signals include air ionization, occasional flashes of light from the ground, radio frequency emissions, and effects on the ionosphere that occur hours or even days before large earthquakes. The theory that rocks function as p-type semiconductors when deviatoric stresses are applied offers a mechanism for this group of earthquake precursors. When an igneous or high-grade metamorphic rock is subjected to deviatoric stresses, peroxy bonds that exist in the rock's minerals as point defects dissociate, releasing positive hole charge carriers. The positive holes travel by phonon-assisted electron hopping from the stressed into and through the unstressed rock volume and build up a positive surface charge. At sufficiently large electric fields, especially along edges and sharp points of the rock, air molecules become field-ionized, loosing an electron to the rock surface and turning into airborne positive ions. This in turn can lead to corona discharges, which manifest themselves by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions. We applied concentrated stresses to one end of a block of gabbro, 30 x 15 x 10 cm3, inside a shielded Faraday cage and observed positive ion currents through an air gap about 25 cm from the place where the stresses were applied, punctuated by short bursts, accompanied by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions characteristic of a corona discharge. These observations may serve to explain a range of pre-earthquake signals, in particular changes in air conductivity, luminous phenomena, radio frequency noise, and ionospheric perturbations.

  2. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  3. Acid rock drainage and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall events cause both increases and decreases in acid and metals concentrations and their loadings from mine wastes, and unmined mineralized areas, into receiving streams based on data from 3 mines sites in the United States and other sites outside the US. Gradual increases in concentrations occur during long dry spells and sudden large increases are observed during the rising limb of the discharge following dry spells (first flush). By the time the discharge peak has occurred, concentrations are usually decreased, often to levels below those of pre-storm conditions and then they slowly rise again during the next dry spell. These dynamic changes in concentrations and loadings are related to the dissolution of soluble salts and the flushing out of waters that were concentrated by evaporation. The underlying processes, pyrite oxidation and host rock dissolution, do not end until the pyrite is fully weathered, which can take hundreds to thousands of years. These observations can be generalized to predict future conditions caused by droughts related to El Ni??o and climate change associated with global warming. Already, the time period for dry summers is lengthening in the western US and rainstorms are further apart and more intense when they happen. Consequently, flushing of inactive or active mine sites and mineralized but unmined sites will cause larger sudden increases in concentrations that will be an ever increasing danger to aquatic life with climate change. Higher average concentrations will be observed during longer low-flow periods. Remediation efforts will have to increase the capacity of engineered designs to deal with more extreme conditions, not average conditions of previous years.

  4. Disintegration of rocks based on magnetically isolated high voltage discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengbing; Jiang, Jinbo; Huang, Guoliang; Liu, Jun; Li, Chengzu

    2013-02-01

    Recently, a method utilizing pulsed power technology for disintegration of rocks arouses great interest of many researchers. In this paper, an improved method based on magnetic switch and the results shown that the uniform dielectrics like plastic can be broken down in water is presented, and the feasible mechanism explaining the breakdown of solid is proposed and proved experimentally. A high voltage pulse of 120 kV, rise time 0.2 μs was used to ignite the discharging channel in solids. When the plasma channel is formed in the solid, the resistance of the channel is quiet small; even if a relatively low voltage is applied on the channel on this occasion, it will produce high current to heat the plasma channel rapidly, and eventually disintegrate the solids. The feasibility of promising industrial application in the drilling and demolition of natural and artificial solid materials by the method we presented is verified by the experiment result in the paper.

  5. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

    2004-09-01

    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability.

  6. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  7. Plasma Discharge Initiation of Explosives in Rock Blasting Application: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jae-Ou; Jeong, Young-Jun; Shmelev, V M; Denicaev, A A; Poutchkov, V M; Ravi, V

    2006-01-01

    A plasma discharge initiation system for the explosive volumetric combustion charge was designed, investigated and developed for practical application. Laboratory scale experiments were carried out before conducting the large scale field tests. The resultant explosions gave rise to less noise, insignificant seismic vibrations and good specific explosive consumption for rock blasting. Importantly, the technique was found to be safe and environmentally friendly

  8. Water-rock interactions in discharge areas of Xiangshan Fossil hydrothermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wenbin

    1992-01-01

    Xiangshan Fossil hydrothermal system is located within a volcanic basin of south-eastern China. The fact that most metal mineralizations were found in the discharge areas of the fossil hydrothermal system shows that the discharge areas were special geochemical fields. This paper discusses some important water-rock interactions in the discharge areas of Xiangshan fossil hydrothermal system. When the fluids circulating in the deep section of the hydrothermal system went upward to the discharge area, the physico-chemical conditions under which the fluids were saturated changed so considerably that the original physico-chemical equilibria were broken. Consequently, the fluids tended to move to new equilibrium by means of regulating their chemical compositions. Temperature and pressures of the fluids could be declined greatly in discharge area; the difference of temperature and pressure are determined to be 100--150 C and 1--2 x 10 7 Pa. As a result, a large amount of CO 2 in solution escaped from the fluids in the discharge area, and UO 2 (CO 3 ) n 2(1-n) , stable in CO 2 -rich solutions, could be decomposed into UUO 2 2+ , which could be easily reduced into pitchblende associated by calcite and hematite. The pH values for the fluids tended to increase with the CO 2 escaping, however, the interactions between the hydrothermal fluids and the wall rocks (dominantly aluminosilicate) served as the buffers for the pH, and regulated the pH value around neutral point. The buffer effect was of great importance to uranium mineralization. In addition, isotope exchangements between the fluids and rocks took place extensively

  9. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  10. Rainfall as primary driver of discharge and solute export from rock glaciers: The Col d'Olen Rock Glacier in the NW Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicola; Gruber, Stephan; Martin, Maria; Malandrino, Mery; Magnani, Andrea; Godone, Danilo; Freppaz, Michele; Fratianni, Simona; Salerno, Franco

    2018-10-15

    Three hypotheses exist to explain how meteorological variables drive the amount and concentration of solute-enriched water from rock glaciers: (1) Warm periods cause increased subsurface ice melt, which releases solutes; (2) rain periods and the melt of long-lasting snow enhance dilution of rock-glacier outflows; and (3) percolation of rain through rock glaciers facilitates the export of solutes, causing an opposite effect as that described in hypothesis (2). This lack of detailed understanding likely exists because suitable studies of meteorological variables, hydrologic processes and chemical characteristics of water bodies downstream from rock glaciers are unavailable. In this study, a rock-glacier pond in the North-Western Italian Alps was studied on a weekly basis for the ice-free seasons 2014 and 2015 by observing the meteorological variables (air temperature, snowmelt, rainfall) assumed to drive the export of solute-enriched waters from the rock glacier and the hydrochemical response of the pond (water temperature as a proxy of rock-glacier discharge, stable water isotopes, major ions and selected trace elements). An intra-seasonal pattern of increasing solute export associated with higher rock-glacier discharge was found. Specifically, rainfall, after the winter snowpack depletion and prolonged periods of atmospheric temperature above 0 °C, was found to be the primary driver of solute export from the rock glacier during the ice-free season. This occurs likely through the flushing of isotopically- and geochemically-enriched icemelt, causing concomitant increases in the rock-glacier discharge and the solute export (SO 4 2- , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Ni, Mn, Co). Moreover, flushing of microbially-active sediments can cause increases in NO 3 - export. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  12. Modeling acid mine drainage in waste rock dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, R. [INRS, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the oxidation of sulfides present in mine wastes. The acidity generated by these reactions creates conditions under which metals can be leached and represent a threat for surface and ground waters. Even though leachate collection and neutralization are used to treat the problem, the industry is looking for methods to predict and prevent the generation of AMD at new sites and control methods for sites already producing AMD. Waste rock dumps are generally very large accumulations of barren rocks extracted from open pits to access ore bodies. These rocks contain sulfides, most commonly pyrite, and often generate AMD at rates much higher than in mine tailings which are fine grained by-products of milling operations. Numerous coupled physical processes are involved in AMD production in waste rocks. Sulfide oxidation reactions are strongly exothermic and temperatures beyond 70{degrees}C have been measured in some dumps. That heat is transfered by conduction and fluid advection. Dumps have thick partly saturated zones through which gases flow under thermal gradients and water infiltrates. Oxygen is required by the oxidation reactions and is supplied by diffusion and advection. The reaction products are carried in solution in very concentrated leachates. Numerical modeling of AMD aims to (1) provide a better understanding of the physical processes involved in AMD, (2) allow the integration of available waste rock characterization data, (3) indicate new data or studies which are required to fill the gaps in our quantitative understanding of AMD processes, and (4) supply a tool for the prediction of AMD production, taking into account the impact of control methods. These objectives can only be met through sustained research efforts. This study is part of a wider research effort which as been on-going at La Mine Doyon since 1991.

  13. Silicon Isotope Fractionation During Acid Water-Igneous Rock Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boorn, S. H.; van Bergen, M. J.; Vroon, P. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Silica enrichment by metasomatic/hydrothermal alteration is a widespread phenomenon in crustal environments where acid fluids interact with silicate rocks. High-sulfidation epithermal ore deposits and acid-leached residues at hot-spring settings are among the best known examples. Acid alteration acting on basalts has also been invoked to explain the relatively high silica contents of the surface of Mars. We have analyzed basaltic-andesitic lavas from the Kawah Ijen volcanic complex (East Java, Indonesia) that were altered by interaction with highly acid (pH~1) sulfate-chloride water of its crater lake and seepage stream. Quantitative removal of major elements during this interaction has led to relative increase in SiO2 contents. Our silicon isotope data, obtained by HR-MC-ICPMS and reported relative to the NIST RM8546 (=NBS28) standard, show a systematic increase in &δ&&30Si from -0.2‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for unaltered andesites and basalts to +1.5‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for the most altered/silicified rocks. These results demonstrate that silicification induced by pervasive acid alteration is accompanied by significant Si isotope fractionation, so that alterered products become isotopically heavier than the precursor rocks. Despite the observed enrichment in SiO2, the rocks have experienced an overall net loss of silicon upon alteration, if Nb is considered as perfectly immobile. The observed &δ&&30Si values of the alteration products appeared to correlate well with the inferred amounts of silicon loss. These findings would suggest that &28Si is preferentially leached during water-rock interaction, implying that dissolved silica in the ambient lake and stream water is isotopically light. However, layered opaline lake sediments, that are believed to represent precipitates from the silica-saturated water show a conspicuous &30Si-enrichment (+1.2 ± 0.2‰). Because anorganic precipitation is known to discriminate against the heavy isotope (e.g. Basile- Doelsch et al., 2006

  14. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  16. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  17. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  18. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  19. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  20. Impact on sediments and water by release of copper from chalcopyrite bearing rock due to acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anoop Kant; Pradhan, Manoj; Tiwari, Onkar Nath

    2018-04-01

    Mining activity causes transition of rock-mass from its original position in earth into open environment. The action of environmental elements such air, water, microorganisms leads to oxidation of minerals which constitute the rock. The oxidation of sulphide minerals in presence of moisture releases acidic mine discharge (AMD). The acidic nature of AMD causes leaching of metals from rock minerals. Dissolution of other minerals may occur upon reaction with AMD. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) undergoes oxidation in acidic condition releasing copper among other products. This study reveals contamination of copper in sediment samples and seepage water from the tailing dam of a large copper project in located in central India. Elevation was studied using GIS to ascertain to the topographic elevation of tailing dam area. It was located at relatively high altitude causing seepage to flow away from tailing dam. The seepage water from tailing dam was found to be acidic with mean pH value of 4.0 and elevated copper content. Similarly, sediments from seepage water flow displayed elevated copper concentration. The copper concentration in seepage water was found with a mean value of 10.73 mg/l. The sediments from seepage water flow also displayed elevated copper concentration with mean value of 26.92 g/kg. This indicates impact on sediments by release of copper due to acidic mine drainage.

  1. K-Ar dating on acidic rocks from the Western Aizu District, Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Ikuro; Ueda, Yoshio

    1979-01-01

    K-Ar age determinations were carried out on twelve samples of various acidic rocks (six volcanic rocks, two pyroclastics and four granitic rocks) which were obtained from the western part of Aizu district. The district studied is one of the important acidic petrographic provinces in the Green tuff region of Northeast Japan, and is widely covered by the acidic volcanic rocks and pyroclastics of Neogene period. The ages of six volcanic rocks range from 8 to 23 m.y., and they are generally correlated to the stratigraphic units of the Neogene in Northeast Japan. Dating results on four granitic rocks from the Tagokura granitic body showed the age range of 39 to 65 m.y., corresponding to the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. A sample of dacitic welded tuff from the Miyako River area gave an age of 44 m.y. It is pointed out that the welded tuff may be correlated to the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene acidic igneous rocks such as Nohi rhyolites, Asahi rhyolites, Tagawa acidic rocks and others, on the basis of the age and lithofacies of the rock. However, further geological and geochronological data are necessary to settle the problem. (author)

  2. Nd and Sr isotopic variations in acidic rocks from Japan: significance of upper-mantle heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Noboru

    1984-10-01

    Initial Nd and Sr isotopic ratios have been measured for Cretaceous acidic and related intermediate rocks (24 volcanic and two plutonic rocks) from the Inner Zone of Southwest Japan (IZSWJ) to investigate the genesis of acidic magmas. The initial Nd and Sr isotopic ratios for these rocks show three interesting features: (1) ɛ Nd values for acidic rocks (+2 to -9) are negatively correlated with ɛ Sr values (+10 to +90) together with those for intermediate rocks ( ɛ Nd=+3 to -8; ɛ Sr=0 to +65). (2) The ɛ Nd values for silica rich rocks (>60% SiO2) correlate with the longitude of the sample locality, decreasing from west to east in a stepwise fashion: Four areas characterized by uniform ɛ Nd values are discriminated. (3) Low silica rocks (Japan suggest that the acidic rocks can be formed neither by fractional crystallization processes from more basic magmas nor by crustal assimilation processes. The isotopic variations of the acidic rocks may reflect regional isotopic heterogeneity in the lower crust, and this heterogeneity may ultimately be attributed to the regional heterogeneity of the uppermost-mantle beneath the Japanese Islands.

  3. Assessment of two kinetic tests to predict the acid mine drainage in waste rock samples of a uranium mine

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Adriana Trópia de; Faria,Efigênia Miranda de; Chaves,Carla Thamilis Fonseca; Leite,Adilson do Lago; Lena,Jorge Carvalho de

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage is the result of the oxidation process of sulfide bearing rocks. This process occurs when the sulfide material is exposed to atmospheric conditions. Under these conditions, successive oxidation reactions yield sulfuric acid generating acidic waters. This problem becomes more serious when the surrounding rocks are not able to neutralize the acid. The low pH condition of the drained water accelerates the solubility process of solid materials (rocks, soils and sediments) and f...

  4. Temporal and spatial variability of acid rock drainage in a rehabilitated coal mine, Wangaloa, South Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begbie, M.; Craw, D.; Rufaut, C.; Martin, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Wangaloa open cast coal mine ceased operations in 1989, with no restoration of the 252 ha site, and moderate acid rock drainage developed. A major rehabilitation programme was initiated in 2002 with removal of exotic vegetation, and extensive planting (>60,000) of native seedlings was begun in 2003. By 2006, most seedlings were thriving, and, combined with adventive exotic weeds, a 70% vegetation cover had been achieved. The site substrates were highly variable on the 10-100 m 2 scale, and have been characterised by paste pH (>700 measurements). In 2003, substrates had moderate acidity (pH 4.5 ± 0.9) with distinctly acid patches (pH down to 100 samples from 15 sites) were also highly variable spatially and temporally. Incoming stream and rainwater (pH 5-6) chemically interacted with acid substrates, especially waste rock piles that contain pyrite-bearing material, and evolved to lower pH (pH down to 3.4), sulfate-rich waters. A pit lake on the site receives most surface and groundwater runoff, and this lake, with a water residence time of 1-2 yr, controls the site discharge water quality. The lake pH varies on a monthly time-scale from 4.5 to 6.5, synchronised with pH variations in groundwater boreholes in waste rock. In addition, there has been a general increase in pH of the lake during rehabilitation from consistent pH 4.6-4.8 before rehabilitation to near pH 6 during rehabilitation. The sulfate/chloride ratio of lake water has decreased from 20 to <10 during rehabilitation as well. These changes in lake water composition from year to year may be a result of increased input of rainwater that has had less interaction with substrate than runoff water had before rehabilitation began. (author). 23 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  5. Study on residual discharge time of lead-acid battery based on fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Yu, Wangwang; Jin, Yueqiang; Wang, Shuying

    2017-05-01

    This paper use the method of fitting to discuss the data of C problem of mathematical modeling in 2016, the residual discharge time model of lead-acid battery with 20A,30A,…,100A constant current discharge is obtained, and the discharge time model of discharge under arbitrary constant current is presented. The mean relative error of the model is calculated to be about 3%, which shows that the model has high accuracy. This model can provide a basis for optimizing the adaptation of power system to the electrical motor vehicle.

  6. Microbial exoenzymes as bioindicators of acid rock drainage impacts in the Finniss River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from several sites along the East Branch of the Finniss River during the dry season (June, 1999), when the East Branch is drying into a series of ponds. The sites included those upstream from the Rum Jungle mine site (EB8A, EB8B, FCA, FCB), a site receiving acid leachate from the waste rock (WO), sites downstream from the mine that are impacted by acid and metal contamination (EB6, TCP, EB5D, EB4U, EB2) and reference sites not subject to acid rock drainage (HS, EB4S, LFRB). Exoenzyme activities were measured with a spectrofluorometric technique that involved measuring the increase in fluorescence when an artificial fluorogenic substrate (that mimics the natural substrate) is hydrolysed to a highly fluorescent product. The present findings indicate that the acid rock drainage impacted sediments contain acidophilic, heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and/or fungi, producing extracellular enzymes adapted to the acid conditions. This study has demonstrated that measurements of extracellular enzyme activities in river sediments provide a rapid, sensitive technique for determining microbial activity and productivity. In aquatic ecosystems some exoenzymes, particularly leucine-aminopeptidase, could be used as bioindicators of pollution from acid rock drainage

  7. Reexamination of the source material of acid igneous rocks, based on the selected Sr isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Shuto, Kenji; Gorai, Masao

    1975-01-01

    The relation between the ages and the initial strontium isotopic compositions obtained from acid igneous rocks by the whole-rock isochron method is re-examined, on the basis of the selected data. The points based on the data having high values of standard deviation (on the isochrons) show considerable scattering. This is probably ascribed to admixture of sialic materials, or secondary alteration and other geologic causes. The points based on the data having lower values of standard deviation (sigma value: 0.0001 - 0.0019), on the other hand, are evidently plotted within a narrow region just above the presumed Sr evolutional region of the source material of oceanic tholeiites. It is noteworthy that the former region meets the latter region at an earlier stage of the evolutional history of the earth (about 40 x 10 8 yrs. ago or older). It may be conceivable that the former region is the Sr evolutional region of the source material of acid igneous rocks. Considering from the inclination of the above Sr evolutional region, the source material of most of acid igneous rocks may possibly be a certain basic material, chemically similar to the continental tholeiitic basalts or basaltic andesites. On the other hand, the source material of a few acid igneous rocks with low initial strontium isotopic ratios may be a certain basic material resembling the oceanic tholeiites. Another possibility is that these acid igneous rocks and oceanic tholeiites may have been formed, under different physical conditions, directly from a certain common source material presumably of peridotitic composition. (auth.)

  8. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  9. A review of acid drainage from waste rock dumps and mine sites (Australian and Scandinavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1990-05-01

    This report reviews the literature from Australia and Scandinavia on acid drainage from pyritic waste rock dumps with an emphasis on measurements and theory of processes that control the rage of oxidation and the release of pollutants. Conditions within waste rock dumps have been measured at several mine sites and a range of rehabilitation treatments have been tried to reduce the release of pollutants. A number of models have been proposed to calculate air flow, water transport and geochemistry. The data and experience at the mine sites are compared with predictions of the models. Details of Australian and Swedish mine sites where waste rock is a source of acid drainage are described in the Appendices. 92 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  10. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  11. COMPOST-FREE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE, TECHNICAL EVALUATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  12. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  13. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Kwang-Seol [Chemical Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong Eun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑{sub 11}PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411 ng/L) and textile (median: 106 ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49–66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0 ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5 ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146 ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055 ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039 ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010 ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489 ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored. - Highlights: • 11 PFAAs in wastewater and sludge from 5 industrial sectors were investigated. • PFOA and PFOS were the dominant in wastewater while PFOS was predominant in sludge. • The total discharge loads from 5 industrial sectors 0.146 ton/yr. • The textile industry showed the highest discharge load with 0.055 ton/yr.

  14. SOLUBILIZATION OF POTASSIUM FROM ALTERNATIVE ROCKS BY HUMIC AND CITRIC ACIDS AND COFFEE HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Souza Pessoa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil imports most of the potassium that it consumes in agriculture, however, such huge external dependence can be minimized with the use of alternative local K bearing rocks. This experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the solubility of nepheline syenite and glauconite as a function of three organic matrices, humic acid, citric acid and coffee husk. Incubation of low grade K rocks and organic matrices were done in laboratory conditions, in a completely randomized design. Each rock was mixed with five different doses of each organic matrix and the potassium solubilized was measured periodically, during 180 days. Regardless of the organic matrix and its dose investigated, nepheline syenite samples released more K than the modified glauconite. Soluble K increased as the incubation time increased and its release was greater as the organic matrix dose increased. There was more soluble K when the coffee husk was mixed with the potassic rocks, in relation to the humic and citric acids.

  15. Acidic volcanic rock and its potential as an objective for uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Torres, R.; Yza Dominguez, R.; Chavez Aguirre, R.; Constantino, H.E.S.E.

    1976-01-01

    The geographical distribution of recent Mexican volcanic rocks is continuous; the older formations are dispersed in isolated outcrops. Continental volcanic events, acidic and basal, took place in the Caenozoic, Mesozoic and Palaeozoic; basic submarine volcanism predominated in the Mesozoic, Palaeozoic and late Precambrian. Access to the Sierra Madre Occidental, a circum-Pacific mountain range covered by rhyolitic rocks, is limited, which restricts the sections studied. Calderas, sources of volcanic emission and preliminary litho-stratigraphic sections have been delimited on the eastern edge of the range. Subduction by the ocean magmatized the continent from the Permian onwards, extravasating and depositing cyclically various magmata through inverted and normal cortical throws. The Sierra Pena Blanca (Chihuahua) section consists of epiclastic and pyroclastic rocks. A calcareous conglomerate is overburdened by alternate basal tuffs and imbricates, forming five units. In the uraniferous district of the Sierra Pena Blanca the hydrothermal alteration argillitized both components of the ''Nopal'' formation. Primary minerals (pitchblende) are found together with silicification. Leaching favours secondary mineralization (uranium silicates) associated with opals. After extrapolation of the features, the following are considered worth-while objectives: the faces, offsets and prolongations of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the southern volcanic mesetas south of the Mexican Transcontinental Rift. Similar objectives of Mesozoic or Palaeozoic age exist in central and southern Mexico. Possible objectives for uranium are: the acidic volcanic rock of the southern and south-western United States of America, the circum-Pacific acidic volcanic rocks of North America and the acidic volcanic mesetas of Central America and in the Andes. (author)

  16. Edge-carboxylated graphene nanoflakes from nitric acid oxidised arc-discharge material

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLOSI, VALERIA

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) with average diameters of 30 nm have been prepared by a single-step oxidation procedure using single-wall carbon nanotube arc-discharge material and nitric acid. The GNFs are predominately single sheets containing a small number of internal defects. The edges are decorated with primarily carboxylic acid groups which allow facile chemical functionalisation and cross-linking of the fragments using multivalent cations

  17. Effects of humic acid on adsorption of actinide elements on rocks and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Masakazu; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagao, Seiya; Onuki, Toshihiko; Senoo, Muneaki

    1996-01-01

    Since the transfer rates of radionuclides are reduced by their adsorption to rocks and soils, it is essential to elucidate the adsorption process for safety assessment of their geological disposal. In this study, adsorption of Np(V) to goethite, one of the widely distributed minerals was investigated as functions of pH and humic acid concentration. The surface charge density of goethite was determined and the zero charge point was 6.2 for synthesized and 6.4 for natural goethite. Since the point for humic acid was 4.5, adsorption sites for humic acid were reduced as the increase of negative charge density above pH6, resulting in a decrease in its adsorption rate. Np(V) adsorption to goethite was raised by the presence of humic acid in the range of 0-10ppm because the surface charge on the rock was shifted to negative by the adsorption of humic acid, resulting in easy adsorption of NpO{sub 2}{sup +}, which is stable in the condition below pH 9.5. On the other hand, humic acid adsorption was saturated at a concentration higher than 50 ppm, but its content in the solution would increase. Thus, it was thought that Np(V)-humic acid complex becomes more stable, resulting in the decrease in Np(V) adsorption rate. (M.N.)

  18. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine

    1995-08-01

    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  19. Impact of Acid Attack on the Shear Behaviour of a Carbonate Rock Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouailletas, O.; Perlot, C.; Rivard, P.; Ballivy, G.; La Borderie, C.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical behaviour of structural discontinuities in rock mass is a key element of the stability analysis in civil engineering, petroleum engineering and mining engineering. In this paper, the mechanical analysis is coupled with the acidic attack of a rock joint associated with leakage of CO2 through a geological fault in the context of carbon sequestration. Experiments were conducted at the laboratory scale to assess the shear behaviour of degraded joint: direct shear tests were performed on rock joints that have been previously immersed into water or into an acidic solution (pH 0.2). The shear behaviour of joints is governed by the roughness of its walls: the parameters Z2, Z3, Z4 and RL characterize the rough surfaces. They are calculated from the scans of joint surfaces after and before immersion. Their comparison pointed out a slight impact of the acidic attack. However, the results of the direct shear tests show significant modifications in the shear behaviour for the degraded joints: the tangential stress peak disappears, the tangential stiffness decreases in the stress/displacement curve, and the contraction increases, the dilation angle decreases in the dilation curve. Acid attack has a greater impact on the mechanical properties of the asperities than their geometric characteristics. The results of this study will be used to improve chemo-mechanical modelling to better simulate with higher accuracy the fault stability in different cases of civil engineering, petroleum engineering and mining engineering.

  20. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  1. Effects of bacterial action on waste rock producing acid drainage in the Brazilian first uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey-Silva, Daniela V.F.M.; Oliveira, Alexandre P. de; Geraldo, Bianca; Campos, Michele B.; Azevedo, Heliana de; Barreto, Rodrigo P.; Souza-Santos, Marcio L. de

    2009-01-01

    This work is an evolution of the methodology showed in the paper 'Study of waste of waste rock piles producing acid drainage in the Brazilian first uranium mine', also submitted for INAC2009. Therefore, the present work also related to the determination of chemical species leaching from waste rock pile 4 (WRP4) of the Uranium Mine and Milling Facility located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, as well as the generation of acid waters. With the previous experimental setup, it has been observed that not only water and available oxygen are significant to pyrite oxidation reaction, but bacterial activity as well. As a first approach, the present work addresses the same experiment, but now testing without the influence of bacterial action. Therefore, the new methodology and experimental setup is now capable of determining the acidity of water in contact with material from the WRP4 and the concentration of chemical species dissolved as function of time. Such would also show the extent of bacterial action interference on the pyrite oxidation reaction. Results are based on mass balances comparing concentrations of chemical species in the waste rock before the experiment and in the waste rock plus the remaining water after the experiment. In addition, the evolution of the pH and EMF (electromotive force) values along with chemical species quantified through the experiment are presented through graphics. That is followed by discussions on the significance of such results in terms of concentration of the involved chemical species. The present work has also shown the need of improving the injection of air into the system. A more sophisticated experimental setup should be assembled in the near future, which would allow the quantification of differences between experimental tests with and without bacterial action. (author)

  2. Evaluation of natural amelioration of acidic deep mine discharges in Western Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.C.; Dzombak, D.A.; Aljoe, W.W.

