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Sample records for acid rich oils

  1. In vitro antioxidant assay of medium chain fatty acid rich rice bran oil in comparison to native rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2015-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich-rice bran oils in comparison with native rice bran oil. Different in vitro methods were used to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation activity, reducing acitivity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and so on at different concentrations of the oils such as 10-100 μg/mL. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was evaluated measuring thiobarbituric acid responsive substance (TBARS) and conjugated diene formation. All the oils showed potent antioxidant activity at 100 μg/mL concentration. TBARS formation and conjugated diene formation was lower with MCFA rich oils i.e. the inhibition of lipid peroxidation was more in MCFA rich oils than original rice bran oil. Caprylic acid rich rice bran oil showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to capric- and lauric acid rich rice bran oils. Overall the MCFA rich rice bran oils showed to be more potent antioxidant than rice bran oil due to their lower unsaturated fatty acid content. PMID:26243941

  2. Synthesis of Monoacylglycerol Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Tuna Oil with Immobilized Lipase AK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawongrat, Ratchapol; Xu, Xuebing; H-Kittikun, Aran

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce monoacylglycerols (MAG) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), by glycerolysis of tuna oil with lipase AK from Pseudomonas fluorescence immobilized on Accurel EP-100 (IM-AK). tert...... on tuna oil. The temperature was controlled at 45 degrees C. Under these conditions, with a 24 h reaction, the yield of MAG was 24.6%, but containing 56.0 wt% PUFA (EPA and DHA). Stability of the IM-AK was also studied. The hydrolytic activity of the enzyme remained at 88% and 80% of initial activity...

  3. Lipid characterization of an arachidonic acid-rich oil producing fungus Mortierella alpina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjia Wu; Jiacheng Yan; Xiaojun Ji; Xin Zhang; Jingsheng Shang; Lina Sun; Lujing Ren; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Mortierel a alpina has been considered as the most effective producer of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. It was found that several methods could improve the percentage of ARA in total lipids successful y, as they activated the desaturation system on the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, in M. alpina the ARA exists in several forms, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), and diacylglycerol (DAG). These forms are caused by different acyltransferases and they determine the nutrient value of the microbial oil. However, few works revealed de-tailed fatty acid distribution among lipid classes, which to some extent impeded the accurate regulation in ARA accumulation. Herein, this paper gives information on the accumulation process of main lipid classes and the changes of fatty acid composition in these lipids during ARA accumulation period in M. alpina. The result dem-onstrates that TAG was the dominant component of the total lipids, and it is the main form for ARA storage. The ARA enrichment stage occurred during 168–192 h when the amount of total lipids maintained steady. Further analysis indicated that the newly formed ARA-TAG might come from the incorporation and modification of sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids in other lipid classes. This work could be helpful for further optimization of ARA-rich TAG production.

  4. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6, FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set were changed by dietary treatment (P Conclusion Distinct transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized.

  5. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the ‘golden standard’. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain po...

  6. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  7. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA. PMID:26995676

  8. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  9. Investigation and production of omega 3 oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid by native strain of Aurantiochytrium TA4

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Fekrat; Shahryar Shakeri

    2015-01-01

     Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acids play an important role in human health. Docosahexaenoic acid is the most important of polyunsaturated fatty acids that is supplied through the consumption of fish oil. Consequently, there is a need for new alternative sources like as single cell oils, because of possibility of heavy metal contamination in fish oil. Materials and methods: In this research, the samples were collected from mangrove forests in the Persian Gulf an...

  10. Production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol from fast pyrolysis of palm residues using a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Yong; Lee, Uen-Do; Chang, Won-Seok; Jeong, Soo-Hwa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, palm residues were pyrolyzed in a bench-scale (3kg/h) fast pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and bio-oil separation system for the production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol. Pyrolysis experiments were performed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and the types and amounts of activated carbon on the bio-oil composition. The maximum bio-oil yield obtained was approximately 47wt% at a reaction temperature of 515°C. The main compounds produced from the bio-oils were acetic acid, hydroxyacetone, phenol, and phenolic compounds such as cresol, xylenol, and pyrocatechol. When coal-derived activated carbon was applied, the acetic acid and phenol yields in the bio-oils reached 21 and 19wt%, respectively. Finally, bio-oils rich in acetic acid and phenol could be produced separately by using an in situ bio-oil separation system and activated carbon as an additive.

  11. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  13. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Hamed, T. E.; Edris, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the hepato and reno-protective effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its binary blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils (fish and flaxseed oils) was studied in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model (MHRS) in rats. MHRS was induced through feeding a high fructose diet followed by an intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine hydrochloride. Nigella oil and its different blends were given as a daily oral dose to MHRS rats. Two control groups of MHRS and normal healthy rats...

  14. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  15. Enhancement of Anti-Dermatitis Potential of Clobetasol Propionate by DHA [Docosahexaenoic Acid] Rich Algal Oil Nanoemulsion Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaraz Alam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Zakir, Foziyah; Alam, Nawazish; Intakhab Alam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Faruque; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Ali, Mohammad Daud; Ansari, Mohammad Salahuddin; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ali, Maksood

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inflammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inflammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel. PMID:27610146

  16. Bioavailability of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from phospholipid-rich herring roe oil in men and women with mildly elevated triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad M; Hallaråker, Hogne; Sæbø, Per Christian; Innis, Sheila M; Kelley, Kathleen M; Sanoshy, Kristen D; Berger, Alvin; Maki, Kevin C

    2016-08-01

    This randomized, single-blind, crossover trial assessed the bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) from two different sources, each examined over a 12h period following consumption of a single serving and after 2-weeks of daily supplementation. Thirty-two adults with fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations between 100 and 399mg/dL were randomly assigned, with stratification by sex and age, to receive 12 capsules/day containing either phospholipid (PL)-rich herring roe oil (Romega® 30, 628mg/day EPA; 1810mg/day DHA; 137mg/day DPA) or TAG-rich fish oil (575mg/day EPA; 1843mg/day DHA; 259mg/day DPA) each for a 2-week period separated by a 4 week washout. The net incremental area under the curve from 0 to 12h for EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) were significantly higher (pEPA and DHA intakes (pEPA+ DHA was elevated by ~2.8 to 3.0-fold relative to baseline in both conditions (p<0.0001 for each), but there was no significant difference in the change from baseline (p=0.422) between Romega 30 (baseline=62.2±3.8µg/mL vs. end of study=172.9±11.7µg/mL) and fish oil (baseline=62.0±3.4µg/mL vs. end of study=185.4±11.2µg/mL) conditions. Similar results were observed for each individual LC n-3 PUFA in plasma PC after 2 weeks of supplementation. These data demonstrate that PL-rich herring roe is a well-tolerated and bioavailable source of LC n-3 PUFA. PMID:27151222

  17. Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response. Hence, studies in animals and humans indicate that MCT ingestion is less obesogenic than comparable intakes of longer chain oils. Although LA tends to raise serum cholesterol, it has a more substantial impact on high density lipoprotein (HDL) than low density lipoprotein (LDL) in this regard, such that the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreases. LA constitutes about 50% of the fatty acid content of coconut oil; south Asian and Oceanic societies which use coconut oil as their primary source of dietary fat tend to be at low cardiovascular risk. Since ketone bodies can exert neuroprotective effects, the moderate ketosis induced by regular MCT ingestion may have neuroprotective potential. As compared to traditional MCTs featuring C6-C10, laurate-rich MCTs are more feasible for use in moderate-temperature frying and tend to produce a lower but more sustained pattern of blood ketone elevation owing to the more gradual hepatic oxidation of ingested laurate. PMID:27547436

  18. Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)—about 30%—have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to ‘ectopic fat’ metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response. Hence, studies in animals and humans indicate that MCT ingestion is less obesogenic than comparable intakes of longer chain oils. Although LA tends to raise serum cholesterol, it has a more substantial impact on high density lipoprotein (HDL) than low density lipoprotein (LDL) in this regard, such that the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreases. LA constitutes about 50% of the fatty acid content of coconut oil; south Asian and Oceanic societies which use coconut oil as their primary source of dietary fat tend to be at low cardiovascular risk. Since ketone bodies can exert neuroprotective effects, the moderate ketosis induced by regular MCT ingestion may have neuroprotective potential. As compared to traditional MCTs featuring C6–C10, laurate-rich MCTs are more feasible for use in moderate-temperature frying and tend to produce a lower but more sustained pattern of blood ketone elevation owing to the more gradual hepatic oxidation of ingested laurate. PMID:27547436

  19. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  20. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Márquez-Ruiz; María del Carmen García-Martínez; Francisca Holgado; Joaquín Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. How...

  1. Effectiveness of alpha-, gamma- and delta-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Ruiz, Gloria; García-Martínez, M. del Carmen; Holgado, Francisca; Velasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. How...

  2. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid allow a higher accretion of n-3 LCPUFA in the plasma, liver and adipose tissue of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, R.; Barrera, C.; Ayala, J.M. (Jorge M.); Sanhueza, J.; Valenzuela, A.

    2014-01-01

    ALA is the precursor of EPA and DHA and its dietary availability is limited. Vegetable oils rich in ALA (48–64%) are alternatives for increasing its consumption. The conversion of ALA into EPA and DHA and the ratio (EPA+DHA/ALA) was evaluated in different tissues from male Wistar rats fed ALA –rich oils. Four groups (n=12/group) were fed for 21 days with oils from: a) corn (CO, 3% ALA); b) soybean (SO, 6% ALA); c) sacha inchi (SIO, 48% ALA) and; d) chia (ChO, 64% ALA). SO, SIO and ChO signifi...

  3. Potential for proteomic approaches in determining efficacy biomarkers following administration of fish oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids: application in pancreatic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runau, Franscois; Arshad, Ali; Isherwood, John; Norris, Leonie; Howells, Lynne; Metcalfe, Matthew; Dennison, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a disease with a significantly poor prognosis. Despite modern advances in other medical, surgical, and oncologic therapy, the outcome from pancreatic cancer has improved little over the last 40 years. To improve the management of this difficult disease, trials investigating the use of dietary and parenteral fish oils rich in omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, exhibiting proven anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties, have revealed favorable results in pancreatic cancers. Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins that attempts to characterize the complete set of proteins encoded by the genome of an organism and that, with the use of sensitive mass spectrometric-based techniques, has allowed high-throughput analysis of the proteome to aid identification of putative biomarkers pertinent to given disease states. These biomarkers provide useful insight into potentially discovering new markers for early detection or elucidating the efficacy of treatment on pancreatic cancers. Here, our review identifies potential proteomic-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer relating to apoptosis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metabolic regulation in clinical studies. We also reviewed proteomic biomarkers from the administration of ω-3 fatty acids that act on similar anticarcinogenic pathways as above and reflect that proteomic studies on the effect of ω-3 fatty acids in pancreatic cancer will yield favorable results.

  4. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; Barros, Karina Vieira de; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, ...

  5. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys; Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; D'Espessailles, Amanda; Espinosa, Alejandra; Masson, Lilia; Varela, Patricia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Valenzuela, Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    High dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids may generate health disorders, such as cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fish consumption rich in n-3 fatty acids is low in Latin America, it being necessary to seek other alternatives to provide α-linolenic acid (ALA), precursor of n-3 LCPUFA (EPA and DHA). Two innovative oils were assayed, chia (Salvia hispanica) and rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa). This study evaluated hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, expression of PPAR-α, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I), and accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma and adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups were fed 21 days: sunflower oil (SFO, control); chia oil (CO); rosa mosqueta oil (RMO). Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids from plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and TLC. Expression of PPAR-α (RT-PCR) and ACOX1 and CAT-I (Western blot). CO and RMO increased plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p < 0.05, One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). CO increased levels of ALA and EPA compared to RMO (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for DHA levels. CO also increased the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I. Only CAT-I levels were increased by RO. CO and RMO may be a nutritional alternative to provide ALA for its bioconversion to EPA and DHA, and to increase the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I, especially CO-oil.

  6. Occurrence and characterization of oils rich in gamma-linolenic acid part II: fatty acids and squalene from Macaronesian Echium leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil-Guerrero, J L; García-Maroto, F; Campra-Madrid, P; Gómez-Mercado, F

    2000-06-01

    Leaves from 25 Macaronesian Echium (Boraginaceae) species have been surveyed for hydrocarbon compounds. These plants were previously reported as the major source of gamma-linolenic acid so far found in nature. In addition, six European Echium species and the common Borago officinalis have been analysed for comparative purposes. High squalene amounts were found in all Echium plants from the Macaronesia, ranging from 3.73%, in E. simplex to 20.1% in E. fastousum. Squalene was almost absent from all European Echium species, and the same is true for B. officinalis. The relatively high oil content (2.27%) in leaves of E. fastuosum raises the total squalene amount to about 0.46% within this tissue. The main fatty acid component in the leaf was alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3omega3), ranging in the Macaronesian Echium from 9.32% in E. acanthocarpum to 54.45% in E. simplex. Possible utilisation of these plants as a commercial source of squalene and hypotheses about its physiological role in the plant are discussed. PMID:10939357

  7. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panyakaew, P.; Boon, N.; Goel, G.; Yuangklang, C.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.; Fievez, V.

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rum

  8. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

    2013-12-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane

  9. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hepato and reno-protective effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its binary blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils (fish and flaxseed oils was studied in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model (MHRS in rats. MHRS was induced through feeding a high fructose diet followed by an intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine hydrochloride. Nigella oil and its different blends were given as a daily oral dose to MHRS rats. Two control groups of MHRS and normal healthy rats were run. Different biochemical and nutritional parameters were assessed. The induction of MHRS produced liver and kidney dysfunction, and elevated oxidative stress, an inflammatory biomarker, endothelin 1, and plasma cholesterol. Reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin and Ca and elevated urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase and liver fats were noticed. The administration of Nigella crude oil that originally had 0.2% total omega-3 fatty acids or its blend with fish oil (17.9% omega-3 or flaxseed oil (42.1% omega-3 significantly improved all biochemical parameters of MHRS. There was no significant difference in the biochemical parameters among the different oil treated groups regardless of the omega-3 fatty acid content. This may point out to the potential profound effect of the volatile oil fraction of Nigella crude oil which may compensates for its low omega-3 content.En el presente estudio, el efecto hepato- y reno-protector de aceites crudos de Nigella sativa y su mezcla binaria con aceites ricos en ácidos grasos omega-3 (pescado y aceites de linaza fue estudiado en un modelo modificado de síndrome hepatorenal (MHRS en ratas. MHRS fue inducido a través de la alimentación de una dieta alta en fructosa seguido de la inyección intraperitoneal de clorhidrato de galactosamina. Diferentes aceites fueron suministrados como dosis oral diaria a ratas con MHRS. Se realizaron dos grupos de control de MHRS y ratas sanas normales. Se

  10. Acute appearance of fatty acids in human plasma – a comparative study between polar-lipid rich oil from the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and krill oil in healthy young males

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Michael L; West, Annette L.; Zante, Christa; Calder, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have human health benefits. Alternatives to fish as sources of EPA and DHA are needed. Oil from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata contains a significant amount of EPA conjugated to phospholipids and glycolipids and no DHA. Krill oil contains EPA and DHA conjugated to phospholipids. We compare the appearance of fatty acids in blood plasma of healthy humans after consuming a high fat meal ...

  11. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  12. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  13. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid allow a higher accretion of n-3 LCPUFA in the plasma, liver and adipose tissue of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ALA is the precursor of EPA and DHA and its dietary availability is limited. Vegetable oils rich in ALA (48–64% are alternatives for increasing its consumption. The conversion of ALA into EPA and DHA and the ratio (EPA+DHA/ALA was evaluated in different tissues from male Wistar rats fed ALA –rich oils. Four groups (n=12/group were fed for 21 days with oils from: a corn (CO, 3% ALA; b soybean (SO, 6% ALA; c sacha inchi (SIO, 48% ALA and; d chia (ChO, 64% ALA. SO, SIO and ChO significantly increased ALA levels (pALA es precursor de EPA y DHA y sus fuentes dietarias son limitadas. Aceites ricos en ALA (48–64% son una alternativa para incrementar su consumo. En este trabajo se evaluó la conversión de ALA a EPA y DHA, y la relación (EPA+DHA/ALA en tejidos de ratas macho Wistar alimentadas con aceites con alto contenido en ALA. Cuatro grupos (n=12/grupo recibieron durante 21 días aceite de: a maíz (CO, 3% ALA; b soja (SO, 6% ALA; c sacha inchi (SIO, 48% ALA y; d chía (ChO, 64% ALA. SO, SIO y ChO incrementaron ALA (p<0,05 en los tejidos. Solo SIO y ChO incrementaron el EPA y DHA, disminuyendo la relación n-6/n-3 (p<0,05. Se propone SIO y ChO como fuentes de ALA para incrementar EPA y DHA en los tejidos.

  14. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  15. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Nakazato, Koichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil (EPA + DHA) supplementation on eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage. Methods Twenty-four healthy men were randomly assigned to consume the EPA + DHA supplement (EPA, n = 12) or placebo (PL, n = 12) by the double-blind method. Participants consumed EPA + DHA or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise and continued it until 5 days after exercise. The EPA group consumed EPA + DH...

  16. DHA-Rich Tuna Oil Effectively Suppresses Allergic Symptoms in Mice Allergic to Whey or Peanut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, Lieke Wj; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Esch, Betty Cam; Hofman, Gerard A; van de Heijning, Bert Jm; Pieters, Raymond H; Smit, Joost J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette Em

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) has been found to reduce the development of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fish oil diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid

  17. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of six-month supplementation with concentrated fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Short-term clinical trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia revealed mixed results. The majority of these studies used an 8- to 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 2.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA, or olive oil placebo, with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Seventy-one patients (aged 16-35) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation was schizophrenia symptom severity change measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Mixed models repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences between the study arms regarding total PANSS score change favouring n-3 PUFA (p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.29). A fifty-percent improvement in symptom severity was achieved significantly more frequently in the n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group (69.4 vs 40.0%; p = 0.017). N-3 PUFA intervention was also associated with an improvement in general psychopathology, measured by means of PANSS (p = 0.009; ES = 0.32), depressive symptoms (p = 0.006; ES = 0.34), the level of functioning (p = 0.01; ES = 0.31) and clinical global impression (p = 0.046; ES = 0.29). The findings suggest that 6-month intervention with n-3 PUFA may be a valuable add-on therapy able to decrease the intensity of symptoms and improve the level of functioning in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

  18. Ghana: an emerging oil-rich democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an indication of the main economic and social indicators of Ghana, and an overview of the historical evolution of Ghana towards democracy since its independence in 1960, a discussion of its advances and limitations in this respect as this country is starting oil production (support of investors, obstacles and difficulties related to institutional limits, decentralisation process, land tenure regime and tradition), the author discusses the possible consequences of this oil wind fall on the democratic dynamics, notably regarding the legal framework (issues of fragility of the institutional and legal systems). In a third part, the author discusses the capacity of the Ghanaian system to face the oil challenge while exorcising the generally occurring curse associated with oil resources

  19. HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL FROM BASRA OIL-RICH GOVERNORATE

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abdul Al-Zahra Douabul; Wisam Abdul Ameer Farid; Hamid Talib Al-Saad; Sama Sameer AlMaarofi

    2012-01-01

    Basra is a rich-oil region; its soil is expected to be contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. However, there is no previous study that has estimated the levels of hydrocarbons in Basra soil. After 2003 numerous operations by several international oil companies are underway. Therefore, the determination of background levels of petroleum hydrocarbons is a priority from environmental point of view. The present study was carried out to determine the distribution and seasonal variations of petr...

  20. HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL FROM BASRA OIL-RICH GOVERNORATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Al-Zahra Douabul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basra is a rich-oil region; its soil is expected to be contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. However, there is no previous study that has estimated the levels of hydrocarbons in Basra soil. After 2003 numerous operations by several international oil companies are underway. Therefore, the determination of background levels of petroleum hydrocarbons is a priority from environmental point of view. The present study was carried out to determine the distribution and seasonal variations of petroleum hydrocarbons in ten sites in Basra Governorate, southern Iraq. The results obtained in this study can service as baseline for future environmental impact assessment of oil operations."

  1. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (P<0·01) and milk fat content was decreased on the CM and CW diets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (P<0·05) milk yield of 10 : 0-16 : 0 and decreased trans-9,11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2. The CW diet decreased (P<0·05) the output of ΣC18 and Σcis-18 : 1 and increased (P<0·05) the output of trans-10-18 : 1 in milk. The expression and/or activity of fourteen proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways in mammary tissues and of lipogenic genes in adipose and liver tissues were similar among treatments. In conclusion, high starch concentrates alter milk FA yield via mechanisms independent of changes in mammary, liver or adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, data provided indications that mammary lipogenic responses to starch-rich diets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants. PMID:21875448

  2. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Márquez-Ruiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO, normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO, an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA, are currently used in functional foods. However, special care must be taken to protect them from oxidation to ensure the quality of the supplemented foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidation and effectiveness of different tocopherol homologues (α-, γ- and δ-, alone or in combination with synergists (ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin, in TO compared to SO at different conditions, ambient temperature (25 °C and accelerated conditions in Rancimat (100 °C. The oils, the oils devoid of their antioxidants and the latter containing the antioxidants added were assayed. Results showed great differences between SO and TO in terms of formation of hydroperoxides and polymers and also in the effectiveness of tocopherols to delay oxidation. TO showed higher levels of polymerization and, in general, the effectiveness of tocopherol homologues, alone or in combination with synergists, was also lower in the TO.

  3. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; García-Martínez, María Del Carmen; Holgado, Francisca; Velasco, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin(®) oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. However, special care must be taken to protect them from oxidation to ensure the quality of the supplemented foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidation and effectiveness of different tocopherol homologues (α-, γ- and δ-), alone or in combination with synergists (ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin), in TO compared to SO at different conditions, ambient temperature (25 °C) and accelerated conditions in Rancimat (100 °C). The oils, the oils devoid of their antioxidants and the latter containing the antioxidants added were assayed. Results showed great differences between SO and TO in terms of formation of hydroperoxides and polymers and also in the effectiveness of tocopherols to delay oxidation. TO showed higher levels of polymerization and, in general, the effectiveness of tocopherol homologues, alone or in combination with synergists, was also lower in the TO. PMID:26784671

  4. Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; García-Ríos, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

    2011-01-01

    After decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil has a profound influence on health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with this oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, is a functional food that, besides having high-monounsaturated (MUFA) content, contains other minor components with biological properties. In this line, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Research into the pharmacological properties of the minor components of olive oil is very active and could lead to the formulation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Although more data are mandatory the Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil does not contribute to obesity and appears to be a useful tool in the lifestyle management of the MetS. Moreover there is good scientific support for MUFA diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in diabetes. The objective of this review is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diet, olive oil and metabolic diseases, including obesity, MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.

  5. Formation Kinetics of Oil-Rich, Nonionic Microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemmer, Helge F M; Harbauer, Carola; Strey, Reinhard; Grillo, Isabelle; Sottmann, Thomas

    2016-06-28

    The formation kinetics of oil-rich, nonionic microemulsions were investigated along different mixing pathways using a fast stopped-flow device in combination with the new high-flux small-angle neutron spectrometer D33 (ILL, Grenoble, France). While the kinetics along most pathways were too fast to be resolved, two processes could be detected mixing brine and the binary cyclohexane/C10E5 solution. Here, too, the formation of large water-in-oil droplets was found to be faster than 20 ms and therewith faster than the accessible dead time. However, subsequently, both the disintegration of the large water-in-oil droplets (600 Å) and the uptake of water by swollen micelles (50-60 Å) could be resolved. Both processes occur on the time scale of a second. Strikingly, the total internal interface forms faster than 20 ms and does not change over time. PMID:27257802

  6. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  7. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations

  8. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  9. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extrac...

  10. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Laurence; Leroux, Christine; Rouel, Jacques; Bonnet, Muriel; Chilliard, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d exper...

  11. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Khoramnia; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Raheleh Ghanbari; Zahra Ajdari; Oi-Ming Lai

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium ...

  12. Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Kaushik, S.; Terrier, F.; Schrama, J.W.; Médale, F.; Geurden, I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 w

  13. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  14. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  15. Amino Acid Profile of Some New Vartieties of Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Ingale and S.K. Shrivastava

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are large varieties of oil seeds and legumes in India, which are part of traditional food system but whose nutritional and economic values have not been completely determine and are far less exploited for both human and livestock utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate Sunflower (Helianths annuus LSF-11, Sunflower (Helianths annuus LSF-8, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius PBNS-12, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius PBNS-40, and Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea JL-24 seeds with the aim of qualifying and quantifying chemical information that might serve as a guide to exploit its potentials and benefits for human and animal nutrition. The amino acid profile of these oil seed were carried out using standard methods. Amino acid analysis using technical sequential multisampling amino acid analyzer detected all essential and non essential amino acids. The seeds are rich in four amino acids (EAA and NEAA (g/16g N Glutamic acid (5.083, Aspartic acid (3.459, Proline (6.412 and Methionine (3.001%, respectively. The other amino acids compared well with the FAO reference protein, Serine appeared to be the most limiting amino acid percent. Based on results of this study, the lesser known and under-utilized oil seeds, they can be a potential source and energy supplements in livestock feed.

  16. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  17. Catalytic production of conjugated fatty acids and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    The reactive double bonds in conjugated vegetable oils are of high interest in industry. Traditionally, conjugated vegetable oils are added to paints, varnishes, and inks to improve their drying properties, while recently there is an increased interest in their use in the production of bioplastics. Besides the industrial applications, also food manufactures are interested in conjugated vegetable oils due to their various positive health effects. While the isomer type is less important for their industrial purposes, the beneficial health effects are mainly associated with the c9,t11, t10,c12 and t9,t11 CLA isomers. The production of CLA-enriched oils as additives in functional foods thus requires a high CLA isomer selectivity. Currently, CLAs are produced by conjugation of oils high in linoleic acid, for example soybean and safflower oil, using homogeneous bases. Although high CLA productivities and very high isomer selectivities are obtained, this process faces many ecological drawbacks. Moreover, CLA-enriched oils can not be produced directly with the homogeneous bases. Literature reports describe many catalytic processes to conjugate linoleic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, and vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid: biocatalysts, for example enzymes and cells; metal catalysts, for example homogeneous metal complexes and heterogeneous catalysts; and photocatalysts. This Review discusses state-of-the-art catalytic processes in comparison with some new catalytic production routes. For each category of catalytic process, the CLA productivities and the CLA isomer selectivity are compared. Heterogeneous catalysis seems the most attractive approach for CLA production due to its easy recovery process, provided that the competing hydrogenation reaction is limited and the CLA production rate competes with the current homogeneous base catalysis. The most important criteria to obtain high CLA productivity and isomer selectivity are (1) absence of a hydrogen donor, (2

  18. Effect of Chia oil (Salvia Hispanica) rich in omega-3 fatty acids on the eicosanoid release, apoptosis and T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration in a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, C E; Berra, M A; Martinez, M J; Eynard, A R; Pasqualini, M E

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effects of certain dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and related eicosanoids on the growth and metastasis formation of a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Salvia hispanica (ChO) and Carthamus tinctorius (SaO) vegetable oil sources of omega-3 and -6 PUFAs and a commercial diet as control (CO), were used. We analysed fatty acids of neoplastic cells (NC) membranes by GLC; the eicosanoids 12- HETE and 12-HHT (LOX and COX metabolites) by HPLC and apoptosis and T-lymphocyte infiltration by flow cytometry and microscopy. NC from ChO groups showed lower levels of arachidonic acid and of both eicosanoids compared to SaO and CO (p<0.05). The ChO diet decreased the tumor weight and metastasis number (p<0.05). Apoptosis and T-lymphocyte infiltration were higher and mitosis decreased with respect to the other diets (p<0.05). Present data showed that ChO, an ancient and almost unknown source of omega-3, inhibits growth and metastasis in this tumor model.