    1999-01-01

    Abandoned mine drainage (AMD) has long been the most serious water quality and watershed degradation problem in the Appalachian region of the U.S. and in some other areas of the nation. In several areas of western Pennsylvania, deep mine discharges that were reliably described as highly acidic in the 1960s and 1970s have shown natural amelioration of CO 2 acidity. A number of different factors, including mine flooding and overburden chemistry, may cause improvement in mine water quality. The authors are studying the hydrologic and geochemical factors responsible for improvements over time in the quality of water discharges from abandoned deep mines. The project is focused on the study of a set of mine water discharges associated with abandoned, interconnected deep mines in the Uniontown Syncline of Western Pennsylvania. This area was studied extensively under Pennsylvania's Operation Scarlift in the early 1970s, and one year of monthly water quality data are available from 1974-75. The mined-out coal basin of the Uniontown Syncline is unique in that different mining methods were employed in the same coal seam over the basin. The resulting discharges are from flooded, unflooded, and partially flooded abandoned underground coal mines. This paper presents an overview of the hydraulic system in the mine network of the Uniontown Syncline along with a summary of selected data from the 1974-75 and 1998-99 studies. Preliminary interpretations of these data in relation to the Scarlift data are also presented

  3. Regeneration of Acid Orange 7 Exhausted Granular Activated Carbon Using Pulsed Discharge Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huijuan; Guo He; Liu Yongjie; Yi Chengwu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a pulsed discharge plasma (PDP) system with a multi-needle-to-plate electrodes geometry was set up to investigate the regeneration of acid orange 7 (AO7) exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC). Regeneration of GAC was studied under different conditions of peak pulse discharge voltage and water pH, as well as the modification effect of GAC by the pulse discharge process, to figure out the regeneration efficiency and the change of the GAC structure by the PDP treatment. The obtained results showed that there was an appropriate peak pulse voltage and an optimal initial pH value of the solution for GAC regeneration. Analyses of scanning electron microscope (SEM), Boehm titration, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Horvath-Kawazoe (HK), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that there were more mesopore and macropore in the regenerated GAC and the structure turned smoother with the increase of discharge voltage; the amount of acidic functional groups on the GAC surface increased while the amount of basic functional groups decreased after the regeneration process. From the result of the XRD analysis, there were no new substances produced on the GAC after PDP treatment. (paper)

  4. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  5. Influence of the Trojan Nickel Mine on surface water quality, Mazowe valley, Zimbabwe: Runoff chemistry and acid generation potential of waste rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupankwa, Keretia; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin; Mseka, Stephen; Meck, Maideyi

    The impacts of mining on the environment depend on the nature of the ore body, the type of mining and the size of operation. The focus of this study is on Trojan Nickel Mine which is located 90 km north of Harare, Zimbabwe. It produces nickel from iron, iron-nickel and copper-nickel sulphides and disposes of waste rock in a rock dump. Surface water samples were taken at 11 points selected from a stream which drains the rock dump, a stream carrying underground water and the river into which these streams discharge. Samples were analysed for metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, for sulphates by gravitation and for carbonates and bicarbonates by back titration. Ninteen rock samples were collected from the dump and static tests were performed using the Sobek acid base accounting method. The results show that near neutral runoff (pH 7.0-8.5) with high concentrations of sulphate (over 100 mg/L) and some metals (Pb > 1.0 mg/L and Ni > 0.2 mg/L) emanates from the dump. This suggests that acid mine drainage is buffered in the dump (probably by carbonates). This is supported by the static tests, which show that the fine fraction of dump material neutralises acid. Runoff from the dump flows into a pond. Concentrations of sulphates and metals decrease after the dump runoff enters the pond, but sufficient remains to increase levels of calcium, sulphate, bicarbonate, iron and lead in the Pote River. The drop in concentrations at the pond indicates that the settling process has a positive effect on water quality. This could be enhanced by treating the pond water to raise pH, thus precipitating out metals and decreasing their concentrations in water draining from the pond.

  6. Revegetation of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) Producing Slope Surface Using Phosphate Microencapsulation and Artificial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Gon

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation of sulfides produces acid rock drainage (ARD) upon their exposure to oxidation environment by construction and mining activities. The ARD causes the acidification and metal contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater, the damage of plant, the deterioration of landscape and the reduction of slope stability. The revegetation of slope surface is one of commonly adopted strategies to reduce erosion and to increase slope stability. However, the revegetation of the ARD producing slope surface is frequently failed due to its high acidity and toxic metal content. We developed a revegetation method consisting of microencapsualtion and artificial soil in the laboratory. The revegetation method was applied on the ARD producing slope on which the revegetation using soil coverage and seeding was failed and monitored the plant growth for one year. The phosphate solution was applied on sulfide containing rock to form stable Fe-phosphate mineral on the surface of sulfide, which worked as a physical barrier to prevent contacting oxidants such as oxygen and Fe3+ ion to the sulfide surface. After the microencapsulation, two artificial soil layers were constructed. The first layer containing organic matter, dolomite powder and soil was constructed at 2 cm thickness to neutralize the rising acidic capillary water from the subsurface and to remove the dissolved oxygen from the percolating rain water. Finally, the second layer containing seeds, organic matter, nutrients and soil was constructed at 3 cm thickness on the top. After application of the method, the pH of the soil below the artificial soil layer increased and the ARD production from the rock fragments reduced. The plant growth showed an ordinary state while the plant died two month after germination for the previous revegetation trial. No soil erosion occurred from the slope during the one year field test.

  7. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF FACTORS DETERMINING PHOSPHATE ROCK DISSOLUTION ON ACID SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdar Hilman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the agricultural soils in Indonesia are acidic and low in both total and available phosphorus which severely limits their potential for crops production. These problems can be corrected by application of chemical fertilizers. However, these fertilizers are expensive, and cheaper alternatives such as phosphate rock (PR have been considered. Several soil factors may influence the dissolution of PR in soils, including both chemical and physical properties. The study aimed to identify PR dissolution factors and evaluate their relative magnitude. The experiment was conducted in Soil Chemical Laboratory, Universiti Putra Malaysia and Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development from January to April 2002. The principal component analysis (PCA was used to characterize acid soils in an incubation system into a number of factors that may affect PR dissolution. Three major factors selected were soil texture, soil acidity, and fertilization. Using the scores of individual factors as independent variables, stepwise regression analysis was performed to derive a PR dissolution function. The factors influencing PR dissolution in order of importance were soil texture, soil acidity, then fertilization. Soil texture factors including clay content and organic C, and soil acidity factor such as P retention capacity interacted positively with P dissolution and promoted PR dissolution effectively. Soil texture factors, such as sand and silt content, soil acidity factors such as pH, and exchangeable Ca decreased PR dissolution.

  8. Amino Acids Generated from Hydrated Titan Tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey Electric Discharge Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H. James, II; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed tholins) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FDToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4N2H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  9. Influence of a single lightning discharge on the intensity of an air electric field and acoustic emission of near-surface rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Smirnov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect was observed as a sharp fall of the electric potential gradient from +80 V m−1 down to –21 V m−1. After that the field returned to its normal level according to the formula of the capacitor discharge with 17 s characteristic time. Simultaneously, the response of the acoustic emission of surface rocks in the range of frequencies between 6.5 kHz and 11 kHz was evaluated.

  10. Concentration-Discharge Behavior of Contaminants in a Stream Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M. E.; Klein, M.; Herndon, E.

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has severely degraded streams throughout the Appalachian coal region of the United States. AMD occurs when pyrite contained in coal is exposed to water and air during mining activities and oxidized to release high concentrations of sulfate, metals, and acidity into water bodies. Little is known about the concentration-discharge (CQ) relationships of solutes in AMD-impacted streams due to the complicated nature of acid mine drainage systems. For example, streams may receive inputs from multiple sources that include runoff, constructed treatment systems, and abandoned mines that bypass these systems to continue to contaminate the streams. It is important to understand the CQ relationships of contaminants in AMD-impacted streams in order to elucidate contaminant sources and to predict effects on aquatic ecosystems. Here, we study the CQ behaviors of acid and metals in a contaminated watershed in northeastern Ohio where limestone channels have been installed to remediate water draining from a mine pool into the stream. Stream chemistry was measured in samples collected once per day or once per hour during storm events, and stream flow was measured continuously at the watershed outlet. Increases in stream velocity during storm events resulted in an increase in pH (from 3 to 6) that subsequently decreased back to 3 as flow decreased. Additionally, Fe and Mn concentrations in the stream were high during baseflow (7 and 15 mg/L, respectively) and decreased with increasing discharge during storm events. These results indicate that the treatment system is only effective at neutralizing stream acidity and removing metals when water flow through the limestone channel is continuous. We infer that the acidic and metal-rich baseflow derives from upwelling of contaminated groundwater or subsurface flow from a mine pool. Ongoing studies aim to isolate the source of this baseflow contamination and evaluate the geochemical transformations that occur as it

  11. Acid-neutralizing potential of minerals in intrusive rocks of the Boulder batholith in northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Briggs, Paul H.; Mazza, Nilah; Driscoll, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Experimental studies show that fresh granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith in the Boulder River headwaters near Basin, Montana have significant acid-neutralizing potential and are capable of neutralizing acidic water derived from metal-mining related wastes or mine workings. Laboratory studies show that in addition to the acidneutralizing potential (ANP) of minor amounts of calcite in these rocks, biotite, tremolite, and feldspars will contribute significantly to long-term ANP. We produced 0.45 micrometer-filtered acidic (pH = 2.95) leachate for use in these ANP experiments by exposing metal-mining related wastes to deionized water in a waste:leachate ratio of 1:20. We then exposed these leachates to finely-ground and sized fractions of batholith rocks, and some of their mineral fractions for extended and repeated periods, for which results are reported here. The intent was to understand what reactions of metal-rich acidic water and fresh igneous rocks would produce. The reactions between the acidic leachates and the bulk rocks and mineral fractions are complex. Factors such as precipitation of phases like Fe-hydroxides and Alhydroxides and the balance between dissolved cations and anions that are sulfate dominated complicate analysis of the results. Research by others of acid neutralization by biotite and tremolite attributed a rise in pH to proton (H+) adsorption in sites vacated by K, Mg, and Ca. Destruction of the silicate framework and liberation of associated structural hydroxyl ions may contribute to ANP. Studies by others have indicated that the conversion of biotite to a vermiculite-type structure by removal of K at a pH of 4 consumes about six protons for every mole of biotite, but at a pH of 3 there is pronounced dissolution of the tetrahedral lattice. The ANP of fresh granitic rocks is much higher than anticipated. The three bulk Boulder igneous rock samples studied have minimum ANP equivalent to about 10-14 weight percent calcite. This ANP is in

  12. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 Dye in Two Hybrid Plasma Discharge Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Lei, Lecheng; Zhang, Xingwang; Ding, Jiandong

    2014-11-01

    To get an optimized pulsed electrical plasma discharge reactor and to increase the energy utilization efficiency in the removal of pollutants, two hybrid plasma discharge reactors were designed and optimized. The reactors were compared via the discharge characteristics, energy transfer efficiency, the yields of the active species and the energy utilization in dye wastewater degradation. The results showed that under the same AC input power, the characteristics of the discharge waveform of the point-to-plate reactor were better. Under the same AC input power, the two reactors both had almost the same peak voltage of 22 kV. The peak current of the point-to-plate reactor was 146 A, while that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor was only 48.8 A. The peak powers of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.38 MW and 1.01 MW, respectively. The energy per pulse of the point-to-plate reactor was 0.2221 J, which was about 29.4% higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (0.1716 J). To remove 50% Acid Orange 7 (AO7), the energy utilizations of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.02 × 10-9 mol/L and 0.61 × 10-9 mol/L, respectively. In the point-to-plate reactor, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in pure water was 3.6 mmol/L after 40 min of discharge, which was higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (2.5 mmol/L). The concentration of liquid phase ozone in the point-to-plate reactor (5.7 × 10-2 mmol/L) was about 26.7% higher than that in the wire-to-cylinder reactor (4.5 × 10-2 mmol/L). The analysis results of the variance showed that the type of reactor and reaction time had significant impacts on the yields of the hydrogen peroxide and ozone. The main degradation intermediates of AO7 identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) were acetic acid, maleic anhydride, p-benzoquinone, phenol, benzoic acid, phthalic anhydride, coumarin and 2-naphthol. Proposed degradation pathways were

  14. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 Dye in Two Hybrid Plasma Discharge Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yongjun; Ding Jiandong; Lei Lecheng; Zhang Xingwang

    2014-01-01

    To get an optimized pulsed electrical plasma discharge reactor and to increase the energy utilization efficiency in the removal of pollutants, two hybrid plasma discharge reactors were designed and optimized. The reactors were compared via the discharge characteristics, energy transfer efficiency, the yields of the active species and the energy utilization in dye wastewater degradation. The results showed that under the same AC input power, the characteristics of the discharge waveform of the point-to-plate reactor were better. Under the same AC input power, the two reactors both had almost the same peak voltage of 22 kV. The peak current of the point-to-plate reactor was 146 A, while that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor was only 48.8 A. The peak powers of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.38 MW and 1.01 MW, respectively. The energy per pulse of the point-to-plate reactor was 0.2221 J, which was about 29.4% higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (0.1716 J). To remove 50% Acid Orange 7 (AO7), the energy utilizations of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.02 × 10 −9 mol/L and 0.61 × 10 −9 mol/L, respectively. In the point-to-plate reactor, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in pure water was 3.6 mmol/L after 40 min of discharge, which was higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (2.5 mmol/L). The concentration of liquid phase ozone in the point-to-plate reactor (5.7 × 10 −2 mmol/L) was about 26.7% higher than that in the wire-to-cylinder reactor (4.5 × 10 −2 mmol/L). The analysis results of the variance showed that the type of reactor and reaction time had significant impacts on the yields of the hydrogen peroxide and ozone. The main degradation intermediates of AO7 identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) were acetic acid, maleic anhydride, p-benzoquinone, phenol, benzoic acid, phthalic anhydride, coumarin and 2-naphthol. Proposed degradation

  15. Incorporating Geochemical And Microbial Kinetics In Reactive Transport Models For Generation Of Acid Rock Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.; Silverstein, J.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage, AMD, results from the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite), producing ferrous iron and sulfuric acid. Acidophilic autotrophic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans obtain energy by oxidizing ferrous iron back to ferric iron, using oxygen as the electron acceptor. Most existing models of AMD do not account for microbial kinetics or iron geochemistry rigorously. Instead they assume that oxygen limitation controls pyrite oxidation and thus focus on oxygen transport. These models have been successfully used for simulating conditions where oxygen availability is a limiting factor (e.g. source prevention by capping), but have not been shown to effectively model acid generation and effluent chemistry under a wider range of conditions. The key reactions, oxidation of pyrite and oxidation of ferrous iron, are both slow kinetic processes. Despite being extensively studied for the last thirty years, there is still not a consensus in the literature about the basic mechanisms, limiting factors or rate expressions for microbially enhanced oxidation of metal sulfides. An indirect leaching mechanism (chemical oxidation of pyrite by ferric iron to produce ferrous iron, with regeneration of ferric iron by microbial oxidation of ferrous iron) is used as the foundation of a conceptual model for microbially enhanced oxidation of pyrite. Using literature data, a rate expression for microbial consumption of ferrous iron is developed that accounts for oxygen, ferrous iron and pH limitation. Reaction rate expressions for oxidation of pyrite and chemical oxidation of ferrous iron are selected from the literature. A completely mixed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is implemented coupling the kinetic rate expressions, speciation calculations and flow. The model simulates generation of AMD and effluent chemistry that qualitatively agrees with column reactor and single rock experiments. A one dimensional reaction

  16. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Algal biomass can serve as an electron donor to drive reduction of sulfate to sulfide. • Biogenic sulfide precipitates Cu{sup 2+} as stable sulfide mineral. • Cu{sup +2} removal in sulfidogenic bioreactors amended with algal biomass exceeded 99.5%. • Acidity in synthetic acid rock drainage was consumed by sulfate reduction. - Abstract: This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Cu{sup 2+}. Sulfate, sulfide, Cu{sup 2+} and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123 d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7 mg SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} d{sup −1}) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu{sup 2+} removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu{sup 2+} was precipitated with biogenic H{sub 2}S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry.

  17. Magmatic and petrologic evolution of the mesozvic vulcanic acid rocks from Piraju-Ourinhos region (SP-PR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, M.I.B.

    1987-01-01

    This work presents the result of geological, petrological and geochemical studies, on the volcanic rocks from Piraju-Ourinhos region, SP, with special emphasis on the rocks. A geological mapping was carried out by using images from Landsat satellite. Petrographic and chemical analyses have defined a suite represented by basic lithotype - tholeutic andesibasalt - with high TiO 2 , rich in incompable elements - mainly Sr, Zr, La, Ce, and Ba - and by acid lithotype - rhyolite - rhyodacite. k-Ar ages are determined in feldspar concentrated, and indicate an age of 133+- 4m,y, for the volcanic acid rocks. Determinations of Sr isotopes. In order to explain the genesis of Chapeco type acid magnas quantitative models were tested using both fractional Crystallization [pt

  18. Phosphorus availability in an acid tropical soil amended with phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah, A.R.; Sharifuddin, H.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The fate of P from phosphate rocks applied to Malaysian soils has not been studied in detail. Since the plantation sector is the major consumer of phosphate rock (PR) in Malaysia, studies on the dissolution and agronomic effectiveness of PR are of great interest to the country. Thus a series of greenhouse and laboratory experiments involving conventional chemical extractants and 32 P isotopic techniques was carried out to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR sources of different reactivity. Phosphorus and other chemical properties of the soil and PRs studied were determined. The P solubility tests by 2% formic acid, 2% citric acid and neutral ammonium citrate gave positive correlation with P uptake by one-year old oil palm seedlings. Neutral ammonium citrate proved to be a better indicator of PR solubility and its correlation coefficient with P uptake improved by expressing citrate solubility as a percentage of the rock rather than as a percentage of total P 2 0 5 content. The agronomic effectiveness of TSP and 6 PR sources was evaluated in glasshouse conditions with oil palm seedlings for one year-period. The percentage of PR dissolution varied greatly among PR sources. The PR dissolution was assessed by 0.5 M NaOH, Pi strip, L-value and 1 M ammonium citrate-dissolved Ca. Irrespective of the methods used, the more reactive PR such as North Carolina and Tunisia dissolved more P than the lower reactive sources such as Christmas Island and China PR. All the four methods used gave positive correlation with plant P uptake, with 0.5M NaOH being the best indirect method for determining PR dissolution. Less than 30% of the applied P was dissolved during the one-year period, with only about 15 to 40% of the dissolved P being taken up by the oil palm seedlings. A laboratory 32 P isotopic exchange method was also carried out in this acid soil to assess the soil P status parameters. A low water soluble P concentration (Cp) was found for all PRs used. The ratio of the

  19. Degradation of gas-liquid gliding arc discharge on Acid Orange II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.H.; Liu, Y.N.; Bo, Zh.; Li, X.D.; Cen, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH value, initial concentration of dye solution and temperature on the degradation efficiency of Acid Orange II (AO7) using gas-liquid gliding arc discharge were investigated. The influences of pH value and temperature on degradation efficiency were not apparent. Increasing initial solution concentration caused the decrease of degradation rate and the increase of absolute degradation quantity. Considering energy efficiency and absolute degradation quantity, the gas-liquid gliding arc discharge is fit for treating high concentration organic wastewater. A possible mineralization pathway was proposed through the analysis of intermediate products detected by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and ion chromatograph (IC). Hydroxyl radicals reacted with the azo linkage-bearing carbon of a hydroxy-substituted ring, leading to the cleavage of -C-N- and degradation of AO7. The solution biodegradability was significantly improved (BOD 5 /COD from 0.02 to 0.43). The toxicity of intermediate products was lower than that of the initial Acid Orange II

  20. Study of waste rock piles producing acid drainage in the Brazilian first uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Alexandre P. de; Rey-Silva, Daniela V.F.M.; Barreto, Rodrigo P.; Souza-Santos, Marcio L. de; Veronesi, Luciano da S.

    2009-01-01

    The Uranium Mine and Milling Facility located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau stopped operating since mid-1990's and remediation actions for the mine areas are going to take place in the near future. However, environmental concerns should be addressed such as acid mine drainage (AMD) in the waste rock piles (WRPs), pit mine, and tailing dam, all driven by pyrite oxidation reactions. The AMD process leaches both heavy metals and radionuclides pollutants through the soil. This work shows the methodology applied for the determination of chemical species leaching from WRP4 as well the generation of acid waters. An experimental setup has been assembled to determine the acidity of water in contact with samples of material from the WRP4. Results are presented along a list of chemical species found in the remaining water. That is followed by discussions regarding its pH and chemical composition measured during the experiments. It has been observed that not only water and available oxygen are significant to the pyrite oxidation reaction, but also bacterial activity. This last effect should be addressed in the near future. Moreover, various important aspects regarding the experimental setup were noticed and are addressed as propositions for the continuation of the present work. (author)

  1. Policy for metal leaching and acid rock drainage at mine sites in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    One of the major environmental issues facing the provincial government of British Columbia is the prevention of environmental impacts from metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The government's major challenge in regulating ML/ARD is to ensure that all mines are planned and operated in a manner that allows for effective problem detection and mitigation, and that the mines emphasize problem prevention at the outset. This paper reviews the legislated requirements regarding ML/ARD prevention and lists guiding principles for the regulation of ML/ARD in the province. Some of the measures to predict and to mitigate ML/ARD include underwater storage of problematic materials, engineered covers, blending of wastes and drainage collection and treatment. Requirements applicable to construction materials, backfill, geotechnical and hydrological considerations, and security of funds for ML/ARD measures are also discussed

  2. Automated classification of Acid Rock Drainage potential from Corescan drill core imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracknell, M. J.; Jackson, L.; Parbhakar-Fox, A.; Savinova, K.

    2017-12-01

    Classification of the acid forming potential of waste rock is important for managing environmental hazards associated with mining operations. Current methods for the classification of acid rock drainage (ARD) potential usually involve labour intensive and subjective assessment of drill core and/or hand specimens. Manual methods are subject to operator bias, human error and the amount of material that can be assessed within a given time frame is limited. The automated classification of ARD potential documented here is based on the ARD Index developed by Parbhakar-Fox et al. (2011). This ARD Index involves the combination of five indicators: A - sulphide content; B - sulphide alteration; C - sulphide morphology; D - primary neutraliser content; and E - sulphide mineral association. Several components of the ARD Index require accurate identification of sulphide minerals. This is achieved by classifying Corescan Red-Green-Blue true colour images into the presence or absence of sulphide minerals using supervised classification. Subsequently, sulphide classification images are processed and combined with Corescan SWIR-based mineral classifications to obtain information on sulphide content, indices representing sulphide textures (disseminated versus massive and degree of veining), and spatially associated minerals. This information is combined to calculate ARD Index indicator values that feed into the classification of ARD potential. Automated ARD potential classifications of drill core samples associated with a porphyry Cu-Au deposit are compared to manually derived classifications and those obtained by standard static geochemical testing and X-ray diffractometry analyses. Results indicate a high degree of similarity between automated and manual ARD potential classifications. Major differences between approaches are observed in sulphide and neutraliser mineral percentages, likely due to the subjective nature of manual estimates of mineral content. The automated approach

  3. Comparison of alkaline fusion and acid digestion methods for the determination of rhenium in rock and soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Tabei, Ken

    2005-01-01

    A simple acid digestion method was studied in order to analyze many samples at once to understand Re behavior in the terrestrial environment, because, under normal laboratory conditions, digestion methods generally used, such as Carius tube digestions, Teflon vessel digestions and alkaline fusions, can handle only a small number of samples at one time to ensure complete sample digestion. In this study, the Re results for reference materials (RMs) obtained by the acid digestion method were compared with those by the alkaline fusion digestion method to get applicability of the acid digestion method for Re determination in soil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Alkaline fusion was chosen for the comparison because it is known to have the highest capability to dissolve Re in geological materials among digestion methods. The average total Re recoveries measured using the 185 Re spike for RMs, such as rock, soil and sediment, were 90.6 ± 4.0% for alkaline fusion and 92.2 ± 7.3% for acid digestion, showing no differences between them. However, Re results obtained by the acid digestion method were usually slightly lower than those by the alkaline fusion (Student's t-test, P -1 , the acid digestion method could dissolve about 80% of the sample Re. Although the acid digestion method is unable to dissolve all Re in the sample, however, the Re discharged to soils could be more extractable than the Re in the dissolution-resistant part; thus, the acid digestion method could be useful for obtaining Re levels in soil samples

  4. Acid rock drainage passive remediation using alkaline clay and impacts of vegetation and saturated sand barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, F.; Wen, Y.; Liang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) caused by abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits in mining regions requires adequate treatment to prevent serious water pollution due to its acidity and high concentrations of sulfate and metals/metalloids. Over the past decades, various approaches have been explored and developed to remediate ARD. This study uses laboratory experiments to investigate the effectiveness and impacts of ARD passive remediation using alkaline clay (AC), a by-product of the aluminum refining process. Twelve column kinetic leaching experiments were set up with CR/AC mixing ratios ranging from 1%AC to 10%AC. Samples were collected from these columns to measure the pH, sulfate, metals/metalloids, acidity and alkalinity. Additional tests of XRD and acid base accounting were also conducted to better characterize the mineral phase in terms of the alkalinity and acidity potential. Based on the leachate measurement results, these columns were further classified into two groups of neutral/near neutral pH and acidic pH for further analysis. In addition, impacts of the vegetation and saturated sand layer on the remediation effectiveness were explored. The results of our long-term (more than three years in some cases) laboratory experiments show that AC is an effective ARD remediation material for the neutralization of leachate pH and immobilization of sulfate and metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co. The CR/AC mixing ratios higher than 3%AC are found to be effective, with 10% close to optimal. Moreover, the results demonstrate the benefits of using vegetation and a saturated sand barrier. Vegetation acted as a phytoaccumulation/phytoextraction agent, causing an additional immobilization of metals. The saturated sand barrier blocked the oxygen and water diffusion downwards, leading to a reduction of the pyrite oxidation rate. Finally, the proposed remediation approach shows that the acidity consumption will likely occur before all the alkalinity is exhausted

  5. Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, J.D.; Castle, A.M.; Ma, A.K.; Stukenbrok, H.

    1984-01-01

    Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

  6. Net Acid Production, Acid Neutralizing Capacity, and Associated Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Animas River Watershed Igneous Rocks Near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Choate, LaDonna; Stanton, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from laboratory and field studies involving the net acid production (NAP), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and magnetic mineralogy of 27 samples collected in altered volcanic terrain in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., during the summer of 2005. Sampling focused mainly on the volumetrically important, Tertiary-age volcanic and plutonic rocks that host base- and precious-metal mineralization in the study area. These rocks were analyzed to determine their potential for neutralization of acid-rock drainage. Rocks in the study area have been subjected to a regional propylitic alteration event, which introduced calcite, chlorite (clinochlore), and epidote that have varying amounts and rates of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Locally, hydrothermal alteration has consumed any ANC and introduced minerals, mainly pyrite, that have a high net acid production (NAP). Laboratory studies included hydrogen pyroxide (H2O2) acid digestion and subsequent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titration to determine NAP, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) acid titration experiments to determine ANC. In addition to these environmental rock-property determinations, mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic characteristics of each sample were determined through semiquantitative X-ray diffractometry (Rietveld method), optical mineralogy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total carbon-carbonate, and inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric analysis. An ANC ranking was assigned to rock samples based on calculated ANC quantity in kilograms/ton (kg/t) calcium carbonate equivalent and ratios of ANC to NAP. Results show that talus near the southeast Silverton caldera margin, composed of andesite clasts of the Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics, has the highest ANC (>100 kg/t calcium carbonate equivalent) with little to no NAP. The other units found to have moderate to high ANC include (a) andesite lavas and volcaniclastic rocks of the San Juan

  7. Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel propionigenic bacterium isolated from sediments of an acid rock drainage pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Andrea, I.; Luis Sanz, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel anaerobic propionigenic bacterium, strain ADRIT, was isolated from sediment of an acid rock drainage environment (Tinto River, Spain). Cells were small (0.4-0.6 x 1-1.7 µm), non-motile and non-spore forming rods. Cells possessed a Gram-negative cell wall structure and were vancomycin

  8. Primordial Synthesis of Amines and Amino Acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-Rich Spark Discharge Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H2S, CH4, NH3, and CO2. A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordia! environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H2S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H2S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments.

  9. Acid Rock Drainage or Not—Oxidative vs. Reductive Biofilms—A Microbial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Kalin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Measures to counteract Acid Rock Drainage (ARD generation need to start at the mineral surface, inhibiting mineral-oxidizing, acidophilic microbes. Laboratory and long-term field tests with pyrite-containing mining wastes—where carbonaceous phosphate mining waste (CPMW was added—resulted in low acidity and near neutral drainage. The effect was reproducible and confirmed by several independent research groups. The improved drainage was shown to involve an organic coating, likely a biofilm. The biofilm formation was confirmed when CPMW was added to lignite coal waste with an initial pH of 1. Forty-five days after the addition, the coal waste was dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms in biofilms. Reviewing the scientific literature provides ample support that CPMW has physical and chemical characteristics which can induce a strong inhibitory effect on sulphide oxidation by triggering the formation of an organic coating, a biofilm, over the mineral surface. CPMW characteristics provide the cornerstone of a new technology which might lead to reduction of sulphide oxidation in mine wastes. A hypothesis for testing this technology is presented. The use of such a technology could result in an economical and sustainable approach to mine waste and water management.

  10. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. Copyright © 2014

  11. Trace metal mobilization from oil sands froth treatment thickened tailings exhibiting acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alsu; Kuznetsov, Petr; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-11-15

    Froth treatment thickened tailings (TT) are a waste product of bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores. When incubated in a laboratory under simulated moist oxic environmental conditions for ~450d, two different types of TT (TT1 and TT2) exhibited the potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD) by producing acid leachate after 250 and 50d, respectively. We report here the release of toxic metals from TT via ARD, which could pose an environmental threat if oil sands TT deposits are not properly managed. Trace metal concentrations in leachate samples collected periodically revealed that Mn and Sr were released immediately even before the onset of ARD. Spikes in Co and Ni concentrations were observed both pre-ARD and during active ARD, particularly in TT1. For most elements measured (Fe, Cr, V, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Se), leaching was associated with ARD production. Though equivalent acidification (pH2) was achieved in leachate from both TT types, greater metal release was observed from TT2 where concentrations reached 10,000ppb for Ni, 5000ppb for Co, 3000ppb for As, 2000ppb for V, and 1000ppb for Cr. Generally, metal concentrations decreased in leachate with time during ARD and became negligible by the end of incubation (~450d) despite appreciable metals remaining in the leached TT. These results suggest that using TT for land reclamation purposes or surface deposition for volume reduction may unfavorably impact the environment, and warrants application of appropriate strategies for management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enriching acid rock drainage related microbial communities from surface-deposited oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Courtney; Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year. The results showed that the enrichments at pH 4.5 and 7 were established quicker than at pH 2.5. Different microbial community structures were found among the 3 pH environments. The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms identified were most closely related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Achromobacter spp., and Curtobacterium spp. While microorganisms related to Chitinophagaceae and Acidocella spp. were identified as the only possible iron-oxidizing and -reducing microbes. These results contribute to the general knowledge of the relatively understudied microbial communities that exist in pyritic oil sands tailings and indicate these communities may have a potential role in ARD generation, which may have implications for future tailings management.