  19. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

    2000-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

  20. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Uitterhaegen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8% and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%. It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12, an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%, oleic acid (6%, and palmitic acid (3%. The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg. The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols, stigmasterol (24%, and Δ7-stigmastenol (18%. Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%, phosphatidylcholine (25%, phosphatidylinositol (17%, and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%. About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition.

  1. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Sampaio, Klicia A; Delbeke, Elisabeth I P; De Greyt, Wim; Cerny, Muriel; Evon, Philippe; Merah, Othmane; Talou, Thierry; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-01-01

    Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8%) and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%). It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12), an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%), oleic acid (6%), and palmitic acid (3%). The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg). The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols), stigmasterol (24%), and Δ⁷-stigmastenol (18%). Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg) and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%), phosphatidylcholine (25%), phosphatidylinositol (17%), and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%). About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition. PMID:27617992

  2. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  3. Synthesis of alpha-hydroxyphosphonic acids from Lesquerella oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella oil has been a substance of growing chemical interest, due to the ease with which it is produced and its similarity in structure to castor oil. The primary fatty acid in Lesquerella oil, lesquerolic acid, is very similar to the principal component of castor oil, ricinoleic acid, and may ...

  4. Production, separation and applications of phenolic-rich bio-oil--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research trends in the production and separation of phenolic-rich bio-oils, as well as their applications. The first part of this paper highlights the strong dependency of the phenolic content of bio-oil on the kinds of biomass feedstock, reaction system, reaction conditions, and the type of catalysts used in their production. More recent separation technologies are also discussed in the second part of the paper. The final part of the paper deals with recent experimental results from applications of phenolic-rich bio-oils in the synthesis of phenolic resins. The paper suggests that the microwave-assisted pyrolysis of palm residues is a promising route for phenolic-rich bio-oil production, and that the use of supercritical CO2 and switchable hydrophilicity solvents during extraction, as well as molecular distillation techniques, can be applied to increase the recovery of phenolic compounds from bio-oils. PMID:25239785

  5. Recent developments in the commercial production of DHA and EPA rich oils from micro-algae

    OpenAIRE

    Winwood Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The regular intake of marine omega 3’s DHA and EPA has been scientifically established as providing a wide range of health benefits. This paper reviews recent developments in the commercial production of DHA and EPA rich oils from micro-algae. The selection of suitable micro-algae species is discussed. The complexities of producing algal oil rich in marine omega 3’s is examined in terms of both upstream and downstream production.

  6. Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

    2014-11-01

    Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation.

  7. Attenuated gastric distress but no benefit to performance with adaptation to octanoate-rich esterified oils in well-trained male cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorburn, M.S.; Vistisen, Bodil; Thorp, R.M.;

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of modifying a normal dietary fatty acid composition and ingestion of high-fat exercise supplements on gastrointestinal distress, substrate oxidation. and endurance cycling performance. Nine well-trained male cyclists completed a randomized triple-crossover comprising...... a 2-wk diet high in octanoate-rich esterified oil (MCFA) or twice long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Following the diets, participants performed 3-h of cycling at 50% of peak power followed by 10 maximal sprints while ingesting either 1) a carbohydrate (CHO)+MCFA-rich oil emulsion after the 2-wk MCFA...

  8. Self-division of a mineral oil-fatty acid droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzi, István

    2015-11-01

    Self-division of a mineral oil-fatty acid droplet placed in an alkaline solution was investigated. The initially homogeneous mineral oil droplet containing various amounts of 2-hexyldecanoic fatty acid underwent a division process resulting in the formation of two droplets. One formed ('daughter') droplet contains middle-phase microemulsion (surfactant-rich phase), while the other contains mineral oil with 2-hexyldecanoic acid (surfactant-low organic phase). We found that the pH of the water phase has negligible effect on the ratio of the sizes of the 'daughter' droplets. However, the contact angle between two droplets highly depends on the pH of the alkaline solution.

  9. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  10. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr−/−, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action

  11. Interaction of aqueous caustic with acidic oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiwetelu, C.I.; Hornof, V.; Neale, G.H. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    High content of native carboxylic acids make heavy oils acidic. It is generally accepted that these acids react with caustic reagents present in floodwater, resulting in the in-situ formation of surface active soap anions. When these adsorb at the oil-water interface, they can drastically lower the interfacial tension to the point where residual oil is mobilized. The most intriguing aspect of these acid/caustic interactions is the dynamic nature of the interfacial tension. Given a sufficiently long time, the dynamic tension would attain an equilibrium state. Measurements were made of the equilibrium interfacial tensions of acidified oleic phases contacted with a wide range of caustic concentrations in the aqueous phase. A novel measurement technique (photomicropendography) was used, and data analysis was carried out by nonlinear regression. The present approach utilizes pre-selected fatty acids in a defined oleic phase, enabling quantification of relevant model parameters and facilitating evaluation of key variables influencing interfacial activity. The acid ionization constant and the equilibrium constant governing the formation of inactive soap species were found to be the most important parameters for systems of oleic and lauric acids dissolved in hexadecane. Regression analysis showed that the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of oleic acid ranged from 6.2 to 6.9 and was dependent on the working acid concentration. For lauric acid, the pKa values were in the range of 9 to 11 depending on the caustic concentration of the aqueous phase. Species aggregation in both the oleic and aqueous phases is mostly responsible for the variations in pKa values. 30 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  13. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil. PMID:26632946

  14. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R.; Kiy, T.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.; Wong, A.W.; Roberts, A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets cont

  15. Investigating the use of phenolic rich fraction of pyrolysis bio-oils as an adhesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaf, Amir

    Fast pyrolysis allows converting of up to 75 % of biomass into a crude bio-oil, which can be separated into a phenolic rich fraction (PRF) via ethyl acetate extraction while a sugar rich fraction preferentially concentrates in the aqueous phase. Rheological and thermal characterization of heat treated PRF from pyrolysis of Douglas Fir is performed using cone and plate rheology set up, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that this material demonstrates a unique thermoplastic behavior with low Tg and softening point that can be systematically manipulated through changes in thermal history. As these materials are good candidates for development of hot melt adhesives, lap shear tests were also performed using wood stripes to evaluate their mechanical properties as an adhesive. Optimization of properties of the PRF is sought in this study through polymer blending with other bio-degradable thermoplastic poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Blends of PRF/PCL and PRF/PLA of different ratios are prepared by solvent casting and melt blending and thermally and thermomechanically characterized for their miscibility and phase behavior. Presence of molecular interactions are furthur investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FTIR). The blends show complete miscibility based on their Tg and melting points and significant improvement in shear strength is observed. Mechanisms leading to changes in properties are described and a physical model is proposed. The blend systems have good potential to be used as a thermoplastic bio degradable adhesives with satisfactoty properies.

  16. Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Ni Fong Fong; Jumat Salimon

    2013-01-01

    Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine v...

  17. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis oceanica biomass rich in eicosapentaenoic acid utilizing wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Madhusree; Shah, Freny; Bharadwaj, S V Vamsi; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid rich marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis oceanica was grown in wastewaters sampled from four different industries (i.e. pesticides industry, pharmaceutical industry, activated sludge treatment plant of municipality sewage and petroleum (oil) industry). Under the wastewater based growth conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 21.78±0.87 to 27.78±0.22mgL(-1)d(-1) in relation to freeze dried biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 5.59±0.02 and 6.81±0.04mgL(-1)d(-1). Although comparatively higher biomass, lipid and EPA productivity was observed in Conway medium, the %EPA content was similarly observed in pesticides industry and municipal effluents. The results highlight the possibility of selectively using wastewater as a growth medium, demonstrating the elevated eicosapentaenoic acid content and biodiesel properties, that complies with the European standards for biodiesel. PMID:27472494

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloe; Andersson, Mariette; JOET, THIERRY; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Gautier, Sarah; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To g...

  19. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  20. Optimization of petroleum acid isolation from lower oil fractions of Vojvodina "Velebit" oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin-Novta Vera S.; Kevrešan Slavko E.; Kuhajda Ksenija N.; Kandrač Julijan E.; Radić Ljubica M.; Rodić Petar A.

    2003-01-01

    Petroleum acids can be obtained from oil and oil derivatives by alkaline extraction. The aim of this work was to optimize the process of alkaline extraction of petroleum acids from light commercial oil fractions of Vojvodina "Velebit" oil by changing the contact time of oil fraction with strong alkali and by changing the reaction temperature. Optimal conditions for isolation of petroleum acids have been determined to be 9 hours of contact time and reaction temperature of 90°C. Under these con...

  1. DHA- RICH FISH OIL IMPROVES COMPLEX REACTION TIME IN FEMALE ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Guzmán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12 or olive oil (OO = 12 over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post and experimental group (FO/OO on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004 and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003. It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players

  2. UPGRADING OF BIO-OIL MOLECULAR DISTILLATION FRACTION WITH SOLID ACID CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zhu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular distillation technology has been adopted to obtain a bio-oil fraction rich in carboxylic acids and ketones. This unique bio-oil fraction was then upgraded with a La-promoted solid acid catalyst. Three washing pretreatments were used to prepare catalysts A, B, and C, with the intention of reducing the amounts of residual sulfuric acid. Model reactions were used to estimate their catalytic activities and the residual amounts of sulfuric acid. Catalyst B, with washing after calcination, displayed higher catalytic activity (80.83% and lower residual amount of sulfuric acid (50 μmol/g. The catalysts were characterized by techniques such as BET, XRD, and SEM to explain the differences in their catalytic activities. The optimum catalyst B was used in the upgrading of the bio-oil molecular distillation fraction. After upgrading, the corrosivity of the bio-oil fraction declined and its storage stability was improved. The carboxylic acid content in the upgraded bio-oil fraction decreased from 18.39% to 2.70%, while the ester content increased from 0.72% to 31.17%. The conversion of corrosive carboxylic acids to neutral esters reduced the corrosivity of the bio-oil fraction. Moreover, the ketones with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds (such as 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, etc. were converted into saturated compounds, which improved the stability of the bio-oil fraction.

  3. Development and evaluation of tocopherol-rich argan oil-based nanoemulsions as vehicles possessing anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melanie; Nayel, Amy; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, diverse nanoemulsion vehicles (NEs) have been developed with vast potential for improving therapeutic index of clinically approved and experimental drugs. Using oils rich in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), several promising nanoemulsion formulations have been developed recently for oral and systemic administration. The aim of our present work is to successfully develop and characterize optimized nanoemulsion platform, using the PUFA-rich argan oil that contain several important anti-inflammatory and antimitotic natural components. Using various emulsifying mixtures of polyethoxylated solutol HS-15 and polyethyleneglucol Vitamin E succinyl ester (TPGS), to form different NEs showing extended shelf-life stability. The physicochemical properties of prototype argan NEs were analyzed and utilizing a 32 full factorial design, followed by biocompatibility screen, using normal vascular myocytes and areolar fibroblasts. While 90-180 day stability of NEs correlated with TPGS:solutol surfactant blend ratios, adverse effects on integrity of test cultures were only noted at high TPGS content in the emulsifier system, exceeding 80%. Finally, the anti-proliferative efficacy of selected stable and acceptably biocompatible nanoscale TPGS-emulsified argan oil formulations was investigated using murine breast and colon carcinoma cells. The IC50 values of the combination of argan oil and TPGS (40-80% wt of emulsifiers) were 5-9 folds lower compared to TPGS-free and argan-oil free control NEs. Argan oil NE, stabilized with Vitamin E TPGS and solutol HS mixtures, demonstrated significant pro-apoptotic effect on both test cancer cell lines, indicating built-in anticancer properties for such NE platform, potentially enhancing overall antineoplastic effects of incorporated candidate chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of Tobacco Seed Oil and Synthesis of Alkyd Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUKHTAR,Azam; ULLAH,Habib; MUKHTAR,Hamid

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of tobacco seed oil revealed that the oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, having linoleic acid (71.63%), oleic acid (13.46%) and palmitic acid (8.72%) as the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids respectively. So the tobacco oil was characterized as semi-drying type on the basis of fatty acid composition. The synthesis of alkyd resin was carried out by alcoholysis or monoglyceride process using an alkali refined tobacco seed oil, pentaerythritol, cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride along with lithium hydroxide as catalyst.The alkyd resin so prepared was found to be bright and of low color with high gloss. The drying and hardness properties and adhesion of the tobacco seed oil derived alkyd resin were also found a bit superior to those of other alkyd resins of the same oil length. In addition, the water and acid resistance of the said alkyd was also found comparable to the other alkyds.

  5. Effect of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil on markers of oxidation in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Wiseman, S.A.; Meyboom, S.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied whether consumption of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil affects the susceptibility of low density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation and other markers of oxidation in humans. Design: Randomized cross-over intervention trial, stratified according to sex, age and energy intake. Se

  6. Microwave-assisted catalytic esterification of α-glucoisosaccharino-1,4-lactone with tall oil fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Hemanathan; Alén, Raimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carbohydrates-rich materials are partly degraded during alkaline kraft pulping into a complex mixture of aliphatic carboxylic acids consisting of α-glucoisosaccharinic acid as one of the main acids. On the other hand, crude tall oil, containing significant amounts fatty acids, is obtained as a by-product from kraft pulping. One interesting novel approach is to utilize chemically both these side-streams by producing renewable surfactants from aliphatic carboxylic acids ...

  7. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Morrison

    Full Text Available As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats, as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals.ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON containing cocoa butter (15% w/w and cholesterol (1% w/w for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF or virgin (VIR pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content.Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity.Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin

  8. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingering Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

  9. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  10. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  11. Analysis of fatty acids in selected Macedonian edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Leitner, Erich; Lankmayr, Ernst; Siegmund, Barbara; Stafilov, Trajče

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of few Macedonian edible oils, including sunflower, pumpkin seed, flax, rapeseed and sesame seeds, was determined using GC-FID analysis after derivatisation with BF3-methanolic solution. Six different types of fatty acids (FAs) were found in the oils samples. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were common in all saturates. Myristic acid (C14:0) was present in the sunflower and pumpkin seed oil. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and -linolenic (C...

  12. Characterization of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oils by bulk C, O, H, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Eva Katharina; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2010-07-14

    Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) oils differing in cultivar, sites of growth, and harvest year were characterized by fatty acid concentrations and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope analyses of bulk oils (delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), delta(18)O(bulk) values) and individual fatty acids (delta(13)C(FA)). The delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), and delta(18)O(bulk) values were determined by continuous flow combustion and high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS, TC-EA/IRMS). The delta(13)C(FA) values were determined using gas chromatography--combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). For comparison, other C(3) vegetable oils rich in linolenic acid (flax and false flax oils) and rich in linoleic acid (poppy, sunflower, and safflower oils) were submitted to the same chemical and isotopic analyses. The bulk and molecular delta(13)C values were typical for C(3) plants. The delta(13)C value of palmitic acid (delta(13)C(16:0)) and n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (delta(13)C(18:3n-3)) differed (p oils. Also within species, significant differences of delta(13)C(FA) were observed (p oil differed between cultivars (p oil and specific fatty acid stable isotope analysis might be useful in tracing dietary lipids differing in their origin.

  13. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich seed of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Raquel C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, oil-rich plants are the main source of biodiesel products. Because concerns have been voiced about the impact of oil-crop cultivation on the price of food commodities, the interest in oil plants not used for food production and amenable to cultivation on non-agricultural land has soared. As a non-food, drought-resistant and oil-rich crop, Jatropha curcas L. fulfils many of the requirements for biofuel production. Results We have generated 13,249 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing and germinating Jatropha seeds. This strategy allowed us to detect most known genes related to lipid synthesis and degradation. We have also identified ESTs coding for proteins that may be involved in the toxicity of Jatropha seeds. Another unexpected finding is the high number of ESTs containing transposable element-related sequences in the developing seed library (800 when contrasted with those found in the germinating seed library (80. Conclusions The sequences generated in this work represent a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in public databases. These results can be used to produce genetically improved varieties of Jatropha with increased oil yields, different oil compositions and better agronomic characteristics.

  15. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE OIL EXTRACTED FROM ROOT BARK OF VALLARIS SOLANACE (ROTH KUNTZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Punam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oils and fats are integral part of human diet and to match the demands of ever increasing population, there is a continuous search for new edible oils. In the present study, root barks of Vallaris solanacea were examined. As the plant has root and the root bark of Vallaris solanacea found to contain fine oil in 40% yield. The various physico-chemical properties of the extract also revealed the presence of fixed oil from root bark of Vallaris solanacea. The results of gas chromatographic analysis indicate that oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids like oleic, linolenic and polyunsaturated fatty acid like arachidonic acid which are the essential requirement of human diet. The oil also contains saturated fatty acids like caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid and erucic acid and is proven to be non-toxic on animal experimentation’s (rat. Since the oil is present in good yield, is non-toxic and contains essential fatty acids so has to promise to be used as an alternate source of edible oil.

  16. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid from hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches - Its origin and influence on biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena; Mogensen, Kit H.; Jeppesen, Martin D.;

    2016-01-01

    or fucose, e.g. pectin rich biomasses. Assessment of the influence of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches as well as its presence during fermentation showed that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is not inhibiting or mediating neither on the enzymatic hydrolysis...

  17. ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-products improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranu, Ionelia; Gras, Mihail; Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Motiu, Monica; Marin, Daniela E; Lefter, Nicoleta; Ropota, Mariana; Habeanu, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1), or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA) (treatment 2-T2). The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes) on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47%) with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin (IL-8) and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2) in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (Poil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the stimulation of detoxifying enzymes expression and the suppression of spleen pro-inflammatory markers.

  18. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  19. Addition of aspirin to a fish oil-rich diet decreases inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Alexander V; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil-enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) female mice were fed for 13weeks one of the four following diets: omega-3 FA deficient (OD), omega-3 FA rich (OR) (1.8g omega-3 FAs/kg·diet per day), omega-3 FA rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1g ASA/kg·diet per day) or an omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Proinflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50%-70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic proinflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA vs. just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  20. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

    2010-07-01

    Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

  1. Fatty acids profile of Sacha Inchi oil and blends by 1H NMR and GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Juarez; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Garcia-Rojas, Edwin E

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed at the characterization of blends of Sacha Inchi oil (SIO) with different ratios of SO (soybean oil) and CO (corn oil) by nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), compared with the data obtained by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The (1)H NMR and GC-FID data from different ratios of SIO were adjusted by a second order polynomial equation. The two techniques were highly correlated (R(2) values ranged from 0.995 to 0.999), revealing that (1)H NMR is an efficient methodology for the quantification of omega-3 fatty acids in oils rich in omega-6 fatty acids or vice versa such as SO and CO and, on the other hand, can be used to quantify ω-6 in oils rich in ω-3, such as SIO. PMID:25794742

  2. Biotechnology for Fats and Oils: New Oxygenated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the three groups of natural products (starch, protein and fat), fat and oil are the most under-investigated. The US has a large amount of surplus soybean oil annually, and using vegetable oils or their component fatty acids as starting material provides a new opportunity for bioindustry. Veg...

  3. Housing Conditions in Rural Nigeria: Empirical Evidence from Oil-Rich Akwa Ibom State

    OpenAIRE

    Usen Udoh

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed the conditions of rural housing and the extent to which housing conditions related to household socio-economic characteristics of an oil-rich Nigerian State of Akwa Ibom. The study design was based on household cross-sectional survey. Direct observation and questionnaire administration were employed to collect both socio-economic and housing data from 540 randomly sampled households spread across 90 rural communities. Housing condition was evaluated using five broad indicat...

  4. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity.

  5. Implementation of stable isotopes lipoprotein kinetic studies: effects on HDL metabolism of a Mediterranean type diet rich in MUFAs from virgin olive oil.

    OpenAIRE

    Uliaque Cugat, Katia

    2007-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic effects ascribed to a Mediterranean-type diet rich in monounsaturatedfatty acids (MUFAs) from virgin olive oil are due, partly, to an increase in, or maintenance of,plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, the underlyingmechanisms that may explain these concentrations are not well characterised, to-date.Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (apoA-I) is the major HDL apo and its kinetic parameters, such asproduction rate and catabolic rate, reflect ...

  6. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  7. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  8. Fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp. capitatum (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas Khani; Monireh Heydarian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp.capitatum(L.).Methods:The fumigant toxicity test was performed at(27±1)℃,(65±5)% relative humidity, and under darkness condition and24 h exposure time.The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results:The major compounds wereα-cadinol(46.2%), caryophyllene oxide(25.9%), α muurolol epi(8.1%), cadalene(3.7%) and longiverbenone(2.9%).In all cases, considerable differences in mortality of insect to essential oil vapor were observed in different concentrations and exposure times.Callosobruchus maculatus(C. maculates)(LC50=148.9 μL/L air) was more susceptible to the tested plant product thanTeucrium castaneum(T. castaneum) (LC50=360.2 μL/L air) based onLC50 values.In the present investigation, the concentration of3 μL /mL acetone showed60% and52% repellency againstT. casteneumandC. maculatus adults, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggests that sesquiterpene-rich essential oils from the tested plant could be used as a potential control agent for stored-product insects.

  9. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16:0)...

  10. Transcriptome analysis of yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge: a potential oil-rich seed tree for biodiesel in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an oil-rich seed shrub that grows well in cold, barren environments and has great potential for biodiesel production in China. However, the limited genetic data means that little information about the key genes involved in oil biosynthesis is available, which limits further improvement of this species. In this study, we describe sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly to produce the first comprehensive and integrated genomic resource for yellow horn and identify the pathways and key genes related to oil accumulation. In addition, potential molecular markers were identified and compiled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total RNA was isolated from 30 plants from two regions, including buds, leaves, flowers and seeds. Equal quantities of RNA from these tissues were pooled to construct a cDNA library for 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 1,147,624 high-quality reads with total and average lengths of 530.6 Mb and 462 bp, respectively, were generated. These reads were assembled into 51,867 unigenes, corresponding to a total of 36.1 Mb with a mean length, N50 and median of 696, 928 and 570 bp, respectively. Of the unigenes, 17,541 (33.82% were unmatched in any public protein databases. We identified 281 unigenes that may be involved in de novo fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis and metabolism. Furthermore, 6,707 SSRs, 16,925 SNPs and 6,201 InDels with high-confidence were also identified in this study. CONCLUSIONS: This transcriptome represents a new functional genomics resource and a foundation for further studies on the metabolic engineering of yellow horn to increase oil content and modify oil composition. The potential molecular markers identified in this study provide a basis for polymorphism analysis of Xanthoceras, and even Sapindaceae; they will also accelerate the process of breeding new varieties with better agronomic characteristics.

  11. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  12. Lipase-Catalyzed Modification of Canola Oil with Caprylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Luan, Xia; Xu, Xuebing;

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids. Six commercial lipases from different sources were screened for their ability to incorporate the caprylic acid into the canola oil. The positional distribution of FA on the glycerol backbone...... parameters studied included substrate mole ratio, enzyme load, reaction time and temperature. Incorporation of caprylic acid was higher when reactions were carried with 10% lipase of the total weight of substrates at a mole ratio of oil to caprylic acid of 1:4. The optimal time course and temperature...

  13. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  14. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  15. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  16. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed. PMID:25119487

  17. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celuta S. Alviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as “sacaca”. Two morphotypes are known: white and red “sacaca”. The essential oils (EO obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%–37.5%. The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10−3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10−8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC50 less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  18. Antioxidant Properties of a Dihydromyricetin-Rich Extract from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata in Menhaden Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Baek AP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preventing oxidative deterioration of fish oil is a significant challenge for the food industry. Natural antioxidants are widely incorporated into foods to prevent oxidation and extend shelf life. Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata extract has been shown to have antioxidant activity in vegetable oils, but the efficacy in fish oil is unknown. The goal of our study was to test the antioxidant activity of vine tea extract (VTE and compare it with other natural antioxidants (rosemary extract - RME, green tea extract - GTE, grape seed extract - GSE, ascorbyl palmitate - AP, and citric acid - CA in tocopherol stabilized menhaden oil. Baseline levels of alpha, gamma, and delta tocopherols were 0.18mg/g, 0.37mg/g, and 0.14mg/g, respectively. VTE delayed menhaden oil oxidation when stored at 40°C for eight days as determined by primary and secondary oxidation products. Mixtures of VTE and RME and their combinations with AP and CA more effectively improved stability of menhaden oil containing tocopherols than VTE alone. Our results show that VTE is an effective natural antioxidant in menhaden oil, especially in combination with RME.

  19. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  20. Gluconic acid from biomass fast pyrolysis oils: specialty chemicals from the thermochemical conversion of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanaraj, Daniel; Rover, Marjorie R; Resasco, Daniel E; Brown, Robert C; Crossley, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce a bio-oil followed by catalytic upgrading is a widely studied approach for the potential production of fuels from biomass. Because of the complexity of the bio-oil, most upgrading strategies focus on removing oxygen from the entire mixture to produce fuels. Here we report a novel method for the production of the specialty chemical, gluconic acid, from the pyrolysis of biomass. Through a combination of sequential condensation of pyrolysis vapors and water extraction, a solution rich in levoglucosan is obtained that accounts for over 30% of the carbon in the bio-oil produced from red oak. A simple filtration step yields a stream of high-purity levoglucosan. This stream of levoglucosan is then hydrolyzed and partially oxidized to yield gluconic acid with high purity and selectivity. This combination of cost-effective pyrolysis coupled with simple separation and upgrading could enable a variety of new product markets for chemicals from biomass.

  1. Porosity-Acidity Interplay in Hierarchical ZSM-5 Zeolites for Pyrolysis Oil Valorization to Aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Begoña; Veses, Alberto; Callén, Maria Soledad; Mitchell, Sharon; García, Tomás; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-10-12

    The properties of crude bio-oils attained by the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass can be greatly enhanced by means of catalytic upgrading. Here, we demonstrate an efficient process concept coupling the production of pyrolysis oil from pine wood with a consecutive catalytic upgrading step over hierarchically structured ZSM-5 zeolites to attain aromatic-rich bio-oils. The selective upgrading of these complex mixtures is shown to be tightly connected to the extent of mesopore development and the density of Brønsted acid sites at the mesopore surface. A full product analysis enables elucidation of the impact of mesopore introduction and the acidic properties on the complex reaction network. The preferential occurrence of decarbonylation reactions in hierarchical zeolites versus dehydration transformations in the bulk counterparts is believed to be decisive in promoting increased aromatics formation.

  2. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Xavier RA; Barros KV; Andrade IS; Palomino Z; Casarini, DE; Flor Silveira VL

    2016-01-01

    Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty...

  3. Process for Separation of Petroleum Acids from Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new technique for separation of petroleum acids from crude oil was proposed. The method relates to processes for treating acidic oils or fractions thereof to reduce or eliminate their acidity by addition of effective amounts of crosslinked polymeric amines such as polypropylene amine and anionic exchange resins having amino-groups. Petroleum acids contained in the mixture can be extracted by a complex solvent. The results indicate that more than 80 % of the petroleum acids are removed and the process does not cause environmental pollution because all the solvents are recovered and reused in the test.