  13. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-05

    This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H2SO4 and Cu(2+). Sulfate, sulfide, Cu(2+) and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7mg SO4(2-) d(-1)) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu(2+) removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu(2+) was precipitated with biogenic H2S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Green Liquor Dregs, Potentially Useful for Prevention of the Formation of Acid Rock Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mäkitalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using alternative materials such as residual products from other industries to mitigate the negative effects of acid rock drainage would simultaneously solve two environmental problems. The main residual product still landfilled by sulphate paper mills is the alkaline material green liquor dregs (GLD. A physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization of four batches of GLD was carried out to evaluate the potential to use it as a sealing layer in the construction of dry covers on sulphide-bearing mine waste. GLD has relatively low hydraulic conductivity (10−8 to 10−9 m/s, a high water retention capacity (WRC and small particle size. Whilst the chemical and mineralogical composition varied between the different batches, these variations were not reflected in properties such as hydraulic conductivity and WRC. Due to relatively low trace element concentrations, leaching of contaminants from the GLD is not a concern for the environment. However, GLD is a sticky material, difficult to apply on mine waste deposits and the shear strength is insufficient for engineering applications. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties is necessary. In addition, GLD has a high buffering capacity indicating that it could act as an alkaline barrier. Once engineering technicalities have been overcome, the long-term effectiveness of GLD should be studied, especially the effect of aging and how the sealing layer would be engineered in respect to topography and climatic conditions.

  15. Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahisarakul, J.; Mullins, G.L.; Chien, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32 P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32 P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32 P exchange technique. (author)

  16. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  17. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  18. Exploring plant factors for increasing phosphorus utilization from rock phosphates and native soil phosphates in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guanglin; Xiong Liming

    2002-01-01

    Six plant species with contrasting capacity in utilizing rock phosphates were compared with regard to their responses to phosphorus starvation in hydroponic cultures. Radish, buckwheat and oil rapeseed are known to have strong ability to use rock phosphates while ryegrass, wheat and sesbania are less efficient. Whereas other plants acidified their culture solution under P starvation (-P), radish plants make alkaline the solution. When neutralizing the pH of the solutions cultured with plants under either -P or + P conditions, solutions with P starved buckwheat, rapeseed, and radish had a higher ability to solubilize Al and Fe phosphates than did those cultured with sesbania, ryegrass and wheat. Characterization of organic ligands in the solutions identified that citrate and malate were the major organic anions exuded by rapeseed and radish. Besides citrate and malate, buckwheat exuded a large amount of tartrate under P starvation. In contrast, ryegrass, wheat and sesbania secreted only a limited amount of oxalic acid, regardless of P status. Changes in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, acid phosphatase, and nitrate reductase in these plants were also compared under P- sufficient or -deficient conditions. The results indicated that plant ability to use rock phosphates or soil phosphates is closely related to their responses toward P starvation. The diversity of P starvation responses was discussed in the context of co-evolution between plants and their environment. Approaches to use plant factors to enhance the effectiveness of rock phosphates were also discussed. (author)

  19. Radiological, chemical and morphological characterizations of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum from phosphoric acid factories in SW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia, E-mail: marusia@us.es [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Advanced Materials Research Center (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Vioque, Ignacio, E-mail: ivioque@us.es [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Mantero, Juan, E-mail: manter@us.es [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Manjon, Guillermo, E-mail: manjon@us.es [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In this work, radiological, chemical, and also morphological characterization was performed in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples, in order to understand the behavior of toxic elements. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gamma spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Our results show that the phosphate rock was mainly composed of fluorapatite, calcite, perovskite, quartz, magnetite, pyrite and kaolinite, whereas phosphogypsum only exhibited dihydrated calcium sulfate. The activity concentration of U-series radioisotopes in phosphate rock was around 1640 Bq/kg. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb tend to be distributed into phosphogypsum by up to 80%, whereas the fraction of U-isotopes is 10%. The most abundant trace elements in phosphate rock were Sr, Cr, V, Zn, Y, Ni and Ba. Some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Cu, La, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and Y, were enriched in the phosphogypsum. This enrichment may be attributed to an additional input associated to the sulfuric acid used for the phosphoric acid production. Furthermore, results from SEM-EDX demonstrated that toxic elements are not distributed homogeneously into phosphogypsum. Most of these elements are concentrated in particles <20 {mu}m of high porosity, and could be easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion.

  20. Radiological, chemical and morphological characterizations of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum from phosphoric acid factories in SW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Vioque, Ignacio; Mantero, Juan; Manjon, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, radiological, chemical, and also morphological characterization was performed in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples, in order to understand the behavior of toxic elements. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gamma spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Our results show that the phosphate rock was mainly composed of fluorapatite, calcite, perovskite, quartz, magnetite, pyrite and kaolinite, whereas phosphogypsum only exhibited dihydrated calcium sulfate. The activity concentration of U-series radioisotopes in phosphate rock was around 1640 Bq/kg. 226 Ra and 210 Pb tend to be distributed into phosphogypsum by up to 80%, whereas the fraction of U-isotopes is 10%. The most abundant trace elements in phosphate rock were Sr, Cr, V, Zn, Y, Ni and Ba. Some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Cu, La, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and Y, were enriched in the phosphogypsum. This enrichment may be attributed to an additional input associated to the sulfuric acid used for the phosphoric acid production. Furthermore, results from SEM-EDX demonstrated that toxic elements are not distributed homogeneously into phosphogypsum. Most of these elements are concentrated in particles <20 μm of high porosity, and could be easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion.

  1. Metal speciation and potential bioavailability changes during discharge and neutralisation of acidic drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Vardanega, Christopher R; Jarolimek, Chad; Jolley, Dianne F; Angel, Brad M; Mosley, Luke M

    2014-05-01

    The discharge of acid drainage from the farm irrigation areas to the Murray River in South Australia represents a potential risk to water quality. The drainage waters have low pH (2.9-5.7), high acidity (up to 1190 mg L(-1) CaCO3), high dissolved organic carbon (10-40 mg L(-1)), and high dissolved Al, Co, Ni and Zn (up to 55, 1.25, 1.30 and 1.10 mg L(-1), respectively) that represent the greatest concern relative to water quality guidelines (WQGs). To provide information on bioavailability, changes in metal speciation were assessed during mixing experiments using filtration (colloidal metals) and Chelex-lability (free metal ions and weak inorganic metal complexes) methods. Following mixing of drainage and river water, much of the dissolved aluminium and iron precipitated. The concentrations of other metals generally decreased conservatively in proportion to the dilution initially, but longer mixing periods caused increased precipitation or adsorption to particulate phases. Dissolved Co, Mn and Zn were typically 95-100% present in Chelex-labile forms, whereas 40-70% of the dissolved nickel was Chelex-labile and the remaining non-labile fraction of dissolved nickel was associated with fine colloids or complexed by organic ligands that increased with time. Despite the different kinetics of precipitation, adsorption and complexation reactions, the dissolved metal concentrations were generally highly correlated for the pooled data sets, indicating that the major factors controlling the concentrations were similar for each metal (pH, dilution, and time following mixing). For dilutions of the drainage waters of less than 1% with Murray River water, none of the metals should exceed the WQGs. However, the high concentrations of metals associated with fine precipitates within the receiving waters may represent a risk to some aquatic organisms. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Destruction of 4-phenolsulfonic acid in water by anodic contact glow discharge electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiming; An, Baigang; Wang, Shaoyan; Li, Lixiang; Jin, Wenjie; Li, Lihua

    2013-06-01

    Destruction of 4-phenolsulfonic acid (4-PSA) in water was carried out using anodic contact glow discharge electrolysis. Accompanying the decay of 4-PSA, the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) in water correspondingly decreased, while the sulfonate group of 4-PSA was released as sulfate ion. Oxalate and formate were obtained as minor by-products. Additionally, phenol, 1,4-hydroquinone, hydroxyquinol and 1,4-benzoquinone were detected as primary intermediates in the initial stages of decomposition of 4-PSA. A reaction pathway involving successive attacks of hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals was assumed on the basis of the observed products and kinetics. It was revealed that the decay of both 4-PSA and TOC obeyed a first-order rate law. The effects of different Fe ions and initial concentrations of 4-PSA on the degradation rate were investigated. It was found that the presence of Fe ions could increase the degradation rate of 4-PSA, while initial concentrations lower than 80 mmol/L had no significant effect on kinetic behaviour. The disappearance rate of 4-PSA was significantly affected by pH.

  3. 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog protects pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from apoptosis via ROCK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Shulin; Ma, Cui; Li, Weiyang; Falck, J.R.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Reddy, D. Sudarshan; Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Zhu, Daling

    2010-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP), have many essential biologic roles in the cardiovascular system including inhibition of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we tested the potential of 8,9-EET and derivatives to protect pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from starvation induced apoptosis. We found 8,9-epoxy-eicos-11(Z)-enoic acid (8,9-EET analog (214)), but not 8,9-EET, increased cell viability, decreased activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased TUNEL-positive cells or nuclear condensation induced by serum deprivation (SD) in PASMCs. These effects were reversed after blocking the Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway with Y-27632 or HA-1077. Therefore, 8,9-EET analog (214) protects PASMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, mediated at least in part via the ROCK pathway. Serum deprivation of PASMCs resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, decreased expression of Bcl-2 and enhanced expression of Bax, all effects were reversed by 8,9-EET analog (214) in a ROCK dependent manner. Because 8,9-EET and not the 8,9-EET analog (214) protects pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), these observations suggest the potential to differentially promote apoptosis or survival with 8,9-EET or analogs in pulmonary arteries.

  4. 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog protects pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from apoptosis via ROCK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shanshan [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Liu, Shulin [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China); Ma, Cui [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Li, Weiyang [Mudanjiang Medical College, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Falck, J.R.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Reddy, D. Sudarshan [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Zhu, Daling, E-mail: dalingz@yahoo.com [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP), have many essential biologic roles in the cardiovascular system including inhibition of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we tested the potential of 8,9-EET and derivatives to protect pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from starvation induced apoptosis. We found 8,9-epoxy-eicos-11(Z)-enoic acid (8,9-EET analog (214)), but not 8,9-EET, increased cell viability, decreased activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased TUNEL-positive cells or nuclear condensation induced by serum deprivation (SD) in PASMCs. These effects were reversed after blocking the Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway with Y-27632 or HA-1077. Therefore, 8,9-EET analog (214) protects PASMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, mediated at least in part via the ROCK pathway. Serum deprivation of PASMCs resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, decreased expression of Bcl-2 and enhanced expression of Bax, all effects were reversed by 8,9-EET analog (214) in a ROCK dependent manner. Because 8,9-EET and not the 8,9-EET analog (214) protects pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), these observations suggest the potential to differentially promote apoptosis or survival with 8,9-EET or analogs in pulmonary arteries.

  5. Long term field evaluation of phosphate rock and superphosphate in acid soils of Hungary; Incubation and pot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, T.; Osztoics, E.; Csatho, P.; Radimszky, L.; Baczo, G.Y.

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to compare the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock (from Algeria) and of single superphosphate (from Russia, Kola) on a moderately acidic pseudogley brown forest soil (Szentgyoergyvoelgy) and on a slightly acidic chernozem brown forest soil (Kompolt). Dynamics of water-soluble and ammonium lactate-soluble P-contents (AL-P) and soil pH-H 2 O changes were studied in a half-year long incubation experiment. A follow-up pot experiment with the same soils was carried out with winter rape as test plants. Both experiments were set up with similar P fertilizer sources and P rates (100, 200, and 400 mg mineral acid soluble P 2 O 5 per kg soil). At the beginning of incubation experiment, the water-soluble P content of the pseudogley brown forest soil was influenced by both the sources of P and the experimental conditions. The water-soluble P content decreased with time. After the 15 th to 20 th day of incubation, when the fast binding process of the water-soluble P ended, the effects of the P forms decreased. In this stage, the effects of environmental conditions depended on the form of the P fertilizer. The water-soluble P content of the phosphate rock-treated samples was affected to a great extent by soil water content, while the incubation temperature had a greater effect in soils treated with superphosphate. The AL-P content of soils was increased similarly by addition of equal rates of phosphate rock and super-phosphate at the beginning of incubation. The AL-P content of phosphate rock-treated soils was higher throughout the incubation period than of the superphosphate-treated soils -treated. Temperature had a greater effect on the AL-P content of soils than soil water content. As the AL-extraction may dissolve a substantial amount of the undecomposed phosphate rock, this method is not applicable to soil testing of available P forms from phosphate rock-treated soils. Initial soil pH decreased on average by 0.5 units in the

  6. Geologic and mineralogic controls on acid and metal-rich rock drainage in an alpine watershed, Handcart Gulch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Dana J.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The surface and subsurface geology, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralogy of the Handcart Gulch area was studied using map and drill core data as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understand the hydrology and affects of geology on acid-rock drainage in a mineralized alpine watershed. Handcart Gulch was the locus of intense hydrothermal alteration that affected an area of nearly 3 square kilometers. Hydrothermal alteration and accompanied weak mineralization are spatially and genetically associated with small dacite to low-silica rhyolite stocks and plugs emplaced about 37-36 Ma. Felsic lithologies are commonly altered to a quartz-sericite-pyrite mineral assemblage at the surface, but alteration is more variable in the subsurface, ranging from quartz-sericite-pyrite-dominant in upper core sections to a propylitic variant that is more typical in deeper drill core intervals. Late-stage, hydrothermal argillic alteration [kaolinite and(or) smectite] was superimposed over earlier-formed alteration assemblages in the felsic rocks. Smectite in this late stage assemblage is mostly neoformed resulting from dissolution of chlorite, plagioclase, and minor illite in more weakly altered rocks. Hydrothermally altered amphibolites are characterized by biotitic alteration of amphibole, and subsequent alteration of both primary and secondary biotite to chlorite. Whereas pyrite is present both as disseminations and in small veinlets in the felsic lithologies, it is mostly restricted to small veinlets in the amphibolites. Base-metal sulfides including molybdenite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena are present in minor to trace amounts in the altered rocks. However, geologic data in conjunction with water geochemical studies indicate that copper mineralization may be present in unknown abundance in two distinct areas. The altered rocks contain an average of 8 weight percent fine pyrite that is largely devoid of metals in the crystal structure, which can be a significant

  7. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  8. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle, chopper, speed controller discharge of a battery show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average discharge current of 100 amperes. These energy losses are manifested as temperature rises during discharge, amounting to a two-fold increase for a 400-ampere pulse compared to the constant current case. Because of the potentially large energy inefficiency, the results suggest that electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design.

  9. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle, chopper, speed controller discharge of a battery show energy output losses at up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average discharge current of 100 A. These energy losses are manifested as temperature rises during discharge, amounting to a two-fold increase for a 400-A pulse compared to the constant current case. Because of the potentially large energy inefficiency, the results suggest that electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design.

  10. Studies of reaction difference between γ-ray and glow discharge on hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Tatsuya; Nieda, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Kazuta; Ando, Kiyomi

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid esters using an inductively coupled plasma at low pressure was performed, and electron temperature and density were measured using a double-probe in order to investigate the reaction difference between γ-ray and glow discharge on hydrogenation. In this experiment, unsaturated fatty acid esters were partly hydrogenated by the hydrogen plasma that had electron temperature of 3.5 eV, which was more efficient than γ-ray irradiation method. As a result, it was found that the plasma can effectively supply electrons that had the optimum energy for hydrogenation at the interface of fatty acids as well as excited atoms and ions. Also, the plasma generated at low pressure would be possible to convert unsaturated fatty acids into saturated fatty acids without breaking the starting monomer. (author)

  11. Influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by pulsed discharge plasma inside bubble in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate on the decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubbles in water was investigated experimentally. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of sodium carbonate additive, the pH increased owing to the decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the percentage of conversion of formic acid increased with increasing pH because the reaction rate of ozone with formic acid increased with increasing pH. In the case of argon injection, the percentage of conversion was not affected by the pH owing to the high rate loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  12. Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

  13. Microwave Photocatalysis of Mono-Chloroacetic Acid over Nanoporous Titanium(IV) Oxide Thin Films Using Mercury Electrodeless Discharge Lamps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Žabová, Hana; Hájek, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-17 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/0992; GA ČR GA104/07/1212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : microwave-assisted photocatalysis * electrodeless discharge lamp * mono-chloroacetic acid Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.362, year: 2008

  14. Pemodelan Penyebaran Batuan Potensial Pembentuk Asam Pada Kawasan Penambangan Batubara Tambang Terbuka Di Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas)

    OpenAIRE

    Devy, Shalaho Dina; Hendrayana, Heru; Putra, Dony Prakasa Eka; Sugiharto, Eko

    2016-01-01

    The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD) around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF) and Non Acid Forming (NAF). Minin...

  15. Performance of lead-acid batteries. Experimental study and discharge process modelling; Desempenho de baterias chumbo-acido. Estudo experimental e modelamento do processo de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, G; Bottura, C P [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, M G [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    Commercial lead-acid batteries performance when continuously discharge is valued in this work. The model relating battery capacity and discharge current is confirmed through the analysis of experimental results relating voltage to time for various discharge currents. Such model was determined for the tested batteries and can be interpreted in terms of diffusional limitations and plate passivation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  16. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process might be successfully approximated with both an exponential and the second order polynomial function. On all the occasions analyzed, values of the adjusted coefficient of determination were greater than 0.995. The charging process of the deeply discharged batteries was successfully approximated with the exponential function; the measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination being nearly 0.95. Apart from the high measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination, polynomial approximations of the second and third order did not provide satisfactory results regarding the interpolation of the battery charging characteristics. A possibility for a practical implementation of the procured regression functions in uninterruptible power supply systems was described.

  17. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge. [for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of tests on an electric vehicle battery, using a simulated electric vehicle chopper-speed controller, show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average current of 100 A. However, an energy output increase of 22 percent is noticed at the 200 A average level and 44 percent increase at the 300 A level using pulse discharging. Because of these complex results, electric vehicle battery/speed controller interactions must be considered in vehicle design.

  18. Failure modes of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric bicycle applications in deep discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yonglang; Tang, Shengqun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Meng, Gang; Yang, Shijun [Hubei Camel Storage Battery Co. Ltd., Gucheng 441705 (China)

    2009-06-01

    The 36 or 48 V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery packs have been widely applied to the power sources of electric bicycles or light electric scooters in China. The failure modes of the 12 V/10 Ah VRLA batteries have been studied by the cycle life test at C{sub 2} discharge rate and 100% depth of discharge (DOD). It indicates that the main cause of the battery failure in this cycle duty is the softening and shedding of positive active mass (PAM) rather than individual water loss, recombination efficiency or sulfation, etc. When the electrolyte saturation falls to a certain extent, the high oxygen recombination current leads to the depolarization of the negative plate and the shift of the positive plate to a higher potential. The violent oxygen evolution accelerates the softening of PAM and the end of cycle life. (author)

  19. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  20. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We fabricated polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. • The surface nanofibers were modified by gaseous (air, nitrogen, CO_2 and argon) dielectric barrier discharge. • Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase immobilization. • Chemical analysis showed that after modification of nanofibers by air plasma, the carboxyl group increased. • After air plasma treatment, reusability and storage stability of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanofibers improved. - Abstract: Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO_2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  1. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshari, Esmail, E-mail: e.afshari@mail.sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid [Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghomi, Hamid [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We fabricated polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. • The surface nanofibers were modified by gaseous (air, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and argon) dielectric barrier discharge. • Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase immobilization. • Chemical analysis showed that after modification of nanofibers by air plasma, the carboxyl group increased. • After air plasma treatment, reusability and storage stability of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanofibers improved. - Abstract: Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO{sub 2}, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  2. The problem of auto-discharge in lead-acid batteries; O problema da auto-descarga em baterias chumbo acido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avaca, L A; Gonzalez, E R; Tremiliosi Filho, G; Silva, C.C. da; Maezuru, M [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1985-12-31

    Storage batteries used together with photovoltaic cells in remote locations must have special characteristics to fit the charge and discharge profiles to which they are submitted. Therefore, to avoid over dimensioning of the photovoltaic cells, the batteries must have particularly low self-discharge characteristics. The problem of self-discharge is directly connected to the degree of technological development in the fabrication of the batteries. The self-discharge of the SLI batteries made locally was measured under standardized conditions and the results were correlated with the kinetics of the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction on the lead alloys in acid medium. (author). 7 figs., 4 tabs., 11 refs

  3. Effects and quantification of acid runoff from sulfide-bearing rock deposited during construction of Highway E18, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindar, Atle; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The Highway E18 between the cities of Grimstad and Kristiansand, southern Norway, constructed in the period 2006–2009, cuts through sulfide-bearing rock. The geology of this area is dominated by slowly-weathering gneiss and granites, and oxidation of fresh rock surfaces can result in acidification of surface water. Sulfide-containing rock waste from excavations during construction work was therefore deposited in three waste rock deposits off-site. The deposits consist of 630,000–2,360,000 metric tons of waste rock material. Shell sand and limestone gravel were added in layers in adequate amounts to mitigate initial acid runoff in one of the deposits. The shell sand addition was not adequate in the two others. The pH in the effluents from these two was reduced from 4.9–6.5 to 4.0–4.6, and Al concentrations increased from below 0.4 mg/L to 10–20 mg/L. Stream concentrations of trace metals increased by a factor of 25–400, highest for Ni, and then in decreasing order for Co, Mn, Cd, Zn and Cu. Concentrations of As, Cr and Fe remained unchanged. Ratios of Co/Ni and Cd/Zn indicate that the metal sources for these pair of metals are sphalerite and pyrite, respectively. Based on surveys and established critical limits for Al, surface waters downstream became toxic to fish and invertebrates. The sulfur release rates were remarkably stable in the monitoring period at all three sites. Annual sulfur release was 0.1–0.4% of the total amount of sulfur in the deposit, indicating release periods of 250–800 years. Precipitates of Al-hydroxysulfates, well-known from mining sites, were found at the base of the deposits, in streams and also along the ocean shore-line. The effects of added neutralization agents in the deposits and in treatment areas downstream gradually decreased, as indicated by reduced stream pH over time. Active measures are needed to avoid harmful ecological effects in the future.

  4. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  5. Experimental Acid Weathering of Fe-Bearing Mars Analog Minerals and Rocks: Implications for Aqueous Origin of Hematite-Bearing Sediments in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Koster, A. M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    A working hypothesis for Meridiani evaporite formation involves the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [1, 2]. However, there are no reported experimental studies for the formation of jarosite and gray hematite (spherules), which are characteristic of Meridiani rocks from Mars analog precursor minerals. A terrestrial analog for hematite spherule formation from basaltic rocks under acidic hydrothermal conditions has been reported [3], and we have previously shown that the hematite spherules and jarosite can be synthetically produced in the laboratory using Fe3+ -bearing sulfate brines under hydrothermal conditions [4]. Here we expand and extend these studies by reacting Mars analog minerals with sulfuric acid to form Meridiani-like rock-mineral compositions. The objective of this study is to provide environmental constraints on past aqueous weathering of basaltic materials on Mars.

  6. A geochemical characterization of cold-water natural acid rock drainage at the Zn–Pb XY deposit, Yukon, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, Kristen B.; Gammon, Paul; Fortin, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterizes the waters and minerals of a natural acid rock drainage (ARD). • Demonstrates that cold climate ARD is mostly similar to temperate systems. • Cold-climate differences impact kinetic rates and hydrologic seasonality. • Demonstrates that thermodynamic equilibrium governs the ARD system. • Demonstrates that extraneous inputs can be detected in the system. - Abstract: Acid rock drainage (ARD) is considered to be temperature-limited due to the diminished activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbes at low temperatures. Nonetheless, ARD streams are present in cold climates. This study presents a geochemical characterization of a cold climate ARD creek at the Zn–Pb XY deposit in Yukon, Canada, which showed highly elevated concentrations of dissolved zinc (up to 475 mg/L). Acid rock drainage at the XY deposit is likely generated via subsurface abiotic and biotic oxidation of sulfide minerals, and then exits as seeps at the headwaters of the creek. The uppermost reaches of the creek have the lowest pH levels (pH 3.3) and highest metal concentrations, with prolific precipitation of iron-hydroxysulfate and -oxyhydroxide mineral precipitates (schwertmannite, jarosite, and goethite), present as terraced iron formations (TIFs) at one sampling location. The lower reaches of the creek show a progressive pH increase (up to pH level 4.9) which occurs due to Fe(III)- and Al-hydrolysis, the neutralizing influence of carbonate-rich strata and/or ground waters, and dilution by surface waters entering the creek. Progressive pH neutralization causes a change in precipitate mineralogy to X-ray amorphous Al-hydroxysulfates, with a composition similar to aluminite and hydrobasaluminite, and amorphous Al(OH)_3. Natural attenuation of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred downstream from the headwater seeps, which was likely influenced by adsorption reactions involving both metal-sulfate anions and metal-sulfate ternary complexes. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and

  7. Comparison of hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride and oxalic acid leaching of stream sediment and coated rock samples as anomaly enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, L.H.; Chao, T.T.; Theobald, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    A hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride (H-Hxl) extraction in 25% acetic acid is compared with the commonly used oxalic acid extraction as a method of anomaly enhancement for Cu and Zn in samples from two very different metal deposits and climatic environments. Results obtained on minus-80-mesh stream sediments from an area near the Magruder massive sulfide deposit in Lincoln County, Georgia, where the climate is humid subtropical, indicate that H-Hxl enhances the anomaly for Cu by a factor of 2 and for Zn by a factor of 1.5, compared to the oxalic method. Analyses of Fe oxide-coated rock samples from outcrops overlying the North Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit near Tucson, Arizona, where the climate is semi-arid to arid, indicate that both techniques effectively outline the zones of hydrothermal alteration. The H-Hxl extraction can also perform well in high-carbonate or high-clay environments, where other workers have suggested that oxalic acid is not very effective. Therefore, the H-Hxl method is recommended for general exploration use. ?? 1982.

  8. Geochemistry of radioactive elements in the process of weathering of carbonatites, acidic and alkali rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmodik, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Geochemical peculiarities of uranium and thorium behaviour under formation of area crusts of weathering of granitoids, alkali rocks and carbonatites of certain areas of East Siberia are considered. The presented crysts of weathering have been formed under different climatic conditions, they have different age (in the limit of upper Cretaceous period - Neogene up to Quaternary time), chemical and mineral composition. Factors determining and controlling the level of uranium and thorium concentrations in weathering products are disclosed on the basis of facts using the methods of neutron-fragmentary radiography and by-fractional balances. Uranium and thorium distribution in granulometric fractions of crysts of weathering is considered in detail. Data on change in forms of radioactive elements under weathering, effect of fine-dispersed hypergene minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, goethite, etc.) on the character of uranium and thorium distribution in eluvial products as well as on sources of migrating uranium in crusts of weathering are presented. Scales of uranium and thorium redistribution under weathering are revealed. Supposition on the source of uranium and throium in sediments is made

  9. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma-Solution System (Gliding Discharge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NI Mingjiang; YANG Huan; CHEN Tong; ZHANG Hao; WU Angjian; DU Changming; LI Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a plasma-solution system was applied to the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7). The effects of initial concentration and type of feed gases (air, oxygen, nitrogen or argon) were studied. As the initial concentration increased from 100 mg/L to 160 mg/L, the discolouration rate of AO7 decreased from 99.3% to 95.9%, whereas the COD removal rate decreased from 37.9% to 22.6%. Air provided the best discolouration and COD removal rates (99.3% and 37.9%, respectively). In the presence of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) catalyst, the AO7 COD removal rate increased to 76.4%. The degradation products were analysed by a GC-MS, revealing that the degradation of the dye molecule was initiated through the cleavage of the -N=N- bond before finally being converted to organic acids. (paper)

  10. Enhanced stabilization of Pb, Zn, and Cd in contaminated soils using oxalic acid-activated phosphate rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Fasheng; Chen, Honghan

    2018-01-01

    Phosphate amendments, especially phosphate rock (PR), are one of the most commonly used materials to stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, most of PR reserve consists of low-grade ore, which limits the efficiency of PR for stabilizing heavy metals. This study was to enhance the stabilization of heavy metals through improving the available phosphorous (P) release of PR by oxalic acid activation. Raw PR and activated PR (APR) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, and laser diffraction to determine the changes of structure and composition of APR. The stabilization effectiveness of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in soils by APR was investigated through toxicity leaching test and speciation analysis. The results indicated that after treatment by oxalic acid, (1) the crystallinity of the fluorapatite phase of PR transformed into the weddellite phase; (2) the surface area of PR increased by 37%; (3) the particle size of PR became homogenized (20-70 μm); and (4) the available P content in PR increased by 22 times. These changes of physicochemical characteristics of PR induced that APR was more effective to transform soil heavy metals from the non-residual fraction to the residual fraction and enhance the stabilization efficiency of Pb, Zn, and Cd than PR. These results are significant for the future use of low-grade PR to stabilize heavy metals.

  11. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell,

    2009-01-01

    Mine planning efforts have historically overlooked the possible acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) that local igneous rocks can provide to help neutralize acidmine drainage. As a result, limestone has been traditionally hauled to mine sites for use in neutralizing acid drainage. Local igneous rocks, when used as part of mine life-cycle planning and acid mitigation strategy, may reduce the need to transport limestone to mine sites because these rocks can contain acid neutralizing minerals. Igneous hydrothermal events often introduce moderately altered mineral assemblages peripheral to more intensely altered rocks that host metal-bearing veins and ore bodies. These less altered rocks can contain ANC minerals (calcite-chlorite-epidote) and are referred to as a propylitic assemblage. In addition, the carbon contents of soils in areas of new mining or those areas undergoing restoration have been historically unknown. Soil organic carbon is an important constituent to characterize as a soil recovery benchmark that can be referred to during mine cycle planning and restoration. This study addresses the mineralogy, ANC, and leachate chemistry of propylitic volcanic rocks that host polymetallic mineralization in the Animas River watershed near the historical Silverton, Colorado, mining area. Acid titration tests on volcanic rocks containing calcite (2 – 20 wt %) and chlorite (6 – 25 wt %), have ANC ranging from 4 – 146 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalence. Results from a 6-month duration, kinetic reaction vessel test containing layered pyritic mine waste and underlying ANC volcanic rock (saturated with deionized water) indicate that acid generating mine waste (pH 2.4) has not overwhelmed the ANC of propylitic volcanic rocks (pH 5.8). Sequential leachate laboratory experiments evaluated the concentration of metals liberated during leaching. Leachate concentrations of Cu-Zn-As-Pb for ANC volcanic rock are one-to-three orders of magnitude lower when compared to leached solution from

  12. Acid rock drainage passive remediation using alkaline clay: Hydro-geochemical study and impacts of vegetation and sand on remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Liang, Xu

    2018-10-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry, especially in regions with an abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits (e.g. the Northern Appalachian Coalfield in the USA) where surface and ground waters are affected by this pollution due to the acidity and high content of sulfates and heavy metals. This study explores the effectiveness of the ARD passive remediation method using alkaline clay (AC) through a series of static and long-term kinetic laboratory experiments (over three years) complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling. Two important issues associated with this passive and auto-sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the hydrogeochemical study of the mixture in terms of the percentages of AC and CR, and, 2) impacts of vegetation cover and a saturated sand barrier on the remediation. Both the field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local coal waste site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments and the geochemical modeling, alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD, in terms of achieving a neutral pH in the leachate and immobilization of sulfate and metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the use of vegetation and a saturated sand barrier are beneficial. Vegetation acted as a phytoaccumulation/phytoextraction agent, causing an additional immobilization of metals. The saturated sand barrier blocked downward the oxygen and water diffusion, reducing pyrite oxidation rates. The proposed remediation approach ensures that the acidity consumption will likely occur before all the alkalinity is exhausted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  14. Selective Precipitation of Thorium lodate from a Tartaric Acid-Hydrogen Peroxide Medium Application to Rapid Spectrophotometric Determination of Thorium in Silicate Rocks and in Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.

    1957-01-01

    This paper presents a selective iodate separation of thorium from nitric acid medium containing d-tartaric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is prevented by the use of 8quinolinol. A few micrograms of thorium are separated sufficiently clean from 30 mg. of such oxides as cerium, zirconium, titanium, niobium, tantalum, scandium, or iron with one iodate precipitation to allow an accurate determination of thorium with the thoronmesotartaric acid spectrophotometric method. The method is successful for the determination of 0.001% or more of thorium dioxide in silicate rocks and for 0.01% or more in black sand, monazite, thorite, thorianite, eschynite, euxenite, and zircon.

  15. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  16. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    Full Text Available Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah, Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2 transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4 secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2 transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2 containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil.

  17. Discharge of landfill leachate to streambed sediments impacts the mineralization potential of phenoxy acid herbicides depending on the initial abundance of tfdA gene classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Milosevic, Nemanja; Malaguerra, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    discharge to SM3, and lower herbicide mass discharges to SM1 and SM2 were determined due to groundwater discharge rates and herbicide concentrations. SM1-sediment with the lowest abundance of tfdA gene classes had the slowest mineralization, whereas SM2- and SM3-sediments with more abundant tfdA genes had......To understand the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes belonging to β- and γ-proteobacteria on phenoxy acid herbicide degradation, streambed sediments were sampled around three seepage meters (SMs) installed in a landfill-impacted groundwater–surface water interface. Highest herbicide mass...... faster mineralization. The observed difference in mineralization rates between discharge zones was simulated by a Monod-based kinetic model, which confirmed the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes. This study suggests presence of specific degraders adapted to slow growth rate and high yield strategy...

  18. Comparative study on precipitation methods of yellow-cake from acid leachate of rock phosphate and Its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abow Slama, E. H. Y.

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried-out to leach uranium from rock phosphate using sulphuric acid in presences of potassium chlorate as an oxidant and to investigate the relative purity of different forms of yellow cakes produced with ammonia ((NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 ), magnesia (UO 3 .xH 2 O) and sodium hydroxide (Na 2 U 2 O 7 ) as precipitants, as well as purification of the products with TBP extraction and matching its impurity levels with specification of the commercial products. Alpha-particle spectrometry was for used for determination of activity concentration of uranium isotopes (''2''3''4U and ''2''3''8U) in rock phosphate, resulting green phosphoric acid solution, and in different forms of the yellow cake from which the equivalent mass concentration of uranium was deduced. Likewise, AAS was used for determination of impurities (Pb, Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu). On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in the rock phosphate was 1468±979 Bq/Kg (119.38±79.66 ppm), and 711±252 Bq/L (57.85±20.46 ppm) in the resulting green solution with corresponding percent of dissolution amounting to 48% which is considered low indicating that the experimental conditions (i.e. dissolution container, temperature, PH, retention time) were not optimal. However, the isotopic ratio (''2''3''4U, ''2''3''8U) in all stages of hydrometallurgical process was not much different from unity indicating lack of fractionation. Crude yellow cakes (hydrate uranium trioxide, ammonium diuranate and sodium diuranate) were precipitated from the green solutions prior to separation of iron and once after iron separation. Although, iron was tested using bipyridine and SCN, it was found in all types of crude samples analyzed this might be attributed to either the quality of the reagent used or inhibition of Fe present in the solution by stronger complexing agent. Uranium mass concentration in crude yellow cakes precipitated before iron separation was found following the order: UO 3 .xH 2 O

  19. Fabrication of TiO2/Carbon Photocatalyst using Submerged DC Arc Discharged in Ethanol/Acetic Acid Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, T. E.; Nandika, A. O.; Andhika, I. F.; Patiha; Purnawan, C.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to fabricate a modified photocatalyst of TiO2/C to enhance its performance. The fabrication was achieved using the submerged direct current (DC) arc-discharge method employing two graphite electrodes, one of which was filled with a mixture of carbon powder, TiO2, and binder, in ethanol with acetic acid added in various concentrations. The arc-discharge method was conducted by flowing a current of 10-20 A (~20 V). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed significant placements of the main peak characteristics of TiO2, C graphite, and titanium carbide. The surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that fabricated TiO2/C nanoparticles had stretching vibrations of Ti-O, C-H, C═O, C-O, O-H and C═C in the regions of 450-550 cm-1, 2900-2880 cm-1, 1690-1760 cm-1, 1050-1300 cm-1, 3400-3700 cm-1 and ~1600 cm-1, respectively. In addition, the study investigated the photocatalysts of unmodified and modified TiO2/C for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye solution under mercury lamp irradiation. The effectiveness of the degradation was defined by the decrease in 60-minute absorbance under a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Modified TiO2/C proved to be significantly more efficient in reducing dye concentrations, reaching ~70%. It indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups have been successfully attached to the surface of the nanoparticles and played a role in enhancing photocatalytic activity.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado—An alpine watershed with natural acid-rock drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Bove, Dana J.; Kahn, Katherine G.

    2009-01-01

    Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed along the Continental Divide in the Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range. It contains an unmined mineral deposit typical of many hydrothermal mineral deposits in the intermountain west, composed primarily of pyrite with trace metals including copper and molybdenum. Springs and the trunk stream have a natural pH value of 3 to 4. The U.S. Geological Survey began integrated research activities at the site in 2003 with the objective of better understanding geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic controls on naturally occurring acid-rock drainage in alpine watersheds. Characterizing the role of groundwater was of particular interest because mountain watersheds containing metallic mineral deposits are often underlain by complexly deformed crystalline rocks in which groundwater flow is poorly understood. Site infrastructure currently includes 4 deep monitoring wells high in the watershed (300– 1,200 ft deep), 4 bedrock (100–170 ft deep) and 5 shallow (10–30 ft deep) monitoring wells along the trunk stream, a stream gage, and a meteorological station. Work to date at the site includes: geologic mapping and structural analysis; surface sample and drill core mineralogic characterization; geophysical borehole logging; aquifer testing; monitoring of groundwater hydraulic heads and streamflows; a stream tracer dilution study; repeated sampling of surface and groundwater for geochemical analyses, including major and trace elements, several isotopes, and groundwater age dating; and construction of groundwater flow models. The unique dataset collected at Handcart Gulch has yielded several important findings about bedrock groundwater flow at the site. Most importantly, we find that bedrock bulk permeability is nontrivial and that bedrock groundwater apparently constitutes a substantial fraction of the hydrologic budget. This means that bedrock groundwater commonly may be an underappreciated component of the hydrologic system in studies of

  1. Diel cycling of zinc in a stream impacted by acid rock drainage: Initial results from a new in situ Zn analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.P.; Nimick, D.A.; Gammons, C.H.; Wanty, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that many trace metals undergo dramatic diel (24-h) cycles in near neutral pH streams with metal concentrations reproducibly changing up to 500% during the diel period (Nimick et al., 2003). To examine diel zinc cycles in streams affected by acid rock drainage, we have developed a novel instrument, the Zn-DigiScan, to continuously monitor in situ zinc concentrations in near real-time. Initial results from a 3-day deployment at Fisher Creek, Montana have demonstrated the ability of the Zn-DigiScan to record diel Zn cycling at levels below 100 ??g/l. Longer deployments of this instrument could be used to examine the effects of episodic events such as rainstorms and snowmelt pulses on zinc loading in streams affected by acid rock drainage. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  2. Oxidation of clofibric acid in aqueous solution using a non-thermal plasma discharge or gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Ceriani, Elisa; Pinhão, Nuno; Marotta, Ester; Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Paradisi, Cristina; Margaça, Fernanda M. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we study degradation of clofibric acid (CFA) in aqueous solution using either ionizing radiation from a $^{60}$Co source or a non-thermal plasma produced by discharges in the air above the solution. The results obtained with the two technologies are compared in terms of effectiveness of CFA degradation and its by-products. In both cases the CFA degradation follows a quasi-exponential decay in time well modelled by a kinetic scheme which considers the competition between CFA and all reaction intermediates for the reactive species generated in solution as well as the amount of the end product formed. A new degradation law is deduced to explain the results. Although the end-product CO$_2$ was detected and the CFA conversion found to be very high under the studied conditions, HPLC analysis reveals several degradation intermediates still bearing the aromatic ring with the chlorine substituent. The extent of mineralization is rather limited. The energy yield is found to be higher in the gamma radiation experiments.

  3. Effect of dielectric barrier discharge treatment on surface nanostructure and wettability of polylactic acid (PLA) nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Zhirong; Chen, Yuyue

    2017-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) nonwoven fabrics are treated with atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to improve surface wettability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that micro- to nano-scale textures appear on the treated PLA surfaces dependent on the treatment time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the DBD plasma treatments result in decreased carbon contents and increased oxygen contents as well as slightly increased nitrogen contents. The water contact angle decreases sharply with the increase of the DBD plasma treatment time. The super hydrophilic PLA surfaces (the water contact angle reached 0°) are obtained when the treatment time is longer than 90 s. Ninety days after the DBD plasma treatment, the XPS analysis shows that Csbnd O/Csbnd N and Cdbnd O/Osbnd Cdbnd O percentages decline for all treatment groups. However, the water contact angle is kept constant at 0° for the groups treated above 90 s, which could be due to the oxidized nano-structured layer on the DBD plasma treated PLA surfaces.

  4. Stochastic multicomponent reactive transport analysis of low quality drainage release from waste rock piles: Controls of the spatial distribution of acid generating and neutralizing minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Mayer, K Ulrich; Beckie, Roger D

    2017-06-01

    In mining environmental applications, it is important to assess water quality from waste rock piles (WRPs) and estimate the likelihood of acid rock drainage (ARD) over time. The mineralogical heterogeneity of WRPs is a source of uncertainty in this assessment, undermining the reliability of traditional bulk indicators used in the industry. We focused in this work on the bulk neutralizing potential ratio (NPR), which is defined as the ratio of the content of non-acid-generating minerals (typically reactive carbonates such as calcite) to the content of potentially acid-generating minerals (typically sulfides such as pyrite). We used a streamtube-based Monte-Carlo method to show why and to what extent bulk NPR can be a poor indicator of ARD occurrence. We simulated ensembles of WRPs identical in their geometry and bulk NPR, which only differed in their initial distribution of the acid generating and acid neutralizing minerals that control NPR. All models simulated the same principal acid-producing, acid-neutralizing and secondary mineral forming processes. We show that small differences in the distribution of local NPR values or the number of flow paths that generate acidity strongly influence drainage pH. The results indicate that the likelihood of ARD (epitomized by the probability of occurrence of pH<4 in a mixing boundary) within the first 100years can be as high as 75% for a NPR=2 and 40% for NPR=4. The latter is traditionally considered as a "universally safe" threshold to ensure non-acidic waters in practical applications. Our results suggest that new methods that explicitly account for mineralogical heterogeneity must be sought when computing effective (upscaled) NPR values at the scale of the piles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Zinc isotope investigation of surface and pore waters in a mountain watershed impacted by acid rock drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Suzan [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Borrok, David M., E-mail: dborrok@utep.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wanty, Richard B. [US Geological Survey, MS 964d, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Balistrieri, Laurie S. [U.S. Geological Survey, University of Washington, School of Oceanography, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The pollution of natural waters with metals derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals like pyrite is a global environmental problem. However, the metal loading pathways and transport mechanisms associated with acid rock drainage reactions are often difficult to characterize using bulk chemical data alone. In this study, we evaluated the use of zinc (Zn) isotopes to complement traditional geochemical tools in the investigation of contaminated waters at the former Waldorf mining site in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A. Geochemical signatures and statistical analysis helped in identifying two primary metal loading pathways at the Waldorf site. The first was characterized by a circumneutral pH, high alkalinity, and high Zn/Cd ratios. The second was characterized by acidic pHs and low Zn/Cd ratios. Zinc isotope signatures in surface water samples collected across the site were remarkably similar (the {delta}{sup 66}Zn, relative to JMC 3-0749-L, for most samples ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 Per-Mille-Sign {+-} 0.09 Per-Mille-Sign 2{sigma}). This probably suggests that the ultimate source of Zn is consistent across the Waldorf site, regardless of the metal loading pathway. The {delta}{sup 66}Zn of pore water samples collected within a nearby metal-impacted wetland area, however, were more variable, ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 Per-Mille-Sign {+-} 0.09 Per-Mille-Sign 2{sigma}. Here the Zn isotopes seemed to reflect differences in groundwater flow pathways. However, a host of secondary processes might also have impacted Zn isotopes, including adsorption of Zn onto soil components, complexation of Zn with dissolved organic matter, uptake of Zn into plants, and the precipitation of Zn during the formation of reduced sulfur species. Zinc isotope analysis proved useful in this study; however, the utility of this isotopic tool would improve considerably with the addition of a comprehensive experimental foundation for interpreting the complex isotopic relationships found in

  6. Zinc isotope investigation of surface and pore waters in a mountain watershed impacted by acid rock drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Suzan; Borrok, David M.; Wanty, Richard B.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    The pollution of natural waters with metals derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals like pyrite is a global environmental problem. However, the metal loading pathways and transport mechanisms associated with acid rock drainage reactions are often difficult to characterize using bulk chemical data alone. In this study, we evaluated the use of zinc (Zn) isotopes to complement traditional geochemical tools in the investigation of contaminated waters at the former Waldorf mining site in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A. Geochemical signatures and statistical analysis helped in identifying two primary metal loading pathways at the Waldorf site. The first was characterized by a circumneutral pH, high alkalinity, and high Zn/Cd ratios. The second was characterized by acidic pHs and low Zn/Cd ratios. Zinc isotope signatures in surface water samples collected across the site were remarkably similar (the δ 66 Zn, relative to JMC 3-0749-L, for most samples ranged from 0.20 to 0.30‰ ± 0.09‰ 2σ). This probably suggests that the ultimate source of Zn is consistent across the Waldorf site, regardless of the metal loading pathway. The δ 66 Zn of pore water samples collected within a nearby metal-impacted wetland area, however, were more variable, ranging from 0.20 to 0.80‰ ± 0.09‰ 2σ. Here the Zn isotopes seemed to reflect differences in groundwater flow pathways. However, a host of secondary processes might also have impacted Zn isotopes, including adsorption of Zn onto soil components, complexation of Zn with dissolved organic matter, uptake of Zn into plants, and the precipitation of Zn during the formation of reduced sulfur species. Zinc isotope analysis proved useful in this study; however, the utility of this isotopic tool would improve considerably with the addition of a comprehensive experimental foundation for interpreting the complex isotopic relationships found in soil pore waters. - Highlights: ► Zinc isotopes of water were measured in

  7. Zinc isotope investigation of surface and pore waters in a mountain watershed impacted by acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Suzan; Borrok, David M; Wanty, Richard B; Balistrieri, Laurie S

    2012-03-15

    The pollution of natural waters with metals derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals like pyrite is a global environmental problem. However, the metal loading pathways and transport mechanisms associated with acid rock drainage reactions are often difficult to characterize using bulk chemical data alone. In this study, we evaluated the use of zinc (Zn) isotopes to complement traditional geochemical tools in the investigation of contaminated waters at the former Waldorf mining site in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A. Geochemical signatures and statistical analysis helped in identifying two primary metal loading pathways at the Waldorf site. The first was characterized by a circumneutral pH, high alkalinity, and high Zn/Cd ratios. The second was characterized by acidic pHs and low Zn/Cd ratios. Zinc isotope signatures in surface water samples collected across the site were remarkably similar (the δ(66)Zn, relative to JMC 3-0749-L, for most samples ranged from 0.20 to 0.30‰±0.09‰ 2σ). This probably suggests that the ultimate source of Zn is consistent across the Waldorf site, regardless of the metal loading pathway. The δ(66)Zn of pore water samples collected within a nearby metal-impacted wetland area, however, were more variable, ranging from 0.20 to 0.80‰±0.09‰ 2σ. Here the Zn isotopes seemed to reflect differences in groundwater flow pathways. However, a host of secondary processes might also have impacted Zn isotopes, including adsorption of Zn onto soil components, complexation of Zn with dissolved organic matter, uptake of Zn into plants, and the precipitation of Zn during the formation of reduced sulfur species. Zinc isotope analysis proved useful in this study; however, the utility of this isotopic tool would improve considerably with the addition of a comprehensive experimental foundation for interpreting the complex isotopic relationships found in soil pore waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  9. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  10. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption.

  11. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  12. Prediction of acid generation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses acid rock drainage (ARD), a term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The principal ingredients for ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. The oxidation reactions responsible for the formation of ARD are often accelerated by biological activity. These reactions yield low pH (acidic) water that has the potential to mobilize heavy metals that may be contained in the geologic materials that are contacted. ARD can cause a detrimental impact on the quality of ground or surface water to which it discharges. ARD likely has been associated with mines since mining began. ARD is not necessarily confined to mining activities, but can occur naturally wherever sulfide-bearing rock is exposed to air and water. It is important to recognize that not all operations that expose sulfide-bearing rock will result in ARD

  13. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  14. Frequent occurrence of Osteomalacia among grazing cattle caused by hydrofluoric acid contained in the flue gas discharged by a chemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, E; Luy, P

    1929-01-01

    In 1928 a number of animals grazing in the vicinity of a chemical plant fell ill to a disease which was diagnosed as fluorosis. But the symptoms shown by the diseased animals were in many respects different from those commonly associated with such cases. The two front legs became lame, toes and ankles were swollen. The pulse rate was higher, an increased body temperature was measured and pain was felt. In some cases the hind legs became stiff. Furthermore, an enormous loss of weight was observed and swellings appeared along the ribs. The milk production decreased. All these symptoms indicate osteomalacia. The grass on which these animals fed was examined but it was found lush and in no way lacking in Ca and phosphoric acid (osteomalacia is a deficiency of these two minerals). The toxicant was found to be the fluorine deposited on the grass and plants. Hydrofluoric acid attacks the calcium in the bones and dissolves it. The consequence is osteoporosis. The fluorine is discharged with the flue gas of the nearby chemical plant. The disease did not occur outside the range of the chemical plant. The condition of the animals visibly improved during winter time when they were fed with fodder coming from an unpolluted area. The chemical physiological examinations which were conducted showed that the calcium of the bones is used to neutralize the hydrofluoric acid. The by-product of this neutralizing process, phosphoric acid, is discharged with the urine. 12 references.

  15. Acid rock drainage in the uranium mining and milling site of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil -- duration assessment, pollutant generation modelling and remediation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    This geochemical modeling work was carried out to simulate the acid drainage generation from one of the waste-rock piles at the Pocos de Caldas uranium mining site. The mathematical code STEADQYL was used. The estimated results were in good agreement for sulphate and uranium concentrations and the duration of the acid water generation was estimated to be about 500 years. The effect of covering the dump with a material that minimized oxygen diffusion was assessed. Projections indicated that covering the dump with a 1.0 m thickness of a material (like clay), which had an oxygen diffusion coefficient of 10 9 m 2 ·s 1 , would reduce the pollutant concentrations to acceptable values. The estimated cost, when using this strategy, would be about US $10 million. (author)

  16. Initial evaluations of the use of microbial measures to quantify impact of acid rock drainage on the Finniss River (east branch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, P.J.; Wilde, K.L.; Stone, D.J.; Ben-David, E.A.; Foster, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Biological measures assessing the impact of pollution on aquatic ecosystems have been increasingly used over the last ten years to examine ecosystem health. The focus, however, has been on diversity and abundance of higher organisms, such as fish, frogs and macroinvertebrates, and it is desirable that such measures be made across all trophic levels of the ecosystem. In this study, phospholipid-fatty acid analysis and microbial carbon substrate utilisation assays (BIOLOG) of sediment and water samples were conducted to evaluate their usefulness as a measure of the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD) on the East Branch of the Finniss River. Both PLFA, and BIOLOG assays, generate data well suited to multivariate analysis and previous studies of the impact of ARD from the Brukunga mine (South Australia) have demonstrated the ability to distinguish between the effect of ARD, nutrients and dry-land salinity on microbial populations

  17. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  18. Phosphorus fertility recapitalization of nutrient-depleted tropical acid soils with reactive phosphate rock: An assessment using the isotopic exchange technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.-C.; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    A 'soil P fertility recapitalization' initiative utilizing large rates of phosphate rocks (PRs) was proposed to improve the soil P status and increase the sustainable food production in acid and P-deficient tropical soils. Two series of experiments were carried out using five tropical acid soils treated with heavy applications of Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR). In the first series, the soils were mixed with GPR at the following application rates: 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg P·kg -1 , and incubated for one month in moist conditions. In another series, 1000 mg P kg -1 applied as GPR was added to three soils and incubated for 1.5 month; thereafter 50 mg P kg -1 as triple superphosphate (TSP) were added. The 32 P isotopic exchange method was utilized to assess the contribution of GPR to the available soil P. Changes in amounts, E, of P transferred with time as phosphate ions from the soil particles to the soil solution as well as changes in pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in soil suspensions were determined. It was found that: (i) the contribution of P from GPR to recapitalization of soil P fertility was mainly assessed by E pool size, pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations; other variables were not significant at the 0.1 level; (ii) heavy applications of GPR did not saturate all the P sorption sites, P freshly applied as water-soluble P was still sorbed; (iii) recapitalization of soil P fertility using GPR was partly obtained in some acid tropical soils; (iv) Upon dissolution, GPR provided calcium ions to crops and to soils, thus reducing Al toxicity, but its liming effect was limited. To explain these effects with heavy application rates of GPR, it was postulated that a coating of Al and Fe compounds is formed around PR particles with time, thus reducing further dissolution. (author)

  19. Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on the immobilization of aqueous Pb(II) using phosphate rock and different crystallized hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Cui, Jing; Wei, Zhenggui

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the transformation of Pb(II) to geochemically stable pyromorphite (PY) by apatite materials (AMs), has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for contaminated water and soil. In this study, we systematically investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural phosphate rock (PR) and different crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the absence and presence of LMWOAs (oxalic, malic and citric acids). The results indicated that the effectiveness of PR and HAp in immobilizing Pb(II) followed in descending order by HAp2 (the poorly crystallized HAp), HAp1 (the well crystallized HAp) and PR, regardlessof the presence of LMWOAs. The presence of malic and citric acids significantly decreased the immobilizationefficiency of Pb(II) by HAp1 and PR, clarifying the lower adsorption affinities of Pb(II)-organic acid complexes on HAp1 and PR rather than Pb(II) ion. On thecontrary, oxalic acid could markedly enhance the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by HAp1 and PR through the formation of lead oxalate, which was confirmed by FT-IR and XRDanalysis. Results also showed that LMWOAs had little promoting or inhibiting effect on the immobilization of Pb(II) by HAp2. This study suggested that the ubiquity of LMWOAs in natural environments could retard the transformation efficiency of Pb(II) to PY by AMs, especiallyin thepresenceof oxalic acid, and the poorly crystallized HAp2 had great potential to remediate Pb(II)-contaminated water and soil due to its insusceptibility to LMWOAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  1. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  2. PEMODELAN PENYEBARAN BATUAN POTENSIAL PEMBENTUK ASAM PADA KAWASAN PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA TAMBANG TERBUKA DI MUARA LAWA, KABUPATEN KUTAI BARAT, KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaho Dina Devy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dampak penambangan batubara tambang terbuka adalah munculnya Air Asam Tambang (AAT di sekitar lingkungan penambangan yang mempengaruhi kualitas air tambang, biota air, kualitas air dan tanah. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya. Kajian geologi dan mineralogi batuan berperan dalam mengetahui penyebaran batuan Potential Acid Forming (PAF dan Non Acid Forming (NAF. Kawasan tambang yang digunakan sebagai model penelitian berada di Kecamatan Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur. Hasil dari penelitian mengindikasikan, bahwa dominasi PAF berada di lapisan batu lempung kemudian diikuti batu lanau dan batu pasir dengan penyebaran mengikuti struktur sinklin yang terbatas di lapisan bawah (floor dan lapisan antara (inter burden pada batubara. Sementara itu, batuan NAF menyebar menempati daerah selain batuan PAF. ABSTRACT The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF and Non Acid Forming (NAF. Mining area which is used as a research model was in Muara Lawa, West Kutai regency, East Kalimantan province. The results of the study indicate, that the dominance of PAF are in layers followed by siltstone, claystone and sandstone with the distribution of rock following the syncline structure in the bottom (floor layer and in the inter-burden layer on coal. Meanwhile, rock NAF spread in areas other than rock PAF.

  3. Fatty Acid Detection in Mars-Analogous Rock Samples with the TMAH Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Wilhelm, M. B.; Johnson, S. S.; Craft, K.; O'Reilly, S.; Lewis, J. M. T.; Williams, R.; Summons, R. E.; Benison, K. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring sedimentary rock sequences in Gale Crater for evidence of habitability and searching for organic compounds using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. SAM includes a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and pyrolysis ovens. SAM has the ability to perform wet chemistry experiments, one of which uses tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis to liberate bound lipids, making them sufficiently volatile for detection by GC-MS. To determine the effectiveness of the SAM-like TMAH experiment on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarker identification, rock and sediment samples were collected from a variety of Mars analog environments including iron oxides from a modern mineral precipitate and older surface gossan at Iron Mountain, CA, as well as modern acid salt and neutral lake sediments with mixed iron oxides and clays from Western Australia; siliceous sinter from recently inactive and modern near-vent Icelandic hot springs deposits; modern carbonate ooids from The Bahamas, and organic-rich shale from Germany. Samples underwent pyrolysis with TMAH. Fatty acids were analyzed by pyro-GC-MS using a SAM-like heating ramp (35°C/min) as well as a 500°C flash on a Frontier pyrolyzer and Agilent GC-MS instrument. Results reveal that FAMEs were detectable with the TMAH experiment in nearly all samples. Low molecular weight (MW) C6:0-C10:0 FAMEs were present in all samples, medium MW C11:0-C18:2 FAMEs were present in select samples, and high MW (HMW) C20:0-C30:0 FAMEs were present in the shale sample. Many of these samples exhibited an even-over-odd carbon number preference, indicating biological production. These experiments demonstrate that TMAH thermochemolysis with SAM-like pyro-GC-MS is effective in fatty acid analysis from natural Mars-analog samples that vary in mineralogy, age, and microbial community input. HMW FAMEs are not detected in iron-dominated samples, and may not be detectable at low

  4. Concentration-Discharge Relationships, Nested Reaction Fronts, and the Balance of Oxidative and Acid-Base Weathering Fluxes in an Alpine Catchment, East River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, M.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.; Maher, K.

    2016-12-01

    Although important for solute production and transport, the varied interactions between biogeochemical processes and subsurface hydrology remain poorly characterized. We investigate these couplings in the headwaters of the East River, CO, a high-elevation shale-dominated catchment system in the Rocky Mountains, using concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships for major cations, anions, and organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) displays a positive C-Q relationship with well-defined clockwise hysteresis, indicating the mobilization and depletion of DOC in the upper soil horizons and highlighting the importance of shallow flowpaths through the snowmelt period. Cation and anion concentrations demonstrate that carbonate weathering, which dominates solute fluxes, is promoted by both carbonic acid and sulfuric acid derived from oxidation of pyrite in the shale bedrock. Sulfuric acid weathering in the deep subsurface dominates during base flow conditions when waters have infiltrated below the hypothesized pyrite oxidation front, whereas carbonic acid weathering plays a dominant role during the snowmelt period as a result of shallow flowpaths. Differential C-Q relationships between solutes suggest that infiltrating waters approach calcite saturation before reaching the pyrite oxidation front, after which sulfuric acid reduces carbonate alkalinity. This increase in CO2(aq) at the expense of HCO3- results in outgassing of CO2 when waters equilibrate to surface conditions, and reduces the export of carbon and alkalinity from the East River by roughly 33% annually. Future changes in snowmelt dynamics that control the balance of carbonic and sulfuric acid weathering therefore have the capacity to substantially alter the cycling of carbon in the East River catchment. Ultimately, we demonstrate that differential C-Q relationships between major solutes can provide unique insights into the complex subsurface flow and biogeochemical dynamics that operate at catchment scales.