  4. α-Cyclodextrin encapsulation enhances antimicrobial activity of cineole-rich essential oils from Australian species of Prostanthera (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sadgrove, Nicholas; Greatrex, Ben; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Highly chemically variable cineole-rich essential oils were produced from cultivated specimens of the genus Prostanthera (Lamiaceae), currently taxonomically assigned to P. ovalifolia, P. rotundifolia, P. incisa and P. lasianthos. Essential oils were chemically characterised using GC-MS and NMR. The mean inhibitory concentrations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species were measured using a microtitre plate broth dilution assay.  A selection of these oils were further assaye...

  5. A high-fat diet rich in corn oil reduces spontaneous locomotor activity and induces insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Kin; Botta, Amy; Pither, Jason; Dai, Chuanbin; Gibson, William T; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially n-6 PUFA, and monounsaturated fatty acid content in 'Western diets' has increased manyfold. Such a dietary shift also parallels rising sedentary behavior and diabetes in the Western world. We queried if a shift in dietary fats could be linked to physical inactivity and insulin insensitivity in mice. Eight-week old female C57/Bl6 mice were fed either high-fat (HF) diets [40% energy corn oil (CO) or isocaloric olive oil (OO) diets] or chow (n=10/group) for 6 weeks, followed by estimation of spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and in vivo metabolic outcomes. Although lean mass and resting energy expenditure stayed similar in both OO- and CO-fed mice, only CO-fed mice demonstrated reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. Such depressed activity in CO-fed mice was accompanied by a lower respiratory ratio, hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose disposal following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests compared to OO-fed mice. Unlike the liver, where both HF diets increased expression of fat oxidation genes like PPARs, the skeletal muscle of CO-fed mice failed to up-regulate such genes, thereby supporting the metabolic insufficiencies observed in these mice. In summary, this study demonstrates a specific contribution of n-6 PUFA-rich oils like CO to the loss of spontaneous physical activity and insulin sensitivity in mice. If these data hold true for humans, this study could provide a novel link between recent increases in dietary n-6 PUFA to sedentary behavior and the development of insulin resistance in the Western world.

  6. Distillation fraction-specific ecotoxicological evaluation of a paraffin-rich crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Elisabeth; Loibner, Andreas P; Kendler, Romana; Scherr, Kerstin E

    2013-03-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) with distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties relevant for contaminated site risk assessment. Ecotoxicological effects of crude oil distillation fractions on luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), earthworms (Dendrobaena hortensis) and invertebrates (Heterocypris incongruens) were tested using two spiked soils and their elutriates. Fraction 2 (F2) had an equivalent carbon number (ECN) range of >10 to 16, and F3 from >16 to 39. F2 showed a substantially higher ecotoxicological effect than F3 for Vibrio and Dendrobaena. In contrast, severe inhibition of Heterocypris by the poorly soluble F3 is attributed to mechanical organ blockage. Immediate sequestration of PHC to the organic matter-rich soil effected reduced toxicity for all organisms. This study indicates that a more differentiated consideration (i) of PHC mixtures based on ECN range and (ii) of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into PHC-contaminated site risk assessment. PMID:23287074

  7. Antileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mesquita Marques

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, representing a group of parasitic diseases worldwide spread, occurring in 88 tropical and subtropical countries. Approximately 350 million people live in areas of active transmission of leishmaniasis, with about 1-2 million estimated new cases occurring every year. More than 90% of the cutaneous cases appear in developing countries. Efforts to improve the therapeutic arsenal against leishmaniasis have led to the search for new and cheap range of drugs. In this study, the nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum (Miq. C. DC., Piperaceae, was assayed on arginase activity of Leishmania amazonensis. The effect of this essential oil on arginase activity levels showed an enzyme inhibition of 62.2%. This result stimulates the scientific interest about the potential value of this plant species on neglected diseases as potential new natural product source of pharmacological interest for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  8. Quality Improvement of an Acid Treated Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jumoke ETERIGHO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The work on the quality improvement of fuel oil using acid treatment was carried out. The improvement of the fuel oil was done using sulphuric acid to remove contaminants. Sulphuric acid at different concentrations were mixed with the oil and kept at 45°C for four hours in the agitator vessel to allow reaction to take place. Acidic sludge was then drained off from the agitator and the oil was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. Centrifugation operation was used to extract the sulphonate dispersed in the oil. The treated and untreated oils were characterized for various properties and the results showed that the viscosity, total sulphur of fuel oil decreased from 6.0 to before 5.0 cst after acid treatment and 2.57 to 1.2225% w/w respectively while the flash point increased from 248 to 264°F. The water and sediment content increased from trace before to 0.6 after treatment. In addition, the calorific value increased from initial value of 44,368 to 44,805 and 44,715 kJ/kg at 50% and 75% conc. H2SO4 while decreasing with 85% and 90% conc. H2SO4. However, both carbon residue and ash content decreases with an increase in acid concentration.

  9. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement.

  10. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughman, Scott D; Krupanidhi, Srirama; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2007-08-01

    Long-chain EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic. Current research suggests increasing accumulated long chain omega-3s for health benefits and as natural medicine in several major diseases. But many believe plant omega-3 sources are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the EPA/DHA omega-3 in fish oil. Although healthy, precursor ALA bio-conversion to EPA is inefficient and production of DHA is nearly absent, limiting the protective value of ALA supplementation from flax-oil, for example. Along with pollutants certain fish acquire high levels of EPA/DHA as predatory species. However, the origin of EPA/DHA in aquatic ecosystems is algae. Certain microalgae produce high levels of EPA or DHA. Now, organically produced DHA-rich microalgae oil is available. Clinical trials with DHA-rich oil indicate comparable efficacies to fish oil for protection from cardiovascular risk factors by lowering plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress. This review discusses 1) omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition and medicine; 2) omega-3s in physiology and gene regulation; 3) possible protective mechanisms of EPA/DHA in major diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and type 2 diabetes; 4) EPA and DHA requirements considering fish oil safety; and 5) microalgae EPA and DHA-rich oils and recent clinical results. PMID:18220672

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich tea plant, Camellia oleifera, reveals candidate genes related to lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Hua Xia

    Full Text Available Rapidly driven by the need for developing sustainable sources of nutritionally important fatty acids and the rising concerns about environmental impacts after using fossil oil, oil-plants have received increasing awareness nowadays. As an important oil-rich plant in China, Camellia oleifera has played a vital role in providing nutritional applications, biofuel productions and chemical feedstocks. However, the lack of C. oleifera genome sequences and little genetic information have largely hampered the urgent needs for efficient utilization of the abundant germplasms towards modern breeding efforts of this woody oil-plant.Here, using the 454 GS-FLX sequencing platform, we generated approximately 600,000 RNA-Seq reads from four tissues of C. oleifera. These reads were trimmed and assembled into 104,842 non-redundant putative transcripts with a total length of ∼38.9 Mb, representing more than 218-fold of all the C. oleifera sequences currently deposited in the GenBank (as of March 2014. Based on the BLAST similarity searches, nearly 42.6% transcripts could be annotated with known genes, conserved domains, or Gene Ontology (GO terms. Comparisons with the cultivated tea tree, C. sinensis, identified 3,022 pairs of orthologs, of which 211 exhibited the evidence under positive selection. Pathway analysis detected the majority of genes potentially related to lipid metabolism. Evolutionary analysis of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2 genes among 20 oil-plants unexpectedly suggests that a parallel evolution may occur between C. oleifera and Olea oleifera. Additionally, more than 2,300 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 20,200 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected in the C. oleifera transcriptome.The generated transcriptome represents a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in the public databases, providing an unprecedented opportunity to discover all related-genes associated with lipid metabolic pathway in C

  14. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  15. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre. PMID:7957006

  16. Growth and survival of Acidithiobacilli in Acidic, metal rich environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mangold, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Acidithiobacilli are acidophilic microorganisms that play important roles in many natural processes such as acidification of the environment, influencing metal mobility, and impacting on global sulfur and iron cycles. Due to their distinct metabolic properties they can be applied in the industrial extraction of valuable metals. Acidithiobacilli thrive in an environment which is extremely acidic and usually low in organic carbon but highly polluted with metals. In the quest to gain insight int...

  17. FATTY ACIDS PATTERN OF OLIVE OIL UNDER ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasab Al-Rawashdeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming is considered as a mitigation strategy to face adverse effect of climate change and Consumers’ increasing their need for safe and quality food has motivated this research study. The olive oil of the Roman olive trees (Landrace Olea Europea belong to the Oleaceae family growing under organic farming (in the transition period conditions in Jordan Ajlun area was extracted by traditional method; warming water to the about 60°C and grounded the seeds make as paste then pour in the warmed water then take the oil layer floated at the surface. The oil was analyzed for fatty acids pattern and compared with Romans trees olive oil grown at Burma Agriculture Station which has organic Certificate according to the Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS since 2007. The separation patterns of fatty acids were done by Gas Chromatography (GC. Results showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid (up to 67.49%, linoleic acid (13.31% and linolenic acid (0.74% in the oil of Romans trees growing in Ajlun area, while the organic olive oil from the Romans olive trees growing at Burma Station showed 68.88% of oleic acid, 11.73% of linoleic acid and 0.67% of Linolenic acid. The analysis also showed that the palmatic saturated fatty acid was 12.54% at Burma Station compared to 11.82% in Ajlun area. The medicinal value of unsaturated fatty acids play great role for reducing cholesterol rate that was found in high level of Romans olive trees (landrace.

  18. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  19. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  20. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  1. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia;

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  2. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    OpenAIRE

    Chanida Lamaisri; Vittaya Punsuvon; Sonthichai Chanprame; Anuruck Arunyanark; Peerasak Srinives; Ponsiri Liangsakul

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositio...

  3. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Herrera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (- menthone, R (+ pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was the most toxic ( LC50: 116.6 µl /L air characterized by a high percentage of menthone (40.1% and pulegone (43.7%. All ketones showed insecticidal activity against S. zeamais. However, pulegone (LC50: 11.8 µl/L air, R- carvone (LC50: 17.5 µl/L air, S-carvone (LC50: 28.1 µl/L air and E-Z-ocimenone (LC50: 42.3 µl/L air were the most toxic. These ketones are a,b-unsaturated carbonyl. This feature could play a fundamental role in the increase of insecticidal activity against S. zeamais.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  5. Consumption of a Diet Rich in Cottonseed Oil (CSO Lowers Total and LDL Cholesterol in Normo-Cholesterolemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal data indicates that dietary cottonseed oil (CSO may lower cholesterol; however, the effects of a CSO-rich diet have not been evaluated in humans. Thirty-eight healthy adults (aged 18–40; 12 males, 26 females consumed a CSO rich diet (95 g CSO daily for one week. Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and blood was drawn pre- and post-intervention. Serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA were assayed. There was no change in weight or waist circumference among participants. There was no change in HDL (Pre: 1.27 ± 0.4 mmol/L; Post: 1.21 ± 0.3 mmol/L or TG (Pre: 0.91 ± 0.6 mmol/L; Post: 1.06 ± 1.0 mmol/L. Total cholesterol and LDL were reduced (TC Pre: 4.39 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.16 ± 0.8 mmol/L; LDL Pre: 2.70 ± 0.8 mmol/L; Post: 2.47 ± 0.6 mmol/L. When data were grouped by sex, total cholesterol was reduced in female participants (Pre: 4.34 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.09 ± 0.8 mmol/L. Consumption of a high fat, CSO-rich diet for one week reduced total cholesterol in female participants without reducing HDL.

  6. ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

  7. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Beg, Zafarul H; Iqbal, Jahangir

    2005-05-01

    We investigated a dose-dependent hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) isolated from rice bran oil on experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Feeding of atherogenic diet (5% hydrogenated fat, 0.5% cholic acid and 1% cholesterol) for three weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma triglyceride (3.3-fold) and total cholesterol (2.4-fold) levels. There was a 5-fold increase in the level of LDL cholesterol with only a small increase in HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, HMG-CoA reductase activity was significantly reduced in these animals. The formation of TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (86%) and conjugated dienes (78%) were also significantly higher in these rats compared to normals. After the induction of hyperlipidemia for three weeks, rats were supplemented with different doses of TRF for one week. TRF supplementation decreased the lipid parameters in a dose-dependent manner with an optimum effect at a dose of 8 mg TRF/kg/day. HMG-CoA reductase activity, which was increased after the withdrawal of atherogenic diet, remained significantly decreased during the TRF treatment. Feeding of TRF also decreased TBARS and conjugated dienes significantly. These results suggest that TRF supplementation has significant health benefits through the modulation of physiological functions that include various atherogenic lipid profiles and antioxidants in hypercholesterolemia.

  8. ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-products improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionelia Taranu

    Full Text Available Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1, or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA (treatment 2-T2. The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47% with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin (IL-8 and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2 in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (P<0.05 in spleen the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1 by 3.43, 2.47 and 1.83 fold change respectively, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (4.60 fold, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS (3.23 fold and the total antioxidant level (9.02% in plasma. Camelina diet increased also peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ mRNA and decreased that of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38α MAPK and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB. At this level of inclusion (12% camelina oil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the stimulation

  9. “Complementarity” Feature of Hydrocarbon Distribution in Oil-rich Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuJinhu; YiShiwei; LuXuejun; WangQuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the research and exploration of lithostratigraphic reservoir in me Jizhong depression of the Bohai Bay basin and Erlian basin, the hydrocarbon distribution in a continental oil-rich sag has "complementarity" feature, viz. the hydrocarbon resources configuration and plane distribution of the structural reservoir and lithostratigraphic reservoir have the "complementarity". This distribution feature is controlled by many factors such as the macroscopical geological setting, reservoir-forming condition, and the reservoir-forming mechanism of structural reservoir and lithostratigraphic reservoir. More research shows that the "complementarity" of hydrocarbon distribution is prevalent in every kind of continental basin. This "rule" helps to establish a new exploration theory, a scientific exploration program, and make proper exploration deployments in hydrocarbon exploration. Therefore, it is significant for the exploration work in continental petroliferous basins of China.

  10. Association with an ammonium-excreting bacterium allows diazotrophic culture of oil-rich eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Do Nascimento, Mauro; Dublan, Maria de Los Angeles; Curatti, Leonardo

    2012-04-01

    Concerns regarding the depletion of the world's reserves of oil and global climate change have promoted an intensification of research and development toward the production of biofuels and other alternative sources of energy during the last years. There is currently much interest in developing the technology for third-generation biofuels from microalgal biomass mainly because of its potential for high yields and reduced land use changes in comparison with biofuels derived from plant feedstocks. Regardless of the nature of the feedstock, the use of fertilizers, especially nitrogen, entails a potential economic and environmental drawback for the sustainability of biofuel production. In this work, we have studied the possibility of nitrogen biofertilization by diazotrophic bacteria applied to cultured microalgae as a promising feedstock for next-generation biofuels. We have obtained an Azotobacter vinelandii mutant strain that accumulates several times more ammonium in culture medium than wild-type cells. The ammonium excreted by the mutant cells is bioavailable to promote the growth of nondiazotrophic microalgae. Moreover, this synthetic symbiosis was able to produce an oil-rich microalgal biomass using both carbon and nitrogen from the air. This work provides a proof of concept that artificial symbiosis may be considered an alternative strategy for the low-N-intensive cultivation of microalgae for the sustainable production of next-generation biofuels and other bioproducts. PMID:22267660

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the extension of use for DHA and EPA-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a Novel Food ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on an extension of use for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is already authorised for use in a range of foodstuffs at specified maximum levels. The applicant requests an extension of use ...

  12. Characterization of Fatty Acid Profile of Argan Oil and Other Edible Vegetable Oils by Gas Chromatography and Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Rueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin argan oil is an emergent oil that is being introduced into specialized international markets as a healthy and luxury food. In order to compare the fatty acid composition of argan oil with that of the eleven other vegetable edible oils, a combination of gas chromatography as analytical technique and multivariate discriminant analysis was applied. This analysis takes into account the conjoint effect of all the variables analyzed in the discrimination between oils and also shows the contribution of each variable to oils characterization. The model correctly classified 100% oil samples. According to the fatty acid composition, argan oil showed closest similarity firstly with sesame oil and secondly with high oleic sunflower oil. Olive oil was close to avocado oil and almond oil, followed by argan oil. Thus, similarities and differences between vegetable oils based on their fatty acid profile were established by the application of multivariate discriminant analysis. This method was proven to be a useful tool to study the relationships between oils according to the fat composition and to determine the importance of the fatty acid variables on the oils classification.

  13. Solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Kathlene; Gopinath, Rajesh; Meher, Lekha Charan; Dalai, Ajay Kumar [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2008-12-17

    Various solid acid catalysts were evaluated for the production of biodiesel from low quality oil such as waste cooking oil (WCO) containing 15 wt.% free fatty acids. The zinc stearate immobilized on silica gel (ZS/Si) was the most effective catalyst in simultaneously catalyzing the transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) present in WCO to methyl esters. The optimization of reaction parameters with the most active ZS/Si catalyst showed that at 200 C, 1:18 oil to alcohol molar ratio and 3 wt.% catalysts loading, a maximum ester yield of 98 wt.% could be obtained. The catalysts were recycled and reused many times without any loss in activity. (author)

  14. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an autocla

  15. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-07-07

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  16. Microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Alisa; Tahmasebi, Arash; Tian, Lu; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of peanut shell (PT) and pine sawdust (PS) using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil and nanotubes was investigated in this study. The effects of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and biomass/catalyst ratio on the yields and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. Fast heating rates were achieved under microwave irradiation conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bio-oil showed that activated carbon significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenolic compounds in bio-oil. The highest phenolics content in the bio-oil (61.19 %(area)) was achieved at 300°C. The selectivity of phenolics in bio-oil was higher for PT sample compared to that of PS. The formation of nanotubes in PT biomass particles was observed for the first time in biomass microwave pyrolysis.

  17. Microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Alisa; Tahmasebi, Arash; Tian, Lu; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of peanut shell (PT) and pine sawdust (PS) using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil and nanotubes was investigated in this study. The effects of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and biomass/catalyst ratio on the yields and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. Fast heating rates were achieved under microwave irradiation conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bio-oil showed that activated carbon significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenolic compounds in bio-oil. The highest phenolics content in the bio-oil (61.19 %(area)) was achieved at 300°C. The selectivity of phenolics in bio-oil was higher for PT sample compared to that of PS. The formation of nanotubes in PT biomass particles was observed for the first time in biomass microwave pyrolysis. PMID:27030958

  18. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  19. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Matthäus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa, were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil. The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol.

  20. Characterisation of Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales: Discovery of extremely organic sulphur-rich type I kerogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Las Heras, F.X.C. de; Bergen, P.F. van; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    The kerogens of three Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales were analyzed by light microscopy, flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bulk composition methods (elemental analysis, Rock Eval pyrolysis). Two of the three kerogens (Ribesalbes and Campins) are extremely rich in organ

  1. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  2. Simultaneous recovery of benzene-rich oil and metals by steam pyrolysis of metal-poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2014-03-18

    The possibility of simultaneous recovery of benzene and metals from the hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-based materials such as X-ray films, magnetic tape, and prepaid cards under a steam atmosphere at a temperature of 450 °C was evaluated. The hydrolysis resulted in metal-containing carbonaceous residue and volatile terephthalic acid (TPA). The effects of metals and additives on the recovery process were also investigated. All metals were quantitatively recovered, and silver, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and anatase (TiO2) were recovered without any changes in their crystal structures or compositions. In a second step, TPA was decarboxylized in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) at 700 °C, producing benzene with an average yield of 34% and purity of 76%. Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) incorporated in magnetic tape and prepaid cards could decarboxylate TPA. Aluminum present in the prepaid cards produced hydrogen by the reaction with steam. However, the presence of metals had no adverse influence on the recovery of benzene-rich oil in the presence of CaO. Therefore, this method can be applied to PET-based materials containing inorganic substances, which cannot be recycled effectively otherwise. PMID:24527803

  3. Obtention of Free Fatty Acids of Macauba Oil (Acrocomia Aculeata in Organic Solvent Free System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Portilho Trentini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil Macaúba, to obtain a hydrolyzate rich in free fatty acids (FFA for later use in step esterification. The effect of process variables (percentage of catalyst, temperature and water content was evaluated in the FFA yield, using a factorial experimental design 23, where the positive and significant effect of the variables was observed. The results reported yields of 50.5% in FFA in 6 hours of reaction at 60ºC, water percentage of 15 wt% and catalyst percentage of 5 wt%.

  4. Study on preparation method of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds kernel oil with zero trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Yao, Shi-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Yi; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    The seed of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) is a by-product of pepper production and rich in unsaturated fatty acid, cellulose, and protein. The seed oil obtained from traditional producing process by squeezing or extracting would be bad quality and could not be used as edible oil. In this paper, a new preparation method of Z. bungeanum seed kernel oil (ZSKO) was developed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of alkali saponification-cold squeezing, alkali saponification-solvent extraction, and alkali saponification-supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The results showed that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing could be the optimal preparation method of ZSKO, which contained the following steps: Z. bungeanum seed was pretreated by alkali saponification under the conditions of adding 10 %NaOH (w/w), solution temperature was 80 °C, and saponification reaction time was 45 min, and pretreated seed was separated by filtering, water washing, and overnight drying at 50 °C, then repeated squeezing was taken until no oil generated at 60 °C with 15 % moisture content, and ZSKO was attained finally using centrifuge. The produced ZSKO contained more than 90 % unsaturated fatty acids and no trans-fatty acids and be testified as a good edible oil with low-value level of acid and peroxide. It was demonstrated that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing process could be scaled up and applied to industrialized production of ZSKO.

  5. Composition and flotation performance of plant acidic oil%几种植物油脂酸化油的组成及其浮选性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗惠华; 李成秀; 汤家焰; 王亚运; 陈炳炎

    2012-01-01

    为了研究棉油、大豆油、蓖麻油、玉米油等几种植物酸化油在温度20℃下的浮选性能,采用气相色谱法分析了其脂肪酸的组成,通过浮选试验评价了其性能.结果表明,这几种植物酸化油中,含有脂肪酸的组成不同,大豆与玉米酸化油的不饱和脂肪酸亚油酸,亚麻酸含量较高,而棉油酸化油主要含有油酸与亚油酸、无亚麻酸,蓖麻油主要是羟基油酸.不同植物酸化油捕收剂的浮选性能不同,它们的浮选性能低于油酸.这几种植物酸化油捕收能力是棉油酸化油>大豆酸化油>蓖麻酸化油>玉米酸化油;而大豆酸化油与玉米酸化油捕收剂的选择性相当,但高于棉籽油酸化油和蓖麻油酸化油.因此,作为捕收剂应选用不饱和脂肪酸特别是亚油酸和亚麻酸的含量高的酸化油,有利于胶磷矿的浮选.%The froth flotation tests were conducted to study the flotation performance of acidified vegetable oil such as cottonseed acidic oil, soybean acidic oil, castor acidic oil and corn acidic oil, at the 20℃. And its fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the composition of fatty acid in this several acidified vegetable oil is different, soybean acidic oil and corn acidic oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids with high linoleic acid and linolenic acid contents, while cottonseed acidic oil mainly contains oleic acid and linoleic acid, no linolenic acid and castor oil main ingredients for hydroxyl acid. The floatability of this several acidified vegetable oil is also different which is weaker than oleic acid. In unit of acidified vegetable oil, the collection capacity of cottonseed acidic oil is better than soybean acidic oil, castor acidic oil and corn acidic oil, while the selective of soybean acidic oil which is equal to corn acidic oil is better than cottonseed acidic oil and castor acidic oil. So, it is better for the flotation of collophanite as the

  6. Promotion of hydrogen-rich gas and phenolic-rich bio-oil production from green macroalgae Cladophora glomerata via pyrolysis over its bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Safari, Farid; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Nejati, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as a Caspian Sea's green macroalgae into gaseous, liquid and solid products was carried out via pyrolysis at different temperatures to determine its potential for bio-oil and hydrogen-rich gas production for further industrial utilization. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for bio-oil production. The highest portion of bio-oil was retrieved at 500°C. The catalytic test was performed using the bio-char derived at 500°C as a catalyst. Effect of the addition of the algal bio-char on the composition of the bio-oil and also gaseous products was investigated. Pyrolysis derived bio-char was characterized by BET, FESEM and ICP method to show its surface area, porosity, and presence of inorganic metals on its surface, respectively. Phenols were increased from 8.5 to 20.76area% by the addition of bio-char. Moreover, the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen selectivity were also enhanced by the factors of 1.37, 1.59 respectively.

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...

  8. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil; Mohammed M. Dheyab; Kareem M. Ahmed; Marwa H. Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl) and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction...

  9. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8 mo

  10. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  11. Functional and safety evaluation of transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2014-08-01

    Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system.

  12. Functional and safety evaluation of transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2014-08-01

    Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system. PMID:24700396

  13. Enhancement of skin permeation of ibuprofen from ointments and gels by sesame oil, sunflower oil and oleic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda S; Vijay Ratna J

    2006-01-01

    Several batches of paraffin ointments were prepared and ibuprofen was incorporated into them. Sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid in different concentrations were incorporated into different batches. Commercial ibuprofen gel was obtained and divided into several batches and different concentrations of sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid were incorporated into them. The in vitro drug release characteristics through hairless (88 mm) rat skin was carried out by using modified Inser...

  14. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  15. Biomass to hydrogen-rich syngas via catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Yao, Jingang; Liu, Jing; Yan, Beibei; Shan, Rui

    2015-12-01

    The catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry (bioslurry) for hydrogen-rich syngas production was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor using LaXFeO3 (X=Ce, Mg, K) perovskite-type catalysts. The effects of elemental substitution in LaFeO3, temperature, water to carbon molar ratio (WCMR) and bioslurry weight hourly space velocity (WbHSV) were examined. The results showed that La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 gave the best performance among the prepared catalysts and had better catalytic activity and stability than the commercial 14 wt.% Ni/Al2O3. The deactivation caused by carbon deposition and sintering was significantly depressed in the case of La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst. Both higher temperature and lower WbHSV contributed to more H2 yield. The optimal WCMR was found to be 2, and excessive introducing of steam reduced hydrogen yield. The La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst gave a maximum H2 yield of 82.01% with carbon conversion of 65.57% under the optimum operating conditions (temperature=800°C, WCMR=2 and WbHSV=15.36h(-1)). PMID:26378962

  16. Linalool-rich rosewood oil induces vago-vagal bradycardic and depressor reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Rodrigo José; Rodrigues, Karilane Maria Silvino; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; Correia Junior, Carlos Antônio Barros; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; da Cunha, Pergentino José Sousa; Lahlou, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of the linalool-rich essential oil of Aniba rosaeodora (here named as EOAR) in normotensive rats were investigated. In anesthetized rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of EOAR induced dose-dependent biphasic hypotension and bradycardia. Emphasis was given to the first phase (phase 1) of the cardiovascular effects, which is rapid (onset time of 1-3 s) and not observed in animals submitted to bilateral vagotomy or selective blockade of neural conduction of vagal C-fibre afferents by perineural treatment with capsaicin. Phase 1 was also absent when EOAR was directly injected into the left ventricle injection, but it was unaltered by i.v. pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron or HC030031. In conscious rats, EOAR induced rapid and monophasic hypotensive and bradycardiac (phase 1) effects that were abolished by i.v. methylatropine. In endothelium-intact aortic rings, EOAR fully relaxed phenylephrine-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. The present findings reveal that phase 1 of the bradycardiac and depressor responses induced by EOAR has a vago-vagal reflex origin resulting from the vagal pulmonary afferents stimulation. Such phenomenon appears not to involve the recruitment of C-fibre afferents expressing 5HT3 receptors or the two chemosensory ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 . Phase 2 hypotensive response appears resulting from a direct vasodilatory action.

  17. Formation of calcium naphthenate in water/oil systems, naphthenic acid chemistry and emulsion stability

    OpenAIRE

    Havre, Trond Erik

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the production of crude oils with high amounts of naphthenic acids has increased. Certain problems are related to this type of crudes and a better understanding of the chemistry of the naphthenic acids is therefore of interest.Synthetic model naphthenic acids, as well as commercial mixtures and crude oil naphthenic acids have been utilized to study the chemistry of naphthenic acids. Partitioning of naphthenic acids between oil and water and the dissociation equilibria in water...

  18. Studies on zeolite contribution to the sun protection properties of plant oil lotion rich in vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunscreen lotions rich in vitamin E provide benefit in preventing and treating sunburns. The sun protection capacity of vitamin E's lotion formulations decrease with time of light exposure. The zeolite microparticles with previously absorbed vitamin E and added after to sun protection oil lotion could be used as reservoir for replacing UV photo degraded vitamin E. In the research, the vitamin E absorption capacities of zeolite microparticles of concentration of 0.2 % w/v in plant oil mixture (Olea Europea Oil, Sunflower oil) have been studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The sedimentation and laser diffraction measurements gave broad distribution on size of the zeolite microparticles (1 μm to 15 μm) without interparticle interactions in the solution. The results showed ten-fold decrease in UV absorbance at wavelength of 292 nm in the first 30 minutes of vitamin E absorption to zeolite microparticles and a flat of release in the sunscreen lotion. (Author)

  19. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  20. Wax Ester Rich Oil From The Marine Crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus, is a Bioavailable Source of EPA and DHA for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad M; Larsen, Terje S; Derrig, Linda D; Kelly, Kathleen M; Tande, Kurt S

    2016-10-01

    Oil from the marine copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, which contains >86 % of fatty acids present as wax esters, is a novel source of n-3 fatty acids for human consumption. In a randomized, two-period crossover study, 18 healthy adults consumed 8 capsules providing 4 g of Calanus(®) Oil supplying a total of 260 mg EPA and 156 mg DHA primarily as wax esters, or 1 capsule of Lovaza(®) providing 465 mg EPA and 375 mg DHA as ethyl esters, each with an EPA- and DHA-free breakfast. Plasma EPA and DHA were measured over a 72 h period (t = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). The positive incremental area under the curve over the 72 h test period (iAUC0-72 h) for both EPA and DHA was significantly different from zero (p wax ester rich marine oil is a suitable alternative source of EPA and DHA for human consumption.

  1. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and...

  2. Fatty acid composition of Brunfelsia uniflora (Solanaceae seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, C. A.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Brunfelsia uniflora contained 30.5% of oil. The oil was analysed and components were identified by infrared (IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and chemical methods. Linoleic acid predominated (75.5% followed by oleic (11.8% and palmitic (7.25% acids. Ricinoleic acid was present in small quantities (0.52%.Las semillas de Brunfelsia uniflora contuvieron 30.5% de aceite. El aceite fue analizado y los componentes fueron indentificados por espectroscopia de infrarrojo (IR, cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masa (CGEM y métodos químicos. Predominó el ácido linoleico (75.5% seguido por el oleico (11.8% y el palmítico (7.25%. El ácido ricinoleico estuvo presente en pequeñas cantidades (0.52%.

  3. BREAD SPREADS PREPARED FROM VEGETABLE OIL BLENDS HAVING BALANCED FATTY ACID PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    SAGARIKA BHATTACHARYYA

    2013-01-01

    Palm oil and mowrah oil are semi solid at room temperature in tropical countries. The oils are blended separately with til oil and rice bran oil respectively in formulation of bread spreads. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of the experimental oil blends are more balanced compared to that of butter or margarine. The experiment shows that the margarines prepared from the blend of palm oil and til oil and mowrah oil and rice bran oil in different proportion like 85:15 and 80:20 respectively are...

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on blood lipids and adiposity of rats fed diets rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Rebecca; Linscheid, Janna; Johnson, Amy; Lawson, Brian; Edwards, Kylie; Linder, Travis; Stocker, Kelly; Petitte, Jeremy; Kern, Mark

    2005-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may decrease adiposity and improve blood lipid profiles under some conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of CLA supplementation on blood lipid profiles and adiposity of rats fed a diet containing a primarily saturated fat versus a diet containing a primarily unsaturated fat. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing coconut oil, coconut oil with CLA, corn oil or corn oil with CLA. After 28 days, blood was collected and serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TG) were assessed. Food intake, body weights, and epididymal fat pads were measured. No significant differences (p>0.05) were noted among groups for amount of food consumed, weight gained, food efficiency ratio or serum TG concentrations. TC concentrations were lower (pHDL-C was lower (p0.05) for CLA supplemented groups. Epididymal fat pads weighed significantly more (p0.05) between the corn oil and coconut oil + CLA group. Overall, this study suggests that CLA is more beneficial for control of blood lipids and adiposity when supplemented to a diet rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

  5. Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols and structured triacylglycerols rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Esteban, Luis; Martín, Lorena; Jiménez, María José; Hita, Estrella; Castillo, Beatriz; González, Pedro A; Robles, Alfonso

    2012-08-10

    This paper studies the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) by a four-step process: (i) obtaining 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by alcoholysis of cod liver oil with several alcohols, catalyzed by lipases Novozym 435, from Candida antartica and DF, from Rhizopus oryzae, (ii) purification of 2-MAGs, (iii) formation of STAGs by esterification of 2-MAGs with caprylic acid catalyzed by lipase DF, from R. oryzae, and (iv) purification of these STAGs. For the alcoholysis of cod liver oil, absolute ethanol, ethanol 96% (v/v) and 1-butanol were compared; the conditions with ethanol 96% were then optimized and 2-MAG yields of around 54-57% were attained using Novozym 435. In these 2-MAGs, DHA accounted for 24-31% of total fatty acids. In the operational conditions this lipase maintained a stable level of activity over at least 11 uses. These results were compared with those obtained with lipase DF, which deactivated after only three uses. The alcoholysis of cod liver oil and ethanol 96% catalyzed by Novozym 435 was scaled up by multiplying the reactant amounts 100-fold and maintaining the intensity of treatment constant (IOT=3g lipase h/g oil). In these conditions, the 2-MAG yield attained was about 67%; these 2-MAGs contained 36.6% DHA. The synthesized 2-MAGs were separated and purified from the alcoholysis reaction products by solvent extraction using solvents of low toxicity (ethanol and hexane); 2-MAG recovery yield and purity of the target product were approximately 96.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These 2-MAGs were transformed to STAGs using the optimal conditions obtained in a previous work. After synthesis and purification, 93% pure STAGs were obtained, containing 38% DHA at sn-2 position and 60% caprylic acid (CA) at sn-1,3 positions (of total fatty acids at these positions), i.e. the major TAG is the STAG with the structure CA-DHA-CA.

  6. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntti, J; Nikkari, T.; Solakivi, T; Vapaatalo, H.; Isomäki, H

    1989-01-01

    The serum concentration of lipids and composition of fatty acids after overnight fasting were studied in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 12 weeks with either 20 ml of evening primrose oil containing 9% of gamma-linolenic acid or olive oil. The serum concentrations of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and apolipoprotein B decreased and those of linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased during treatment with evening primr...

  7. Effect of Maturation Degree on Composition of Fatty Acids and Tocopherols of Fruit Oil from Pistacia atlantica Growing Wild in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenane, Hamid; Bombarda, Isabelle; OuldElhadj, Mohamed Didi; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Pistacia atlantica fruit oil has been used for a long time by local populations for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, the fatty acid composition and tocopherol content were determined in twelve samples of P. atlantica fruit oil at three stages of maturation (immature, intermediate maturity and mature) collected in three different sites from the region of Laghouat. The results indicated a significant difference between the oil of mature fruits (green and black) and the immature ones (light red), which were distinguished by richness in unsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols. The oil from fruits of intermediate maturity (dark red) seems to combine these properties with those of the mature group, including oil yields. Such data emphasize the value of this oil, which needs further investigation.

  8. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  9. Antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease. According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 1.5-two million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis each year worldwide. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, which were developed more than a century ago. The goals of this study were to investigate the antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil, as well as some possible targets of their action against Leishmania amazonensis. Methyl copalate and agathic, hydroxycopalic, kaurenoic, pinifolic and polyaltic acids isolated from Copaifera officinales oleoresins were utilised. Ultrastructural changes and the specific organelle targets of diterpenes were investigated with electron microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. All compounds had some level of activity against L. amazonensis. Hydroxycopalic acid and methyl copalate demonstrated the most activity against promastigotes and had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 2.5 and 6.0 µg/mL, respectively. However, pinifolic and kaurenoic acid demonstrated the most activity against axenic amastigote and had IC50 values of 3.5 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Agathic, kaurenoic and pinifolic acid caused significant increases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation of the protozoan. In conclusion, copaiba oil and its diterpene acids should be explored for the development of new antileishmanial drugs.

  10. Antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Izumi, Erika; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; da Veiga-Júnior, Valdir Florêncio; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease. According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 1.5-two million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis each year worldwide. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, which were developed more than a century ago. The goals of this study were to investigate the antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil, as well as some possible targets of their action against Leishmania amazonensis. Methyl copalate and agathic, hydroxycopalic, kaurenoic, pinifolic and polyaltic acids isolated from Copaifera officinales oleoresins were utilised. Ultrastructural changes and the specific organelle targets of diterpenes were investigated with electron microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. All compounds had some level of activity against L. amazonensis. Hydroxycopalic acid and methyl copalate demonstrated the most activity against promastigotes and had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.5 and 6.0 µg/mL, respectively. However, pinifolic and kaurenoic acid demonstrated the most activity against axenic amastigote and had IC50 values of 3.5 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Agathic, kaurenoic and pinifolic acid caused significant increases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation of the protozoan. In conclusion, copaiba oil and its diterpene acids should be explored for the development of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:23440116

  11. Long Term Economic Growth in Oil-Rich Saudi Arabia: What is the role for non-oil sectors?

    OpenAIRE

    A Alodadi; J Benhin

    2015-01-01

    As a depletable resource, oil is a useful source of economic growth, but may not be relied upon for long-term sustainable development. Diversification from oil is needed to achieve this. This paper examines the most important non-oil determinants of growth in the Saudi economy between 1970 and 2011, using the Johansen approach and error correction modelling, to study the relationship between all variables, both long and short-run. It focuses on the role of non-oil sectors, given the governmen...

  12. Searching for a One-Step Bioprocess for the Production of Hydroxyl Fatty Acids and Hydroxyl Oils from Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is produced domestically in large supply, averaging over 20 billion pounds per year with an annual carryover of more than one billion pounds. It is important to find new uses for this surplus soybean oil. Hydroxyl fatty acids and hydroxyl oils are platform materials for specialty chemi...

  13. Gluconic acid from biomass fast pyrolysis oils: specialty chemicals from the thermochemical conversion of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanaraj, Daniel; Rover, Marjorie R; Resasco, Daniel E; Brown, Robert C; Crossley, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce a bio-oil followed by catalytic upgrading is a widely studied approach for the potential production of fuels from biomass. Because of the complexity of the bio-oil, most upgrading strategies focus on removing oxygen from the entire mixture to produce fuels. Here we report a novel method for the production of the specialty chemical, gluconic acid, from the pyrolysis of biomass. Through a combination of sequential condensation of pyrolysis vapors and water extraction, a solution rich in levoglucosan is obtained that accounts for over 30% of the carbon in the bio-oil produced from red oak. A simple filtration step yields a stream of high-purity levoglucosan. This stream of levoglucosan is then hydrolyzed and partially oxidized to yield gluconic acid with high purity and selectivity. This combination of cost-effective pyrolysis coupled with simple separation and upgrading could enable a variety of new product markets for chemicals from biomass. PMID:25204798

  14. Concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of Asian catfish oil by urea complexation: optimization of reaction conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpisanu Thammapat; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Patcharin Raviyan

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of the concentrating conditions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) extracted from Asian catfish oil was studied to obtain a maximum concentration. The crude fish oil was extracted from the belly flap and adipose tissue of Asian catfish, and the extracted oil was used as fresh crude oil. The EPA and DHA were concentrated by the urea complexation method. A hexagonal rotatable design was applied to examine the effects of crystallization temperatur...

  15. Interactions of dietary fibre and omega-3-rich oil with protein in surimi gels developed with salt substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Partington, Susan; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2013-11-01

    Most Western populations have insufficient intake of fibre and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while sodium intake greatly exceeds the recommended maximum. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with these nutraceutical ingredients. Alaska pollock surimi seafood was developed with salt substitute and fortified with either 6g/100g of fibre or 10 g/100g of ω-3 oil (flax:algae:menhaden, 8:1:1) or fibre+ω-3 oil (6g/100g of fibre+10 g/100g of ω-3 oil). The objective was to determine effects of the dietary fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi. Fortification with either dietary fibre or ω-3 oil alone or in combination enhanced (P<0.05) rheological and textural characteristics. The combined fortification had a synergistic effect on rheological properties. This indicates greater gelation of surimi in the presence of fibre+ω-3 oil, suggesting their interaction with surimi myofibrillar proteins. Fibre results in protein dehydration increasing protein concentration; while oil is immobilised by protein filling void spaces in the gel matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fibre and ω-3 oil did not interfere with normal denaturation of surimi proteins. Colour properties were only slightly affected (P<0.05). Fortification of surimi with fibre and ω-3 oil resulted in a quality product that could be useful in developing surimi products with nutritional benefits. PMID:23768348

  16. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Asa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S

    2010-06-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, beta-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs) released from TAG or as intact TAG immediately degraded to FFAs. These data were supported by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM) studies where close contact between endosperm lipid droplets and the scutellum was observed. The appearance of the fused oil in the oat endosperm changed into oil droplets during germination in areas close to the aleurone and the scutellar epithelium. However, according to the data obtained by TEM these oil droplets are unlikely to be oil bodies surrounded by oleosins. Accumulation of FFA pools in the embryo suggested further transport of FFAs from the scutellum. Noticeably high levels of TAG were also accumulated in the embryo but were not synthesized by re-esterification from imported FFAs. Comparison between two oat cultivars with different amounts of oil and starch in the endosperm suggests that an increased oil to starch ratio in oat grains does not significantly impact the germination process.

  17. Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, unsaturated fats with at least one double bond in the Trans configuration, are industrially formed in large quantities when vegetable oils are partially hydrogenated. This study was  ndertaken to quantify the amounts of the common fatty acids in several commercial oils marketing in Iran.
    • METHODS: The most consumed commercially available brands of vegetable oils were randomly selected from products available in supermarkets. A 10g sample was drawn from each mixed sample and prepared for fatty cid analysis by gas chromatography (GC.
    • RESULTS: Palmitic acid (C16:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 jointly constituted 21% of total fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs. More than one third of total fatty acids in Iranian PHVOs were Trans fats. TFAs constituted almost 1% and 3% of total fatty  cids in Iranian cooking and frying oils. This study  howed higher contents of TFAs in Iranian commercially available hydrogenated vegetable oils. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used for all statistical analyses.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although

    • Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria inhabit fructose-rich niches in nature

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Akihito Endo

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB are a special group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which prefer fructose but not glucose as growth substrate. They are found in fructose-rich niches, e.g. flowers, fruits, and fermented foods made from fruits. Quite recently, they were found in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals consuming fructose, which were bumblebees, tropical fruit flies, and Camponotus ants. These suggest that all natural sources that are rich in fructose are possible their habitats. Fructobacillus spp., formerly classified as Leuconostoc spp., are representatives of these microorganisms, and Lactobacillus kunkeei has also been classified as FLAB. They share several unique biochemical characteristics, which have not been found in LAB inhabited in other niches. FLAB grow well on fructose but very poor on glucose. These organisms grow well on glucose only when external electron accepters, e.g. pyruvate or oxygen, are available. LAB have been shown to have specific evolution to adapt to their niches and have several niche-specific characteristics. FLAB must have fructophilic evolution during adaptation to fructose-rich niches. FLAB are unique food-related LAB, suggesting a great potential for future food and feed applications.

    • Oil-generating potential of Tertiary coals and other organic-rich sediments of the Nyalau Formation, onshore Sarawak

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hasiah, A.W. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Geology

      1999-02-01

      The oil-generating potential of coals and other organic-rich sediments from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Nyalau Formation, the offshore extension of which is believed to be a major source rock, is evaluated. Coals of the Nyalau Formation are typically dominated by vitrinite, with moderate and low amounts of exinite and inertinite, respectively. Significant amounts of clay minerals are present in these coals and those containing between 15 to 65% mineral matter by volume are termed carbargilite. The samples analysed range from sub-bituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank. Good oil-generating potential is anticipated from these coals and carbargilites with moderate to rich exinite content (15-35%). This is supported by their high hydrogen indices. Petrographically, the most significant evidence of the oil-generating potential of these coals is the generation of petroleum-like materials (exsudatinite) visible under the microscope. The precursor of exsudatinite is the maceral bituminite which readily expels or mobilizes to hydrocarbon-like material in the form of oil smears.

    • Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

      2016-04-01

      The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution.

  1. Prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar Y Al-Okbi; Doha A Mohamed; Thanaa E Hamed; Reham SH Esmail; Souria M Donya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. Methods:Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups of rats were conducted;control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts. Results:Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol andβ-sitosterol in all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Conclusions: Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety.

  2. Prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y.; Mohamed, Doha A.; Hamed, Thanaa E.; Esmail, Reham SH.; Donya, Souria M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. Methods Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups of rats were conducted; control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts. Results Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Conclusions Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety. PMID:25183331

  3. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanida Lamaisri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

  4. Model Compounds for Heavy Crude Oil Components and Tetrameric Acids: Characterization and Interfacial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgård, Erland Løken

    2009-01-01

    The tendency during the past decades in the quality of oil reserves shows that conventional crude oil is gradually being depleted and the demand being replaced by heavy crude oils. These oils contain more of a class high-molecular weight components termed asphaltenes. This class is mainly responsible for stable water-in-crude oil emulsions. Both heavy and lighter crude oils in addition contain substantial amounts of naphthenic acids creating naphthenate deposits in topside facilities.The asph...

  5. A New Source of Elemol Rich Essential Oil and Existence of Multicellular Oil Glands in Leaves of the Dioscorea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy I. Odimegwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent’s diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α-terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α-farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  6. Dietary fish oil modulates macrophage fatty acids and decreases arthritis susceptibility in mice

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    B10.RIII and B10.G mice were transferred from a diet of laboratory rodent chow to a standard diet in which all the fat (5% by weight) was supplied as either fish oil (17% eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 12% docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 0% arachidonic acid [AA], and 2% linoleic acid) or corn oil (0% EPA, 0% DHA, 0% AA, and 65% linoleic acid). The fatty acid composition of the macrophage phospholipids from mice on the chow diet was similar to that of mice on a corn oil diet. Mice fed the fish oil d...

  7. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  8. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry. PMID:27477075

  9. Treatment of glabella skin necrosis following injection of hyaluronic acid filler using platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Kang, In Jung; Jeong, Ki Heon; Shin, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. However, there can be various complications following HA filler injection. Skin necrosis is rare but one of the most disastrous side effects that, if not treated promptly and effectively, can result in permanent and potentially disfiguring scarring. Thus, early proper management is important. Herein we report a patient who experienced tissue necrosis of the glabellar area after receiving filler injections that was successfully treated using platelet-rich plasma and provide full follow-up clinical photographs. PMID:26052808

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  11. Oxidative and Flavor Stability of Tortilla Chips Fried in Expeller Pressed Low Linolenic Acid Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous pilot plant frying studies were conducted for potato chips using five oils: expeller pressed soybean oil (SBO); low linolenic acid expeller pressed SBO (EPLLSBO); high oleic sunflower oil (HOSUN); corn oil and hydrogenated SBO (HSBO) for 9 h of frying. The chips were aged at 25 deg C. A...

  12. Antioxidant Properties of a Dihydromyricetin-Rich Extract from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) in Menhaden Oil

    OpenAIRE

    N Baek AP; Nielson WN Eigel; SF O'Keefe

    2015-01-01

    Preventing oxidative deterioration of fish oil is a significant challenge for the food industry. Natural antioxidants are widely incorporated into foods to prevent oxidation and extend shelf life. Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract has been shown to have antioxidant activity in vegetable oils, but the efficacy in fish oil is unknown. The goal of our study was to test the antioxidant activity of vine tea extract (VTE) and compare it with other natural antioxidants (rosemary extract - ...

  13. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  14. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowd, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

  15. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID:16699105

  16. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  17. prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar; Y.Al-Okbi; Doha; A.Mohamed; Thanaa; E.Hamed; Reham; SH.Esmail; Souria; M.Donya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado,walnut,flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin.Methods:Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant.Six groups of rats were conducted:control healthy,cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection.Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined.Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals.Total phenolic contents,faity acids(FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts.Results:Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic.FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA.Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campeslerol.stigmaslerol and β—sitosterol in all the studied plants.Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea,creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin,total protein,calalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance.Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction.Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and spermshape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment.Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical,histopathological and cytogenetic parameters.Conclusions:Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin—induced nephrotoxicity,chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms.All studied uutraceuticals showed complete safety.

  18. Antihyperalgesic and antiedematous activities of bisabolol-oxides-rich matricaria oil in a rat model of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Maja; Popović, Višnja; Petrović, Silvana; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica; Micov, Ana; Pavlović-Drobac, Milica; Couladis, Maria

    2014-05-01

    From the dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L., essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and in the obtained blue oil, α-bisabolol oxide A (21.5%), α-bisabolol oxide B (25.5%) and (Z)-spiroether (cis-en-yn-spiroether) (10.3%) were identified as the main compounds, by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses. The antihyperalgesic effects of this oil were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, through a modified 'paw-pressure' test. Antiedematous effects were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, dextran and histamine, through plethysmometry. Matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of hyperalgesia and edema induced by carrageenan in both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment schemes. It was more efficacious in the prophylactic treatment scheme, and the corresponding median effective dose (ED50 ) ± standard error of the mean (SEM) values were 49.8 ± 6.0 and 42.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg for antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects, respectively. Prophylactic treatments with matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant dose-dependent antiedematous effect in dextran-induced edema with lower efficacy than in the carrageenan model. In a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., matricaria oil caused a slight reduction of histamine-induced edema. These results suggest that bisabolol-oxide-rich matricaria oil may be effective against pain and edema present in various inflammatory conditions, which supports matricaria traditional uses. PMID:23983133

  19. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  1. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam.

  2. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term.

  3. Production and concentration of monoacylglycerols rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzymatic glycerolysis and molecular distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaesa, Ángela García; Sanz, María Teresa; Falkeborg, Mia; Beltrán, Sagrario; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) was conducted through short path distillation (SPD) of an acylglycerol mixture (containing 67% MAGs) produced by enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil with glycerol. A stepwise SPD process in a UIC KDL 5 system (vacuum 10(-3)mbar, feeding flow 1.0 mL/min) was proceeded: the first distillation performed at evaporator temperature (TE) of 110 °C to remove glycerol completely and most of FFAs; and the second distillation at optimized TE 155 °C; resulting in a stream distillate with 91% purity and 94% overall recovery of MAGs. This work also demonstrated that SPD is able to concentrate n-3 PUFAs in MAG form by distilling at proper TE e.g. 125 °C, where n-3 PUFAs are concentrated in the residues. Moreover, this work mapped out a complete processing diagram for scalable production of n-3 PUFAs enriched MAGs as potential food emulsifier and ingredient. PMID:26213062

  4. Honeybees and beehives are rich sources for fructophilic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Salminen, Seppo

    2013-09-01

    Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a specific group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) characterized and described only recently. They prefer fructose as growth substrate and inhabit only fructose-rich niches. Honeybees are high-fructose-consuming insects and important pollinators in nature, but reported to be decreasing in the wild. In the present study, we analyzed FLAB microbiota in honeybees, larvae, fresh honey and bee pollen. A total of 66 strains of LAB were isolated from samples using a selective isolation technique for FLAB. Surprisingly, all strains showed fructophilic characteristics. The 66 strains and ten FLAB strains isolated from flowers in a separate study were genotypically separated into six groups, four of which being identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei and two as Fructobacillus fructosus. One of the L. kunkeei isolates showed antibacterial activity against Melissococcus plutonius, a causative pathogen of European foulbrood, this protection being attributable to production of an antibacterial peptide or protein. Culture-independent analysis suggested that bee products and larvae contained simple Lactobacillus-group microbiota, dominated by L. kunkeei, although adult bees carried a more complex microbiota. The findings clearly demonstrate that honeybees and their products are rich sources of FLAB, and FLAB are potential candidates for future bee probiotics. PMID:23845309

  5. Quantitative assessment of mono- and polysulphide-linked carbon skeletons of S-rich macromolecular aggregates present in bitumens and oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Baas, M.; Kock-van Dalen, A.C.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Polar fractions of three immature sulphur-rich sediments and four sulphur-rich oils, all of Miocene age, were studied using two selective chemolytic methods, namely methyl lithium/methyl iodide, which selectively cleaves polysulphide bonds, and Raney nickel or nickel boride which cleave both mono-an

  6. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  7. Consumption of a solid fat rich in lauric acid results in a more favorable serum lipid profile in healthy men and women than consumption of a solid fat rich in trans-fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Solid fats are used in food manufacturing to provide texture and firmness to foods. Such fats are rich in either saturated or trans-fatty acids, both of which increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that trans-fatty acids increase risk more than

  8. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  9. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  10. Fatty acid profile of eggs of semi-heavy layers fed feeds containing linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.

  11. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

  12. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism. PMID:24641587

  13. The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Balkis Budin; Faizah Othman; Santhana Raj Louis; Mokhtar Abu Bakar; Srijit Das; Jamaludin Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fractions on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: (i) normal non-diabetic (NDM), (ii) diabetic treated (tocotrienol-rich fractions - TRF) and (iii) diabetic untreated (non-TRF). The treatment group received oral administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions (200 mg/kg body weight) daily for eight weeks. The normal non-diabetic and the diabetic untreated groups were fed stan...

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF OCS IN ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE, CHLOROPHYTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 张成武; ZviCohen; AmosRichmond

    2002-01-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a prebable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18:1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS, like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

  15. PHYSIOLOGICAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF OCS IN ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main phy siological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid , protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture super natant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) wer e investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiol ogical parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE w ere added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties we re inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in th is alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell ma ss, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyz ing chain elongation from C18:1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced t hat some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS, like auto-inhibitors, inhi bited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of aut o-i nhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for max imal production of desired products like AA.

  16. Effect of Plant Oils upon Lipase and Citric Acid Production in Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Darvishi; Iraj Nahvi; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani; Fariborz Momenbeik

    2009-01-01

    The nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates to produce organic acids, single-cell oil, lipases, and so forth. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical behavior and simultaneous production of valuable metabolites such as lipase, citric acid (CA), and single-cell protein (SCP) by Yarrowia lipolytica DSM 3286 grown on various plant oils as sole carbon source. Among tested plant oils, olive oil proved to be the best medium for lip...