  5. Using a mass balance to understand the geology and geochemistry of a reservoir receiving and discharging acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, D.C.; Edwards, K.

    1996-01-01

    Howard-Williams Lake is a 14.5 acre reservoir located in an abandoned coal mine in Perry County, Ohio. With a pH of 3.0 and acidity values of 300--400 mg/L, the reservoir has no plants or fish currently surviving in the lake. Reclamation of spoil piles adjacent to the lake to the north in the late 1980s was not successful in reducing the acidity of the lake. Currently, papermill sludge is being used on the reclaimed area to the north to promote vegetation, but the reservoir has shown no signs of improving. The goal of this project is to transform the lake into a fishable and swimmable one. The reservoir is receiving about 175 gallons per minute of acid mine drainage, not including seepage into the lake, from eight different sources. Three of the sources account for about 165 gallons per minute of the surface water that enters the lake. These inflows have relatively low acidity readings, which range from 66 mg/L to 568 mg/L. The other five sources of acid mine drainage have much lower flowrates, but have acidity values as high as 3,000 mg/L. Samples of all of the surface inflows and the outflow of the lake were taken and sent to a laboratory and tested for the following parameters: total acidity as CaCO 3 , total alkalinity as CaCO 2 , specific conductivity, total suspended solids, sulfate, chloride calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total iron, total manganese, aluminum, and hardness. During sampling of the surface inflows, volumetric flowrates were measured for each inflow. Once the flowrates and the concentrations of the various parameters were known, a mass balance could be constructed which would show how much of each parameter was entering the lake each day. These data were then used to gain an understanding of the geochemistry and geology of the site

  6. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  7. The geochemistry of acid rock drainage and estimating its ecological impact at a uranium mine in tropical Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.L.; Twining, J.R.; Bennett, J.W.; Comarmond, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical kinetic modelling of the effluent chemistry from waste rock dumps at the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine has been undertaken. The modelling examined the periods both before and after the installation of covers being placed on the dumps. Effluent from the waste rock dump migrates into the adjacent East Branch of the Finniss River and may induce ecological detriment. The model predicts pollutant loads that are significantly greater than that currently observed in the field. The observed reduction of pollutant loads after the cover was placed on the dump is attributed to a decrease in the rate of water infiltration due to the cover placement. It is estimated that a significant increase in pollutant loads is likely to occur Ca. 35 years after remediation. A computer program for ecological risk assessment, AQUARISK, has been developed and applied to evaluate the likelihood of biotic detriment due to exposure to pollutants from the site. Measured and modelled water quality data have been used in AQUARISK, in conjunction with national water quality guidelines and literature derived ecotoxicological data, to estimate the ecological risk for copper, this being a key pollutant. Both the present and past copper concentrations in the East Branch have a 100% risk of exceeding current regulatory criteria in addition to criteria derived from available dose-response data. The predicted increase in copper is unlikely to change these risks. However, the present reduction has led to an appreciable increase in the measured diversity of species at the site (from 8 to 50% implied) as also reflected in the AQUARISK estimate of increased tolerance (from 5 to 36% predicted). Modelled bioavailable copper concentrations will have a deleterious impact on the present degree of recovery and a return to the previous, unacceptably low, system diversity. To achieve a situation where 67% of species are likely to tolerate the effluent from the site, the average target copper concentration

  8. Increase in the Hydrophilicity and Lewis Acid-Base Properties of Solid Surfaces Achieved by Electric Gliding Discharge in Humid Air: Effects on Bacterial Adherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamgang, J. O.; Brisset, J.-L.; Naitali, M.; Herry, J.-M.; Bellon-Fontaine, M.-N.; Briandet, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed the effects of treatment with gliding discharge plasma on the surface properties of solid materials, as well as the consequences concerning adherence of a model bacterium. As evaluated by contact angles with selected liquids, plasma treatment caused an increase in surface hydrophilicity and in the Lewis acid-base components of the surface energy of all materials tested. These modifications were more marked for low density polyethylene and stainless steel than for polytetrafluoroethylene. After treatment, the hydrophilicity of the materials remained relatively stable for at least 20 days. Moreover, analysis of the topography of the materials by atomic force microscopy revealed that the roughness of both polymers was reduced by glidarc plasma treatment. As a result of all these modifications, solid substrates were activated towards micro-organisms and the adherence of S. epidermidis, a negatively charged Lewis-base and mildly hydrophilic strain selected as the model, was increased in almost all the cases tested. (plasma technology)

  9. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  10. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  11. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola; Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi

    2011-01-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  12. Clinopyroxene geobarometry of magmatic rocks. Part 2. Structural geobarometers for basic to acid, tholeiitic and mildly alkaline magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimis, Paolo

    . Applications to natural, igneous rocks for which the pressures of crystallization could be constrained based on experimental, petrological or geological evidence yielded pressure estimates that reproduced the expected values to within ca. 2kbar. Compared to the MA-formulation, the TH-formulation appears to be less robust to variations in magma composition. When applied to high-pressure (>10kbar) clinopyroxenes synthesized from very low Na (Na2Opressure of crystallization from a clinopyroxene chemical analysis.

  13. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  14. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  15. Efficient mineralization of antibiotic ciprofloxacin in acid aqueous medium by a novel photoelectro-Fenton process using a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Yanyu; Zhong, Huihui; Chen, Yu; Tian, Xiujun; Li, Desheng; Li, Jiuyi

    2018-01-15

    In this study, a novel photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process using microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) as a UV irradiation source was developed for the removal of antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) in water. Comparative degradation of 200mgL -1 CIP was studied by direct MDEL photolysis, anodic oxidation (AO), AO in presence of electrogenerated H 2 O 2 (AO-H 2 O 2 ), AO-H 2 O 2 under MDEL irradiation (MDEL-AO-H 2 O 2 ), electro-Fenton (EF) and MDEL-PEF processes. Higher oxidation power was found in the sequence: MDEL photolysis < AO < AO-H 2 O 2 < MDEL-AO-H 2 O 2 < EF < MDEL-PEF. Effects of current density, pH, initial Fe 2+ concentration and initial CIP concentration on TOC removal in MDEL-PEF process were examined, and the optimal conditions were ascertained. The releases of three inorganic ions (F - , NH 4 + and NO 3 - ) and two carboxylic acids (oxalic and formic acids) were qualified. Seven aromatic intermediates mainly generated from hydroxylation, dealkylation and defluorination of CIP were detected by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technology. Therefore, plausible degradation sequences for CIP degradation in MDEL-PEF process including all detected products were proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) s...

  17. Acid-base balance and changes in haemolymph properties of the South African rock lobsters, Jasus lalandii, a palinurid decapod, during chronic hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jarred L; Bridges, Christopher R; Krohn, Janina; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Auerswald, Lutz

    2015-06-05

    Few studies exist reporting on long-term exposure of crustaceans to hypercapnia. We exposed juvenile South African rock lobsters, Jasus lalandii, to hypercapnic conditions of pH 7.3 for 28 weeks and subsequently analysed changes in the extracellular fluid (haemolymph). Results revealed, for the first time, adjustments in the haemolymph of a palinurid crustacean during chronic hypercapnic exposure: 1) acid-base balance was adjusted and sustained by increased bicarbonate and 2) quantity and oxygen binding properties of haemocyanin changed. Compared with lobsters kept under normocapnic conditions (pH 8.0), during prolonged hypercapnia, juvenile lobsters increased bicarbonate buffering of haemolymph. This is necessary to provide optimum pH conditions for oxygen binding of haemocyanin and functioning of respiration in the presence of a strong Bohr Effect. Furthermore, modification of the intrinsic structure of the haemocyanin molecule, and not the presence of molecular modulators, seems to improve oxygen affinity under conditions of elevated pCO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. THE EFFECT OF ACID ROCK FROM CĂLIMANI MOUNTAINS ON MAKING UP A NUTRITIVE SUPPORT FOR PLANTS, BASED ON RED MUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experiment carried out in controlled conditions, regarding triticale plants growth on a nutritive layer consisting of a mixture of red mud, acid rock and compost, in different proportions. The analytical results highlighted the strongly alkaline reaction of the layer, high organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium contents and low nitrogen contents. The layer has a high salinity and sodium salts are predominant. The total microelements and heavy metals contents are generally acceptable. The triticale plants grew in these conditions up to 10-15 cm height, when the experiment was stopped. The plants accumulated normal nitrogen, calcium and magnesium quantities, low potassium ones, high phosphorus and very high sodium contents. The metallic microelements (copper, iron, manganese, zinc accumulated at relatively normal levels, but the heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, lead concentrated up to values several tens of times higher than the normal contents. Introducing the obtained vegetal mass in the nutritive layer will contribute to enhancing its fertility for the next vegetation cycles.

  19. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  20. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  1. Radioactivities (dose rates) of rocks in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive distribution (radiation doses) of major rocks in Japan was monitored to clarify the factors influencing terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates. The rock samples were reduced to powder and analyzed by well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and pulse height analyzer. Terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were estimated in terms of gamma radiation dose rate 1 m above the ground. The radioactivity concentration was highest in acidic rock which contains much SiO 2 among igneous rock, followed by neutral rock, basic rock, and ultrabasic rock. The radioactive concentration was 30-40% lower in acidic and clastic rocks than those of the world average concentration. Higher radioactive concentration was observed in soils than the parent rocks of sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. The gamma radiation dose rate was in proportion to the radioactive concentration of the rocks. To clarify the radioactive effect in the change course of rocks into soils, comparative measurement of outcrop and soil radioactive concentrations is important. (S.Y.)

  2. Evaluation of phospherus uptake from Minjingu phosphate rock, growth and nodulation of agroforestry tree species on an acid soil from Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, N.K.; Mwendwa, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to study the effect of P application on fast growing multi-purpose trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate availability and uptake of phosphorus (P) from Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR). An acid soil and six agroforestry tree species namely Leucena leuco-cephala, Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania sesban, Grevillea robusta, Cassia siamea and Eucalyptus grandis were used. Phosphorus was applied at 25.8 mg P/ kg soil as Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) or Triple Superphosphate (TSP). Pregerminated seedlings were transplanted and divided into two sequential harvests at 3 and 6 MAT (months after transplanting). 32 P isotope carrier free solution was added to transplanted seedlings at the beginning and when they were 3 months old. The soil was tested for isotopically exchangeable P by incubating the soil with the MPR and TSP. The soil was high in P-fixing capacity. At 3 MAT all the species except G. robusta gave a 150-250% significantly higher stem dry weights where P was added and L. leuco-cephala, S. sesban and C. siamea maintained this up to 6 MAT. The legumes and E. grandis where P was applied differed significantly from controls in root dry weight with Minjingu PR being superior with G.sepium and E. grandis. The legumes and E. grandis had significantly higher P uptake where P was applied at 3 MAT. The relative availability of MPR at 3 MAT showed that L.leucocephala and G. sepium derived 2.93 and 1.06 times more P from Minjingu PR than from TSP respectively. Data obtained from G. robusta P uptake showed that this species preferred soil P to externally supplied P in the three sampling periods. Tree species and fertilizer P interactions at 6 MAT were highly significant (P=0.01). Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculation improved growth, P uptake from MPR and nodulation of G. sepium seedlings. Inoculating L. leucocephala seedlings with VAM increased availability of P from MPR. (author)

  3. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  4. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  5. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  6. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  7. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  8. Rock solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Comparison of greenhouse and 32P isotopic laboratory methods for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified rock phosphates in some acid soils of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu-Bennoah, E.; Zapata, F.; Fardeau, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major constraints for normal plant growth and crop yields in the acid soils of Ghana and therefore addition of P inputs is required for sustainable crop production. This is often difficult, if not impossible for small-scale farmers due to the high cost of mineral P fertilizers and limited access to fertilizer supplies. Direct application of finely ground phosphate rocks (PRs) and their modified forms have been recommended as alternatives for P fertilization. The direct application of the natural and modified PRs to these acid soils implies the need to predict their agronomic effectiveness of the PRs in the simplest and most cost-effective manner. In this study the classical greenhouse pot experiment was compared to the 32 P isotopic kinetics laboratory method for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified Togo PR in six highly weathered Oxisols from southwest Ghana. In the 32 P isotopic kinetics laboratory experiment the six soil samples were each fertilised at the rate of 50 mg P kg -1 soil in the form of triple superphosphate (TSP), Togo PAPR-50%, and Togo PR, respectively. Controls without P amendment were also included. Isotopic exchange kinetics experiments were carried out on two sets of samples, immediately after P fertilizer additions (without incubation) and after 6 weeks of incubation under wet conditions and at a room temperature of 25 deg C. In the greenhouse pot experiment, P fertilizers in the form of Togo PR, Togo PAPR, Mali PR and TSP were each applied to the six soils at rates equivalent to 0, 30, 60, and 120 kg P ha -1 , respectively. The P fertilizers were mixed with the soils and maize (Zea mays L.) variety Obatanpa was grown for 42 days before harvest. The isotopic kinetics data of the control samples indicated that 5 of the studied soils had very low P fertility status as reflected by their low P concentrations in solution (C P -1 ) and low exchangeable P (E 1 min -1 ). The capacity

  11. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  12. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  14. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. ...

  15. Role of hydrous iron oxide formation in attenuation and diel cycling of dissolved trace metals in a stream affected by acid rock drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S.R.; Gammons, C.H.; Jones, Clain A.; Nimick, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mining-impacted streams have been shown to undergo diel (24-h) fluctuations in concentrations of major and trace elements. Fisher Creek in south-central Montana, USA receives acid rock drainage (ARD) from natural and mining-related sources. A previous diel field study found substantial changes in dissolved metal concentrations at three sites with differing pH regimes during a 24-h period in August 2002. The current work discusses follow-up field sampling of Fisher Creek as well as field and laboratory experiments that examine in greater detail the underlying processes involved in the observed diel concentration changes. The field experiments employed in-stream chambers that were either transparent or opaque to light, filled with stream water and sediment (cobbles coated with hydrous Fe and Al oxides), and placed in the stream to maintain the same temperature. Three sets of laboratory experiments were performed: (1) equilibration of a Cu(II) and Zn(II) containing solution with Fisher Creek stream sediment at pH 6.9 and different temperatures; (2) titration of Fisher Creek water from pH 3.1 to 7 under four different isothermal conditions; and (3) analysis of the effects of temperature on the interaction of an Fe(II) containing solution with Fisher Creek stream sediment under non-oxidizing conditions. Results of these studies are consistent with a model in which Cu, Fe(II), and to a lesser extent Zn, are adsorbed or co-precipitated with hydrous Fe and Al oxides as the pH of Fisher Creek increases from 5.3 to 7.0. The extent of metal attenuation is strongly temperature-dependent, being more pronounced in warm vs. cold water. Furthermore, the sorption/co-precipitation process is shown to be irreversible; once the Cu, Zn, and Fe(II) are removed from solution in warm water, a decrease in temperature does not release the metals back to the water column. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  17. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  18. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  19. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  20. Changes in Soil Available Phosphorus, Leaf Phosphorus Content and Yield of Sword Bean (Canavalia Ensiformis (L.) DC.) by Application of SP-36 and Phosphate Rock on Acid Upland Soil of East Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Arivin Rivaie

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse trial was performed to determine changes in phosphorus (P) nutrition and the yield of sword bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.) following the application of different rates and types of P fertilizer in an acid upland soil of East Lampung. Two different types of P fertilizer, namely SP-36 (total P = 36%) and Phosphate Rock (PR) (total P = 24.3%, particle size distribution = 75% <0.25 mm, 85% < 0.50 mm, 90% < 1.00 mm) were used in the trial. For the treatment, each P fert...

  1. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  2. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  3. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  4. Natural factors and mining activity bearings on the water quality of the Choapa basin, North Central Chile: insights on the role of mafic volcanic rocks in the buffering of the acid drainage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Amparo; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Kretschmer, Nicole; Meza, Francisco; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    This contribution analyzes water chemical data for the Choapa basin, North Central Chile, for the period 1980-2004. The parameters considered are As, Cu Fe, pH, EC, SO₄⁻², Cl⁻¹, and HCO[Formula: see text], from samples taken in nine monitoring stations throughout the basin. Results show rather moderate contents of As, Cu, and Fe, with the exception of the Cuncumén River and the Aucó creek, explained by the influence of the huge porphyry copper deposit of Los Pelambres and by the presence of mining operations, respectively. When compared against results obtained in previous researches at the neighboring Elqui river basin, which host the El Indio Au-Cu-As district, a much reduced grade of pollution is recognized for the Choapa basin. Considering the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD)-related Cu contents on the fine fraction of the sediments of both river basins, the differences recorded are even more striking. Although the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit, on the headwaters of the Choapa river basin, is between one and two orders of magnitude bigger than El Indio, stream water and sediments of the former exhibit significantly lower copper contents than those of the latter. A main factor which may explain these results is the smaller degree of H( + )-metasomatism on the host rocks of the Los Pelambres deposit, where mafic andesitic volcanic rocks presenting propylitic hydrothermal alteration are dominant. This fact contrast with the highly altered host rocks of El Indio district, where most of them have lost their potential to neutralize ARD.

  5. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  6. Microwave Photocatalysis IV: Effects of Additional Operational Parameters on the Microwave Photocatalytic Degradation of Mono-Chloroacetic Acid Using Titania-Coated Mercury Electrodeless Discharge Lamps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmentová, Hana; Církva, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), s. 1109-1113 ISSN 0268-2575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1212; GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : microwave photocatalysis * titania thin film * mercury electrodeless discharge lamp Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.494, year: 2013

  7. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  8. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  9. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  10. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  11. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  12. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  13. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  14. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  15. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  16. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  17. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  18. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). Part VII. Photo-isomerization of trans-urocanic acid in aqueous media driven by UV light from a novel Hg-free Dewar-like microwave discharge thermally-insulated electrodeless lamp (MDTIEL). Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Tatsuro; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2011-07-01

    A novel mercury-free Dewar-like (double-walled structure) microwave discharge thermally-insulated electrodeless lamp (MDTIEL) was fabricated and its performance evaluated using the photo-isomerization of trans-urocanic acid (trans-UA) in aqueous media as a test process driven by the emitted UV light when ignited with microwave radiation. The photo-isomerization processes trans-UA → cis-UA and cis-UA → trans-UA were re-visited using light emitted from a conventional high-pressure Hg light source and examined for the influence of UV light irradiance and solution temperature; the temperature dependence of the trans → cis process displayed a negative activation energy, E(a) = -1.3 cal mol(-1). To control the photo-isomerization of urocanic acid from the heat usually dissipated by a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (single-walled MDEL), it was necessary to suppress the microwave-initiated heat. For comparison, the gas-fill in the MDEL lamp, which typically consists of a mixture of Hg and Ar, was changed to the more eco-friendly N(2) gas in the novel MDTIEL device. The dynamics of the photo-isomerization of urocanic acid driven by the UV wavelengths of the N(2)-MDTIEL light source were compared to those from the more conventional single-walled N(2)-MDEL and Hg/Ar-MDEL light sources, and with those from the Hg lamp used to irradiate, via a fiber optic, the photoreactor located in the wave-guide of the microwave apparatus. The heating efficiency of a solution with the double-walled N(2)-MDTIEL was compared to the efficiency from the single-walled N(2)-MDEL device. Advantages of N(2)-MDTIEL are described from a comparison of the dynamics of the trans-UA → cis-UA process on the basis of unit surface area of the lamp and unit power consumption. The considerably lower temperature on the external surface of the N(2)-MDTIEL light source should make it attractive in carrying out photochemical reactions that may be heat-sensitive such as the photothermochromic

  19. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resources Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)

    2012-03-15

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  20. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  1. Method of degassifying a massive of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, M M; Krivosheev, V O; Preobrazhenskaia, E I; Talapkerov, A Sh; Taushkin, G T

    1979-05-30

    This invention concerns the mining industry, chiefly the coal industry, and can be used for the degasification of coal layers and interfering rock. The method of preliminary extraction of gas with underground development of burning minerals, including the pumping of gas through a collector, carried in the plane of the degasifying layer, discharged from rock pressure by means of extracting the lower lying layer, is known. However, the given method does not make it possible to degasify the interfering rock. Another method, consisting of the fact that from the mining development in the lateral rock, chambers are made, from which a group of wells are bored, and the latter are united with the gas removing system, is well known. This method has the inadequacy that the well of each chamber is connected to the gas removing system of the pipelines, and this leads to an increase in the price of the method. A new system is presented for the degasification of the massive of rock which is presented in an illustration...... The advantage of the suggested method consists of the fact that material outlays are reduced for the unification of each chamber with the gas removing pipeline, and besides this, the wells, connecting the chambers are drains for the surrounding rock, which increases the effectiveness of the degasification.

  2. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  3. Temporal geochemical variations in above- and below-drainage coal mine discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Jill E.; Peters, Stephen C.; Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality data collected in 2012 for 10 above- and 14 below-drainage coal mine discharges (CMDs), classified by mining or excavation method, in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, USA, are compared with data for 1975, 1991, and 1999 to evaluate long-term (37 year) changes in pH, SO42−, and Fe concentrations related to geochemistry, hydrology, and natural attenuation processes. We hypothesized that CMD quality will improve over time because of diminishing quantities of unweathered pyrite, decreased access of O2 to the subsurface after mine closure, decreased rates of acid production, and relatively constant influx of alkalinity from groundwater. Discharges from shafts, slopes, and boreholes, which are vertical or steeply sloping excavations, are classified as below-drainage; these receive groundwater inputs with low dissolved O2, resulting in limited pyrite oxidation, dilution, and gradual improvement of CMD water quality. In contrast, discharges from drifts and tunnels, which are nearly horizontal excavations into hillsides, are classified as above-drainage; these would exhibit less improvement in water quality over time because the rock surfaces continue to be exposed to air, which facilitates sustained pyrite oxidation, acid production, and alkalinity consumption. Nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank tests between 1975 and 2012 samples indicate decreases in Fe and SO42− concentrations were highly significant (p water quality presented in this paper can help prioritize CMD remediation and facilitate selection and design of the most appropriate treatment systems.

  4. The use of 32P radioisotope techniques for evaluating the relative agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock materials in a soybean-maize crop rotation in acid soils of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahisarakul, J.; Pakkong, P.

    2002-01-01

    A series of greenhouse experiments was conducted over three years to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of phosphate rock materials in a soybean - maize crop sequence, using 32 P isotope dilution techniques. For the first two years, the crops were grown in a pot experiment in four acid soils of Thailand. In the first year, four increasing rates of TSP and one rate of four phosphate rocks (PRs) were used. The PRs used were Algerian PR, North Carolina PR, Petchaburi PR, and Ratchaburi PR. Soybean did not respond to P application from TSP, while there was good response in maize which was planted after soybean (1st residual effect). The percent P derived from TSP or PR fertilizer (%Pdff) had the following order: Warin soil > Mae Tang soil > Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil for soybean and Warin soil > Pakchong soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang soil for maize. In the second year, the soybean - maize rotation was replanted to study the residual effect of TSP and PRs, both applied at 180 mg P kg -1 . No significant response of soybean and maize to TSP was found in terms of dry matter yield. In terms of %Pdff and %RAE the soils ranked as follows: Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil Mae Tang soil > Warin soil for soybean and Warin soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang > Pakchong soil for maize. Both crops absorbed more P from TSP than from PRs. The %RAE in the 2nd year experiment was higher than %RAE in the 1st year In the third year, TSP and two PRs were applied at one P rate to Pakchong and Warin soils. The applied PRs were North Carolina PR (NCPR) and Lamphun phosphate rock (LPPR). PRs were applied either alone or in combination with TSP (50:50). Soybean was planted first, followed by maize. The P-response in terms of dry matter yield and %Pdff was highly significant in both soils. The RAE ranked as follows: TSP > NCPR + TSP > LPPR + TSP > NCPR > LPPR. Maize showed the same trend in RAE as soybean in both soils. The RAE for both crops was highest in Warin soil. (author)

  5. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  6. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  7. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  8. Electrical Resistance Tomography to Monitor Mitigation of Metal-Toxic Acid-Leachates Ruby Gulch Waste Rock Repository Gilt Edge Mine Superfund Site, South Dakota USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R.; Heath, G.; Richardson, A.; Paul, D.; Wangerud, K.

    2003-12-01

    At a cyanide heap-leach open-pit mine, 15-million cubic yards of acid-generating sulfides were dumped at the head of a steep-walled mountain valley, with 30 inches/year precipitation generating 60- gallons/minute ARD leachate. Remediation has reshaped the dump to a 70-acre, 3.5:1-sloped geometry, installed drainage benches and runoff diversions, and capped the repository and lined diversions with a polyethylene geomembrane and cover system. Monitoring was needed to evaluate (a) long-term geomembrane integrity, (b) diversion liner integrity and long-term effectiveness, (c) ARD geochemistry, kinetics and pore-gas dynamics within the repository mass, and (d) groundwater interactions. Observation wells were paired with a 600-electrode resistivity survey system. Using near-surface and down-hole electrodes and automated data collection and post-processing, periodic two- and three-dimensional resistivity images are developed to reflect current and changed-conditions in moisture, temperature, geochemical components, and flow-direction analysis. Examination of total resistivity values and time variances between images allows direct observation of liner and cap integrity with precise identification and location of leaks; likewise, if runoff migrates from degraded diversion ditches into the repository zone, there is an accompanying and noticeable change in resistivity values. Used in combination with monitoring wells containing borehole resistivity electrodes (calibrated with direct sampling of dump water/moisture, temperature and pore-gas composition), the resistivity arrays allow at-depth imaging of geochemical conditions within the repository mass. The information provides early indications of progress or deficiencies in de-watering and ARD- mitigation that is the remedy intent. If emerging technologies present opportunities for secondary treatment, deep resistivity images may assist in developing application methods and evaluating the effectiveness of any reagents

  9. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  10. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  11. Changes in Soil Available Phosphorus, Leaf Phosphorus Content and Yield of Sword Bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. by Application of SP-36 and Phosphate Rock on Acid Upland Soil of East Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Arivin Rivaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A glasshouse trial was performed to determine changes in phosphorus (P nutrition and the yield of sword bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. following the application of different rates and types of P fertilizer in an acid upland soil of East Lampung. Two different types of P fertilizer, namely SP-36 (total P = 36% and Phosphate Rock (PR (total P = 24.3%, particle size distribution = 75% <0.25 mm, 85% < 0.50 mm, 90% < 1.00 mm were used in the trial. For the treatment, each P fertilizer type consisted of four rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg P2O5 kg-1 soil that were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with four replications. The results showed that the application of P fertilizers had significant effects on soil pH, soil plant-available P, the potential-P (HCl 25%, leaf N and P concentrations, the yield of sword bean. Increased rates of both forms of P fertilizer increased the soil pH values. As the soil used had low pH and very high exchangeable Al, hence, this result is most probably related to the addition of Ca2+ to the soil solution that resulted from the P fertiliser applied (liming effect, either from SP-36 (monocalcium phosphate or PR (flour apatite. There was no difference in soil available P concentration due to the different in P fertilizer types, indicating that 4 months after the fertilizer application, the relatively insoluble Phosphate Rock had the same P solubility with SP-36. Increased rates of both forms of P fertilizer increased the sword bean yield. For the application of 0 kg P2O5 ha-1, although sword bean crops had pods, but, they did not give any seed. Whereas, at the addition of P fertilizer at the rate of 50, 100, and 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 for both P fertilizer types, the crops were able to give the seeds in the pods.

  12. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  14. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources : A critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  15. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  16. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  17. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  18. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  19. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  20. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  1. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  2. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  3. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  4. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  6. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  7. Conditions of efficient vibrodischarge of rock materials in modern mining and processing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, SYa; Gendlina, LI; Kulikova, EG

    2018-03-01

    The paper reviews vibration feeders used to discharge storage reservoirs in mineral mining. In spotlight are vibrofeeders equipped with an active member of low flexural rigidity developed at Chinakal Institute of Mining. The authors present the results of the physical and numerical studies on vibratory discharge of cohesive rocks from a bunker.