  17. Synergistic potential of dillapiole-rich essential oil with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the synergy and response homogeneity of the Spodoptera frugiperda larvae population to the Piper aduncum essential oil in combination with pyrethroid insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and gamma-cyhalothrin compared to piperonylbutoxide (PBO as positive control. Synergism (SF comparisons were obtained using lethal concentration (LC50 and lethal dose (LD50 ratios of insecticides individually and in their respective synergistic combinations with essential oil and PBO. Dose/concentration-mortality slope curves were used to establish relative toxicity increase promoted by synergism. They also determined homogeneity response. Residual contact revealed significant potentiation for commercial insecticides formulated with beta-cypermethrin (SF=9.05-0.5 and fenpropathrin (SF=34.05-49.77 when combined with the P. aduncum essential oil. For topical contact, significant potentiation occurred only for alpha-cypermethrin (SF=7.55-3.68, fenpropathrin (SF=3.37-1.21, and gamma-cyhalothrin (SF=5.79-10.48 insecticides when combined with essential oil. With the exception of fenpropathrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, insecticides synergistic combinations presented homogeneous response by topical as well as residual contact at least with essential oil. The SF significance values ​​of the P. aduncum essential oil combined with alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and gamma-cyhalothrin insecticides indicated potential for this oil to be used as an alternative to PBO.

  18. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.;

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  19. Origin of sulfur rich oils and H2S in Tertiary lacustrine sections of the Jinxian Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high S oils (up to 14.7%) with H2S contents of up to 92% in the associated gas have been found in the Tertiary in the Jinxian Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, PR China. Several oil samples were analyzed for C and S stable isotopes and biomarkers to try to understand the origin of these unusual oil samples. The high S oils occur in relatively shallow reservoirs in the northern part of the Jinxian Sag in anhydrite-rich reservoirs, and are characteristic of oils derived from S-rich source rocks deposited in an enclosed and productive stratified hypersaline water body. In contrast, low S oils (as low as 0.03%) in the southern part of the Jinxian Sag occur in Tertiary lacustrine reservoirs with minimal anhydrite. These southern oils were probably derived from less S-rich source rocks deposited under a relatively open and freshwater to brackish lake environment that had larger amounts of higher plant inputs. The extremely high S oil samples (>10%) underwent biodegradation of normal alkanes resulting in a degree of concentration of S in the residual petroleum, although isoprenoid alkanes remain showing that biodegradation was not extreme. Interestingly, the high S oils occur in H2S-rich reservoirs (H2S up to 92% by volume) where the H2S was derived from bacterial SO4 reduction, most likely in the source rock prior to migration. Three oils in the Jinxian Sag have δ 34S values from +0.3%o to +16.2%o and the oil with the highest S content shows the lightest δ 34S value. This δ 34S value for that oil is close to the δ 34S value for H2S (∼0%o). It is possible that H2S was incorporated into functionalized compounds within the residual petroleum during biodegradation at depth in the reservoir thus accounting for the very high concentrations of S in petroleum

  20. Vegetables and PUFA-rich plant oil reduce DNA strand breaks in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut; Pleifer, Simone;

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease associated with increased oxidative stress, which may lead to increased DNA damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a healthy diet on DNA oxidation in diabetics and nondiabetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-six diabetic......Guo excretion remained unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that a healthy diet rich in antioxidants reduces levels of DNA strand breaks in diabetic individuals....... and 21 nondiabetic individuals participated in this study. All subjects received information about the benefits of a healthy diet, while subjects randomly assigned to the intervention group received additionally 300 g of vegetables and 25 mL PUFA-rich plant oil per day. DNA damage in mononuclear cells...

  1. The Development of Beef Pie Riching in Unsaturated Fatty Acids%牛肉饼中不同油脂复配比例的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩田; 马俪珍; 柴丽园

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to search for the best combination of unsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oil (sunflower oil, olive oil and butter) to replace part of the butter to the steak. [ Method] Orthogonal test design of L9(34) was performed to optimize the addition a-mounts of sunflower oil, olive oil and butter to determine the content on the texture of beef patties and optimal ratio. Physical mouth feel, slice ability, flavor, color, and the texture of beef pie and fatty acid were determined. Sunflower oil, olive oil, butter add volume set to three levels:3% , 4% , 5% . Sensory score systems were used for the evaluation of the beef pie. [ Result] The results showed that the optimal combination was addition amounts of 5% sunflower oil, 4% olive oil and 3% butter. [Conclusion]The study gain optimum formula by orthogonal test. The ratio can be added to lean ground beef in processed into high quality beef patties.%[目的]将富含不饱和脂肪酸的植物油脂(葵花油、橄榄油和牛油)替代部分牛油添加到牛肉饼中,探寻最佳的比例组合.[方法]采用正交试验设计确定牛肉饼中葵花油、橄榄油和牛油的添加量对牛肉饼质构的影响以及最优比例的优化.应用感官评分法对牛肉饼的口感、组织状态、滋气味、色泽进行评分,并对牛肉饼的质构进行测定.[结果]感官评定与质构测定结果较一致,最佳组合均为5%葵花油、4%橄榄油和3%牛油.[结论]通过正交试验得出其最佳工艺配方,可按照此比例添加到瘦牛肉馅中加工成品质优良的牛肉饼.

  2. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Medium Chain Fatty Acids in Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Pontoh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of medium chain of fatty acids in coconut oil becomes important due to their roles in health issues. The present analysis methods for fatty acids present in food mainly focused to the overall fatty acid concentration. The analytical method for specific medium chain fatty acids is not so much be given attention. This research is focused to the analytical methods for these particular fatty acids in coconut oil. Several analytical methods were compared including acid catalyzed, basic catalyzed and acid boron trifluoride catalyzed derivatization. The response of each fatty acid toward the derivatization methods are different. Formation of the fatty acid methyl ester from caprylic and capric was low for acid catalyzed method compared to basic catalyzed method and acid boron trifluoride catalyzed methods. This finding shows that the kinetics of the esterification among the fatty acids are not the same. The analysis of all fatty acids in coconut oil is better using basic catalyzed than the other methods.

  3. Macroeconomic factors and oil futures prices. A data-rich model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagaglia, Paolo [Modelling Division, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    I study the dynamics of oil futures prices in the NYMEX using a large panel dataset that includes global macroeconomic indicators, financial market indices, quantities and prices of energy products. I extract common factors from the panel data series and estimate a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregression for the maturity structure of oil futures prices. I find that latent factors generate information that, once combined with that of the yields, improves the forecasting performance for oil prices. Furthermore, I show that a factor correlated to purely financial developments contributes to the model performance, in addition to factors related to energy quantities and prices. (author)

  4. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil to Hydrogen Rich Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid produced by pyrolysis of biomass and its main advantage compared with biomass is an up to ten times higher energy density. This entails lower transportation costs associated with the utilization of biomass for production of energy and fuels. Nevertheless, the bio-oil has a low heating value and high content of oxygen, which makes it unsuited for direct utilization in engines. One prospective technology for upgrading of bio-oil is steam reforming(SR), which can be used to p...

  5. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F., E-mail: valdirveiga@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 {mu}g/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  6. Macroeconomic factors and oil futures prices. A data-rich model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I study the dynamics of oil futures prices in the NYMEX using a large panel dataset that includes global macroeconomic indicators, financial market indices, quantities and prices of energy products. I extract common factors from the panel data series and estimate a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregression for the maturity structure of oil futures prices. I find that latent factors generate information that, once combined with that of the yields, improves the forecasting performance for oil prices. Furthermore, I show that a factor correlated to purely financial developments contributes to the model performance, in addition to factors related to energy quantities and prices. (author)

  7. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  8. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  9. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  10. Sunflower oil bleaching by adsorption onto acid-activated bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Foletto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two bentonite clays with different mineralogical compositions from Mendoza, Argentine, were activated with H2SO4 solutions of 4 and 8 N at 90ºC for 3.5 hours. This treatment affected clay structural properties, as was shown by thermogravimetry, infrared spectrometry and chemical analysis. Bleaching efficiency for sunflower oil was strongly dependent on the acid concentration used for clay activation. The samples have bleaching capacity comparable to that observed with a commercial adsorbent standard. The mineralogical composition of natural clays influenced the properties of the activated clays.

  11. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  12. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  13. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  14. Antiphytoviral Activity of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oils from Four Croatian Teucrium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Burčul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae, as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1–52.0% and germacrene D (8.7–17.0%. Other important components were β-pinene from T. montanum and α-pinene from T. flavum. The investigated essential oils were proved to reduce lesion number in the local host Chenopodium quinoa Willd. infected with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, with reductions of 41.4%, 22.9%, 44.3% and 25.7%, respectively.

  15. Acid esterification of a high free fatty acid crude palm oil and crude rubber seed oil blend: Optimization and parametric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Modhar A.; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni M. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Chemical Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Free fatty acids content plays an important role in selecting the appropriate route for biodiesel production. Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil is fed to the reaction with methanol as the alcohol of choice and sulfuric acid. Selected reaction parameters were optimized, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, to yield the lowest free fatty acid content in the final product. The investigated parameters include alcohol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The effect and significance of each parameter were then studied based on the fractional factorial design and verified by additional experiments. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce the free fatty acid content in the feedstock to lower than 0.6% (95% reduction) were 65 C, 15:1 methanol to oil ratio (by mole) and 0.5 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} after 3 h of reaction time. Temperature had been found to have the most effect on the reduction of free fatty acids followed by reactants ratio while increasing catalyst amount had nominal effect. (author)

  16. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  17. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  18. Report-The fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Chivandi, Eliton; Dawood, Sumaya; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey; Gundidza, Mazuru; Magwa, Michael Libala; Muredzi, Perkins; Samie, Amidou

    2015-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil was determined using gas chromatographic methods. C. abbreviata seeds yielded 9.53% of yellowish-green oil consisting mainly of oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic acid (26.5%), linoleic acid (26.7%), stearic acid (4.1%) and elaidic acid (2.1%). The oil was solid at room temperature, had a saponification value of 376.16 mg KOH/g and an iodine value of 26.48 g I2/100g oil. The fatty acid composition and saponification value of the C. abbreviata seed oil suggest that it may find application in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical natural product formulations.

  19. Identification of rapeseed oil fatty acid esters in transesterification reactions by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed oil transesterification with different alcohols - methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl alcohol - has been carried out. Yields of fatty acid alkyl esters obtained from rapeseed oil were determined using the internal standard method. Results of interpretation of the obtained ester mass spectra are reported. The specimen of Latvian rape oil contains: 57.6% of oleic acid, 18.2% of linoleic acid, 8.2% linolenic acid, 3.3% palmitic acid, 2% of stearic acid and less than 1% of arachidic acid. Values of Kovats retention indices of the rapeseed oil fatty acid esters on the capillary columns DB-5 MS and DB-17 MS have been compared. More selective separation of fatty acid alkyl esters has been achieved on the stationary phase with higher content of phenyl groups (DB-17 MS). (authors)

  20. Determination of phenolic acids in olive oil by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiarelli, Francesca; Di Berardino, Sonia; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    A CZE method for the separation and quantitation of phenolic acids (cinnamic, syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic, caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic), extracted from extra virgin olive oil, was developed. The sample preparation involved the LLE and SPE extraction methods. CE separation was performed in a fused silica capillary of I.D.= 50microm using as a BGE 40 mM borate buffer at pH=9.2. The separation voltage was 18kV with corresponding current of 27-28 microA. Detection was accomplished with UV-detector at lambda=200nm. The proposed method was fully validated. A good repeatability of migration time (RSD% ranged from 0.81 to 1.63) and of corrected peak area (RSD% from 2.89 to 5.77) was obtained. The linearity of detector response in the range from 5 to 50 ppm was checked, obtaining the correlation coefficient R2 values in the range: 0.9919-0.9997. Some phenolic acids in real oil samples were detected and quantified with the proposed method. PMID:15506620

  1. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  2. Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 张再龙; 孙燕华; 劳永新; 蔺五正; 吴卫芳

    2003-01-01

    Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rock samples were examined in this study. The rock samples were obtained from seven oil fields in China. In order to clarify the effect of each mineral matter in the rock samples, both the Fe M?ssbauer effect and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to determine the relative content of each mineral in the rock samples, and the catalytic activities of several minerals like clays, carbonates and pyrite were determined. The Fe M?ssbauer effect and the XRD studies show that clays are the main mineral components in the rock samples except for the samples from Biyang and Jianghan in which the main mineral component is ankerite. The other mineral components include calcite, plagioclase, quartz, feldspar, siderite, aragonite, pyrite, analcime, pyroxene and anhydrite. The studies of the catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids suggest that carbonates and pyrite can make much greater contributions to the catalytic activities of the rock samples than clays. It is found that the overall catalytic activities of the rock samples are well related to the relative contents and the catalytic activities of clays, carbonates and pyrite in the rock samples.

  3. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  4. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...

  5. Fatty acids and sterols of Griffonia seeds oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazanov, Zakir

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, fatty acids and sterols of Griffonia simplicifolia seeds oil were studied. Fatty acid composition is 18:2 - 60 %, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 - 9-18 %, and 20:0 - 3-4 %. The main sterol is β-sitosterol - 60 %, stigmasterol is 29 %, and campesterol is 11 %. Linoleic acid can be relatively simply enriched to 95 % separating the other fatty acids as urea adducts.Se han estudiado los lípidos, ácidos grasos y esteroles del aceite de semillas de Griffonia simplicifolia. La composición en ácidos grasos es 18:2 – 60 %, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 – 9-18 %, y 20:0 – 3-4 %. El principal esterol es el β-sitosterol – 60 %, el estigmasterol constituye el 29 %, y el campesterol el 11 %. El ácido linoleico puede enriquecerse hasta el 95 % separando los otros ácidos grasos como aductos de urea.

  6. Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Non-Oil Economic Growth in a ResourceRich Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri HASANOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates effects of fiscal decentralization on non-oil sector development in case of Azerbaijan for the quarterly period of 2002 through 2013. Results obtained from Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing approach show that share of local expenditures and revenues in total, measures of fiscal decentralization, have negative impact on non-oil GDP. This finding is consistent with other studies outcomes and can be considered adequate for the Azerbaijani economy due to the number of institutional constraints. The results of the research would provide a good insight for policy makers in implementing economic reforms to develop institutional aspects of decentralization and thus make it supportive for non-oil economic growth

  7. Effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Li, Tao; Medvecky, Christopher M; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Conney, Allan H; Shapses, Sue; Wagner, George C; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Our previous studies reported that caffeine or voluntary exercise decreased skin tumor multiplicity, in part, by decreasing fat levels in the dermis. These data suggest that tissue fat may play an important role in regulating ultraviolet light (UV) B-induced skin tumor development. In the present study, we explored the effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. SKH-1 mice were irradiated with 30 mJ/cm(2) of UVB once a day, two times per week for 39 weeks. During UVB treatment, one group of mice was given a high-fat fish oil (HFFO) diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and the other group of mice was given a high-fat mixed-lipids (HFMLs) diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids. The results showed that, compared with HFML diet, HFFO treatment (i) increased latency for the development of UVB-induced skin tumors; (ii) decreased the formation of papilloma, keratoacanthoma and carcinoma by 64, 52 and 46%, respectively and (iii) decreased the size of papilloma, keratoacanthoma and carcinoma by 98, 80 and 83%, respectively. Mechanistic studies with antibody array revealed that compared with HFML diet, administration of HFFO to the mice significantly decreased the UVB-induced increases in the levels of TIMP-1, LIX and sTNF R1 as well as other several proinflammatory cytokines and stimulated the UVB-induced apoptosis in the epidermis. Our results indicate that omega-3 fatty acids in HFFO diet have beneficial effects against UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis, and these effects may be associated with an inhibition on UVB-induced inflammatory response. PMID:21525235

  8. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  9. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol composition of oils from some Sudanese oil bearing sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven oils, obtained from seven Sudanese oil bearing sources that are Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO and Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO, were investigated. The seeds were collected in Sudan from Ghibaish, North Kordofan state. In addition to the oil content, the fatty acid was determined by capillary gas chromatography and the tocopherols were evaluated by highperformance liquid chromatography. The oil content of the seven seeds amounted to 12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, and 21.3%, respectively.The oils contained 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 and 10.9 % palmitic acid and 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % oleic acid, and 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34.6, 33.5, 36.3 % linoleic acid and traces of linolenic acid, respectively.The tocopherol content of these oils amounted to 85.6, 48.2, 32.7, 163.5, 52.5, 30.9, and 26.4 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Alpha-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Albizia lebbek, Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia occidentalis, and Abutilon pannosum, while gamma-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Mitracarpus villous, Ipomea indica and Sesamum alatum.Se analizan siete aceites procedentes de plantas y semillas de Sudán: Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO y Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO. Las semillas se recolectaron en el estado de Ghibaish, North Kordofan. Además del contenido en aceite (12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, y 21.3 %, respectivamente, se determinaron los ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases y los tocoferoles mediante HPLC. Los aceites contenían, respectivamente, 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 y 10.9 % de ácido palmitito, 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % de ácido oleico, 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34

  10. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil to Hydrogen Rich Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus

    Bio-oil is a liquid produced by pyrolysis of biomass and its main advantage compared with biomass is an up to ten times higher energy density. This entails lower transportation costs associated with the utilization of biomass for production of energy and fuels. Nevertheless, the bio-oil has a low...... heating value and high content of oxygen, which makes it unsuited for direct utilization in engines. One prospective technology for upgrading of bio-oil is steam reforming (SR), which can be used to produce H2 for upgrading of bio-oil through hydrodeoxygenation or synthesis gas for processes like...... with both Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 and Ni/MgAl2O4. The carbon deposition over Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 and Ni/MgAl2O4 had a maximum at 500 ‰, which coincided with the maximum in the ethene formation. This, along with estimations of the anity for carbon deposition from the gas composition, showed that ethene is the main...

  11. Selection and production of oregano rich in essential oil and carvacrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, van der H.J.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in oregano essential oil and its component carvacrol for the use as a feed additive with antimicrobial properties, enhancing the health of poultry and pigs. This chapter describes the initial agronomic attempts (in the years 2001-2004) to acquire and develop Origanum

  12. Regiospecific Quantification of Triacylglycerols Containing Ricinoleate and Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  13. Analysis of acylglycerols containing mono- and dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by HPLC and MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  14. Influence of Meteorological Factors on Oil Content and Major Fatty Acids of Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weijun; Zhao Desheng; Shen Huicong

    1998-01-01

    A study on the influence of meteorological factors on oil content and major fatty acids of rapeseeds was conducted based on latitudinal location experiments and years of varietal investigations. Negative correlation was found between the latitudes and erucic acid content, and positive correlations were found between the latitudes and oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid contents of rapeseeds. No significant correlation was observed between the latitudes and lionlenic acid content of rapeseeds. The oil content of rapeseeds varied from 34.00 % to 44.90 % and was concentrated within 39.00 %~40.90% in the Yangtze River lower basin. The difference of oil content between years was observed to be 3. 00% ~5.00%. The regional variation of the same varieties had ravealed a 0. 4432 % increase of oil content per 1 increase of the latitudes.The seed formation was the key growth stage in which the oil content and stagemajor fatty acid contents of rapeseeds were influenced by the meteorological factors. The following correlations were observed:( 1 )positive correlation between oil content and the daylength; (2) negative correlations between erucic acid content and daily mean temperature, ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature, and the daylength; (3)positive correlation between oleic acid content and the daylength; (4) negative correlation between linoleic acid content and daily mean temperature, and positive one between linoleic acid content and ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature;(5) no significant correlation between linolenic acid content and these meteorological factors. The experiments also estimated the key meteorological factors which affected oil content and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds, and established the stepwise regression equations between the key meteorological factors and oil content, and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds. The experimental results formed important bases for the selection of low erucic acid rape breeding area and for

  15. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (Poil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet had no influence on the tested parameters.

  16. The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR controls the liver derived tumor suppressor histidine-rich glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Ulrich; Birkel, Manfred; Hambruch, Eva; Hornberger, Martin; Kinzel, Olaf; Perović-Ottstadt, Sanja; Schulz, Andreas; Hahn, Ulrike; Burnet, Michael; Kremoser, Claus

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear bile acid receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is strongly expressed in liver and intestine, controls bile acid and lipid homeostasis and exerts tumor-protective functions in liver and intestine. Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant plasma protein produced by the liver with the proposed function as a pattern recognition molecule involved in the clearance of immune complexes, necrotic cells and pathogens, the modulation of angiogenesis, the normalization of deranged endothelial vessel structure in tumors and tumor suppression. FXR recognition sequences were identified within a human HRG promoter fragment that mediated FXR/FXR-agonist dependent reporter gene activity in vitro. We show that HRG is a novel transcriptional target gene of FXR in human hepatoma cells, human upcyte® primary hepatocytes and 3D human liver microtissues in vitro and in mouse liver in vivo. Prolonged administration of the potent nonsteroidal FXR agonist PX20606 increases HRG levels in mouse plasma. Finally, daily oral administration of this FXR agonist for seven days resulted in a significant increase of HRG levels in the plasma of healthy human male volunteers during a clinical Phase I safety study. HRG might serve as a surrogate marker indicative of liver-specific FXR activation in future human clinical studies. Furthermore, potent FXR agonists might be beneficial in serious health conditions where HRG is reduced, for example, in hepatocellular carcinoma but also other solid cancers, liver failure, sepsis and pre-eclampsia. PMID:25363753

  17. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5 % added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed with the other treatments. Supplementing EVOO in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant defense system. These findings, besides adding more results on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers. PMID:26606933

  18. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 oC under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt% than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%. Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3% in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%, while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%. These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable.En este trabajo, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (SFE usando CO2 con etanol como agente de arrastre se realizó a 40 °C bajo una presión de 21 MPa. Se ha llevado a cabo la comparación con una extracción similar sin agente de arrastre. El rendimiento de la extracción de germen de trigo usando CO2 supercrítico con etanol fue ligeramente mayor (10,7% en peso que la de extracción sin agente de arrastre (9,9% en peso. Se recogieron por separado fracciones de extractos SFE durante los experimentos y se analizó la composición de ácidos grasos en cada fracción. Los aceites extraídos mediante SFE eran ricos en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados más valiosos (63,4-71,3%, (PUFA y su contenido en todas las fracciones recogidas fue aproximadamente constante. Un contenido similar de PUFA fueron encontrados en muestras de referencia de los aceites extraídos con n-hexano (66,2-67,0%, mientras que el

  19. Enhancement of skin permeation of ibuprofen from ointments and gels by sesame oil, sunflower oil and oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinda S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of paraffin ointments were prepared and ibuprofen was incorporated into them. Sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid in different concentrations were incorporated into different batches. Commercial ibuprofen gel was obtained and divided into several batches and different concentrations of sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid were incorporated into them. The in vitro drug release characteristics through hairless (88 mm rat skin was carried out by using modified Insertion cell designed in our laboratory. The cell was placed into a borosil beaker containing 50 ml of pH 7.4 phosphate buffer as the diffusion fluid. The beaker was placed over the magnetic stirrer, which was maintained at 37±0.5° to maintain the temperature of diffusion fluid. The released drug content at predetermined time interval was measured using U-V-double beam spectrophotometer at 272 nm. The drug release was raised with increase in oil concentration.

  20. ACID VALUE OF VEGETABLE OILS AND POULTRY FEED AS AFECTED BY STORAGE PERIOD AND ANTIOXIDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan, Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess acid values in soyabean, cotton seed and sunflower oil commonly used in poultry ration was conducted. It was observed that mean acid value of oils ~ept in open were significantly high (7.67 than oil kept in sealed form (1.296. The mean acid value was higher in soyabean oil (P<0.01 than the values in cotton seed oil and sunflower oil. While determining the effect of Santaquin, BHT and Oxistat as antioxidant, in the ration stored at 40 °C for 2 months, it was observed that the acid values in untreated control ration was 18.20 while with the added antioxidants were 4.88, 4.85 and 4.83, respectively showing a significant increase with each week of the storage.

  1. Characterisation by Moessbauer Spectroscopy of the Forms of Iron in Sulfide-Rich Fulvic Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, B. A., E-mail: bgoodm@scri.sari.ac.uk [Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie (United Kingdom); Cheshire, M. V. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-15

    Variations in the nature of the bonding between iron and fulvic acid as a function of pH in sulfide-rich solutions have been investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. In all solutions iron was enriched to 95% in the {sup 57}Fe isotope and ratios of Fe : fulvic acid were maintained at 1 : 100 on a weight basis for all measurements. When the pH was decreased below 5.0, there was a progressive change in the composition of the spectra, which contained three distinct components that were similar to those seen in the absence of sulfide; i.e., a sextet from magnetically-dilute Fe(III) and doublets from Fe(II) and Fe(III). There was, however, a higher proportion of the iron as Fe(II) in the sulfide-containing solutions and this represented the only form of iron at very low pH. Establishment of equilibria was slow as evidenced by considerable hysteresis between the compositions of the solutions with decreasing and increasing pHs. On increasing the pH, sulfide prevented the formation of magnetically dilute Fe(III) species and instead, in the range 3.5-6.0, compounds were generated with parameters consistent with sulfur being coordinated to the iron. One had parameters similar to those of pyrite and hence probably contains disulfide (S{sub 2}{sup 2-}) units, whilst a second, with poorly defined magnetic hyperfine splitting, may contain monosulfide (S{sup 2-}) units, with structures related to either pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) or greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}). A third component probably corresponds to a mononuclear low spin Fe(II) complex, involving sulfur and fulvic acid in the iron coordination sphere. These species were oxygen-sensitive and decomposed to yield magnetically dilute Fe(III) complexes and Fe(III) oxyhydroxides on aeration of the solutions.

  2. Echium oil: A valuable source of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR Miquel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium oil is a vegetable oil of non-GMO plant origin extracted from the seeds of Echium plantagineum containing significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acid Stearidonic Acid (SDA and omega-6 acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA. Typical fatty acid composition of Echium oil is: Oleic acid (18:1 n-9 16%, Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6 19%, γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-610%, α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3 30% and Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3 13%. This natural ratio of fatty acids, trough their metabolism, deliver enhanced plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3, docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5 n-3 and dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA, 20:3 n-6 acids without increasing the concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6. GLA is commonly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of oils such as evening primrose oil and borage oil. Supplementation with GLA can markedly increase serum AA with subsequent pro-inflammatory effects. The presence of stearidonic acid in echium oil prevents the accumulation of serum AA and AA-derived eicosanoids without preventing the accumulation of DGLA which is the real n-6 precursor of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. SDA is an intermediate in the biosynthetic conversion of ALA to EPA. As SDA is the product of the rate-limiting ∆6-desaturase step and due the efficiency of the elongase and ∆5-desaturase steps, SDA is readily converted to EPA. SDA has the physiologic benefits of EPA, for instance, lowering the serum triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Therefore echium oil is a true alternative for vegetarians or those who do not eat fish, to benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes induced by eugenol-rich oil of Syzygium aromaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis consists of a complex spectrum of infectious diseases with worldwide distribution of which visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar caused by Leishmania donovani is the most devastating. In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice are expensive and associated with multiple adverse side effects. Because of these limitations, the development of new antileishmanial compounds is imperative and plants offer prospects in this regard. The present work was conducted to study the antileishmanial potential of oil from Syzygium aromaticum flower buds (clove). The S. aromaticum oil was characterized by gas chromatography and GC-MS and eugenol as well as eugenyl acetate were found to be the most abundant compounds, composing 59.75 % and 29.24 %, respectively of the oil. Our findings have shown that eugenol-rich essential oil from S. aromaticum (EROSA) possesses significant activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 21 ± 0.16 µg ml(-1) and 15.24 ± 0.14 µg ml(-1), respectively, against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Alterations in cellular morphology and growth reversibility assay substantiated the leishmanicidal activity of EROSA. The leishmanicidal effect was mediated via apoptosis as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation. EROSA presented no adverse cytotoxic effects against murine macrophages even at 200 µg ml(-1). Our studies authenticate the promising antileishmanial activity of EROSA, which is mediated by programmed cell death, and, accordingly, EROSA may be a source of novel agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:24161990

  4. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Yasuda, S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Shimokawa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disea

  5. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  6. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Srivastava; Singh, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Refined rice bran oil (RBO) was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO), MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO) and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO) to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), Total p...

  7. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Mancini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  8. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  9. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  10. Regiospecific Quantification of Triacylglycerols Containing Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The triacylglycerols (TAG) containing dihydroxy fatty acids have been recently identified by mass spectrometry in castor oil. These new dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed earlier as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (diOH18:1), 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid (diOH18:2) and 11,12-dihydr...

  11. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  12. Ratios of regioisomers of triacylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The triacylglycerols (TAG) containing dihydroxy fatty acids have been recently identified by mass spectrometry in castor oil. These new dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed earlier as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (diOH18:1), 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid (diOH18:2) and 11,12-dihydr...

  13. Production of free fatty acids from waste oil by application of ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa P.; Santos, Francisco F.P.; Costa, Enio; Fernandes, Fabiano A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This paper evaluates the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste oil by means of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound application under atmospheric pressure. To evaluate the potential of this technology, the reaction between waste palm oil and ethanol was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol-to-oil weight ratio, potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio, and temperature on the yield of waste oil into FFA. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating conditions affecting the reaction were ethanol-to-oil weight ratio and potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio. The highest yield observed was of 97.3 % after 45 min of reaction. The best operating condition was obtained by applying an ethanol-to-oil weight ratio of 2.4, a potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio of 0.3, and temperature of 60 C. (orig.)

  14. Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil, corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60% in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P < 0.05 compared to control. At the same time, a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 (saturated fatty acids, from 49 to 25% was observed. The hepatic content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS was increased from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 12.3 ± 0.3 nmol TBA-MDA/mg protein and catalase activity was increased from 840 ± 32 to 1110 ± 45 µmol reduced H2O2 min-1 mg protein-1 in the treated group. Bullfrog oil administration increased AST and ALP activities in the liver (from 234.10 ± 0.12 to 342.84 ± 0.13 and 9.38 ± 0.60 to 20.06 ± 0.27 U/g, respectively and in serum (from 95.41 ± 6.13 to 120.32 ± 3.15 and 234.75 ± 11.5 to 254.41 ± 2.73 U/l, respectively, suggesting that this treatment induced tissue damage. ALT activity was increased from 287.28 ± 0.29 to 315.98 ± 0.34 U/g in the liver but remained unchanged in serum, whereas the GGT activity was not affected by bullfrog oil treatment. Therefore, despite the interesting modulation of fatty acids by bullfrog oil, a possible therapeutic use requires care since some adverse effects were observed in liver.

  15. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod-liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ilievska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    The current study was designed to develop a pharmaceutical formulation that contained fish oil extract rich in free omega 3 FAs such as EPA and DHA for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod-liver oil and other fish oils taken as a dietary supplement have been vastly acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use could be further extended to cover other biological properties. Based on in vitro evaluation, 20% (v/v) fish oil extract was found to be highly potent against gram-...

  16. Performance, Carcass Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Crossbred Wagyu Beef Steers Receiving Palm and/or Linseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of palm and/or linseed oil (LSO) supplementation on carcass quality, sensory evaluation and fatty acid profile of beef from crossbred Wagyu beef steers. Twenty four fattening Wagyu crossbred beef steers (50% Wagyu), averaging 640±18 kg live weight (LW) and approximately 30 mo old, were stratified and randomly assigned in completely randomized design into 3 treatment groups. All steers were fed approximately 7 kg/d of 14% crude protein concentrate with ad libitum rice straw and had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit. The treatments were i) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of palm oil; ii) control concentrate plus 100 g/d of palm oil and 100 g/d of LSO, iii) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of LSO. This present study demonstrated that supplementation of LSO rich in C18:3n-3 did not influence feed intakes, LW changes, carcass and muscle characteristics, sensory and physical properties. LSO increased C18:3n-3, C22:6n-3, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however, it decreased C18:1t-11, C18:2n-6, cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acids, n-6 PUFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles.

  17. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  18. Optimization of the In Situ Epoxidation of Linoleic Acid of Jatropha Curcas Oil With Performic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to optimise the epoxidation of linoleic acid of Jatropha curcas oil. This experiment was carried out with performic acid generated in situ by using hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. The method was evaluated on different parameters such as reaction temperature, mole ratios of formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation. The optimum relative conversion into oxirane (80.4 %) and conversion of iodine (94.7 %) was achieved with ∼70 % yield at the condition of 45 degree Celsius reaction temperature, formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 2.0, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 12.0 for 2 hours of reaction time. The epoxidized linoleic acid was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and NMR analysis. The result was also found that the formations of an epoxide and oxirane ring cleavage were both occurred at the same time if low amount of hydrogen peroxide was used. (author)

  19. Anodic coupling of carboxylic acids to electron-rich double bonds: A surprising non-Kolbe pathway to lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Perkins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids have been electro-oxidatively coupled to electron-rich olefins to form lactones. Kolbe decarboxylation does not appear to be a significant competing pathway. Experimental results indicate that oxidation occurs at the olefin and that the reaction proceeds through a radical cation intermediate.

  20. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  1. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants

  2. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants.

  3. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil. PMID:26292410

  4. Physicochemical characterization, fatty acid composition, and thermal analysis of Bertholletia excelsa HBK oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Pena Muniz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at characterizing the oil extracted from Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. almond, a native species from the Amazon region. Analytical methods used for oils and fats were employed through pharmacopoeia assays, AOCS (American Oil Chemists Society standard methods as well as those recommended by ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency such as acidity, peroxide value, saponification index, iodine value and refractive index, pH and relative density, and also thermoanalytical analyses (thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis as well as chromatographic analysis (gas chromatography. The characterization assessments of B. excelsa oil showed results indicating that the oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids in large proportion. The termoanalytical tests indicated that B.excelsa oil showed thermal stability up to 220 °C, These results showed that the oil extracted from B. excelsa has acceptable characteristics and is of good quality.

  5. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Gene expression of GST and CYP330A1 in lipid-rich and lipid-poor female Calanus finmarchicus (Copepoda: Crustacea) exposed to dispersed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Nordtug, Trond; Altin, Dag; Booth, Andy; Hessen, Kristine Mordal; Olsen, Anders J

    2009-01-01

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a marine ecological key species in the Northern Atlantic food web. This species was exposed to an artificially weathered North Sea oil dispersion (oil droplets and water-soluble fractions [WSF]) and a filtered dispersion (containing only WSF) in serial dilution. Female copepods were divided into lipid-rich and lipid-poor for each exposure followed by gene expression analyses of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 330A1 (CYP330A1). Lipid-rich copepods exhibited elevated transcription of GST and reduced transcription of CYP330A1 after exposure to both dispersed oil and WSF. In contrast, lipid-poor copepods exhibited increased transcription of CYP330A1 following exposure to WSF but not the dispersion. Data suggested that small lipid storage promotes increased bioavailability of accumulated oil compounds. Variations in response in CYP330A1 gene expression indicate that oil constituents may exert different modes of toxic action in copepods depending on their reproductive stages. The contribution of oil droplets to the observed effects seemed to be low as GST gene expression was similar after exposure to both dispersed oil and WSF. However, feeding rate in copepods exposed to dispersed oil was reduced, and this may have decreased the uptake of oil constituents via the diet. Although quantitatively higher mortality was observed in copepods exposed to the highest dispersion levels, this may result from smothering of animals by oil droplets. Furthermore, increasing dilution of both the dispersions and the WSF altered their distributions and chemical composition, which may influence the bioavailability of spilled crude oil to pelagic marine organisms. PMID:19184728

  7. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  8. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force,...

  9. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  10. Esterification of Free Fatty Acid in Crude Palm Oil Off Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA found in crude palm oil (CPO off grade with methanol is a promising technique to convert FFA into valuable fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In this work, the effects of the main variables involved in the esterification process i.e. alcohol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, agitation speed and the initial amount of FFA of oil, were studied in the presence of sulphuric acid as catalyst at concentration of 1%-w. The experimental results show that the esterification process could lead to a practical and cost effective FFA removal unit in front of typical oil transesterification for biodiesel production. Keywords: CPO off grade, esterification, free fatty acid

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the extension of use for DHA and EPA-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on an extension of use for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a novel food...... ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is already authorised for use in a range of foodstuffs at specified maximum levels. The applicant requests an extension of use of the NFI in food supplements up to a maximum DHA and EPA content of 3 g per daily dose for the adult...... population, excluding pregnant and lactating women. In a previous opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of EPA, DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the Panel concluded that supplemental intake of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, does not give rise to safety concerns for adults. Based on...

  12. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge;

    2002-01-01

    , and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long......-chain PUFA-containing fish oils and DHA-containing algal oils. The relatively high oxidative stability of an algal oil containing 42% DHA was completely lost after chromatographic purification to remove tocopherols and other antioxidants. Therefore, this evidence does not support the claim that DHA-rich oils...

  13. Ser/Thr-rich repetitive motifs as targets for phosphoglycan modifications in Leishmania mexicana secreted acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, M; Ilg, T; Lottspeich, F; Overath, P

    1995-03-15

    The insect stage of the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana secretes a phosphomonoesterase in the form of a filamentous complex. The polypeptide subunits of this polymer are modified by phosphoglycans and/or oligomannosyl residues linked to phosphoserine. Based on peptide sequence data of a predominant 100 kDa protein of the filamentous complex, two tandemly arranged, single copy genes, lmsap1 and lmsap2, were cloned and sequenced. lmsap1 predicts a protein with features characteristic of acid phosphatases and a remarkable serine- and threonine-rich region of 32 amino acids close to the C-terminus. In the otherwise identical lmsap2 product, this region is extended to 383 amino acids and is composed of short Ser/Thr-rich repeats. Deletion analysis demonstrates that lmsap1 encodes the major 100 kDa protein of the complex while a minor 200 kDa component is derived from the lmsap2 gene. Null mutants of either gene retain the ability to secrete acid phosphatase filaments, while a deletion of both genes results in Leishmania defective in enzyme formation. The Ser/Thr-rich domains are the targets for phosphoglycan modifications as shown by the expression of secreted fusion proteins composed of these C-terminal regions and the N-terminal domain of a lysosomal acid phosphatase. PMID:7720697

  14. Factors Influencing the Synonymous Codon and Amino Acid Usage Bias in AT-rich Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PhiKZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. SAU; S. SAU; S. C. MANDAL; T. C. GHOSH

    2005-01-01

    To reveal how the AT-rich genome of bacteriophage PhiKZ has been shaped in order to carry out its growth in the GC-rich host Pseudomonas aeruginosa, synonymous codon and amino acid usage bias of PhiKZ was investigated and the data were compared with that of P. aeruginosa. It was found that synonymous codon and amino acid usage of PhiKZ was distinct from that of P. aeruginosa. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, the third codon position of the synonymous codons of PhiKZ carries mostly A or T base; codon usage bias in PhiKZ is dictated mainly by mutational bias and, to a lesser extent, by translational selection. A cluster analysis of the relative synonymous codon usage values of 16 myoviruses including PhiKZ shows that PhiKZ is evolutionary much closer to Escherichia coli phage T4. Further analysis reveals that the three factors of mean molecular weight, aromaticity and cysteine content are mostly responsible for the variation of amino acid usage in PhiKZ proteins, whereas amino acid usage of P. aeruginosa proteins is mainly governed by grand average of hydropathicity, aromaticity and cysteine content. Based on these observations, we suggest that codons of the phage-like PhiKZ have evolved to preferentially incorporate the smaller amino acid residues into their proteins during translation, thereby economizing the cost of its development in GC-rich P. aeruginosa.

  15. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  16. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  17. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  18. Heating Quality and Stability of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fatty Acid-Balanced Oil in Comparison with Other Blended Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of enzyme-assisted aqueous processing-extracted blended oil (EAEPO, hexane-extracted blended oil (HEBO, and three kinds of blended oils was investigated by varying the heating times. Oil degradation was monitored by analysis of the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, color, and trans-fatty acid composition. The fatty acid ratios of EAEPO, HEBO, and the three kinds of blended oils were very similar (0.27 : 1.03 : 0.96, 0.27 : 1.08 : 1.16, 0.27 : 0.65 : 0.8, 0.27 : 0.6 : 0.84, and 0.27 : 0.61 : 0.79, resp.. The AV and color increased in proportion to the heating time for all the oils. There was a rapid increase in the PV and p-AV of EAEPO and HEBO after heating for only 1 h, whereas the other three blended oils showed a rapid increase after heating for 2 h or 6 h. Despite the highest trans-fatty acid content found for HEBO, this content was relatively low and remained low up to a heating time of 8 h. It was found that after heating, a fatty acid ratio relatively close to its ideal value (0.27 : 0.48 : 0.49 was maintained by EAEPO, which indicates that EAEPO is tolerant to heat treatment and is suitable for maintaining a healthy diet.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  20. Thick film sensors for engine oil acidity detection

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Engine oil condition monitoring has attracted considerable interests from industries and general public over the years due to its critical role in maintaining the performance and longevity of cars and industrial engines. Lubricants degrade during the course of operation and can be costly or detrimental to the engine if oil change intervals are not optimised. However, on-line robust monitoring for oils has been very challenging since oil degradation process is often complicated and influenced ...

  1. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  2. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the lipid profile, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball athletes before and after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Camila Garcia; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Jacintho, Thiago Manzoni; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the lipid profile, levels of plasma inflammatory mediators, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball players before and after acute exercise. We evaluated 8 male basketball wheelchair athletes before and after acute exercise both prior to (S0) and following (S1) FO supplementation. The subjects were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 30 days. The following components were measured: the plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), plasma inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and neutrophil function (cytokine production, phagocytic capacity, loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, neutral lipid accumulation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Acute exercise increased the plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDH, IL1ra, and IL-6, led to the loss of membrane integrity, ROS production, and a high mitochondrial membrane potential in neutrophils, and reduced the phagocytic capacity and IL-6 production by the neutrophils (S0). However, supplementation prevented the increases in the plasma levels of LDH and IL-6, the loss of membrane integrity, and the alterations in ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in the neutrophils that were induced by exercise (S1). In conclusion, DHA-rich FO supplementation reduces the markers of muscle damage, inflammatory disturbances, and neutrophil death induced by acute exercise in wheelchair athletes.

  3. Myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids as superior natural antioxidant alternatives to α-tocopherol for the preservation of omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Romain; Paul, Jean-François; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-15

    22 natural polyphenols are compared to 7 synthetic antioxidants including BHT, BHA, TBHQ and PG with regard to their ability to protect omega-3 oils from autoxidation. The antioxidant efficiency of phenols is assessed using the DPPH test and the measurement of oxygen consumption during the autoxidation of oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Also, the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the Ar-OH bonds are calculated and excellent correlations between thermodynamic, kinetic and oxidation data are obtained. It is shown that kinetic rates of hydrogen transfer, number of radicals scavenged per antioxidant molecule, BDE and formation of antioxidant dimers from the primary radicals play an important role regarding the antioxidant activity of phenols. Based on this, it is finally shown that myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids are more efficient than α-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants for the preservation of omega-3 oils. PMID:27451183

  4. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  5. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils.

  6. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasan, M.; Gecgel, U.; Demirci, M.

    2011-07-01

    Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 {+-} 0.41, 0.51 {+-} 0.24, 1.27 {+-} 0.57, and 0.26 {+-} 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. Characterisation of traditional Macedonian edible oils by their fatty acid composition and their volatile compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Stafilov, Trajče; Markova Ruzdik, Natalija; Leitner, Erich; Lankmayr, Ernst; Siegmund, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of selected traditional Macedonian edible oils of several varieties, including sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, flax seed, rapeseed and sesame seeds, were analysed. The fatty acid (FA) composition was determined by GC-FID analysis after transesterification into the corresponding methyl esters. α-Linolenic acid (C18:3) was the main unsaturated fatty acid in flax seed oil (56.2% of total FA), oleic acid (C18:1) dominated in rapeseed and sesame se...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative determination of naphthenic acids in Heidrun crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The main aim for the work on this thesis was to find a fast and sensitive method for qualitative and quantitative determination of the naphthenic acids (NAs) called the ARN acid family in crude oil. As there are three main components in the ARN acid family with quite similar molecular mass, separation of the acids with respect to the hydrophobicity, was essential to obtain reliable determination of all three acids. The sample preparation developed in this work consisted of liquid...

  9. Development of botanical and fish oil standard reference materials for fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; NguyenPho, Agnes; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60% long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:23371533

  10. Generation of aliphatic acid anions and carbon dioxide by hydrous pyrolysis of crude oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Lundegard, P.D.; Ambats, G.; Evans, William C.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Two crude oils with relatively high (0.60 wt%) and low (0.18 wt%) oxygen contents were heated in the presence of water in gold-plated reactors at 300??C for 2348 h. The high-oxygen oil was also heated at 200??C for 5711 h. The compositions of aqueous organic acid anions of the oils and of the headspace gases were monitored inn order to investigate the distribution of organic acids that can be generated from liquid petroleum. The oil with higher oxygen content generated about five times as much organic anions as the other oil. The dominant organic anions produced were acetate, propionate and butyrate. Small amounts of formate, succinate, methyl succinate and oxalate were also produced. The dominant oxygen-containing product was CO2, as has been observed in similar studies on the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen. These results indicate that a significant portion (10-30%) of organic acid anions reported i be generated by thermal alteration of oils in reservoir rocks. The bulk of organic acid anions present in formation waters, however, is most likely generated by thermal alteration of kerogen in source rocks. Kerogen is more abundant than oil in sedimentary basins and the relative yields of organic acid anions reported from the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen are much higher than the yields obtained for the two oils. ?? 1993.

  11. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Anindita; Das, Sumantra

    2007-12-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) has been previously shown to facilitate some of the vital functions of astrocytes. Since some dietary oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), which is a precursor of DHA, we examined their effect on astrocyte development. Fatty acids (FAs) were isolated from commonly used oils and their compositions were determined by GLC. FAs from three oils, viz. coconut, mustard and linseed were studied for their effect on astrocyte morphology. Parallel studies were conducted with FAs from the same oils after heating for 72 h. Unlike coconut oil, FAs from mustard and linseed, both heated and raw, caused significant morphogenesis of astrocytes in culture. ss-AR binding was also substantially increased in astrocytes treated with FAs from raw mustard and linseed oils as compared to astrocytes grown in normal medium. The expression profile of the isoforms of GFAP showed that astrocyte maturation by FAs of mustard and linseed oil was associated with appearance of acidic variants of GFAP and disappearance of some neutral isoforms similar to that observed in cultures grown in serum containing medium or in the presence of DHA. Taken together, the study highlights the contribution of specific dietary oils in facilitating astrocyte development that can have potential impact on human health.

  12. The crystallization of metal soaps and fatty acids in oil paint model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Joen J; Keune, Katrien; van Loon, Annelies; Iedema, Piet D

    2016-04-28

    The formation and crystallization of metal soaps in oil paint layers is an important issue in the conservation of oil paintings. The chemical reactions and physical processes that are involved in releasing metal ions from pigments and fatty acids from the oil binder to form crystalline metal soap deposits have so far remained poorly understood. We have used a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on model mixtures of palmitic acid, lead palmitate or zinc palmitate and linseed oil to study the transition from amorphous material to crystalline fatty acid or metal soap. This transition forms the final stage in the cascade of processes leading to metal soap-related oil paint degradation. Palmitic acid as well as the metal soaps showed nearly ideal solubility behavior. However, it was found that, near room temperature, both lead and zinc palmitate are practically insoluble in both liquid and partially polymerized linseed oil. Interestingly, the rate of metal soap and fatty acid crystallization decreased rapidly with the degree of linseed oil polymerization, possibly leading to systems where metal soaps are kinetically trapped in a semi-crystalline state. To explain the various morphologies of metal soap aggregates observed in oil paint layers, it is proposed that factors affecting the probability of crystal nucleation and the rate of crystal growth play a crucial role, like exposure to heat or cleaning solvents and the presence of microcracks. PMID:27039879

  13. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars. PMID:27023318

  14. The crystallization of metal soaps and fatty acids in oil paint model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Joen J; Keune, Katrien; van Loon, Annelies; Iedema, Piet D

    2016-04-28

    The formation and crystallization of metal soaps in oil paint layers is an important issue in the conservation of oil paintings. The chemical reactions and physical processes that are involved in releasing metal ions from pigments and fatty acids from the oil binder to form crystalline metal soap deposits have so far remained poorly understood. We have used a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on model mixtures of palmitic acid, lead palmitate or zinc palmitate and linseed oil to study the transition from amorphous material to crystalline fatty acid or metal soap. This transition forms the final stage in the cascade of processes leading to metal soap-related oil paint degradation. Palmitic acid as well as the metal soaps showed nearly ideal solubility behavior. However, it was found that, near room temperature, both lead and zinc palmitate are practically insoluble in both liquid and partially polymerized linseed oil. Interestingly, the rate of metal soap and fatty acid crystallization decreased rapidly with the degree of linseed oil polymerization, possibly leading to systems where metal soaps are kinetically trapped in a semi-crystalline state. To explain the various morphologies of metal soap aggregates observed in oil paint layers, it is proposed that factors affecting the probability of crystal nucleation and the rate of crystal growth play a crucial role, like exposure to heat or cleaning solvents and the presence of microcracks.

  15. Placing Brazil's heavy acid oils on international markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani; Schaeffer, Roberto; Felipe Simoes, Andre; Barboza Mariano, Jacqueline [Energy Planning Program, Center for Energy and Environmental Economics, Graduate School of Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-04-15

    This paper identifies the international market niches of Brazil's heavy acid oils. It analyzes the perspectives for making wider use of heavy acid oils, assessing their importance for certain oil-producing regions such as Brazil, Venezuela, West Africa, the North Sea and China. Within this context, the oil produced in the Marlim Field offshore Brazil is of specific interest, spurred by the development of its commercial brand name for placement on international markets and backed by ample production volumes. This analysis indicates keener international competition among acid oils produced in Brazil, the North Sea and the West Coast of Africa, through to 2010. However, over the long term, refinery conversion capacity is the key factor for channeling larger volumes of heavy acid oils to the international market. In this case, the future of acid oil producers will depend on investments in refineries close to oil product consumption centers. For Brazil, this means investments in modifying its refineries and setting up partnerships in the downstream segment for consumer centers absorbing all products of high added value, such as the USA and even Southeast Asia and Western Europe. (author)

  16. The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Balkis Budin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fractions on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: (i normal non-diabetic (NDM, (ii diabetic treated (tocotrienol-rich fractions - TRF and (iii diabetic untreated (non-TRF. The treatment group received oral administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions (200 mg/kg body weight daily for eight weeks. The normal non-diabetic and the diabetic untreated groups were fed standard rat feed. Blood glucose and lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers and morphological changes of the thoracic aorta were evaluated. RESULTS: Tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment reduced serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group also showed significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, as compared to the untreated group. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared to the untreated group. Superoxide dismutase activity and levels of vitamin C in plasma were increased in tocotrienol-rich fractions-treated rats. The levels of plasma and aorta malondealdehyde + 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4-HNE and oxidative DNA damage were significant following tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment. Electron microscopic examination showed that the normal morphology of the thoracic aorta was disrupted in STZ-diabetic rats. Tocotrienol-rich fractions supplementation resulted in a protective effect on the vessel wall. CONCLUSION: These results show that tocotrienol-rich fractions lowers the blood glucose level and improves dyslipidemia. Levels of oxidative stress markers were also reduced by administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions. Vessel wall integrity was maintained due to the positive effects mediated by tocotrienol-rich fractions.

  17. Naphthenic acid extraction and characterization from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Sorbie, K.S. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Crude oil with high total acid number (TAN) often results in the formation of either sodium emulsion or calcium naphthenate deposits. The formation of calcium naphthenate during production operations is creating flow assurance problems for the oil industry. Therefore, it is important to extract and characterize the different types of acids from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits. There has been much discussion in the literature about the discovery and quantification of higher molecular weight acids in naphthenate field deposits, referred to as ARN acids. Field naphthenate deposits from 2 different fields in Norway (X and HD) were used in this study for the naphthenic acid extraction using 3 different methods. The extracted naphthenic acids were characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The ESMS spectra obtained from field X extract revealed the presence of lower molecular weight acids species only, without any presence of ARN acids. However, the extract from field HD had a broad range of lower molecular weight acids and ARN acid species. APCI-MS results revealed an enhanced ARN acids species from all the spectra with some indication of multimers. This paper also discussed the acid-IER extraction technique used on the crude oils from these fields.

  18. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  19. Screening and identification of dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids in inhibiting inflammatory prostaglandin E2 signaling in fat stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Diana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of dietary oils (such as fish oil and unsaturated fatty acids, which are widely used by the public for anti-inflammation and vascular protection, have not been settled yet. In this study, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2-mediated calcium signaling was used to screen dietary oils and eight unsaturated fatty acids for identification of their anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Isolated fat/stromal cells expressing endogenous PGE2 receptors and an HEK293 cell line specifically expressing the recombinant human PGE2 receptor subtype-1 (EP1 were cultured and used in live cell calcium signaling assays. The different dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids were used to affect cell signaling under the specific stimulation of a pathological amount of inflammatory PGE2. Results It was identified that fish oil best inhibited the PGE2 signaling in the primary cultured stromal cells. Second, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, found in abundance in fish oil, was identified as a key factor of inhibition of PGE2 signaling. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, another major fatty acid found in fish oil and tested in this study was found to have small effect on EP1 signaling. The study suggested one of the four PGE2 subtype receptors, EP1 as the key target for the fish oil and DHA target. These findings were further confirmed by using the recombinant EP1 expressed in HEK293 cells as a target. Conclusion This study demonstrated the new mechanism behind the positive effects of dietary fish oils in inhibiting inflammation originates from the rich concentration of DHA, which can directly inhibit the inflammatory EP1-mediated PGE2 receptor signaling, and that the inflammatory response stimulated by PGE2 in the fat stromal cells, which directly related to metabolic diseases, could be down regulated by fish oil and DHA. These findings also provided direct evidence to support the use of dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids for protection against heart

  20. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  1. Water and Energy in the GCC: Securing Scarce Water in Oil-Rich Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states has traditionally been addressed by finding new ways of producing water. Desalination techniques have allowed these countries to satisfy their increasing water demand, driven by economic and demographic development. The high CAPEX and OPEX costs of desalinated water production are borne by the State through subsidies in the forms of low water and electricity prices. As this trend is not environmentally or economically sustainable, new strategies are now giving priority to cost recovery and efficient resource management. This comparative study will show that in the GCC countries, whose oil or gas reserves are among the largest worldwide, the management of water and energy resources has been relying upon vertically integrated government agencies and companies, with water supply policies fueled by cheap energy. Wealth redistribution coming from oil and gas revenues has been ensured through low or nonexistent water and electricity tariffs. Groundwater resources, which are the only water sources of the region (there are no surface waters available, except for few dams in Saudi Arabia), are quickly diminishing. Desalination has been developing very fast and now seems to be the only reliable form of supplying water for future requirements. Saudi Arabia alone might need 18 billion cubic meter (bcm) of fresh water per year by 2050 to sustain current consumption patterns. For this reason, huge amounts of energy will be required and the question of the right energy/water balance is at stake. Technological choices in the electricity sector will influence the way water is produced in the future, and vice versa. In particular, water production fueled by gas or heavy fuel can be linked to power generation, enhancing efficiency but lowering flexibility. Membrane technologies, which require only electricity inputs, allow for a diversified energy and electricity mix but they have smaller critical sizes and therefore produce

  2. PEMANFAATAN BAHAN TUMBUHAN SEBAGAI BIOKATALISATOR DALAM PRODUKSI MINYAK SAWIT KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 [Using of Plant Biocatalisator for Omega-3 PUFA -Rich Palm Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Incorporaton of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA into red palm oil was investigated by using acidolysis process. Rice bran and Carica papaya latex (CPL were used as biocatalyst. Acidolysis between red palm oil and n-3 PUFA concentrate in free fatty acid form was conducted without solvent, with weight ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to palm oil being 1:1. The n-3 PUFA concentrate was prepared from tuna oil by crystallization method. The study has demonstrated that rice bran lipase showed higher activity to incorporate n-3 PUFA into red palm oil than CPL. The extent of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 and DHA (docosahexaeboic acid, C22:6 incorporation were 3.4% and 12.7% with the rice bran lipase, and 1.7% and 3.2% with the CPL. Furthermore, rice bran from several varities of paddy (Mamberamo, IR-64, Merah Munte , and Cirata produced equal incorporation of EPA and DHA into red palm oil. Rice bran from germinated seed of paddy did not increase the n-3 PUFA incorporation into red palm oil. It means that rice bran in its natural form could be used and act as immobilized lipase. It is easier to remove the rice bran from reaction mixture and reuse the bran for 14 times without decreasing its enzyme activity

  3. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  4. A Review of Fatty Acids and Genetic Characterization of Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Ling-Liang Guan; Yu-Xia Yang

    2016-01-01

    Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L., is an annual oilseed crop that is cultivated on small plots all over the world. The seed oil content ranges from 20%to 45%;the oil is high in linoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid that aids in lowering the blood cholesterol level. Thus, safflower has long been used as medical plant in many countries, especially in China and India. However, for industrial purposes, it has long been neglected because of the low seed yield or oil content, until its physical role was revealed. In recent years, research works carried out in many countries mostly focused on improving the seed or oil yield. In this review, after illustrating the fatty acid composition of safflower seed oil as well as the genetic characteristics of safflower and their relationships with agronomic traits, a brief analysis of the current worldwide situation and future prospects of safflower utilization are presented.