  8. A comparison of fossilized dinosaur bone and the surrounding rock using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, D.W.; Rees, L.B.; Mangelson, N.F.; Hill, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Six samples of fossilized dinosaur bone and surrounding rock were analyzed by PIXE to investigate general relations between the bone and rock. The powdered samples were brought into an acid solution by a lithium metaborate fusion process. The data were analyzed with chemometric methods to successfully differentiate the bone samples from the complementary rock samples. The Sr/Ca ratio is consistently higher in fossilized bone than the surrounding rock. Ba, Y and U, when found in the rock, appear in significantly higher concentrations in the bone. S and Ti, elements commonly found in rock samples, are not found in the bone samples. (author)

  9. Mathematical simulation of a waste rock heap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharer, J.M.; Pettit, C.M.; Chambers, D.B.; Kwong, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the generation of acidic drainage in waste rock piles. The model considers the kinetic rates of biological and chemical oxidation of sulfide minerals (pyrite, pyrrhotite) present as fines and rock particles, as well as chemical processes such as dissolution (kinetic or equilibrium controlled), complexation (from equilibrium and stoichiometry of several complexes), and precipitation (formation of complexes and secondary minerals). Through mass balance equations and solubility constraints (e.g., pH, phase equilibria) the model keeps track of the movement of chemical species through the waste pile and provides estimates of the quality of seepage (pH, sulfate, iron, acidity, etc.) leaving the heap. The model has been expanded to include the dissolution (thermodynamic and sorption equilibrium), adsorption and coprecipitation of uranium and radium. The model was applied to simulate waste rock heaps in British Columbia, Canada and in Thueringia, Germany. To improve the accuracy and confidence of long-term predictions of seepage quality, the entire history of the heaps was simulated. Cumulative acidity loads and water treatment considerations were used as a basis for evaluation of various decommissioning alternatives. Simulation of the technical leaching history of a heap in Germany showed it will generate contaminated leachate requiring treatment for acidity and radioactivity for several hundred years; cover installation was shown to provide a significant reduction of potential burdens, although chemical treatment would still be required beyond 100 years

  10. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  11. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  12. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  13. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  14. Hazardous gas treatment by atmospheric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of NO x ; SO x , CO 2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including fluorocarbons to the atmosphere influence heavily our environment, NO x and SO x emitted to the atmosphere are the major cause of acid rains, while CO 2 and VOCs emissions cause the greenhouse effect which leads to abnormal global heating of the atmosphere and creating in a temperature inversion layer that traps gaseous pollutants. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in controlling these emissions. A new technique, which uses the plasma processes induced by energetic electrons, emerges as one of the most effective methods of reducing concentrations of the emitted gaseous pollutants. Various plasma techniques have been tested for gaseous pollution control. The electron bean irradiation was found to be physically and economically efficient for NO x and SO x reduction in the exhaust gases from electrical and heat power plants. The capability of the non-thermal plasmas, produced in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges, for decomposition of the gaseous pollutants has been widely tested. These atmospheric pressure electrical discharges are dielectric barrier discharges, pulsed and de corona discharges (in the reactors with the point-to-plate, wire-cylinder and wire-plate geometries, in the reactors with flow stabilized corona torch and corona radical shower), gliding discharges, inductively coupled high-frequency discharges, ac surface discharges, ac discharges in the packed bed reactors, and microwave torch discharges. In this paper, after reviewing the methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for gaseous pollutant control, some results of the laboratory experiments on the plasmas abatement of NO x ; SO x and various VOCs will be presented, followed by a discussion on the energy efficiency and by-products. Also some results obtained in the pilot-plants will be given. finally other possible applications of the presented plasma devices for controlling

  15. Distribution coefficient of radionuclides on rocks for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Tomoki; Shibata, Masahiro; Suyama, Tadahiro

    1999-11-01

    Distribution coefficients of radionuclides on rocks are selected for safety assessment in the 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 Report)'. The categorized types of rock are granitic rocks (crystalline and acidic rocks), basaltic rocks (crystalline and basic rocks), psammitic rocks (neogene sedimentary (soft)), and tuffaceous-pelitic rocks (pre-neogene sedimentary rocks (hard)). The types of groundwater are FRHP (fresh reducing high-pH), FRLP (fresh reducing low-pH), SRHP (saline reducing high-pH), SRLP (saline reducing low-pH), MRNP (mixing reducing neutral-pH) and FOHP (fresh oxidizing high-pH) groundwater. The elements to be surveyed are Ni, Se, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Sn, Cs, Sm, Pb, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. Distribution coefficients are collected from literatures describing batch sorption experimental results, and are selected under consideration of conservativity. (author)

  16. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande

  17. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  18. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  19. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  20. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  1. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  2. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  3. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  4. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  5. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  6. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  7. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  8. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  9. Discharges for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J

    2007-01-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  10. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  11. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  12. Geotechnical properties of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manual is a compilation of the geotechnical properties of many types of rock that are typical of Canadian mining environments. Included are values for density, porosity, compressive and shear wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio. The data base contains material constants that were determined using the Hoek and Brown failure criteria for both before and after failure conditions. 76 data sheets of rock properties in Canadian mines are included. 7 refs., 85 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  14. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  15. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  16. Simulation of crack propagation in rock in plasma blasting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Tahiliani, K.; Chaturvedi, S.

    Plasma Blasting Technology (PBT) involves the production of a pulsed electrical discharge by inserting a blasting probe in a water-filled cavity drilled in a rock, which produces shocks or pressure waves in the water. These pulses then propagate into the rock, leading to fracture. In this paper, we present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the SHALE code to study crack propagation in rock. Three separate issues have been examined. Firstly, assuming that a constant pressure P is maintained in the cavity for a time τ , we have determined the P- τ curve that just cracks a given rock into at least two large-sized parts. This study shows that there exists an optimal pressure level for cracking a given rock-type and geometry. Secondly, we have varied the volume of water in which the initial energy E is deposited, which corresponds to different initial peak pressures Ppeak. We have determined the E- Ppeak curve that just breaks the rock into four large-sized parts. It is found that there must be an optimal Ppeak that lowers the energy consumption, but with acceptable probe damage. Thirdly, we have attempted to identify the dominant mechanism of rock fracture. We also highlight some numerical errors that must be kept in mind in such simulations.

  17. A Rock Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  18. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  19. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  20. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  1. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  2. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  3. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  4. For Those About to Rock : Naislaulajat rock-genressä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For those about to rock – naislaulajat rock-genressä antaa lukijalleen kokonaisvaltaisen käsityksen naisista rock-genressä: rockin historiasta, sukupuolittuneisuudesta, seksismistä, suomalaisten naislaulajien menestyksestä. Työn aineisto on koottu aihepiirin kirjallisuudesta ja alalla toimiville naislaulajille teetettyjen kyselyiden tuloksista. Lisäksi avaan omia kokemuksiani ja ajatuksiani, jotta näkökulma naisista rock-genressä tulisi esille mahdollisimman monipuolisesti. Ajatus aihees...

  5. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  6. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  7. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  8. "Rocking-Chair"-Type Metal Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Han, Sang-Don; Bayliss, Ryan D; Gewirth, Andrew A; Genorio, Bostjan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Persson, Kristin A; Burrell, Anthony K; Cabana, Jordi

    2016-11-16

    Hybrid supercapacitors that follow a "rocking-chair"-type mechanism were developed by coupling divalent metal and activated carbon electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes. Conventional supercapacitors require a large amount of electrolyte to provide a sufficient quantity of ions to the electrodes, due to their Daniell-type mechanism that depletes the ions from the electrolyte while charging. The alternative "rocking-chair"-type mechanism effectively enhances the energy density of supercapacitors by minimizing the necessary amount of electrolyte, because the ion is replenished from the metal anode while it is adsorbed to the cathode. Newly developed nonaqueous electrolytes for Mg and Zn electrochemistry, based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) salts, made the metal hybrid supercapacitors possible by enabling reversible deposition on the metal anodes and reversible adsorption on an activated carbon cathode. Factoring in gains through the cell design, the energy density of the metal hybrid supercapacitors is projected to be a factor of 7 higher than conventional devices thanks to both the "rocking-chair"-type mechanism that minimizes total electrolyte volume and the use of metal anodes, which have substantial merits in capacity and voltage. Self-discharge was also substantially alleviated compared to conventional supercapacitors. This concept offers a route to build supercapacitors that meet dual criteria of power and energy densities with a simple cell design.

  9. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  10. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Grant, J. A., III; Jolliff, B. L.; Parker, T. J.; Peretyazhko, T.

    2014-12-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis

  11. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  12. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  13. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  14. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  15. Phosphorus and uranium recovery process from phosphated rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, M C.Y.; Long, R H

    1981-01-30

    Improvement of uranium recovery in phosphate rocks by treatment with nitric acid avoiding the formation of a precipitate including a part of the uranium. The separation of uranium from phosphoric acid is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using dialkyl posphoric acid with at least 10 carbon atoms and a phosphoryl alkyl alkoxy compound with at least 10 carbon atoms and a non water miscible organic solvent.

  16. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  17. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  18. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  19. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  20. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  1. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  2. Aram Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location. Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  3. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  4. Physical modeling of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of statisfying similarity between a physical model and the prototype in rock wherein fissures and cracks place a role in physical behavior is explored. The need for models of large physical dimensions is explained but also testing of models of the same prototype over a wide range of scales is needed to ascertain the influence of lack of similitude of particular parameters between prototype and model. A large capacity centrifuge would be useful in that respect

  5. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  6. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  7. The Rock Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, UK Nirex began a programme of surface-based characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of a site at Sellafield to evaluate its suitability to host a deep repository for radioactive waste. The next major stage in site characterization will be the construction and operation of a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF). It will be designed to provide rock characterization information and scope for model validation to permit firmer assessment of long-term safety. It will also provide information needed to decide the detailed location, design and orientation of a repository and to inform repository construction methods. A three-phase programme is planned for the RCF. During each phase, testwork will steadily improve our geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical understanding of the site. The first phase will involve sinking two shafts. That will be preceded by the establishment of a network of monitoring boreholes to ensure that the impact of shaft sinking can be measured. This will provide valuable data for model validation. In phase two, initial galleries will be excavated, probably at a depth of 650 m below Ordnance datum, which will host a comprehensive suite of experiments. These galleries will be extended in phase three to permit access to most of the rock volume that would host the repository. (Author)

  8. Effects of hydrologic variables on rock riprap design for uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is studying the mitigation of erosion of earthen radon suppression covers for uranium tailings impoundments. Because the covers will require erosion protection for upwards of 1000 years, rock riprap (armoring) has been proposed as the primary protection method. This study investigates the sensitivity of riprap design procedures to extreme flood events that can generate high flow velocities and shear stresses. The study uses two decommissioned tailings sites (Grand Junction and Slick Rock, Colorado) as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity of design rock size with respect to variables such as flood discharge, side slope, specific gravity, safety factor, and channel roughness. The results indicate that design rock size can vary significantly for different design procedures. Other significant results indicate that embankment side slopes of about 4H:1V are optimum for rock riprap and that the use of rock material with specific gravities less than about 2.50 may prove too costly

  9. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  10. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  11. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the hydrogeological characteristics of rock in Japan in order to assess the performance of geosphere. This report summarizes the hydrogeological characteristics of various rock types obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields experiments at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at the Tono mine in central Japan. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -8 m/s, whereas the hydraulic conductivity of fault zone ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -3 m/s. It is also found that the hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease with depth. Therefore, the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass at the depth of a repository will be smaller than above values. From the investigations at outcrops and galleries throughout the country, fractures are observed as potential pathways in all rock types. All kinds of crystalline rocks and pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks are classified as fractured media where fracture flow is dominant. Among these rocks, granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media. On the other hand, andesite, tuff and Neogene sedimentary rocks are considered as intermediate between fractured media and porous media where flow in fractures as well as in rock matrix are significant. (author)

  12. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  13. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  14. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  15. Diffusivity database (DDB) for major rocks. Database for the second progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Haruo

    1999-10-01

    A database for diffusivity for a data setting of effective diffusion coefficients in rock matrices in the second progress report, was developed. In this database, 3 kinds of diffusion coefficients: effective diffusion coefficient (De), apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) and free water diffusion coefficient (Do) were treated. The database, based on literatures published between 1980 and 1998, was developed considering the following points. (1) Since Japanese geological environment is focused in the second progress report, data for diffusion are collected focused on Japanese major rocks. (2) Although 22 elements are considered to be important in performance assessment for geological disposal, all elements and aquatic tracers are treated in this database development considering general purpose. (3) Since limestone, which belongs to sedimentary rock, can become one of the natural resources and is inappropriate as a host rock, it is omitted in this database development. Rock was categorized into 4 kinds of rocks; acid crystalline rock, alkaline crystalline rock, sedimentary rock (argillaceous/tuffaceous rock) and sedimentary rock (psammitic rock/sandy stone) from the viewpoint of geology and mass transport. In addition, rocks around neutrality among crystalline rock were categorized into the alkaline crystalline rock in this database. The database is composed of sub-databases for 4 kinds of rocks. Furthermore, the sub-databases for 4 kinds of the rocks are composed of databases to individual elements, in which totally, 24 items such as species, rock name, diffusion coefficients (De, Da, Do), obtained conditions (method, porewater, pH, Eh, temperature, atmosphere, etc.), etc. are input. As a result of literature survey, for De values for acid crystalline rock, totally, 207 data for 18 elements and one tracer (hydrocarbon) have been reported and all data were for granitic rocks such as granite, granodiorite and biotitic granite. For alkaline crystalline rock, totally, 32

  16. Development of soda-lime glasses from ornamental rock wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, Michelle Pereira

    2009-01-01

    During the ornamental rocks production, among other steps, one saw the rock blocks in order to transform them into semi-finished plates. In this step, expressive amounts of residues are generated, which are not properly discharged in nature, without any programmed utilization. The residues of silicide rocks present, in their compositions, oxides which are raw materials employed to fabricate soda-lime type glasses (containing SiO_2, Al_2O_3, CaO, Na_2O and K_2O). On the other hand the residues of carbonatic rocks are constituted of glass net modifier oxides, like CaO and MgO. In this work it was developed four types of soda-lime glasses using ornamental rock residues, where the glasses compositions were adjusted by adding sand, as silica source, as well as sodium and calcium carbonates as sources of Na_2O and CaO, respectively. The obtained glasses were characterized by means of Archimed's method for densities measurements, microstructure by using optical and electronic microscopy, phases by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness by Vickers indentation, spectroscopy (UV/VIS), and hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 719. The XRD analyses confirmed the compositions total vitrification, where the greened aspect of the samples was due to the presence of the iron oxides. The produced glasses properties were compared with those of commercial glasses aiming their industrial employment. The main difference between the produced glasses and those commercials varied primarily regarding the amount of carbonates incorporated. The results showed that the ornamental rocks residues may be used as raw materials for glasses fabrication, and they found a useful economic destination rather than discharge which promotes undesirable environmental impact. (author)

  17. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  18. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  19. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic ...to hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  20. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  1. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  2. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  3. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  4. The influence of acid diffusion on the performance of lead-acid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, W.; Bohmann, J.

    1983-11-01

    A model for the discharge performance of the lead-acid cell is proposed. Diffusion of acid into the porous electrodes, which is connected with diffusio Curves of diffusional polarizations as a function of the discharge time are presented. Calculated discharge capacities show the influence of various pa

  5. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  6. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  7. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  8. Continuous pile discharging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.

    1976-01-01

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug. 7 claims, 10 drawing figures

  9. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  10. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  11. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  12. Rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    Physicists have used nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the destructive effects of the crystallization of salt. Salt-weathering is one of the main causes of rock disintegration in nature, particularly in deserts, polar regions and along coastlines. However, it is also a very widespread cause of damage to man-made constructions. Bridges, for example, are attacked by de-icing salts, and cities such as Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Adelaide are affected by rising damp from high ground-water levels. Indeed, many examples of cultural heritage, including the Islamic sites of Bokhara and Petra in Jordan and the Sphinx in Egypt, may ultimately be destroyed due to the effects of salt-weathering. Now Lourens Rijniers and colleagues at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands have developed a way to observe the solubility of various salts inside porous materials directly (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 075503). (U.K.)

  13. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  14. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  15. Performance Modeling of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery during Discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.W.; He, Y.L.; Li, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional quasi-steady-state model is presented to simulate coupled mass-species-charge transfer and electrochemical reactions in all vanadium redox flow battery. Emphasis is located on examining the influences of applied current density, initial vanadium concentration, initial acid concentration and electrolyte flow rate on overpotentials in both electrodes, ohmic loss in electrolyte phase as well as battery discharging voltage. It is indicated that overpotential in negative electrode is the dominant factor causing the loss of battery discharging voltage at relatively lower or higher state of charge, while ohmic loss in electrolyte phase is dominant when discharging at moderate state of charge. Increasing initial vanadium concentration, the battery discharging voltage is significantly increased due to the reduced overpotentials in both electrodes. With the increase in initial acid concentration, the battery discharging voltage is also obviously increased because of increased open circuit voltage and decreased ohmic loss in electrolyte phase. As the electrolyte flow rate increases, the total discharging time is extended due to the retarded concentration polarization and the battery discharging voltage is obviously increased at lower state of charge

  16. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  17. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  18. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  19. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  20. PEMODELAN PENYEBARAN BATUAN POTENSIAL PEMBENTUK ASAM PADA KAWASAN PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA TAMBANG TERBUKA DI MUARA LAWA, KABUPATEN KUTAI BARAT, KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas)

    OpenAIRE

    Devy, Shalaho Dina; Hendrayana, Heru; Putra, Dony Prakasa Eka; Sugiharto, Eko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAK Dampak penambangan batubara tambang terbuka adalah munculnya Air Asam Tambang (AAT) di sekitar lingkungan penambangan yang mempengaruhi kualitas air tambang, biota air, kualitas air dan tanah. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya. Kajian geologi dan mineralogi batuan berperan dalam mengetahui penyebaran batuan Potential Acid Forming (PAF) dan Non Acid Forming (NAF). Kawasan...

  1. Characterization of rock samples and mineralogical controls on leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Jackson, John C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Brady, Keith B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Rocks associated with coal beds typically include shale, sandstone, and (or) limestone. In addition to common rock-forming minerals, all of these rock types may contain sulfide and sulfate minerals, various carbonate minerals, and organic material. These different minerals have inherently different solubility characteristics, as well as different acid-generating or acid-neutralizing potentials. The abundance and composition of sulfur- and carbonate-bearing minerals are of particular interest in interpreting the leaching column data because (1) pyrite and carbonate minerals are the primary controls on the acid-base account of a sample, (2) these minerals incorporate trace metals that can be released during weathering, and (3) these minerals readily react during weathering due to mineral dissolution and oxidation of iron.Rock samples were collected by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) from five different sites to assess the draft standardized leaching column method (ADTI-WP2) for the prediction of weathering rates and water quality at coal mines. Samples were sent to USGS laboratories for mineralogical characterization and to ActLabs for chemical analysis. The samples represent a variety of rock types (shales, sandstones, and coal refuse) that are typical of coal overburden in the eastern United States. These particular samples were chosen for testing the weathering protocols because they represent a range of geochemical and lithologic characteristics, sulfur contents, and acid-base accounting characteristics (Hornberger et al., 2003). The rocks contain variable amounts of pyrite and carbonate minerals and vary in texture.This chapter includes bulk rock chemical data and detailed mineralogical and textural data for unweathered starting materials used in the interlaboratory validation study, and for two samples used in the early phases of leaching column tests (Wadesville Sandstone, Leechburg Coal Refuse). We also characterize some of the

  2. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  4. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  5. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  6. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  7. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (stacked sequences of pillow basalt and sheet flows, the sea-floor underlying numerous deposits in Guaymas Basin consists of diatomaceous ooze and terrigenous clastic sediment that is intruded by diabase

  8. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  10. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  11. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  12. Surface Hydrological Processes of Rock Glaciated Basins in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, E. I.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers in the western United States have been examined in terms of their summer meltwater contributions to regional hydrological systems. In the San Juan Mountains of Colorado where glaciers do not and cannot exist due to a rising zero-degree isotherm, rock glaciers take the place of valley glaciers during the summer runoff period. Most of the rock glaciers in Colorado are located on a northerly slope aspect, however, there are multiple in the southwest region of the state that occur on different aspects. This study asked how slope aspect and rising air temperatures influenced the hydrological processes of streams below rock glaciers in the San Juan Mountains during the 2016 summer season. This project focused on three basins, Yankee Boy basin, Blue Lakes basin, and Mill Creek basin, which are adjacent to each other and share a common peak, Gilpin Peak. Findings of this one-season study showed that air temperature significantly influenced stream discharge below each rock glacier. Discharge and air temperature patterns indicate a possible air temperature threshold during late summer when rock glacier melt increased at a greater rate. The results also suggest that slope aspect of rock glacier basins influences stream discharge, but temperature and precipitation are likely larger components of the melt regimes. The continuation of data collection during the 2017 summer season has allowed for more detailed analysis of the relationship between air temperature and rock glacier melt. This continual expansion of the original dataset is crucial for understanding the hydrological processes of surface runoff below rock glaciers.

  13. Evaluating the Relationships Between NTNU/SINTEF Drillability Indices with Index Properties and Petrographic Data of Hard Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligholi, Saeed; Lashkaripour, Gholam Reza; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Azali, Sadegh Tarigh

    2017-11-01

    Thorough and realistic performance predictions are among the main requisites for estimating excavation costs and time of the tunneling projects. Also, NTNU/SINTEF rock drillability indices, including the Drilling Rate Index™ (DRI), Bit Wear Index™ (BWI), and Cutter Life Index™ (CLI), are among the most effective indices for determining rock drillability. In this study, brittleness value (S20), Sievers' J-Value (SJ), abrasion value (AV), and Abrasion Value Cutter Steel (AVS) tests are conducted to determine these indices for a wide range of Iranian hard igneous rocks. In addition, relationships between such drillability parameters with petrographic features and index properties of the tested rocks are investigated. The results from multiple regression analysis revealed that the multiple regression models prepared using petrographic features provide a better estimation of drillability compared to those prepared using index properties. Also, it was found that the semiautomatic petrography and multiple regression analyses provide a suitable complement to determine drillability properties of igneous rocks. Based on the results of this study, AV has higher correlations with studied mineralogical indices than AVS. The results imply that, in general, rock surface hardness of hard igneous rocks is very high, and the acidic igneous rocks have a lower strength and density and higher S20 than those of basic rocks. Moreover, DRI is higher, while BWI is lower in acidic igneous rocks, suggesting that drill and blast tunneling is more convenient in these rocks than basic rocks.

  14. Experiments of 4-stage pulse power system for rock fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Kyoung-Jae; Kim Chul-Yeong; Chang Cheol-Jong; Jeong Soon-Hyoung

    2002-01-01

    The blasting method using the high current electrical discharge has been verified as a green technology against such environmental pollutions as blasting vibration, noise and the scattering of broken pieces of rock. In fact, EPIT TM (Electro-Power Impact Technology) has been applied to dozens of construction sites in Korea, and it has been evaluated as a competitive blasting technique compared with other rock breaking methods. For more effective blasting, however, the sequential blasting technique, sEPIT TM (Sequential Electro-Power Impact Technology) has been developed since September, 2001. The prototype equipment for 4-stage pulse generation was made and has been tested. The equipment consists of a capacitor charging power supply, a capacitor bank, solid-state switches and high voltage relays. The delay time between stages can be controlled in milliseconds by programmable logic controller. The dummy load tests for the 4-stage high current discharge have been performed successfully in the laboratory. The error level is below 8% of preset delay time, and it is allowable for this application. Now, authors are investigating to find out the optimum time delays depending on rock strength. Detailed characteristics of the equipment and some test results are described in this paper

  15. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  16. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  17. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  18. Hydrothermal Alteration in an Acid-Sulphate Geothermal Field: Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Barrett, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous geothermal field associated with the Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia. Bubbling hydrothermal pools are rich in sodium-calcium sulphate, with pHs of 3-7 and temperatures of 41-97ºC. Fumaroles have temperatures up to, and at times above, 100°C. Gases from bubbling pools and fumaroles have high contents of CO2 (601-993 mmol/mol) and H2S (3-190 mmol/mol). To investigate the nature and extent of hydrothermal alteration, detailed chemical analysis was carried out on 25 altered rocks, 10 sediments from pools and creeks in the main discharge area, and 15 little-altered rocks up to 2 km away from geothermal field. Eight altered samples were also analysed for stable isotope compositions, with mineralogy determined by X-ray diffraction and mineral liberation analysis. Least-altered host rocks comprise calc-alkaline feldspar-quartz-porphyritic dacites of near-uniform composition that form massive domes and volcaniclastic units. These rocks were emplaced 10-30 Ka ago (Lindsay et al. 2013). Within the geothermal field, the dacites have been highly altered to kaolinite, quartz, cristobalite, alunite, natroalunite, smectite, native sulphur, jarosite, gypsum and amorphous compounds. Muds from grey to blackish hydrothermal pools additionally contain iron sulphides, mainly pyrite. Despite intense alteration of the original dacites, Zr and Ti have remained essentially immobile, allowing the calculation of mass changes. Major depletions of Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and commonly Si occur over an area of at least 200 x 400 m. The most altered rocks also show losses of Al, light REE and Y, implying leaching by highly acidic waters. A few altered rocks have, however, gained Al together with Si and P. Also present are m-scale zones of silica + native sulphur, wherein the silica appears to represent a residue from the leaching of dacite, rather than a hydrothermal addition. Delta-34S values of samples containing mixtures of sulphates, native sulphur and

  19. Modeling the Rock Glacier Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Rock glaciers are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock glaciers are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque glacier. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice melt rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered glacier case. Glacier-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the glacier. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock glacier. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of glacier to debris-covered glacier to rock glacier behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock glaciers are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers. We explore the dependence of glacier behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered glacier can transform to a much shorter rock

  20. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  1. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  2. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  3. Increasing the electrical discharge endurance of acid anhydride cured DGEBA epoxy resin by dispersion of nanoparticle silica. High Perform. Polym. 11 (1999) pp 281-296 by IOP Publishing Ltd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henk, Peter O; Kortsen, T.W.; Kvarts, T.

    1999-01-01

    combinations were used: (a) fumed nanoparticle silicon dioxide referred to as Aerosil, (b) equal volumes of Aerosil and nanoparticle anatase, and (c) Aerosil plus anatase in combination with coarse-particle filler grade calcium-magnesium carbonate dolomite. A test for endurance using the CIGRE method II...... electrode arrangement was applied, the test comprising the establishment of partial discharges running perpendicularly onto one face of a plate specimen for a period measured until breakdown.Our results show that the endurance of the pure polymer is low. Increased loading with Aerosil increases...... the endurance by a factor of up to 20 as the Aerosil content goes from zero to 5.4 vol%. Aerosil mixed with anatase has a similar effect. The high level of endurance is maintained with an additional high-volume (35 vol.%) filling of coarse-particle dolomite to an epoxy system already containing Aerosil...

  4. Fluid and rock interaction in permeable volcanic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Four types of interrelated changes -geochemical, mineralogic, isotopic, and physical - occur in Oligocene volcanic units of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico. These changes resulted from the operation of a geothermal system that, through fluid-rock interaction, affected 5 rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and an intercalated basaltic andesite lava flow causing a potassium metasomatism type of alteration. (1) Previous studies have shown enrichment of rocks in K 2 O as much as 130% of their original values at the expense of Na 2 O and CaO with an accompanying increase in Rb and decreases in MgO and Sr. (2) X-ray diffraction results of this study show that phenocrystic plagioclase and groundmass feldspar have been replaced with pure potassium feldspar and quartz in altered rock. Phenocrystic potassium feldspar, biotite, and quartz are unaffected. Pyroxene in basaltic andesite is replaced by iron oxide. (3) delta 18 O increases for rhyolitic units from values of 8-10 permil, typical of unaltered rock, to 13-15 permil, typical of altered rock. Basaltic andesite, however, shows opposite behavior with a delta 18 of 9 permil in unaltered rock and 6 permit in altered. (4) Alteration results in a density decrease. SEM revealed that replacement of plagioclase by fine-grained quartz and potassium feldspar is not a volume for volume replacement. Secondary porosity is created in the volcanics by the chaotic arrangement of secondary crystals

  5. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  6. Combined stable isotope trajectories for water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1981-01-01

    The 'mixed' model of water-rock interaction (1980 Workshop) is explained in detail. Based on the magnitude of the oxygen isotope shifts of their recharge water, different geothermal systems can be placed in an evolutionary series, from incipient (large shift of water) to mature (small shift of water). Isotopes of different chemical elements may be combined, to yield a stringent test of whether or not a given change in rock composition may be ascribed to interaction with water (L-shaped trajectories). For the acidic eruptives of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, available strontium and oxygen isotope data practically rule out an origin by partial melting of greywacke basement

  7. Tracer-based quantification of individual frac discharge in single-well multiple-frac backflow: sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Within the deep-geothermal research project at GroßSchönebeck in the NE German Basin, targeting volcanic rocks (Lower Rotliegend) and siliciclastics (Upper Rotliegend) in the Lower Permian by means of a well doublet with several screening intervals between 3815 and 4247 m b.s.l., several artificial fractures with different geometric and hydraulic characteristics were created at each well, aiming to increase reservoir performance [1], [2]. It could not be told a priori which of the various fracturing treatments was to prove as most promising in terms of future reservoir productivity. At the intended-production well (GS-4), one large-area waterfrac was created in the low-permeability volcanic rocks, and two gel-proppant fractures in selected sandstone layers. Each fracturing treatment was accompanied by the injection of a water-dissolved tracer slug, followed by a defined volume of tracer-free ('chaser') fluid [3]. Each frac received a different species of a sulfonated aromatic acid salt, as a conservative water tracer. During subsequent backflow tests (either gas-based lifting, or production by means of a downhole submersible pump), each frac can contribute a certain (more or less constant) amount to the measured total discharge (also depending on whether and when each frac 'starts' contributing, and which effective aperture and area it actually 'manifests' during the process). Since these individual-frac discharge amounts cannot be measured directly, it was endeavoured to indirectly determine ('resolve') them from tracer signals as detectable in the overall backflow discharge. Therefore, we need to examine how these tracer signals depend on local discharge values and on local hydrogeologic parameters (matrix porosity, permeability distribution; frac transmissivity, thickness, effective area and aperture), and to what extent hydrogeological uncertainty will impede the inversion of local discharge values. To this end, a parameter sensitivity study was conducted on

  8. Formulation of single super phosphate fertilizer from rock phosphate of Hazara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiullah Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency is wide spread in soils of Pakistan. It is imperative to explore the potential and economics of indigenous Hazara rock phosphate for preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. For the subject study rock phosphate was collected from Hazara area ground at 160 mesh level with 26% total P2O5 content for manual preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. The rock phosphate was treated with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (98.9%, diluted or pure in the field. The treatments comprised of 20 and 35% pure acid and diluted with acid-water ratios of 1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 v/v for acidulation at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 rock phosphate. The amount was prior calculated in the laboratory for complete wetting of rock phosphate. A quantity of 150 kg rock phosphate was taken as treatment. The respective amount of acid was applied with the spray pump of stainless steel or poured with bucket. After proper processing, chemical analysis of the products showed a range of available P2O5 content from 9.56 to 19.24% depending upon the amount of acid and its dilution. The results reveal at that 1:1 dilutions gave the highest P2O5 content (19.24%, lowest free acid (6 % and 32% weight increase. The application of acid beyond or below this combination either pure or diluted gave hygroscopic product and higher free acids. The cost incurred upon the manual processing was almost half the prevailing rates in the market. These results lead to conclude that application of sulfuric acid at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 with the dilution of 50% (v/v can yield better kind of SSP from Hazara rock phosphate at lower prices.