  5. Biodiesel production from mixture of mahua and simarouba oils with high free fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Prakash C.; Raheman, Hifjur; Prasanna Kumar, G.V.; Machavaram, Rajendra [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-08-15

    A suitable process comprising acid pretreatment followed by main base transesterification reaction was developed to produce biodiesel from mixture of Mahua (M) and Simarouba (S) oils with high free fatty acids (FFA). The acid pretreatment reduced the high FFAs of the mixture of oils to around 1% which were then transesterified with methanol and KOH as catalyst at a reaction temperature of 60 C. A genetic algorithm coupled with artificial neural network (ANN-GA) model to obtain the best pretreatment process parameters for bringing down the FFA level of individual vegetable oils to around 1% was modified to include the wide range of oils and validated for mixtures of M and S oils. The quality of biodiesel produced was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), which indicated above 90% ester conversion. The fuel properties of biodiesel were found to be comparable to diesel and were conforming to the latest biodiesel standards. (author)

  6. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quang-Hung; Nguyen; Thierry; Talou; Mureil; Cerny; Philippe; Evon; Othmane; Merah

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch(near Toulouse,southwestern France) during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages(two days after flowering, DAF). Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages(2–12 DAF), but decreased after this date. After this stage,petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  7. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quang-Hung Nguyen; Thierry Talou; Mureil Cerny; Philippe Evon; Othmane Merah

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch (near Toulouse, southwestern France) during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages (two days after flowering, DAF). Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages (2–12 DAF), but decreased after this date. After this stage, petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  8. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (pfoods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  9. Stability of omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich photoautotrophic microalgal oils compared to commercially available omega-3 LC-PUFA oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Lemahieu, Charlotte; Muylaert, Koenraad; Van Durme, Jim; Goiris, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2013-10-23

    Microalgae are the primary producers of omega-3 LC-PUFA, which are known for their health benefits. Their oil may thus be a potential alternative for fish oil. However, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of omega-3 LC-PUFA oils are important parameters. The purpose of this work was therefore to evaluate these parameters in oils from photoautotrophic microalgae (Isochrysis, Phaeodactylum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Nannochloropsis sp.) obtained with hexane/isopropanol (HI) and hexane (H) and compare them with commercial omega-3 LC-PUFA oils. When the results of both the primary and secondary oxidation parameters were put together, it was clear that fish, tuna, and heterotrophic microalgae oil are the least oxidatively stable oils, whereas krill oil and the microalgae oils performed better. The microalgal HI oils were shown to be more oxidatively stable than the microalgal H oils. The hydrolytic stability was shown not to be a problem during the storage of any of the oils.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Behavior of Clove Oil on Iron in Acidic Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Archana; Sharma, Anurag; Saxena, Deepti; Jain, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of iron in hydrochloric acid solution was studied using weight loss as well Scanning electron microscopy study without and with clove oil. The percentage inhibition efficiency increases with increasing clove oil concentration. All the data revel that the oil acts as an excellent inhibitor for the corrosion of iron in HCl solution. Thermodynamic, kinetic parameters and equilibrium constant for adsorption process were calculated from the experimental data. The adsorption of c...

  11. Cloning and characterization of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid encoding haploid-specific alanine-rich acidic protein located on chromosome-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Tsuchida, J; Tanaka, H; Koga, M; Nishina, Y; Nozaki, M; Yoshinaga, K; Toshimori, K; Matsumiya, K; Okuyama, A; Nishimune, Y

    2000-10-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a germ cell-specific protein from an expression cDNA library prepared from the mouse testis using testis-specific polyclonal antibodies. Northern blot analysis showed a transcript of 1.1 kilobases exclusively expressed in haploid germ cells of the testis. Sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed one long open reading frame consisting of 238 deduced amino acids, rich in basic amino acids in the N-terminal one-third that also contained the nuclear localization signal, and rich in acidic amino acids, including two type of acidic alanine-rich repeats, in the rest of the deduced protein. The protein having a molecular weight of approximately 55 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 4.3-4.7 was also exclusively detected in the testis by Western blot analysis. As the cDNA was located on chromosome-X, Halap-X (haploid-specific alanine-rich acidic protein located on chromosome-X) was proposed for the name of the protein encoded by the cDNA. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that the Halap-X protein was predominantly present in the nucleoplasm of round spermatids but gradually decreased as spermatids matured, followed by the subsequent appearance in the cytoplasm of elongating spermatids. Thus, the Halap-X protein was transferred from the nuclei to the cytoplasm during the spermatid maturation when the chromatin condensation and transformation of the nuclei occurred. The Halap-X may facilitate specific association of nuclear DNA with some basic chromosomal proteins and play important roles in the process of chromatin condensation. PMID:10993819

  12. Incorporation of medium chain fatty acids into fish oil triglycerides by chemical and enzymatic inter esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltes, M. M. C.; Oliveira de Pilot, L.; Gomes Correira, F.; Grimaldi, R.; Mara Block, J.; Ninow, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Structured triglycerides (STs) containing both medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs), while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM) and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic) on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after inter esterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermo grams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that inter esterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced. (Author) 70 refs.

  13. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  14. Monitoring the Hydrolysis of Olive Oil Catalyzed by Lipase via Acid Value Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolysis of olive oil catalyzed by Candida lipolytica lipase was investigated. The relative concentration of the components in the product was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Furthermore, a novel rapid method to detect the hydrolytic process of olive oil was developed based on the relationship between the acid value and the relative concentration of the different components.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  16. Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Caixia; Thygesen, Anders; Liu, Yilan;

    2013-01-01

    was investigated. Results: The transgenic E. coli strain could grow in modified M9 medium containing 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil with an increase in OD from 0.25 to 1.09. And 0.38 g/L succinic acid was produced. With the presence of 4 g/L glucose in the medium, succinic acid concentration increased from 1.4 to 2.4 g....../L by addition of 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil. When enzymatic hydrolysate of corn stover was used as carbon source, 10.3 g/L succinic acid was produced. The obtained succinic acid concentration increased to 11.5 g/L when 12.5 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. However, it decreased to 8 g/L when 50 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. GC...

  17. (13)C NMR characterization of triacylglycerols of Moringa oleifera seed oil: an "oleic-vaccenic acid" oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, Giovanna; Chepkwony, Paul Kiprono; Ndalut, Paul K

    2002-02-27

    The composition of acyl chains and their positions in the triacylglycerols of the oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera were studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The unsaturated chains of M. oleifera seed oil were found to comprise only mono-unsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, two omega-9 mono-unsaturated acids, (cis-9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids) and one omega-7 mono-unsaturated acid (cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid)). The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were detected as separated resonances in the spectral regions where the carbonyl and olefinic carbons resonate according to the 1,3- and 2-positions on the glycerol backbone. The unambiguous detection of vaccenic acid was also achieved through the resonance of the omega-3 carbon. The (13)C NMR methodology enabled the simultaneous detection of oleate, vaccenate, and eicosenoate chains according to their positions on the glycerol backbone (1,3- and 2-positions) through the carboxyl, olefinic, and methylene envelope carbons of the triacylglycerol acyl chains. PMID:11853466

  18. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA. However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation, drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  19. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotow, Tatiana G.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Vardaris, Cristina V.; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F.; Bondan, Eduardo F.; Barros, Marcelo P.

    2015-01-01

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions. PMID:26426026

  20. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor.

  1. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (...

  2. Comparison of Chemical Characteristics of High Oleic Acid Fraction of Moringa oleifera Oil with Some Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rahman1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0oC. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1oC as compared to 10.2oC in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability.

  3. Fatty Acid Composition in Oil of Recent Rapeseed Hybrids and 00 Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition in oil of seven new hybrids (‘Artus’, ‘Baldur’, ‘Exact’, ‘Executive’, ‘Extra’, ‘RG 9908’, ‘RG 9909’ and eight 00-cultivars (‘Aviso’, ‘Bristol’, ‘Canary’, ‘Dexter’, ‘Ella’, ‘Kosto’, ‘Navajo’, ‘Royal’ of rapeseed was investigated in the period 2003-2005. The experiments were placed in the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters, and the oil iodine number was calculated as well. The studied new rapeseed hybrids and 00 cultivars contained no erucic acid or it was present far below 2%. The average content of oleic acid was 61.88±2.64% in hybrids and 62.54±3.90% in 00-cultivars, the content of linoleic acid was 20.52±1.49% and 19.57±2.51%, the content of linolenic acid was 8.39±1.50% and 7.92±2.12%, the content of palmitic acid was 5.13±0.48% and 5.50±0.51%, and the content of stearic acid was 1.48±0.16% and 1.58±0.19%, respectively. Th is ratio of fatty acids confirms the high nutritive quality of rapeseed oil. The iodine value was 112±2 in oil from hybrids and 110±4 in oil from 00-cultivars. In both investigated groups there were no differences in fatty acid composition which could influence the quality and stability of rapeseed oil. The average values in oils obtained from hybrids as well as from 00-cultivars are inside the data prescribed in law regulations. Although, there were several samples in which oleic and palmitic acid contents were above and linoleic and linolenic acid contents (as well as the iodine values below the limit values, what ought to be incorporated into the revision of present regulations on vegetable oils. Fatty acid composition in hybrids and in 00-cultivars was greatly influenced by weather conditions. In the year with higher mean monthly air temperatures and less precipitation during May and June compared to average long

  4. 世界石油大国-俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略%Oil Energy Supply-demand Situation and Export Strategy of Russia as World Oil-rich Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    俄罗斯是世界石油大国,拥有丰富的石油储量,在保证世界石油产量和需求方面,俄罗斯起着举足轻重的作用,因此了解俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略具有重要意义。介绍了俄罗斯的石油生产情况、石油产业的国际地位及能源消费情况,同时介绍了俄罗斯的石油长期战略及出口情况,并提出了一些建议。%Russia is an oil-rich country in the world; it has rich oil reserves and plays an important role in ensuring world’s oil supply and demand. So understanding Russian oil energy supply and demand situation and export strategy has important significance. In this paper, Russian oil production conditions, international status of the oil industry and energy consumption were introduced. The long-term strategy of Russian oil and export situation were also introduced, and some suggestions were put forward.

  5. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: At least 500 μg of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 μg of folate or with one 500 μg capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p

  6. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  7. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  8. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  9. Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

    2014-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment.

  10. Effects of krill oil containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid form on human brain function: a randomized controlled trial in healthy elderly volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagai C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chizuru Konagai,1,2 Kenichi Yanagimoto,3 Kohsuke Hayamizu,3 Li Han,3 Tomoko Tsuji,3 Yoshihiko Koga2 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women's University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan; 3Human Life Science R&D Center, Nippon Suisan Kaisha Ltd, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Krill oil, rich in n-3 (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs incorporated in phosphatidylcholine, has been reported to have many effects on physiological function. However, there are few studies using psychophysiological methods published that describe the effects of krill oil on brain function. We investigated the influence of ingestion of krill oil on cognitive function in elderly subjects by using near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study design was adopted. Forty-five healthy elderly males aged 61–72 years were assigned to receive 12 weeks of treatment with: medium-chain triglycerides as placebo; krill oil, which is rich in n-3 PUFAs incorporated in phosphatidylcholine; or sardine oil, which is abundant in n-3 PUFAs incorporated in triglycerides. Changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the cerebral cortex during memory and calculation tasks were measured. The P300 component of event-related potentials was also measured during a working memory task. Results: During the working memory task, changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the krill oil and sardine oil groups were significantly greater than those in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12. The differential value for P300 latency in the krill oil group was significantly lower than that in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12. With regard to the calculation task, changes in oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the krill oil group were significantly greater than those in the medium-chain triglyceride group at week 12

  11. Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

  12. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency.

  13. Naphthenic acid characterization and distribution in crude oils; Caracterizacao e distribuicao de acidos naftenicos em petroleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Regina C.L.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Naphthenic acid corrosion was observed for the first time during the distillation process of some kind of crude oils in 1920. Recent reports about naphthenic acid corrosion have been found in China, India, Venezuela, Eastern Europe, Russia and the USA. In Brazil, heavy and acid crude oil processing is rising. Some brazilian crude oils have TAN around 3,0 mg KOH/g. The presence of relatively high levels of naphthenic acids in crude oils is a bane of petroleum refiners; and more recently, of producers as well, who have reported problems during production with calcium and sodium naphthenate . Essentially, these acids which are found to greater or lesser extent in virtually all crude oils are corrosive and tend to cause equipment failures, lead to high maintenance costs and may pose environmental disposal problems. In order to give these information to PETROBRAS, The Research and Development Center of PETROBRAS (CENPES) has been working in house and with brazilian universities developing analytical technicians to know better molecular structures and distribution of these acids compounds in crude oils. This work presents the actual methods and some results from these developments. (author)

  14. Fatty acid composition and biological activities of seed oil from rubber (Hevea brasiliensis cultivar RRIM 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kittigowittana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oils from seeds of Hevea brasiliensis (Muëll. Arg. cultivar RRIM 600 cultivated in Thailand (from two different sources, Chiang Rai and Surin provinces, were subjected to the evaluation of fatty acid composition, antioxidant activities, antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity. The seed oils were extracted using n-hexane as a solvent and the major fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids. The seed oils from two different sources similarly exhibited high capability in inhibiting scavenging DPPH radicals (95%, 87% inhibition, from Chiang Rai and Surin provinces respectively, reducing power (1.588±0.016, 1.832±0.009 mg of AAE/mL. However, moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of these two seed oils were observed (24%, 28% inhibition. The cytotoxicity effect of oil was determined on human dermal fibroblast. It showed that the H. brasiliensis seed oil was not cytotoxic to human skin at >1000 μg/mL. Based on these results, it was suggested that the H. brasiliensis seed oil may be considered as a potential antioxidant candidate for topical cosmetic applications. Industrial relevance. Natural origin raw materials have gained increasing attention for cosmetics because of their effectiveness and safety as compared to the synthetics. H. brasiliensis seed oil from this research has shown itself as a highly promising natural raw material source for cosmetic industry. It composed of skin health benefit fatty acids and has been found to exhibit high capability in inhibiting scavenging DPPH radicals. Moreover, from the cytotoxicity result, it indicated that the H. brasiliensis seed oil can safely be applied to human skin.   Keywords. Hevea brasiliensis; seed oil; fatty acids; biological activities

  15. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Martine C.; Petra Mulder; P Mark Stavro; Manuel Suárez; Anna Arola-Arnal; Wim van Duyvenvoorde; Teake Kooistra; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Robert Kleemann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have...

  16. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, P; Stavro, P.M.; Manuel Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A. (Anna); van Duyvenvoorde, W; Kooistra, T.; Wielinga, P Y; Kleemann, R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have ...

  17. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.;

    2015-01-01

    deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam....

  18. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  19. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9-14-octadecadienoic acids in castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fa...

  20. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  1. Oil Biotechnology: Value-Added Products and Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    During my 40+ years research career, I have been working on "biocatalysis" of hydrophobic organic compounds, both petroleum oil and vegetable oil, to convert them to value-added products. "Biocatalysis" is defined as the use of a biocatalyst such as whole microbial cells or enzymes, in an aqueous o...

  2. Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50

  3. A New Homogenizing Technology to Obtain Rosmarinic Acid from Perilla Oil Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei-zhuo; LIU Yan-ze; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of the active component,rosmarinic acid,an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid,in perilla oil meal for the first time by a new homogenizing technology called smashing tissue extraction (STE).Methods Orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction condition.The content of rosmarinic acid was quantified from the methanol crude extract with the help of HPLC.Results The optimization of STE process to get rosmarinic acid from the perilla oil meal was the ratio of liquid to solid material at 10∶1 and the power of extraction at 150 V,extracting twice (2 min for each time).Conclusion STE could be applied to extracting the active ingredients from the oil meals due to its high extraction efficiency.This new homogenizing technology has advantages on saving extraction time,raising extraction efficiency,and maintaining the temperature sensitive constituents.

  4. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.

  5. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species. PMID:26842427

  6. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  7. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid in castor oil, has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The Ci8 HPLC fractions of casto...

  8. Determination of naphthenic acids in crude oil by chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhenbo; TIAN Songbai; ZHAI Yuchun; DING Yi; ZHUANG Lihong

    2005-01-01

    Naphthenic acids in petroleum are considered a class of biological markers. Their potential use in source correlation and as an indicator of biodegradation was reported in the past (Dzidic et al. ,1988; Behar and Albrecht, 1984). Due to their highly complicated properties, detailed characterization of the acids is difficult.A method based on positive ion CI (chemical ionization) mass spectrometry using isobutane reagent gas to produce (M + 15) + ions was applied to the analysis of naphthenic acid esters. Since the complex mixture of naphthenic acids cannot be separated into individual components, only the determination of relative distribution of acids classified in terms of hydrogen deficiency was possible. The identities and relative distribution of fatty and mono-, di-, tri-, and higher polycyclic acids were obtained from the intensities of the (M + 15) + ions according to z-series formula CnH2n+zO2 of naphthenic acids. The components are characterized on the basis of group type and carbon number distributions. A comparison of the FAB and CI results showed that the group type distributions obtained by both methods agree surprisingly well.The results indicated this method is simple, rapid and easy to operate. The geochemical implication of naphthenic acids was investigated by using a set of well-characterized crude oil samples. It is found that the naphthenic acid distribution can be used as a fingerprint for oil-oil and oil-source correlations.

  9. Oil content and fatty acids composition of poppy seeds cultivated in two localities of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lančaričová Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05 for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4% and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%. White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.

  10. Discrimination of Pulp Oil and Kernel Oil from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Fingerprinting, Using GC-FID and Multivariate Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria-Machado, A.F.; Tres, Alba; Ruth, Van S.M.; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, N.T.V.; Lopes, P.S.N.; Bizzo, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scient

  11. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries.

  12. Fatty acid clearance by isolated perfused hindquarters of rats fed fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously shown that, compared to the dietary fatty acid composition, n-3 fatty acids are underrepresented in the adipose tissue of rats consuming fish oil diets. They have also shown that in rats fed fish oil diets, lipoprotein lipase is elevated in skeletal muscle and heart but not in adipose tissue. These two observations led us to hypothesize that n-3 enriched lipoproteins and n-3 fatty acids are preferentially utilized by muscle. Rats were fed diets containing 10% by weight corn oil (CO) or 2% CO + 8% fish oil (MaxEPA) for two weeks. Skinned hindquarters were perfused using a Krebs-Henselheit buffer containing 3% albumin, 5.5 mM glucose and 0.5 mM fatty acid. Muscle ATP was unaffected by previous diet or fatty acid perfused and was approximately 6 μmol/g wet weight in each group. The rate of fatty acid removal was linear for 60 minutes by which time between 30 and 50% of the fatty acid in the perfusate had been removed. They determined the removal of either 14C EPA and 14C oleate. There was a significant effect of both the type of fatty acid and the previous diet of the rats from which the hindquarters were obtained. EPA was removed more rapidly by hindquarters from MaxEPA-fed rats than corn oil fed rats. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced utilization of fatty acids by muscle contributes to the hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary fish oils. They also suggest that n-3 fatty acids are more rapidly utilized by skeletal muscle

  13. Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contextsin southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    . Although archaeobotanical records of oil plants are in most cases found in small numbers, they are often abundant at excavations in southern Scandinavia. This paper presents a diachronic review of plant records of fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), both known for the dual use...... as to whether corn spurrey had been a cultivar or if the seeds had been collected from wild populations. KEYWORDS: Archaeobotany, oil-rich seeds, fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, corn spurrey, southern Scandinavia...

  14. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:26978518

  15. Effects of dietary triacylglycerol structure on triacylglycerols of resultant chylomicrons from fish oil- and seal oil-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution of dietary triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the structure of chylomicron TAG. Fish oil and seal oil, comparable in fatty acid compositions but with different contents of major n...

  16. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3, N4-ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) by immunoaffinity/32P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in ω-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis

  17. Platelet Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid Blend for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: Rheological and Biological Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Russo

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common musculoskeletal disease. Current treatments for OA are mainly symptomatic and inadequate since none results in restoration of fully functional cartilage. Hyaluronic Acid (HA intra-articular injections are widely accepted for the treatment of pain associated to OA. The goal of HA viscosupplementation is to reduce pain and improve viscoelasticity of synovial fluid. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been also employed to treat OA to possibly induce cartilage regeneration. The combination of HA and PRP could supply many advantages for tissue repair. Indeed, it conjugates HA viscosupplementation with PRP regenerative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and biological properties of different HA compositions in combination with PRP in order to identify (i the viscoelastic features of the HA-PRP blends, (ii their biological effect on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and (iii HA formulations suitable for use in combination with PRP.HA/PRP blends have been obtained mixing human PRP and three different HA at different concentrations: 1 Sinovial, 0.8% (SN; 2 Sinovial Forte 1.6% (SF; 3 Sinovial HL 3.2% (HL; 4 Hyalubrix 1.5% (HX. Combinations of phosphate buffered saline (PBS and the four HA types were used as control. Rheological measurements were performed on an Anton PaarMCR-302 rheometer. Amplitude sweep, frequency sweep and rotational measurements were performed and viscoelastic properties were evaluated. The rheological data were validated performing the tests in presence of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA up to ultra-physiological concentration (7%. Primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes were cultured in vitro with the HA and PRP blends in the culture medium for one week. Cell viability, proliferation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content were assessed.PRP addition to HA leads to a decrease of viscoelastic shear moduli and increase of the crossover point, due to a pure dilution effect. For viscosupplements

  18. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, IJAM; Smelt, AHM; Princen, HMG; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Boverhof, R; Masclee, AAM; Stellaard, F

    2006-01-01

    Fibrates are drugs of choice in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), but may increase the risk for gallstones by decreasing bile acid synthesis. Fish oil might be a therapeutic alternative, but its effect on bile acid metabolism in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of triglyceride-lowe

  19. The effect of the acidity of rapeseed oil on its transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Jirí; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the transesterification of vegetable oil with a high acid number at unchanged reaction conditions. Rapeseed oil was used as the raw material and its acid number was changed by the addition of oleic acid (from 0.89 to 12.25 mg KOH/g). Methanol was used for transesterification (molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:6) and potassium hydroxide was used as a catalyst. After the reaction time, the residue of the catalyst was neutralised by gaseous carbon dioxide and the methanol excess was removed. After the separation of two phases, each of them was analyzed (in the ester phase: yield, content of methyl ester and acid number; in the glycerol phase: yield, density, viscosity, content of glycerol, soaps, methyl ester, potassium carbonate and hydrogen carbonate). The obtained data was compared with theoretical material balances and the effect on the saponification of oil was discussed. The results show that the yield of methyl ester (biodiesel) is significantly affected by a higher acid number, as well as enhanced soap formation. On the other hand, the conversion of the oil and acid number of the ester phase remain at constant values in studied borders. PMID:19574043

  20. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  1. Camelina sativa Oil Deodorization: Balance Between Free Fatty Acids and Color Reduction and Isomerized Byproducts Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrastar, Robert; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing;

    2011-01-01

    Camelina sativa oil is characterized by its high content (up to 40 wt%) of α-linolenic acid and its unique flavor. It is considered to have beneficial health properties and is suitable for food and cosmetic uses. In the present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize processing...... parameters for bench-scale deodorization of camelina oil. The mathematical models generated described the effects of process parameters (temperature, steam flow, time) on several deodorization quality indicators: free fatty acids (FFA), trans fatty acids (TFA), color, and polymerized triglycerides (PTG...

  2. Mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids : degradation in OSPW and wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Water Science and Technology Directorate

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids and the degradation in OSPW and wetland plants. It presented background information on the Athabasca oil sands and naphthenic acids which involve a mixture of alkanes and cycloalkane carboxylic acids with aliphatic side chains. The presentation also discussed mass spectrometry with electrospray operating in negative ion modes. Loop injection, external standard methods and solid phase extraction were reviewed along with improved analysis by removing background ions. Other topics that were presented included hydroponic test systems and wetland plant toxicity, growth and transpiration. It was concluded that dissipation included species containing oxygen, ozone, O{sub 4}, and O{sub 5}. tabs., figs.

  3. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  4. Acetic acid recovery from fast pyrolysis oil. An exploratory study on liquid-liquid reactive extraction using aliphatic tertiary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, F. H.; van Geel, F. P.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis oil or Bio-oil (BO), obtained by flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, is very acidic in nature. The major component responsible for this acidity is acetic acid, present in levels up to 2-10 wt%. Here, we report an exploratory study on BO upgrading by reactive extraction of ace

  5. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  6. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Calder

    1998-01-01

    1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune...

  7. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  8. Fatty acid rich effluent from acidogenic biohydrogen reactor as substrate for lipid accumulation in heterotrophic microalgae with simultaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Prathima Devi, M

    2012-11-01

    Acid-rich effluent generated from acidogenic biohydrogen production process was evaluated as substrate for lipid synthesis by integrating with heterotrophic cultivation of mixed microalgae. Experiments were performed both with synthetic volatile fatty acids (SVFA) and fermented fatty acids (FFA) from biohydrogen producing reactor. Fatty acid based platform evidenced significant influence on algal growth as well as lipid accumulation by the formation of triglycerides through fatty acid synthesis. Comparatively FFA documented higher biomass and lipid productivity (1.42mg/ml (wet weight); 26.4%) than SVFAs ((HAc+HBu+HPr), 0.60mg/ml; 23.1%). Lipid profiles varied with substrates and depicted 18 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with wide fuel and food characteristics. The observed higher concentrations of Chl b over Chl a supports the biosynthesis of triacylglycerides. Microalgae diversity visualized the presence of lipid accumulating species viz., Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. Integration of microalgae cultivation with biohydrogen production showed lipid productivity for biodiesel production along with additional treatment.