  9. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  10. The Chronology of Rock Art

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such phases are tentatively ascribed to different archaeological cultures on the basis of the contextual availability, stylistic similarities and so on. Ethnographic analogies are also attempted in the dating of rock art .

  11. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  12. Heat production in granitic rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Jakobsen, Kiki

    2017-01-01

    Granitic rocks play special role in the dynamics and evolution of the Earth and its thermal regime. First, their compositional variability, reflected in the distribution of concentrations of radiogenic elements, provides constraints on global differentiation processes and large scale planetary...... evolution, where emplacement of granites is considered a particularly important process for the formation of continental crust. Second, heat production by radioactive decay is among the main heat sources in the Earth. Therefore knowledge of heat production in granitic rocks is pivotal for thermal modelling...... of the continental lithosphere, given that most radiogenic elements are concentrated in granitic rocks of the upper continental crust whereas heat production in rocks of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle is negligible. We present and analyze a new global database GRANITE2017 (with about 500 entries...

  13. Defending dreamer’s rock

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Günter U.

    2007-01-01

    Defending dreamer’s rock : Geschichte, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Geschichtskultur im Native drama der USA und Kanadas. - Trier : WVT Wiss. Verl. Trier, 2007. - 445 S. - (CDE - Studies ; 14). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2006

  14. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part I: Effect of lignosulfonates and BaSO{sub 4} on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    This study investigates the influence of the organic expander component (Vanisperse A) and of BaSO{sub 4} on the performance of negative lead-acid battery plates on high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Batteries operating in the HRPSoC mode should be classified as a separate type of lead-acid batteries. Hence, the additives to the negative plates should differ from the conventional expander composition. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and thus impede the charge processes, which results in impaired reversibility of the charge-discharge processes and hence shorter cycle life on HRPSoC operation, limited by sulfation of the negative plates. BaSO{sub 4} exerts the opposite effect: it improves the reversibility of the processes in the HRPSoC mode and hence prolongs the cycle life of the cells. The most pronounced effect of BaSO{sub 4} has been registered when it is added in concentration of 1.0 wt.% versus the leady oxide (LO) used for paste preparation. It has also been established that BaSO{sub 4} lowers the overpotential of PbSO{sub 4} nucleation. The results of the present investigation indicate that BaSO{sub 4} affects also the crystallization process of Pb during cell charging. Thus, BaSO{sub 4} eventually improves the performance characteristics of lead-acid cells on HRPSoC cycling. (author)

  15. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In terms of lives lost, rock bursts in underground mines can be as hazardous as earthquakes on the surface. So it is not surprising that fo the last 40 years the U.S Bureau of Mines has been using seismic methods for detecting areas in underground mines where there is a high differential stress which could lead to structural instability of the rock mass being excavated.

  16. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  17. How to increase the efficiency of the electrical discharge method for destruction of nonconductive solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitenko, N. V., E-mail: tevn@hvd.tpu.ru; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Krastelev, E. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The paper deals with the relevance of using electrical discharge technology for construction works in the city. The technical capabilities of the installation for the multi-borehole electro-discharge splitting off and destruction of rocks and concrete are described. The ways to increase the efficiency of the electrical discharge method for the destruction of solids are proposed. In order to augment the discharge circuit energy, the energy storage is separated into two individual capacitor batteries. The throttle with the inductance of 28.6 μH is installed in one of the batteries, which increases the duration of the channel energy release to 400 μs and the efficiency of electrical discharge splitting off of concrete.

  18. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L.; Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  19. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  20. Model to Assess the Quality of Magmatic Rocks for Reliable and Sustainable Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Toderaş

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geomechanical assessment of rocks requires knowledge of phenomena that occur under the influence of internal and external factors at a macroscopic or microscopic scale, when rocks are submitted to different actions. To elucidate the quantitative and qualitative geomechanical behavior of rocks, knowing their geological and physical–mechanical characteristics becomes an imperative. Mineralogical, petrographical and chemical analyses provided an opportunity to identify 15 types of igneous rocks (gabbro, diabases, granites, diorites, rhyolites, andesites, and basalts, divided into plutonic and volcanic rocks. In turn, these have been grouped into acidic, neutral (intermediate and basic magmatites. A new ranking method is proposed, based on considering the rock characteristics as indicators of quantitative assessment, and the grading system, by given points, allowing the rocks framing in admissibility classes. The paper is structured into two parts, experimental and interpretation of experimental data, showing the methodology to assess the quality of igneous rocks analyzed, and the results of theoretical and experimental research carried out on the analyzed rock types. The proposed method constitutes an appropriate instrument for assessment and verification of the requirements regarding the quality of rocks used for sustainable construction.

  1. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  2. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  3. Estimating groundwater discharge into the ocean in the Yucatán Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rodriguez, G.; Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Uuh-Sonda, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Yucatán peninsula is an emerged flat carbonate block abundant in soluble rocks. High permeability and dissolution of the rock, facilitates the development of channels, sinkholes and caves where underground rivers discharge into the ocean. There are no rivers or streams acting as a surface drainage system, all rainfall water entering the peninsula is discharged either as evapotranspiration (ET) or as underground runoff into the ocean. To date there are no estimates of the total groundwater discharge from the peninsula into the sea, and of the spatial distribution of recharge and discharge areas thereby hindering efforts to understand the dynamics of a complex hydrologic system. In this study, we estimate the discharge (Q) by solving the water balance equation (ΔS=PPT-ET-Q) using remote sensing products over a period of 12 years; the change in storage (ΔS) was retrieved from the satellite GRACE; precipitation (PPT) from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; and evapotranspiration (ET) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Results show that freshwater discharge via evapotranspiration can be a significant portion of the water budget depending on the climatic conditions throughout the year. We observe high recharge-discharge inter-annual variability in the center of the peninsula and some clearly defined recharge and discharge zones around the perimeter. On average the dryer north-east and wetter north-western parts of the peninsula act as recharge zones (where the influx of water is higher than the outflow), while the central-northern part of the peninsula corresponding to agricultural lands, acts as a discharge zone (outflow is higher than influx). The most southern region of the peninsula and the western mangroves are always discharge zones. Finally, our analyses reveal a number of highly subsidized zones, where precipitation levels are consistently lower than evapotranspiration, hence indicating the presence of groundwater dependent

  4. Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support for Polish Hard Rock Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The article presents different types of rock bolt support used in Polish ore mining. Individual point resin and expansion rock bolt support were characterized. The roof classes for zinc and lead and copper ore mines were presented. Furthermore, in the article laboratory tests of point resin rock bolt support in a geometric scale of 1:1 with minimal fixing length of 0.6 m were made. Static testing of point resin rock bolt support were carried out on a laboratory test facility of Department of Underground Mining which simulate mine conditions for Polish ore and hard coal mining. Laboratory tests of point resin bolts were carried out, especially for the ZGH Bolesław, zinc and lead "Olkusz - Pomorzany" mine. The primary aim of the research was to check whether at the anchoring point length of 0.6 m by means of one and a half resin cartridge, the type bolt "Olkusz - 20A" is able to overcome the load.The second purpose of the study was to obtain load - displacement characteristic with determination of the elastic and plastic range of the bolt. For the best simulation of mine conditions the station steel cylinders with an external diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 0.6 m with a core of rock from the roof of the underground excavations were used.

  5. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  6. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  7. Deuteration of metals through electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderas G, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this work deuteration of titanium and a stainless steel through electrical discharges in a vacuum chamber was performed at different thermodynamic conditions. The samples were plates of 0.03 x 4.5 x 54 cm. The titanium sample was first cleaning with chloroform. The oxide layer was removed by cleaning the sample with a 1:1:1 mixture of water, nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Later was rinsed in water and dried with acetone. Finally, was treated with HCl to form an hydride layer on the surface. The stainless steel sample was only cleaned with soap and cleaning with acetone. The samples were cleaning at low pressure for several days with high temperature short cycles. The deuterium was loaded to the chamber at room temperature having absorption on the titanium samples at 10 3 at 10 1 mbar. Afterwards that the samples were heated up at 330 C and was observed the deuterium absorption in the same pressure range. Forced deuteration through electrical discharges between the sample and the chamber was tried obtaining absorption in the range of 10 3 at 10 2 mbar, however the deuterium absorption only was observed in specific cases. In order to detect neutron emission or released particles in this experiment were used alanine detectors and series of plastic CR-39 and borate films. No neutron were detected in the passive systems used in the experiments. (Author)

  8. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  9. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  11. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  12. Charge Generation and Propagation in Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann

    2002-01-01

    activated by low-energy impacts, and their attendant sound waves, suggests that they can also be activated by microfracturing. Depending on where in the stressed rock volume the charge carriers are activated, they will form rapidly moving or fluctuating charge clouds that may account for earthquake-related electrical signals and EM emission. Wherever such charge clouds intersect the surface, high fields are expected, causing electric discharges and earthquake lights.

  13. Digital Rock Simulation of Flow in Carbonate Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemin, D.; Andersen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoir engineering has becomes more complex to deal with current challenges, so core analysts must understand and model pore geometries and fluid behaviors at pores scales more rapidly and realistically. We introduce an industry-unique direct hydrodynamic pore flow simulator that operates on pore geometries from digital rock models obtained using microCT or 3D scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The PVT and rheological models used in the simulator represent real reservoir fluids. Fluid-solid interactions are introduced using distributed micro-scale wetting properties. The simulator uses density functional approach applied for hydrodynamics of complex systems. This talk covers selected applications of the simulator. We performed microCT scanning of six different carbonate rock samples from homogeneous limestones to vuggy carbonates. From these, we constructed digital rock models representing pore geometries for the simulator. We simulated nonreactive tracer flow in all six digital models using a digital fluid description that included a passive tracer solution. During the simulation, we evaluated the composition of the effluent. Results of tracer flow simulations corresponded well with experimental data of nonreactive tracer floods for the same carbonate rock types. This simulation data of the non-reactive tracer flow can be used to calculate the volume of the rock accessible by the fluid, which can be further used to predict response of a porous medium to a reactive fluid. The described digital core analysis workflow provides a basis for a wide variety of activities, including input to design acidizing jobs and evaluating treatment efficiency and EOR economics. Digital rock multiphase flow simulations of a scanned carbonate rock evaluated the effect of wettability on flow properties. Various wetting properties were tested: slightly oil wet, slightly water wet, and water wet. Steady-state relative permeability simulations yielded curves for all three

  14. Discharges to the environment and environmental protection at CEGB power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper will cover the principles, methods and results obtained in environmental protection in relation to atmospheric discharges made routinely during power generation); air pollution control; nuclear power stations (type of discharge, annual discharges, environmental monitoring); fossil fuelled power stations; health effects; trace elements; long range transport and acid rain; future coal fired plant; carbon dioxide. (U.K.)

  15. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  16. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  17. CQI project improves discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    At Gibson Rehab Center in Williamsport, PA, a continuous quality improvement project to bolster the institution's discharge planning process has resulted in increased satisfaction and an award for quality. The 15-month project was spearheaded by a multidisciplinary team charged with identifying areas that had a significant impact on customer service and suggesting better ways of delivering that service. Among the changes the group suggested were establishing a weekly discharge planning group for new neuro patients, assigning a discharge coordinator for each treatment team, and creating an interdisciplinary communication sheet for the home health therapy staff.

  18. A numerical analytic method for electromagnetic radiation accompanying with fracture of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Chen; Ka-Ma, Huang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies Rabinovitch's compression experiments on granite and chalk and proposes an oscillating dipole model to analyse and simulate the electromagnetic radiation phenomenon caused by fracture of rocks. Our model assumes that the electromagnetic radiation pulses are initiated by vibrations of the charged rock grains on the tips of the crack. The vibrations of the rock grains are stimulated by the pulses of the cracks. Our simulations show comparable results with Rabinovitch's compression experiments. From the simulation results, it verifies an assumption that the crack width is inversely proportional to the circular frequency electromagnetic radiation, which is presented by Rabinovitch et al. The simulation results also imply that, by using our oscillating dipole model together with Rabinovitch's two equations about the crack length and crack width, we can quantitatively analyse and simulate the electromagnetic radiation phenomenon, which is induced from the fracture of the rocks. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  19. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrášik Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite.

  20. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  1. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  2. Field determination of microgram quantities of niobium in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, F.N.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1955-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and moderately accurate method was needed for the determination of traces of niobium in rocks. The method developed is based on the reaction of niobium(V) with thiocyanate ion in a 4M hydrochloric acid and 0.5M tartaric acid medium, after which the complex is extracted with ethyl ether. The proposed procedure is applicable to rocks containing from 50 to 2000 p.p.m. of niobium, and, with modifications, can be used on rocks containing larger amounts. Five determinations on two rocks containing 100 p.p.m. or less of niobium agree within 5 p.p.m. of the mean, and the confidence limits at the 95% level are, respectively, ??6 and ??4 p.p.m. The addition of acetone to the ether extract of the niobium thiocyanate inhibits the polymerization of the thiocyanate ion and stabilizes the solution for at least 20 hours. The proposed procedure permits the determination of 20 ?? of niobium in the presence of 1000 ?? of iron, titanium, or uranium; 500 ?? of vanadium; or 100 ?? of tungsten or molybdenum or both.

  3. Recovery of uranium from phosphatic rock and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Guzman, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of uranium present in the manufacture process of phosphoric acid and fertilizers has been one interesting field of study in chemistry. It is true that the recovery of uranium it is not very attractive from the commercial point of view, however the phosphatic fertilizers have an important amount of uranium which comes from the starting materials (phosphatic rock), therefore there must be many tons of uranium that are dispersed in the environmental together with the fertilizers used in agriculture every year. They are utilized for the enrichment of the nutrients which are exhausted in the soil. In this work, uranium was identified and quantified in the phosphatic rocks and in inorganic fertilizers using Gamma Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, UV/Visible Spectrophotometry, Alpha Spectroscopy. On the other hand, it was done a correlation of the behaviour of uranium with inorganic elements present in the samples such as phosphorus, calcium and iron; which were determined by UV/Visible Spectrophotometry for phosphorus and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for calcium and iron. The quantity of uranium found in the phosphatic rock, phosphoric acid and fertilizers was considerable (70-200 ppm). The adequate conditions for the recovery of 40% of total of uranium from the phosphatic rock with the addition of leaching solutions were stablished. (Author)

  4. The Australian national reactive phosphate rock project - Aims, experimental approach, and site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Field-based cutting trials were established across Australia in a range of environments to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of 5 phosphate rocks, and 1 partially acidulated phosphate rock, relative to either single super-phosphate or triple superphosphate. The phosphate rocks differed in reactivity, as determined by the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure and solubility of phosphorus present in the fertilizers in 2% formic acid, 2% citric acid and neutral ammonium citrate. Sechura (Bayovar) and North Carolina phosphate rocks were highly reactive (>70% solubility in 2% formic acid), whilst Khouribja (Moroccan) and Hamrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock were moderately reactive. Duchess phosphate rock from Queensland was relatively unreactive ( 2 , from 4.0 to 5.1, and Colwell extractable phosphorus ranged from 3 to 47 μg/g prior to fertilizer application. Two core experiments were established at each site. The first measured the effects of phosphate rock reactivity on agronomic effectiveness, while the second core experiment measured the effects of the degree of water solubility of the phosphorus source on agronomic effectiveness. The National Reactive Phosphate Rock Project trials provided the opportunity to confirm the suitability of accepted procedures to model fertilizer response and to develop new approaches for comparing different fertilizer responses. The Project also provided the framework for subsidiary studies such as the effect of fertilizer source on soil phosphorus extractability; cadmium and fluorine concentrations in herbage; evaluation of soil phosphorus tests; and the influence of particle size on phosphate rock effectiveness. The National Reactive Phosphate Rock Project presents a valuable model for a large, Australia-wide, collaborative team approach to an important agricultural issue. The use of standard and consistent experimental methodologies at every site ensured that maximum benefit was obtained from data

  5. A Preliminary Study on Rock Bed Heat Storage from Biomass Combustion for Rice Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, L. O.; Wulandani, D.; Subrata, I. D. M.

    2018-05-01

    One of the main constraints of biomass fuel utilization in a small scale rice drying system is the operating difficulties related to the adjustment of combustion/feeding rate. Use of thermal storage may reduce the problem since combustion operation can be accomplished in a much shorter time and then the use of heat can be regulated by simply adjusting the air flow. An integrated biomass furnace-rock bed thermal storage with a storage volume of 540 L was designed and tested. There were four experiments conducted in this study. Charging was performed within 1-2 hours with a combustion rate of 11.5-15.5 kg/h. In discharging process, the mixing of air passing through the rock bed and ambient air were regulated by valves. Without adjusting the valve during the discharging process, air temperature increased up to 80°C, which is not suitable for rice batch drying process. Charging with sufficiently high combustion rate (14 kg/h) within 1 hour continued by adjusting the valve during discharging process below 60°C increased the discharge-charge time ratio (DCTR) up to 5.33 at average air temperature of 49°C and ambient temperature of 33°C.The efficiency of heat discharging was ranged from 34.5 to 45.8%. From the simulation, as much as 156.8-268.8 kg of rice was able to be dried by the discharging conditions.

  6. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  7. Influence of natural mobile organic matter on europium retention on Bure clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu-Do, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Bure clay rock (CR) was chosen as host rock for the French high and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository. This choice is mostly explained by the retention ability of the Callovo-Oxfordian rock (COx). Bure clay rock contains natural organic matter (OM) that could have an influence on radionuclide retention. The aim of this work is to assess the influence of natural mobile OM on the retention of Eu on clay rock. Eu was chosen as a chemical model for trivalent actinides contained in vitrified waste. Three organic molecules were studied: suberic, sorbic and tiglic acids, small organic acids identified in COx pore water. All the experiments were carried out in an environment recreating COx water (pH=7.5; I=0.1 mol/L; PCO 2 =10 -2 bar).Clay rock sample characterization showed that the sample used in this work was similar to those previously extracted from the area of interest and that it was necessary to maintain pH at 7.5 to avoid altering the clay rock. The Eu-OM system study indicated that organic acids had no influence on Eu speciation in COx water. The Eu-CR system experimental study confirmed that retention implied sorption on CR (C(Eu)≤6.10 -6 mol/L) and precipitation in COx water (C(Eu)≥6.10 -6 mol/L). Distribution coefficient Rd (quantifying sorption) was estimated at 170 ± 30 L/g. This high value is consistent with literature values obtained on clay rocks. The ternary Eu-OM-CR system study showed a slight increase of sorption in the presence of organic matter. This synergistic effect is very satisfactory in terms of storage security: the presence of small organic acids in clay rock does not question retention properties with respect to europium and trivalent actinides. (author)

  8. STUDY OF DESTRUCTION PROCESSES OF SYNTHETIC SURFACE-ACTIVE SUBSTENCES (SURFFACTANTS IN BARRIER DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Grinevich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic data of degradation on aqueous solutions of surfactants in the plasma of barrier discharge are presented. The possible mechanism of proceeding processes is offered and considered. It is shown that the treatment in a barrier discharge results in decomposition efficiency of 95%. It is established that the main product of degradation are carboxylic acids.

  9. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  10. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  11. Ion source of discharge type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enchevich, I.B. [TRIUMF, Cyclotron Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korenev, S.A. [JINR, Hihg Energy Physics Lab., Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm{sup 2}; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10{sup -6} Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  12. Ion source of discharge type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Korenev, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm 2 ; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10 -6 Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  13. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  14. Radioactive discharges from Sellafield (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study of low-level liquid radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd Sellafield site into the eastern basin of the Irish Sea, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, reviews chemical forms and rate of discharges, physical oceanography, sediment distribution and fisheries of the Irish Sea, behaviour of radionuclides in seawater, association with sedimentary materials, accumulation of radionuclides by biological materials, environmental monitoring, surveillance and assessment of radiation exposure of the public and impact on the environment

  15. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing up dark mucus Your fingertips or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; ...

  17. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  18. Filamentary and diffuse barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2001-01-01

    Barrier discharges, sometimes also referred to as dielectric-barrier discharges or silent discharges, are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an ac power supply. The main advantage of this type of electrical discharge is, that non-equilibrium plasma conditions in atmospheric-pressure gases can be established in an economic and reliable way. This has led to a number of important applications including industrial ozone generation, surface modification of polymers, plasma chemical vapor deposition, excitation of CO 2 lasers, excimer lamps and, most recently, large-area flat plasma display panels. Depending on the application, the width of the discharge gap can range from less than 0.1 mm to about 100 mm and the applied frequency from below line frequency to several gigahertz. Typical materials used for the insulating layer (dielectric barrier) are glass, quartz, ceramics but also thin enamel or polymer layers

  19. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope geological characteristics and its evolution of Jianchaling rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Chunyong; Chen Minyang; Xu Wenxin

    2003-01-01

    It has been a long time debatable subject on the raw material source and its genesis of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock, because the original rock phases, the original mineral compositions, texture and structure, even part of the chemical components of the rocks had been changed completely after many periods and phases of metamorphism. According to the content of Pb, Rb, Sr, Nd elements and their Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions of the rocks, together with the isotope geological age of late magmatic activities, the authors analyze the evolution of Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions, The inferred initiate Nd isotope ratio of ultrabasic rocks is 0.510233, lower than that of meteorite unity at a corresponding period, its ε Nd(T)>O; The initiate Sr ratios inferred by the isotope geological age ranges from 0.702735 to 0.719028; Projecting the lead isotope compositions on the Pb tectonic evolution model, the result indicates that the raw material of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock coming from the deplete upper mantle. The ultrabasic magma which enrich of Mg, Ni and less S intruded the crust and formed the Jianchaling ultrabasic rock at late Proterozoic era (927 Ma±). The forming time of serpentinite is mostly equal to the granitoid intruding time, showing the intrusion o flate acidic magma caused a large scale alteration of the ultrabasic rocks and formed the meta-ultrabasic phase rock observed today. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  1. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  2. Rock mechanics studies for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems capable of storing thousands of MWh develop tremendous magnetically induced forces when charged. To prevent rutpure of the magnets these forces must be confined. Bedrock offers a practical and relatively inexpensive magnet containment structure. This paper examines the need for rock mechanics research in connection with the construction and use of SMES rock caverns; the unique problems related to housing superconducting magnets in bedrock; site investigations of granite, quartzite and dolomite deposits in Wisconsin; and cavern design requirements to assure cavern stability and limited deformation under the expected mechanical leads. Recommendations are made for siting SMES caverns

  3. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  4. Water level fluctuations due to earth tides in a well pumping from slightly fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    J At the Savannah River plant of the Atomic Energy Commission near Aiken, South Carolina, there are three distinct groundwater systems: the coastal plain sediments, the crystalline metamorphic rocks, and a buried Triassic basin. The coastal plain sediments include several Cretaceous and Tertiary granular aquifers and aquicludes, the total thickness being about 305 m. Below these sediments, water occurs in small fractures in crystalline metamorphic rock (hornblende schist and gneiss with lesser amounts of quartzite). Water level fluctuations due to earth tides are recorded in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. No water level fluctuations due to earth tides have been observed in wells in the Triassic rock because of the very low permeability. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the crystalline rock are about 10 cm, and those in the sediments are about 1.8 cm. The use of water level fluctuations due to earth tides to calculate porosity appears to present practical difficulties both in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. In a 1-yr pumping test on a well in the crystalline metamorphic rock the flow was controlled to within 0.1 percent of the total discharge, which was 0.94 1/s. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the pumping well were 10 cm, the same as when this well was not being pumped. (U.S.)

  5. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  6. Liming effect on P availability from Maardu phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidlauskas, G.; Masauskas, S.; Ezerinskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty years ago phosphate rock from the Maardu deposit was intensively used for soil fertilization in Lithuania. However, the application of finely ground product caused an undesirable dusty operation. Afterwards, a super-phosphate production plant was built in Kedainiai and the use of phosphate rock was completely abandoned. Field experiments with fodder beets and barley were carried out to evaluate the P availability of granulated superphosphate and Maardu phosphate rock. The comparison was made at three acidity levels: a) unlimed acid soil with a high content of Al (pH kcl 4.3-4.4, hydrolytic acidity was 41-44 meq/kg soil), b) soil limed with 0.5n rate CaCO 3 powder limestone based on hydrolytic acidity, and c) soil limed with 1.0n rate CaCO 3 . Two field experiments were carried out with fodder beets. In 1997 the yield increased significantly due to liming. However, no significant yield increases were found due to the application of phosphorus fertilizers. Differences between the effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock were also not observed. This might have been caused by a severe drought during the vegetative growth of plants. In the following year, 1998, a soil with similar acidity was chosen, however it contained even lower amounts of available phosphorus in the arable soil (about 50 mg/kg soil A-L method). In the unlimed soil the yield was low, the effect of superphosphate was better than that of phosphate rock. A good fodder beet yield of 32 to 35 t/ha was obtained and the effect of phosphate rock was better than that of superphosphate at 0.5n CaCO 3 rate. When liming with at the high rate (1.0n CaCO 3 rate according to hydrolytic acidity) the action of phosphate rock declined, and a better yield was obtained with superphosphate. Barley was grown after fodder beets in the 1997 experimental field and the residual effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock was investigated. Weather conditions were favorable for barley growth. Therefore a normal yield

  7. Analytical solutions for recession analyses of sloping aquifers - applicability on relict rock glaciers in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Winkler, Gerfried

    2014-05-01

    Rock glaciers as aquifer systems in alpine catchments may strongly influence the hydrological characteristics of these catchments. Thus, they have a high impact on the ecosystem and potential natural hazards such as for example debris flow. Therefore, knowledge of the hydrodynamic processes, internal structure and properties of these aquifers is important for resource management and risk assessment. The investigation of such aquifers often turns out to be expensive and technically complicated because of their strongly limited accessibility. Analytical solutions of discharge recession provide a quick and easy way to estimate aquifer parameters. However, due to simplifying assumptions the validity of the interpretation is often questionable. In this study we compared results of an analytical solution of discharge recessions with results based on a numerical model. This was done in order to analyse the range of uncertainties and the applicability of the analytical method in alpine catchment areas. The research area is a 0.76 km² large catchment in the Seckauer Tauern Range, Austria. The dominant aquifer in this catchment is a rock glacier, namely the Schöneben Rock Glacier. This relict rock glacier (i.e. containing no permafrost at present) covers an area of 0.11 km² and is drained by one spring at the rock glacier front. The rock glacier consists predominantly of gneissic sediments (mainly coarse-grained, blocky at the surface) and extends from 1720 to 1905 m a.s.l.. Discharge of the rock glacier spring is automatically measured since 2002. Electric conductivity and water temperature is monitored since 2008. An automatic weather station was installed in 2011 in the central part of the catchment. Additionally data of geophysical surveys (refraction seismic and ground penetrating radar) have been used to analyse the base slope and inner structure of the rock glacier. The measured data are incorporated into a numerical model implemented in MODFLOW. The numerical

  8. Review on the prevailing methods for the prediction of potential rock burst / rock spalling in tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta

    2017-01-01

    Rock burst / rock spalling is among the prevailing stability challenges, which can be met while tunneling through hard rock mass. Especially, this is very relevant for the mountainous country like Norway where hard rock is dominating and many road, railway and hydropower tunnels have to be aligned deep into the mountain with steep valley slope topography. Tunnels passing beneath deep rock cover (overburden), in general, are subjected to high in-situ stresses. If the rock mass is relatively un...

  9. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: sruban.stephens@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-08-11

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  10. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  11. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Celnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.

  12. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  13. The Changes of P-fractions and Solubility of Phosphate Rock in Ultisol Treated by Organic Matter and Phosphate Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Bagus Pulunggono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is one of the essential elements for plant, however, its availability is mostly very low in acid soils. It is well documented that application of phosphate rock and organic matter are able to change the level of availability of P-form in acid soils. The objective of the research were to evaluate the changes of P-fractions ( resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi, and NaHCO3-Po and phosphate rock dissolution which were induced by application of organic matter (Imperata cylindrica, Pueraria javanica, dan Colopogonium mucunoides and phosphate rock in Utisol Lampung. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was the types of organic matter (I. cylindrica, P. javanica, and C. mucunoides, the second factor was the rate of organic matter (0, 2.5, and 5%, and the third factor was the rate of phosphate rock (0, 40, and 80 mg P kg-1. The results showed that in the rate of 0 and 1% organic matter, the type of organic matter did not affect P-fraction of NaHCO3-Pi, but in the rate of 2.5 and 5%, NaHCO3-Pi due to application of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides higher than due to application of I. cylindrica. However, the increasing rate of organic matter increased NaHCO3-Pi. Then, P-fraction of Resin-Pi was affected by the type of organic matter, the rate of organic matter, and the rate of phosphate rock, respectively. P-fraction of resin-Pi due to application of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides was higher than due to application of I. cylindrica, but the effect of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides was not different. Increasing the rate of organic matter and phosphate rock increased P-fraction of resin-Pi and NaHCO3-Pi, but P-fraction of NaHCO3-Po was not affected by all treatments. Meanwhile, dissolution of phosphate rock was affected by the kind of organic matter and soil reaction. In the rate of 5% organic matter, dissolution of phosphate rock by application of I. cylindrica (70% was higher

  14. Determination of the uranium content of phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.; Ronen, S.

    1977-03-01

    A method is described for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI) in the presence of various elements by extraction with 0.1M trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane from 1.5M nitric acid. The colour is developed directly in the organic phase using Arsenazo I. The optical absorbance is measured at a wavelength of 600 nm. Possible interferences of accompanying elements can be eliminated by reduction with ascorbic acid and by screening with sodium fluoride. This method allows the determination of any uranium content, in the 20 to 200 μg range, of phosphate rocks containing up to 1 g (PO 4 ) 3-

  15. Characterization of electrical discharges during spark anodization of zirconium in different electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Janaina S.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Gonçalves, Wesley N.; Bruno, Odemir M.; Pereira, Ernesto C.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the electrical discharges parameters during spark anodization of metallic Zr under galvanostatic regime have been investigated by image analysis in phosphoric and oxalic acid electrolytes. The experiments were recorder using a high-speed video camera during the entire anodization with a resolution of 1.7 ms for determination of discharge lifetime and a standard resolution of 33 ms (real-time imaging) for determination of the average area and discharge population density. The discharge behavior was dependent of the current density, electrolyte composition and anodization time. During breakdown process, sparks discharges are progressively turned to micro-arcs, which can be seen by enlargement of discharge area, gradual increase of lifetime and reduction of discharge population density. A factorial design was used to estimate the effects of experimental conditions on the discharge behavior. The current density and electrolyte composition were the most important factors that affected the discharge population density. The anodization time and the electrolyte composition were the main factor that influenced the discharge area and lifetime. In comparison with the voltage vs. time curve, the results demonstrate important features of the process and the changes of the electrical discharges characteristics during the experiments

  16. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  17. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Characteristics of mesozoic magmatic rocks in western Zhejiang and their relation with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiazhi

    2000-01-01

    The author summarizes characteristics of Mesozoic (Yangshanian Period) acid-intermediate volcanics, sub-volcanics and basic intrusive from aspects of formation time of rock series, petrogenic sequence, chemical composition, rock -controlling factors and petrogenic environments. It is suggested that these rocks were originated from different source areas of crust and mantle. Based on the time-space relation between different types uranium deposits and magmatic rocks, the author proposes that: the earlier stage (Earlier Cretaceous) U-hematite ores were originated from acid volcanic magmatism of crustal source, but the later stage (Late Cretaceous) pitchblende-polymetallic sulfide and pitchblende-purple fluorite rich ores were derived from basic magmatism of mantle source. Finally, the author proposes prospecting criteria of the above two types of uranium deposits

  19. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  20. Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the potential for acid generation is therefore very important in any mine setting where sulphide minerals exist. Results of two Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) studies conducted at Abosso Goldfields Limited (AGL) on 120 rock and tailings samples reveal that on average, total sulphide values in rocks are low, with ...

  1. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Vizir, V A; Kumpyak, V V; Zorin, V B; Kiselev, V N

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ∼50 ns, current amplitude of ∼6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ∼20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  2. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Vizir, V. A.; Kumpyak, V. V.; Zorin, V. B.; Kiselev, V. N.

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ˜50 ns, current amplitude of ˜6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ˜20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  3. Analysis of volcano rocks by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the basalt rock from Mount Ba tur volcano situated on the Island of Bali in Indonesia.We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. (authors)

  4. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  5. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  6. Rock glaciers, Central Andes, Argentina, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary rock glaciers are fed by avalanche chutes. At the El Salto rock glacier, surveys have been undertaken in order to determine the creep rate. Between 1981 and...

  7. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. (author)

  8. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  9. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Adriane Nunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i) to select and characterize diazotrophs abl...

  10. Electron runaway in rf discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.

    1992-10-01

    The critical electric field is computed as a function of pressure and starting energy for electrons to run away to high energies in moderate pressure discharges. The runaway conditions depend critically on the shape of the elastic cross section vs. energy curve. Computations are made for H, H 2 , and He gases, and it is shown that runaway occurs much more readily in atomic hydrogen than in the other gases. The values of the runaway fields are larger than would normally occur in dc discharges, where large voltages would lead to arc formation. However, in rf discharges such electric fields can be sustained over times long compared to electron transit times but short compared to ion transit times. (author)

  11. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  12. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  13. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O.; Paula, H.C.B.; Dantas, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation. (orig./EF)

  14. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, A O; Paula, H C.B.; Dantas, C C

    1984-03-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D/sub 2/EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation.

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  16. Analysis of volcano rock from Canary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Sedlackova, K.; Dekan, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the basalt rock from Lanzarote, which is the easternmost island of the Canary Islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean and has a volcanic origin. It was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. Different iron oxides created on the volcanic rocks during their weathering on the Earth surface has been also analyzed. (authors)

  17. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  18. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  19. Plasma Discharge in Toroidal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usada, Widdi; Suryadi; Purwadi, Agus; Kasiyo

    1996-01-01

    A toroidal discharge apparatus has been made as an initial research in magnetic confinement system. This system consists of a capacitor, a RF source, an igniter system, a primary coil, a torus, and completed by Rogowski probe as a current detector. In this system, the discharge occurs when the minimum voltage is operated at 5 kV. The experiment result shows that the coupling factor is 0.35, it is proved that there is an equality between estimated and measurement results of the primary inductance i.e 8.5 μH

  20. Taming Instabilities in Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, T.; Krahnstover, N. O.; Mausbach, T.; Piel, A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental work on taming instabilities in plasma discharges is discussed. Instead of suppressing instabilities, it is desired to achieve control over their dynamics, done by perturbing appropriately the current flow in the external circuit of the discharge. Different discrete and continuous feedback as well as open-loop control schemes are applied. Chaotic oscillations in plasma diodes are controlled using the OGY discrete feedback scheme. This is demonstrated both in experiment and computer simulation. Weakly developed ionization wave turbulence is tamed by continuous feedback control. Open-loop control of stochastic fluctuations - stochastic resonance - is demonstrated in a thermionic plasma diode. (author)

  1. Rock Music's Place in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, John

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the importance of rock music as an expression of aural culture includes its history, rock music today, and the development of a rock music collection in the library (placement of collection and books which aid in developing a collection of permanent value). Three references are included. (EJS)

  2. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  3. Rock Art: Connecting to the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students in which they learn about ancient art and create their own authentic-looking rock sculptures with pictograms, or painted images. Explains how the students create their own rocks and then paint a pictograph on the rocks with brown paint. (CMK)

  4. The role of discharge variability in the formation and preservation of alluvial sediment bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Christopher R.; Alexander, Jan; Allen, Jonathan P.

    2018-03-01

    Extant, planform-based facies models for alluvial deposits are not fully fit for purpose, because they over-emphasise plan form whereas there is little in the alluvial rock record that is distinctive of any particular planform, and because the planform of individual rivers vary in both time and space. Accordingly, existing facies models have limited predictive capability. In this paper, we explore the role of inter-annual peak discharge variability as a possible control on the character of the preserved alluvial record. Data from a suite of modern rivers, for which long-term gauging records are available, and for which there are published descriptions of subsurface sedimentary architecture, are analysed. The selected rivers are categorized according to their variance in peak discharge or the coefficient of variation (CVQp = standard deviation of the annual peak flood discharge over the mean annual peak flood discharge). This parameter ranges over the rivers studied between 0.18 and 1.22, allowing classification of rivers as having very low ( 0.90) annual peak discharge variance. Deposits of rivers with very low and low peak discharge variability are dominated by cross-bedding on various scales and preserve macroform bedding structure, allowing the interpretation of bar construction processes. Rivers with moderate values preserve mostly cross-bedding, but records of macroform processes are in places muted and considerably modified by reworking. Rivers with high and very high values of annual peak discharge variability show a wide range of bedding structures commonly including critical and supercritical flow structures, abundant in situ trees and transported large, woody debris, and their deposits contain pedogenically modified mud partings and generally lack macroform structure. Such a facies assemblage is distinctively different from the conventional fluvial style recorded in published facies models but is widely developed both in modern and ancient alluvial

  5. Methods to estimate annual mean spring discharge to the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Many individual springs and groups of springs discharge water from volcanic rocks that form the north canyon wall of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill. Previous estimates of annual mean discharge from these springs have been used to understand the hydrology of the eastern part of the Snake River Plain. Four methods that were used in previous studies or developed to estimate annual mean discharge since 1902 were (1) water-budget analysis of the Snake River; (2) correlation of water-budget estimates with discharge from 10 index springs; (3) determination of the combined discharge from individual springs or groups of springs by using annual discharge measurements of 8 springs, gaging-station records of 4 springs and 3 sites on the Malad River, and regression equations developed from 5 of the measured springs; and (4) a single regression equation that correlates gaging-station records of 2 springs with historical water-budget estimates. Comparisons made among the four methods of estimating annual mean spring discharges from 1951 to 1959 and 1963 to 1980 indicated that differences were about equivalent to a measurement error of 2 to 3 percent. The method that best demonstrates the response of annual mean spring discharge to changes in ground-water recharge and discharge is method 3, which combines the measurements and regression estimates of discharge from individual springs.

  6. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  7. Tales from the tomb: the microbial ecology of exposed rock surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Tess E; Fierer, Noah

    2018-03-01

    Although a broad diversity of eukaryotic and bacterial taxa reside on rock surfaces where they can influence the weathering of rocks and minerals, these communities and their contributions to mineral weathering remain poorly resolved. To build a more comprehensive understanding of the diversity, ecology and potential functional attributes of microbial communities living on rock, we sampled 149 tombstones across three continents and analysed their bacterial and eukaryotic communities via marker gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that geographic location and climate were important factors structuring the composition of these communities. Moreover, the tombstone-associated microbial communities varied as a function of rock type, with granite and limestone tombstones from the same cemeteries harbouring taxonomically distinct microbial communities. The granite and limestone-associated communities also had distinct functional attributes, with granite-associated bacteria having more genes linked to acid tolerance and chemotaxis, while bacteria on limestone were more likely to be lichen associated and have genes involved in photosynthesis and radiation resistance. Together these results indicate that rock-dwelling microbes exhibit adaptations to survive the stresses of the rock surface, differ based on location, climate and rock type, and seem pre-disposed to different ecological strategies (symbiotic versus free-living lifestyles) depending on the rock type. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A model of pyritic oxidation in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can lead to high acid levels and high concentrations of trace metals in the water that runs off and percolates through pyritic material. This is the situation at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory of Australia, where pyritic oxidation in the waste rock dumps resulting from open cut mining of the uranium orebody has led to pollution of the nearby East Branch of the Finniss River, with trace metals such as copper, manganese and zinc. Mathematical equations are formulated which describe a model of pyritic oxidation within a waste rock dump, where it is assumed that oxygen transport is the rate limiting step in the oxidation process and that oxygen is transported by gaseous diffusion through the pore space of the dump, followed by diffusion into oxidation sites within the particles that comprise the dump. The equations have been solved numerically assuming values for such parameters as porosity, sulphur density and oxygen diffusion coefficients which are applicable to the waste rock dumps at Rum Jungle. An approximate solution to the equations is also presented. Calculations of the heat source distribution and the total SO 4 production rate are presented for both single size particles and for a range of particle sizes in the dump. The usefulness of the approximate solution, and of calculations based on single size particles in the dump in assessing the effectiveness of strategies to reduce pollution from such waste rock dumps are discussed

  9. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  10. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  11. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  12. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  13. Environmental remediation of the Wismut legacy and utilization of the reclaimed areas, waste rock piles and tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.; Jakubick, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1945 and reunification (1989) of Germany more than 232 000 t of U 3 O 8 has been produced in Saxony and Thuringia, East Germany. This affected an area of approximately 100 km 2 and left behind an extensive legacy of contaminated operations areas, underground and open pit mines, waste rock piles and tailings ponds. Following reunification, DM 13 billion (Euro 6.6 billion) were committed (and later revised to Euro 6.2 billion) to remediation of the liabilities and the government owned corporation, Wismut GmbH entrusted with the implementation of the Environmental Remediation (ER) of the liabilities. The prime goal of the ER Project follows from the legal requirements to abate health risks, mitigate existing and prevent future environmental damages. During the investigations and assessment of risks, development of remediation concepts, adoption of suitable technologies and work procedures as well as physical implementation of the remedial measures extensive use was made of international (mostly US and Canadian) ER experience. The extent of remedial measures was based on object-specific Environmental Assessments rather than on uniformly applied health/environmental standards. The ER workflow is more an iterative process than a linear succession of tasks, such as common for civil engineering projects. The internal (technical) parts of the problems were partly resolved by using Conceptual Site Models (CSM) for selection and prioritization of remedial measures. Reclamation of the waste rock piles is by covering in situ, relocation to a central pile or backfilling into an open pit. The backfilling of the open pit at Ronneburg with acid generating waste rock has been optimized from a geochemical point of view. For tailings ponds reclamation in form of dry landforms is being followed. To increase release (and reuse) of scrap metal from demolition, a fast and reliable method of discrimination of the non-contaminated metal has been developed. The flooding of

  14. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, T.; Milovidov, V.; Prokopoca, O.; Jardine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide suficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (RW) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif.

  15. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  16. Mineral and rock chemistry of Mata da Corda Kamafugitic Rocks (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Sgarbi, Patricia B. de; Valenca, Joel G.

    1995-01-01

    The volcanic rocks of the Mata da Corda Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, are mafic potassic to ultra potassic rocks of kamafugitic affinity containing essentially clinopyroxenes, perovskite, magnetite and occasionally olivine, phlogopite, melilite pseudomorphs and apatite. The felsic phases are kalsilite and/or leucite pseudomorphs. The rocks are classified as mafitites, leucitites and kalsilitites. The analysis of the available data of the rocks studied, based on the relevant aspects of the main proposals for the classification of alkaline mafic to ultramafic potassic rocks leads to the conclusion that Sahama's (1974) proposal to divide potassium rich alkaline rocks in two large families is the one to which the Mata da Corda rocks adapt best. According to this and the data in the literature on the mineralogy and mineral and rock chemistries of the other similar occurrences, these rocks may be interpreted as alkaline potassic to ultra potassic rocks of hamafugitic affinity. 11 figs., 5 tabs

  17. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  18. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  19. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  20. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  1. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  2. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  3. Ions mobilities in corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtaev, Sh. A.; Bochkareva, G. V.; Sydykova, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Ion mobility in unipolar corona at small inter-electron distances (up to 0.01 m) when as coroning element serves micro-wire is consider. Experimental data of ion mobility in corona discharge external zone in atmospheric air are obtained and its comparative analysis with known data is worked out. (author)

  4. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.; Kanter, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N 2 (A),O and O 2 (a 1 Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm 2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O 3 . The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  5. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  6. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  7. The effects of different additives in electrolyte of AGM batteries on self-discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazd, M. Safari; Molazemi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1111 (Iran); Moayed, M.H. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1111 (Iran)

    2006-07-14

    Hydrogen and oxygen evolution at the negative and positive electrodes in AGM batteries are the main reasons of self-discharging. The self-discharge of five AGM batteries was investigated by measuring different potential between two electrodes during 48 days. Five different battery electrolytes were used including 35% (w/w) H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} without additives and the remaining contain 7.1, 9.94, and 21.3gl{sup -1} sodium sulfate, 4gl{sup -1} boric acid, 3gl{sup -1} citric acid, and finally 0.7 and 1gl{sup -1} stearic acid except one containing boric acid that the concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was 36% (w/w). The results revealed that the rate of self-discharge for battery without additive was 0.01Vday{sup -1}. The battery with boric acid showed the lowest rate of self-discharge with 0.0025Vday{sup -1}. It was also found that stearic and citric acids are comparatively appropriate additives for decreasing the self-discharge. They caused a decrease of the self-discharge rate to 0.005 and 0.0075Vday{sup -1} on appropriate concentration, respectively. In compared to other additives, sodium sulfate showed to be not an appropriate additive for decreasing battery self-discharging. The rate of 0.03Vday{sup -1} of self-discharging was obtained for the battery containing all selected concentration of sodium sulfate during first 4 days of measuring. (author)

  8. A Review on the British Rock Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hutapea, Alfian Hadi Pranata

    2011-01-01

    Music has an important role in people’s life. In people’s daily, music is often hearing of course and in people’s customs and traditions music is also be used. Music has many genres, one of them is rock music. Many people like rock music especially youngman because rock music has given a message in a song through enthusiasm expression. Rock music has many subgenres and each of subgenres have a distinctive feature. The developing of rock music is very wide in the world, especially in Great Bri...

  9. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  10. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  11. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  12. Characteristics of 2-heptanone decomposition using nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Yuki; Fukuchi, Yuichi; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) evaporate at room temperature. VOCs typically consist of toluene, benzene and ethyl acetate, which are used in cosmetics, dry cleaning products and paints. Exposure to elevated levels of VOCs may cause headaches, dizziness and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; they may also cause environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and photochemical smog. As such, they require prompt removal. Nanosecond pulsed discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma consisting of a streamer discharge. Several advantages of nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma have been demonstrated by studies of our research group, including low heat loss, highly energetic electron generation, and the production of highly active radicals. These advantages have shown ns pulsed discharge plasma capable of higher energy efficiency for processes, such as air purification, wastewater treatment and ozone generation. In this research, nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma was employed to treat 2-heptanone, which is a volatile organic compound type and presents several harmful effects. Characteristics of treatment dependent on applied voltage, gas flow rate and input energy density were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts generated by treatment were also investigated.

  13. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional measurements of river flows are costly, time‐consuming, and frequently dangerous. This report evaluates the use of a continuous wave microwave radar, a monostatic UHF Doppler radar, a pulsed Doppler microwave radar, and a ground‐penetrating radar to measure river flows continuously over long periods and without touching the water with any instruments. The experiments duplicate the flow records from conventional stream gauging stations on the San Joaquin River in California and the Cowlitz River in Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to directly measure the parameters necessary to compute flow: surface velocity (converted to mean velocity) and cross‐sectional area, thereby avoiding the uncertainty, complexity, and cost of maintaining rating curves. River channel cross sections were measured by ground‐penetrating radar suspended above the river. River surface water velocity was obtained by Bragg scattering of microwave and UHF Doppler radars, and the surface velocity data were converted to mean velocity on the basis of detailed velocity profiles measured by current meters and hydroacoustic instruments. Experiments using these radars to acquire a continuous record of flow were conducted for 4 weeks on the San Joaquin River and for 16 weeks on the Cowlitz River. At the San Joaquin River the radar noncontact measurements produced discharges more than 20% higher than the other independent measurements in the early part of the experiment. After the first 3 days, the noncontact radar discharge measurements were within 5% of the rating values. On the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, correlation coefficients between the USGS stream gauging station rating curve discharge and discharge computed from three different Doppler radar systems and GPR data over the 16 week experiment were 0.883, 0.969, and 0.992. Noncontact radar results were within a few percent of discharge values obtained by gauging station, current meter, and hydroacoustic methods

  14. Use of natural and applied tracers to guide targeted remediation efforts in an acid mine drainage system, Colorado Rockies, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark W.; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD) show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  15. Diffusion in the matrix of granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-07-01

    A migration experiment in the rock matrix is presented. The experiment has been carried out in undisturbed rock, that is rock under its natural stress environment. Since the experiment was performed at the 360 m-level (in the Stripa mine), the rock had nearly the same conditions as the rock surrounding a nuclear waste storage. The results show that all three tracers (Uranine, Cr-EDTA and I - ) have passed the disturbed zone from the injection hole and migrated into undisturbed rock. At the distance of 11 cm from the injection hole 5-10 percent of the injection concentration was found. The results also indicate that the tracer have passed through fissure filling material. These results indicate that it is possible for tracers (and therefore radionuclides) to migrate from a fissure, through fissure filling material, and into the undisturbed rock matrix. (Authors)

  16. Carbonate rock depositional models: A microfacies approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonate rocks contain more than 50% by weight carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, and siderite. Understanding how these rocks form can lead to more efficient methods of petroleum exploration. Micofacies analysis techniques can be used as a method of predicting models of sedimentation for carbonate rocks. Micofacies in carbonate rocks can be seen clearly only in thin sections under a microscope. This section analysis of carbonate rocks is a tool that can be used to understand depositional environments, diagenetic evolution of carbonate rocks, and the formation of porosity and permeability in carbonate rocks. The use of micofacies analysis techniques is applied to understanding the origin and formation of carbonate ramps, carbonate platforms, and carbonate slopes and basins. This book will be of interest to students and professionals concerned with the disciplines of sedimentary petrology, sedimentology, petroleum geology, and palentology.

  17. The seat of ground water discharge as ore-mabilizing factor in the formatian of hydrogenic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natal'chenko, B.I.; Gol'dshtejn, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    The role of structural-hydrogeological factor in the process of ore-controlling zoning development during hydrogeneous deposit formation is discussed, as reflecting in the most objective way the spreading of stratal oxidation zones and morphology of uranium mineralization as regards discharge seats because there are only they which mobilize stratal waters for active displacement. The types of discharge seats of stratal waters and their effect on formation of ore-controlling zones of stratal oxidation with uranium mineralization are presented. The conclusion is drawn that local and regional discharge seats of stratal waters dictate both the spacing of regional fronts of stratal-oxidized rocks and their ore content degree. The displacement of discharge seats or their growing into local regions of alimentation results in reorganization of the total ore-controlling zoning, which enables to consider the seats of water discharge as ore-mobilizing structures in the formation of hydrogenic uranium deposits

  18. Hydraulic Evaluation of Discharge Over Submerged Rock Wing Dams on the Upper Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendrickson, Jon

    1999-01-01

    .... This analysis was part of a study, done through the Corps of Engineers' Land Management System, to determine the impacts of zebra mussels on water quality and ecological conditions in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Wing dams...

  19. New discharge tube with virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidelmann, L.; Aubrecht, L.

    2003-01-01

    Till this time known methods of the excitation of the discharge between electrodes are using either secondary or thermo emission of electrons by the cathode. Usually we speak about the self-maintained discharge. Lifetime of the cathode, that is shortened by the emission, limits in principle, the lifetime of the whole discharge tube. The discharge can, according to the present state of the art, be induced also by the inductive way. Arrangement for excitation of such discharge is rather expensive. The construction of the inductive excited discharge tube is considerably influenced by the necessity of the limitation of the losses in excitation magnetic circuits. Especially length of the discharge and pressure of the working gas are limited by the economic standpoints. Function of the discharge is always connected with unwanted electromagnetic radiation, whose restraint is expensive and represents limiting factor for arrangement of the discharge tube (Authors)

  20. Surface-discharging hydrothermal systems at Yucca Mountain: Examining the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses exposures of altered rock that have been thought to form by recent discharge of water from depth. They were examined to address a concern that hydrothermal processes could compromise the isolation capability of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Suspected hot-spring and hydrothermal-vent deposits are more likely the products of infiltration of meteoric water into newly deposited and still-hot pyroclastic flows >12 Myr ago

  1. Analysis of some heavy metals in the rock phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujemaa, Chaker; Ayari, Taher

    2005-01-01

    The rock phosphates occupy an important place in the fields of the chemical industry. They are used for the manufacture of sevral products, mainly food manures, manures of the ground, the synthesis of certain acids and sevral other products of agricultural use. The quality of phosphates is related directly to the certain metals pose of the harmful problems for health and the environment. For the importance of these rock phosphates, the CNSTN proposed to carry out the proportioning of some toxic heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, within the framework of a project of end of studies, in order to evaluate the rate of toxicity by comparing it with the tolerable limits.(author). 3 refs

  2. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...

  3. Identification and characterization of potential discharge areas for radionuclide transport by groundwater from a nuclear waste repository in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Sassner, Mona

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes solute transport modeling carried out as a part of an assessment of the long-term radiological safety of a planned deep rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden. Specifically, it presents transport modeling performed to locate and describe discharge areas for groundwater potentially carrying radionuclides from the repository to the surface where man and the environment could be affected by the contamination. The modeling results show that topography to large extent determines the discharge locations. Present and future lake and wetland objects are central for the radionuclide transport and dose calculations in the safety assessment. Results of detailed transport modeling focusing on the regolith and the upper part of the rock indicate that the identification of discharge areas and objects considered in the safety assessment is robust in the sense that it does not change when a more detailed model representation is used.

  4. Geochemical characterization of Parana Basin volcanic rocks: petrogenetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the geochemical characteristics of Parana Basin volcanic rocks is presented. The results are based on the analyses of major and trace elements of 158 samples. Ninety three of these volcanic samples belong to 8 flow sequences from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States. The remaining sixty five samples are distributed over the entire basin. In order to study the influence of crustal contamination processes in changing chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks, 47 samples representative of the crystalline basement of the southern and southeastern Parana Basin were also analysed. Several petrogenetic models were tested to explain the compocional variability of the volcanic rocks, in particular those of southern region. The results obtained sugest an assimilation-fractional crystallization process as viable to explain the differences of both the chemical characteristics and Sr isotope initial ratios observed in basic and intermediate rocks. A model involving melting processes of basic material, trapped at the base of the crust, with composition similar to low and high TiO 2 basalts appears to be a possibility to originate the Palmas and Chapeco acid melts, respectively. The study of ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated low TiO 2 basic rocks from the southern, central and northern regions shows the existence of significant differences in the geochemical charactetistics according to their geographical occurrence. A similar geochemical diversity is also observed in high TiO 2 basalts and Chapeco volcanics. Differences in incompatible element ratios between low and high TiO 2 ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated basalts suggest that they could have been produced by different degrees of melting in a garnet peridotite source. Geochemical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) data also support the view that basalts from northern and southern regions of Parana Basin originated from mantle source with different composition. (author) [pt

  5. Relativistic Electrons in Electric Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Deniz

    at the time when also gigantic electric discharges were observed at 10-90 km altitude in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the so called “jets” and “sprites”, commonly referred to as “Transient Luminous Events” (TLEs). TGFs were _rst thought connected to TLEs, but later research has pointed to lightning......Thunderstorms generate bursts of X- and Gamma radiation. When observed from spacecraft, the bursts are referred to as “Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes” (TGFs). They are bremsstrahlung from energetic electrons accelerated in thunderstorm electric _elds. The TGFs were _rst observed in the 90ties...... discharges as the source. The “Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor” (ASIM) for the International Space Station in 2016, led by DTU Space, and the French microsatellite TARANIS, also with launch in 2016, will identify with certainty the source of TGFs. In preparation for the missions, the Ph.D. project has...

  6. Runaway electrons in toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of runaway electrons in toroidal devices are reviewed here, with particular reference to tokamaks. The complex phenomenology of runaway effects, which have been the subject of research for the past twenty years, is organized within the framework of a number of physical models. The mechanisms and rates for runaway production are discussed first, followed by sections on runaway-driven kinetic relaxation processes and runaway orbit confinement. Next, the equilibrium and stability of runaway-dominated discharges are reviewed. Models for runaway production at early times in the discharge and the scaling of runaway phenomena to larger devices are also discussed. Finally, detection techniques and possible applications of runaways are mentioned. (author)

  7. Considering clay rock heterogeneity in radionuclide retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Montavon, G.; Tournassat, C.; Giffaut, E.; Altmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock formation has a strong retention capacity for radionuclides, a favorable condition for the implementation of a nuclear waste repository. Principal retaining minerals are illite, and inter-stratified illite/smectite (I/S). Radionuclide retention has been studied on illite, illite/smectite and on clay rock obtained from different locations and data for retention on bentonite (80% smectite) are available. Sorption depends on the type of mineral, composition of mineralogical assemblages, individual mineral ion exchange capacities, ion distribution on exchange sites, specific surface areas, surface site types and densities for surface complexation as well as on water/rock ratios, temperature etc. As a consequence of mineralogical and textural variations, radionuclide retention properties are expected to vary with depth in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. Using a simple additivity approach for the case of sorption of Cs and Ni it is shown that models and databases for illite and bentonite can be used to describe sorption in heterogeneous clay rock systems. A surface complexation/ion-exchange model as proposed by Bradbury and Baeyens without electrostatic contributions, was used directly as far as acid base properties are concerned but was modified with respect to sorption constants, in order to describe Na-, Ca, and Cs montmorillonite and bentonite MX-80 with a single set of surface complexation constants and also to account for carbonate and sulphate concentrations in groundwater. The model is integrated into the geochemical code PHREEQC considering dissolution/ precipitation/solubility constraints of accessory minerals (calcite, illite, celestite, quartz). Site densities for surface complexation and ion exchange are derived from the mass fractions of illite and of smectite in illite/smectite obtained from an overall fit of measured CEC data from all samples of the EST205 drill core

  8. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  9. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  10. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  11. Electrostatic probes in luminescent discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da.

    1980-01-01

    A system to produce luminescent type plasma by continuos discharge and ionization by high frequency was constructed. The ionization was done in the air and in the argon under pressures from 3 to 10 mmHg. The parameters of a non magnetized collisional plasma and the parameters of a magnetized plasma such as, density, eletron temperature and potential, using a Langmuir probe with plane geometry, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Brian Cox; John Barrowman; Eddie Izzard

    2008-01-01

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  13. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  14. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  15. Rock Goes to School on Screen: A Model for Teaching Non-"Learned" Musics Derived from the Films "School of Rock" (2003) and "Rock School" (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from two films with "rock" and "school" in their titles, about rock in school and about music and schooling more broadly? "School of Rock" (2003), a "family comedy," and "Rock School" (2005), a documentary, provoke a range of questions, ideological and otherwise, surrounding the inclusion of rock in formal instructional…

  16. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  17. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  18. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  19. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  20. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina; Denyak, Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m 3 to 2087±19 Bq/m 3 , which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)