  9. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

  10. Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Janeczek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

  11. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  12. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  13. Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice on cardiac disorder in rats fed on fried food in oxidized frying oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. A. and Edrees G. M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice against evoked cardiac disorders in rats fed on fried potato in oxidized frying cotton seed oil (20% w/w for 4-weeks was studied using lycopene at a daily dose of 1 mg/Kg body weight. Total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were estimated in different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT as well as serum calcium, potassium and magnesium were determined The obtained results revealed that, feeding on fried potato in deep oxidized frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profils and LDL-c associated with a marked elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CK, ALT and AST activities. These biochemical alterations ameliorated when lycopene was administered to rats fed fried potato in oxidized frying oil.

  14. Analysis of fatty acids in Ghee and olive oil and their probable causal effect in lipoid pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Zein Mirghani; Tayseer Zein; Samuel Annoble; John Winter; Randa Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To analyze and identify the fatty acids found in homemade ghee and in olive oil and compare those to fatty acids found in bronchoalevolar lavage of children with lipoid pneumonia.Methods: The fatty acids found in homemade fat ”Ghee” and olive oil were analyzed by gas chromatography. Methyl ester derivatives suitable for GC analysis were prepared directly from olive oil or from Ghee using anhydrous methanolic-HCl. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalevolar lavage was performed in eight children age...

  15. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Sorin Fota; Lavinia Ştef; Dan Drinceanu; Izabella Fota; Rodica Căpriţă; Adrian Căpriţă

    2011-01-01

    Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal) in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linse...

  16. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Rangrej, V.; Shah, V; Patel, J.; Ganorkar, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significant...

  17. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in α-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Ferreira, M R; Chicco, A; Lombardo, Y B

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

  18. Catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids in bio-oil for liquid hydrocarbons production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-oil must be upgraded to be suitable for use as a high-grade transport fuel. Crude bio-oil has a high content of carboxylic acids which can cause corrosion, and the high oxygen content of these acids also reduces the oil’s heating value. In this paper, acetic acid and propanoic acid were chosen as the model carboxylic acids in bio-oil. Their behavior in the production of liquid hydrocarbons during a catalytic conversion process was investigated in a micro-fixed bed reactor. The liquid organic phase from this catalytic conversion process mainly consisted of liquid hydrocarbons and phenol derivatives. Under the condition of low Liquid Hourly Space Velocity (LHSV), the liquid organic phase from acetic acid cracking had a selectivity of 22% for liquid hydrocarbons and a selectivity of 65% for phenol derivatives. The composition of the organic products changed considerably with the LHSV increasing to 3 h−1. The selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons increased up to 52% while that for phenol derivatives decreased to 32%. Propanoic acid performed much better in producing liquid hydrocarbons than acetic acid. Its selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons was as high as 80% at LHSV = 3 h−1. A mechanism for this catalytic conversion process was proposed according to the analysis of the components in the liquid organic phases. The pathways of the main compounds formation in the liquid organic phases were proposed, and the reason why liquid hydrocarbons were more effectively produced when using propanoic acid rather than acetic acid was also successfully explained. In addition, BET and SEM characterization were used to analyze the catalyst coke deposition. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► High content of carboxylic acids in bio-oil causes its corrosiveness. ► Acetic acid and propanoic acid are two dominant acids in bio-oil. ► Liquid hydrocarbons were produced by cracking of these two dominant acids. ► A mechanism model was proposed to explain the

  19. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Arcinas, Arthur; Harden, Leslie A

    2009-04-01

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C(18) HPLC fractions of castor oil were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of lithium adducts to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids and the dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1. Eight triacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:0, diOH18:2-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:0-OH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1-OH18:1. The locations of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone were not determined. The structures of these three newly identified dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid and 11,12-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid. These individual acylglycerols were at the levels of about 0.5% or less in castor oil and can be isolated from castor oil or overproduced in a transgenic oil seed plant for future industrial uses.

  20. Enhanced Biodegradability, Lubricity and Corrosiveness of Lubricating Oil by Oleic Acid Diethanolamide Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jianhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of oleic acid diethanolamide phosphate (abbreviated as ODAP as an additive on biodegradability, anti-wear capacity, friction-reducing ability and corrosiveness of an unreadily biodegradable HVI 350 mineral lubricating oil was studied. The biodegradabilities of neat lubricating oil and its formulations with ODAP were evaluated on a biodegradation tester. Furthermore, the anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities and the corrosiveness of neat oil and the formulated oils were determined on a four-ball tribotester and a copper strip corrosion tester, respectively. The results indicated that ODAP markedly enhanced biodegradability as well as anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of the lubricating oil. On the other hand, excellent color ratings of copper strips for both neat oil and the ODAP-doped oil were obtained in the corrosion tests, demonstrating that the corrosiveness of neat oil and the doped oil was negligible, although the latter seemed to provide slightly better anti-corrosion ability.

  1. Thermal stability and long-chain fatty acid positional distribution on glycerol of argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouki, Farid; Mannina, Luisa; Viel, Stéphane; Owen, Robert W

    2008-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stability of argan oils by using peroxides and conjugated diene hydroperoxides measurements as analytical indicators. Both food and cosmetic argan oils were investigated. Their oxidative stability was also determined by monitoring the relative changes of their fatty acid profiles by (1)H NMR. In addition, valuable information regarding minor components as well as the acyl positional distribution, were obtained for both grades by high field (1)H and (13)C NMR, respectively. Given that the cosmetic and food grades have a similar profile and content of phenolic antioxidants, vitamers, and squalene, it appears that the ratio of fatty acid aliphatic to bisallylic CH2 groups, much higher in argan oils than in other vegetable oils, is responsible for their higher thermal stability.

  2. Catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids. A novel route towards bio-jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, Volker; Kraft, Axel; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Components for bio-jet fuel production can be achieved by catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids over activated carbon catalyst. At reaction temperatures of about 450 C, mainly C15- and C16-n-Alkanes that can be isomerized for jet fuel-usage are produced. They can be used for bio-kerosene after isomerization. Introducing high-oleic feedstock like HO-sunflower-oil and slightly raising the reaction temperature leads to high amounts of n-alkanes in the jet-fuel boiling range. The process proves to be very robust concerning feedstock compositions and impurities. Therefore, catalytic cracking over activated carbon is an ideal pathway to transform not only bio-based oils, but also their wastes and fatty acid-containing by-products from plant oil processing into high-quality fuel components. Using alternative catalysts leads to an enhanced production of alkylated benzenes which are indispensable for aviation jet fuel. (orig.)

  3. Rosmarinic Acid-Rich Extracts of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. Protect Jurkat T Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Chkhikvishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., Lamiaceae is used in several regions of the world as a spice and folk medicine. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of S. hortensis and of its rosmarinic acid-rich phenolic fraction have been demonstrated in animal trials. However, previous studies of rosmarinic acid in cell models have yielded controversial results. In this study, we investigated the effects of summer savory extracts on H2O2-challenged human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cells. LC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of rosmarinic acid and flavonoids such as hesperidin and naringin in the phenolic fraction. Adding 25 or 50 µM of H2O2 to the cell culture caused oxidative stress, manifested as generation of superoxide and peroxyl radicals, reduced cell viability, G0/G1 arrest, and enhanced apoptosis. This stress was significantly alleviated by the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of S. hortensis and by the partially purified rosmarinic acid fraction. The application of an aqueous S. hortensis extract doubled the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the cells. The production of IL-2 and IL-10 interleukins was stimulated by H2O2 and was further enhanced by the addition of the S. hortensis extract or rosmarinic acid fraction. The H2O2-challenged Jurkat cells may serve as a model for investigating cellular mechanisms of cytoprotective phytonutrient effects.

  4. Bioavailability of fatty acids from krill oil, krill meal and fish oil in healthy subjects--a randomized, single-dose, cross-over trial

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Anton; Sarkkinen, Essi; Tapola, Niina; Niskanen, Tarja; Bruheim, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background Krill contains two marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly bound in phospholipids. Typical products from krill are krill oil and krill meal. Fish oils contain EPA and DHA predominantly bound in triglycerides. The difference in the chemical binding of EPA and DHA has been suggested to affect their bioavailability, but little is known on bioavailability of EPA and DHA in krill meal. This study was undertaken to co...

  5. Triacylglycerols and fatty acids composition of egusi seed oil (Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kamga; Tchatchueng, J. B.; Kapseu, C.

    1993-01-01

    Triacylglycerols were determined from a Cameroonian (African) white egusi seed oil (Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The fatty acid composition of two types of seed (red and white) is obtained by capillary gas chromatography. The study of the triacyiglycerol composition obtained in white egusi seed oil revealed that only nine triacylglycerols were present in amounts above 1% (area). The first five triglycerides represent more than 80% of...

  6. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  7. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Natural oils are extensively used in cosmetics and as treatment for a growing number of more or less specific ailments. Skin irritation and cases of allergy have repeatedly been described in the literature following exposure to these oils. The present study evaluated the extent to which...... three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...... was applied. The three natural oils decreased the skin integrity dose-dependently. Concomitant dermal exposure to low concentrations of peppermint oil reduced the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid. The present study lends support to the notion that low concentrations of peppermint oil may act...

  8. Technology for Coking of Heavy Crude Oil with High Acid Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen; Zhao Yujun; Cheng Gang; Li Chao; Shen Haiping; Cui Long

    2005-01-01

    Sudan Khartoum Refinery Co. has selected a unique route featuring delayed coking of crude in connection with the highly sour and high-calcium heavy crude extracted from Sudanese oil block No. 6.The crude oil after pretreatment for calcium removal is subjected to coking for removal of acids and metals with the coker products being further processed. The crude oil extracted from Sudanese oil block No. 6contains as high as 13 mg KOH/g of crude in addition to a calcium content of 1600 ppm. This article makes an analysis on problems related with the operation of commercial delayed coking unit for processing of highly sour crude and bring forth measures to solve these problems. The liquid yield resulted from coking of crude oil can reach 82m%, and the petroleum coke can meet the quality requirement for class 3B petroleum coke.

  9. Activity of virgin coconut oil, lauric acid or monolaurin in combination with lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwatcharin, Pussadee; Khopaibool, Prapaporn

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activities of virgin coconut oil, lauric acid and monolaurin in combination with lactic acid against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC 25923 and an isolate from a pig carcass, by determination of Fractional Bactericidal Concentration Index (FBCI), time-kill method, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of lauric acid, monolaurin and lactic acid were 3.2 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 0.4% (v/v), respectively. The effects of lauric acid + lactic acid and monolaurin + lactic acid combinations were synergistic against both strains, exhibiting FBCIs of 0.25 and 0.63, respectively. In time-kill studies, lauric acid and monolaurin + lactic acid combinations added at their minimum inhibitory concentrations produced a bactericidal effect. The induction of stress in non-stressed cells was dependent on the type and concentration of antimicrobial. This resulted in a loss and change of the cytoplasm and membrane in cells of the bacterium. In contrast, virgin coconut oil (10%) was not active against S. aureus. The bacterial counts found in pork loin treated with lauric acid and monolaurin alone were significantly higher (p <0.05) than those treated with both lipids in combination with lactic acid at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The color, odor and overall acceptability of the pork loins were adversely affected by treatment with the three lipids and lactic acid alone but when combinations of the agents were used the sensory quality was acceptable.

  10. Quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6 and linolenic acid (ω-3 were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98% and 14.80% respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  11. Quantiifcation of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi; Fazal Wajid; Inayat-ur-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6) and linolenic acid (ω-3) were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98%and 14.80%respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  12. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  13. Determination of free fatty acids in olive oils by UPHLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, Saikh M; AlAmmari, Ahmad; Aqel, Ahmad; Al-Tamrah, Saad A; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Ahmed, A Y Badjah Hadj

    2016-09-15

    A simple, fast, highly efficient and direct method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been established for the simultaneous separation, identification and quantitation of a few saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in olive oils from various countries. No sample pretreatment techniques were employed such as extraction or derivatization for the analysis of target acids from oil samples, as the oil samples were just diluted, filtered and then directly injected to the instrument. The chromatographic separations of all target fatty acids were achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 column of particle size 1.9μm, 50×2.1mm I.D, while the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase mixture of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.5ml/min was adopted for achieving optimum separations. The identification and quantitation of target compounds was accomplished using selected ion reaction monitoring mode. The recoveries of the fatty acids were obtained higher than 89% with good validation parameters; linearity (r(2)>0.992), detection limit between 0.09 and 0.24μg/ml, run to run and day to day precisions with percent relative standard deviation lower than 2.4% at both low (1μg/ml) and medium (10μg/ml) concentration levels. The total content of fatty acids in each individual oils was found in the range of 472.63-7751.20μg/ml of olive oil, while oleic acid was found to be the major fatty acid among all analyzed oils with the amount 3785.94μg/ml (maximum) in Syrian olive oil. The obtained validation parameters confirm that the proposed analytical method is rapid, sensitive, reproducible and simple and it could be applied for the successful evaluation of fatty acids in various oils and other matrices. All the fatty acids were efficiently eluted in a time of less than 8min with well resolved peaks by employing the proposed method. PMID:27474779

  14. Thermal stability and oil absorption of aluminum hydroxide treated by dry modification with phosphoric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dry modification of aluminum hydroxide powders with phosphoric acid and the effects of modification of technological conditions on thermal stability, morphology and oil absorption of aluminum hydroxide powders were investigated. The results show that the increase of mass ratio of phosphoric acid to aluminum hydroxide, the decrease of mass concentration of phosphoric acid and prolongation of mixing time are favorable to the improvement of thermal stability of aluminum hydroxide; when the mass ratio of phosphoric acid to aluminum hydroxide is 5:100, the mass concentration of phosphoric acid is 200 g/L and the mixing time is 10 min, the initial temperature of loss of crystal water in aluminum hydroxide rises from about 192.10 to 208.66 ℃2,but the dry modification results in the appearance of agglomeration and macro-aggregate in the modified powders, and the oil absorption of modified powders becomes higher than that of original aluminum hydroxide.

  15. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  16. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  17. Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Michael; Matt, Laurie; Rubin, Evelyn; Visitacion, Mark Paul; Haller, Nairmeen A; Grey, Scott F; Woolverton, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide; in addition, the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile is becoming a significant problem. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown previously to have the antimicrobial activity. This study evaluates the lipid components of VCO for the control of C. difficile. VCO and its most active individual fatty acids were tested to evaluate their antimicrobial effect on C. difficile in vitro. The data indicate that exposure to lauric acid (C12) was the most inhibitory to growth (Pcoconut oil. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the disruption of both the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of cells exposed to 2 mg/mL of lauric acid. Changes in bacterial cell membrane integrity were additionally confirmed for VCO and select fatty acids using Live/Dead staining. This study demonstrates the growth inhibition of C. difficile mediated by medium-chain fatty acids derived from VCO.

  18. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  19. A Complementary Biodiesel Blend from Soapnut Oil and Free Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Yen Chen; Matthias Franzreb; Je-Lueng Shie; Pen-Chi Chiang; Ching-Yuan Chang; Bo-Yu Huang; Tsung-Han Chiang; Ting-Cheng Tang; Yi-Hung Chen

    2012-01-01

    Blends of biodiesels produced from soapnut oil and high-oleic free fatty acids (FFAs), which are potential non-edible oil feedstocks, were investigated with respect to their fuel properties. The soapnut oil methyl esters (SNME) had satisfactory fuel properties with the exception of its high cold filter plugging point. In contrast, the biodiesel from the FFAs had favorable fuel properties such as a low cold filter plugging point of −6 °C; however, it exhibits poor oxidation stability with an i...

  20. Feeding feedlot steers fish oil alters the fatty acid composition of adipose and muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, T J; Kegley, E B; Apple, J K; Rule, D C

    2007-10-01

    Sixteen steers (441±31.7kg initial body weight) consumed two high concentrate diets with either 0 or 3% fish oil to determine the impact of fish oil, an omega-3 fatty acid source, on the fatty acid composition of beef carcasses. Collected tissue samples included the Longissimus thoracis from the 6th to 7th rib section, ground 10th to 12th rib, liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to the 12th rib, intramuscular adipose tissue in the 6th to 7th rib sections, perirenal adipose tissue, and brisket adipose tissue. Including fish oil in the diet increased most of the saturated fatty acids (Pniche marketing if there are no deleterious effects on consumer satisfaction. PMID:22061591

  1. Fortification of dahi (Indian yoghurt) with omega-3 fatty acids using microencapsulated flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Sihag, Manvesh Kumar; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Sabikhi, Latha

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and characterize omega-3 dahi (Indian yoghurt) through fortification of microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP). Four different formulations of MFOP were fortified in dahi @ 1, 2 and 3 % levels and the level of addition was optimized on the basis of sensory scores. Dahi fortified at 2 % level was observed comparable to control, which was further studied for titratable acidity, syneresis, firmness, stickiness, oxidative stability (peroxide value), α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3) content and sensory attributes during 15d of storage. MFOP fortified dahi showed significantly (p oil) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1999). Gas-liquid chromatography profile showed ~21 % decrease in ALA content in fortified dahi after 15d of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that flaxseed oil microcapsules could be successfully incorporated in dahi; which could serve as a potential delivery system of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:27407209

  2. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity. PMID:26395416

  3. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity.

  4. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat. PMID:8833174

  5. Concentration of α-Linoleic Acid of Perilla Oil by Gradient Cooling Urea Inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hai-bo; MA Xue-yi; WU Jing-bo; ZHANG Qi; YUAN Wen-bing; CHEN Yi-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this study,production of α-linoleic acid concentrated from crude perilla oil by gradient cooling urea inclusion was optimized.The fatty acid composition was determined after ethyl esterification by gas chromatography (GC).In this process,orthogonal experiment was carried out.Under optimum conditions,the maximum amount of α-linoleic acid (91.5%) was obtained at a urea to fatty acid ratio of 3,a solvent to fatty acids ratio of 7,a reaction temperature of 348 K and a crystallization time of 690 min.A simple method of gradient cooling urea inclusion was used to purify α-Iinolenie acid by using urea to form inclusion complexes with the saturated and the less unsaturated fatty acids,which enhanced the purity of α-iinoleic acid ethyl ester by above 90%.

  6. ω-3 PUFA Rich Camelina Oil By-Products Improve the Systemic Metabolism and Spleen Cell Functions in Fattening Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Taranu, Ionelia; Gras, Mihail; Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Motiu, Monica; Daniela E Marin; Lefter, Nicoleta; Ropota, Mariana; Habeanu, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1), or...

  7. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  8. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  9. Model compounds for heavy crude oil components and tetrameric acids: Characterization and interfacial behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgaard, Erland Loeken

    2009-07-01

    The tendency during the past decades in the quality of oil reserves shows that conventional crude oil is gradually being depleted and the demand being replaced by heavy crude oils. These oils contain more of a class high-molecular weight components termed asphaltenes. This class is mainly responsible for stable water-in-crude oil emulsions. Both heavy and lighter crude oils in addition contain substantial amounts of naphthenic acids creating naphthenate deposits in topside facilities. The asphaltene class is defined by solubility and consists of several thousand different structures which may behave differently in oil-water systems. The nature of possible sub fractions of the asphaltene has been received more attention lately, but still the properties and composition of such is not completely understood. In this work, the problem has been addressed by synthesizing model compounds for the asphaltenes, on the basis that an acidic function incorporated could be crucial. Such acidic, poly aromatic surfactants turned out to be highly inter facially active as studied by the pendant drop technique. Langmuir monolayer compressions combined with fluorescence of deposited films indicated that the interfacial activity was a result of an efficient packing of the aromatic cores in the molecules, giving stabilizing interactions at the o/w interface. Droplet size distributions of emulsions studied by PFG NMR and adsorption onto hydrophilic silica particles demonstrated the high affinity to o/w interfaces and that the efficient packing gave higher emulsion stability. Comparing to a model compound lacking the acidic group, it was obvious that sub fractions of asphaltenes that contain an acidic, or maybe similar hydrogen bonding functions, could be responsible for stable w/o emulsions. Indigenous tetrameric acids are the main constituent of calcium naphthenate deposits. Several synthetic model tetra acids have been prepared and their properties have been compared to the indigenous

  10. Predicted Changes in Fatty Acid Intakes, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following Replacement of trans Fatty Acid-Containing Soybean Oil with Application-Appropriate Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)—containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...

  11. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  12. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih1)*; Kgs. Ahmadi2); Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih; Jaya Mahar Maligan; Ahmad Zaki Mubarok; Elok Zubaidah; Jhauharotul Mukhlisiyyah; Risma Puspitasari

    2013-01-01

    This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs) from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols), phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisi...

  13. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  14. Studies on acid oils and fatty acids for chickens III. Effect of chemical composition on metabolisable energy of by-products of vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    1996-03-01

    1. Fourteen by-products of oil refining, selected for their variability in free fatty acid and unsaponifiable contents, were analysed chemically with the objective of relating the determined ME values of the products to chemical composition by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Refined sunflower oil was included as a reference fat. 2. Twenty-one 2-week-old chicks were used to determine fat digestibilities and AMEn values of diets, using the total collection method. Fats were included in a wheat-soyabean meal diet at 100 g/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to express the ME values of fats as functions of the parameters measured (moisture, gross energy, impurities, unsaponifiables, non eluted material, free fatty acid content, unsaturated: saturated ratio, peroxide value, TBA test). 3. The ME of the fat products lay in the range l2.62 to 24.35 MJ/kg, and 29.26 MJ/kg for refined sunflower oil. Free fatty acid content of the fats was shown to be a poor predictor of their ME values, whereas non eluted material (NEM) of the fat products showed a good correlation with their ME. A regression equation could be derived (R2 0.6548; SEE 2.0064) with the unsaturated: saturated ratio (U:S) and NEM. An ME prediction equation based on the U:S, NEM and unsaponifiable content is also proposed (R2= 0.7l68; SEE= 1.9058). PMID:8833534

  15. Corn cob modified by lauric acid and ethanediol for emulsified oil adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季振; 林海; 陈月芳; 董颖博; Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Corn cob is a naturally renewable material with developed micropore and hydrophobic characteristics, which enables it to show good oil adsorption capacity. In order to improve oil adsorption capacity, corn cob was modified with lauric acid and ethanediol. The structure of raw and modified corn cob was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ZeTa potential analyzer. The effects of pH level, adsorption time, adsorbent dosage, and initial oil concentration on oil absorbency of corn cob were studied. The results indicate that the modification significantly improved the lipophilicity of corn cob, making the modified corn cob with much better adsorption capacity on oil absorbency. Compared with raw corn cob, the maximum saturated adsorption capacity of modified corn cob is 16.52 mg/g at pH 5, and the increasing percentage is found to be 141%, which indicates that the modification causes a better adsorption capacity for oil removal. In addition, due to high oil adsorption capacity, affordable price and low secondary pollution, the modified corn cob could be considered promising alternative for the traditional oil adsorbent to clean up the emulsified oily water.

  16. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  17. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  18. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible...

  19. Ratios of Fatty Acids at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols Containing Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Sprectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The triacylglycerols (TAG) containing dihydroxy fatty acids have been recently identified by mass spectrometry in castor oil. These new dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed earlier as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (diOH18:1), 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid (diOH18:2) and 11,12-dihydr...

  20. Amino Acid Profile of Some New Vartieties of Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Ingale and S.K. Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    There are large varieties of oil seeds and legumes in India, which are part of traditional food system but whose nutritional and economic values have not been completely determine and are far less exploited for both human and livestock utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate Sunflower (Helianths annuus) LSF-11, Sunflower (Helianths annuus) LSF-8, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) PBNS-12, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) PBNS-40, and Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) JL-24 seeds w...

  1. Base catalyzed transesterification of acid treated vegetable oil blend for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar Ali [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak 31750 (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel can be produced from low cost non-edible oils and fats. However, most of these sources are of high free fatty acid content which requires two stage transesterification to reduce the acid value and produce biodiesel. The acid treatment step is usually followed by base transesterification since the latter can yield higher conversions of methyl esters at shorter reaction time when compared with acid catalyzed reaction. In the current study, base transesterification in the second stage of biodiesel synthesis is studied for a blend of crude palm/crude rubber seed oil that had been characterized and treated with acid esterification. Optimum conditions for the reaction were established and effect of each variable was investigated. The base catalyzed transesterification favored a temperature of 55 C with methanol/oil molar ratio of 8/1 and potassium hydroxide at 2% (ww{sup -1}) (oil basis). The conversion of methyl esters exceeded 98% after 5 h and the product quality was verified to match that for biodiesel with international standards. (author)

  2. Malonic acid: A potential reagent in decontamination processes for Ni-rich alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, D.; Bruyere, V.I.E. [Gerencia Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnologia, Prof. Jorge Sabato, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, CNEA, CAC (Argentina); Bordoni, R.; Olmedo, A.M. [Gerencia Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Morando, P.J., E-mail: morando@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnologia, Prof. Jorge Sabato, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, CNEA, CAC (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    The ability of malonic acid as a dissolution agent toward synthetic Ni ferrite and Alloy 600 and 800 corrosion products was explored. Its performance in the dissolution kinetics of Ni ferrite powders was compared with the one of oxalic acid. Kinetic parameters were obtained and the dependency on external Fe(II) was modelled. Oxidized samples used in descaling tests were prepared by exposure of coupons of both alloys to lithiated aqueous solutions, under hydrothermal conditions and hydrogen overpressure, simulating PHWR conditions. Oxide layer morphology, the influence of exposure time to corrosive medium and LiOH concentration on its thickness were characterized. Descaling tests consisting on a two-stage method (a first oxidizing step with alkaline permanganate followed by a reducing step with oxalic or malonic acid were carried out). Results were compared to those obtained with a well known chemical cleaning formulation (APAC: Alkaline Permanganate Ammonium Citrate) used in decontamination of several reactors and loops and the competitiveness of malonic acid was demonstrated.

  3. Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater using oil degrading bacteria and phototrophic microorganisms in rotating biological contactor: Effect of N:P ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater in bioreactors using heterotrophic microorganisms is often associated with various operational problems. In this study, a consortium of phototrophic microorganisms and a bacterium is developed on the discs of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of wastewater containing diesel oil. The reactor was fed with oil degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia and oil tolerant phototrophic microorganisms. After biofilm formation and acclimatization to 0.6% (v/v) diesel, continuous-mode operation was initiated at 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Residual diesel in the effluent was 0.003%. Advantages of this system include good total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, no soluble carbon source requirement and good settleability of biosolids. Biofilm observations revealed the predominance of B. cepacia and cyanobacteria (Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus). The N:P ratio affected the relative dominance of the phototrophic microorganisms and bacterial culture. This ratio was a critical factor in determining the performance efficiency of the reactor. At 21 h HRT and organic loading of 27.33 g TPH/m2 d, the N:P ratio 28.5:1 and 38:1 both yielded high and almost comparable TPH and COD removal efficiencies. This study presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae to organic acids and essential oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Maele, Lien; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Dominiek; De Pauw, Nele; Mahu, Maxime; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Boyen, Filip

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial potential of organic acids and essential oil components against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative pathogen of swine dysentery, was evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 15 compounds were determined at pH 7.2 and pH 6.0, using a broth microdilution assay. In addition, possible synergism was determined. MIC values for the three tested strains were similar. For organic acids, MIC values at pH 6.0 were lower than at pH 7.2. B. hyodysenteriae was most sensitive to cinnamaldehyde and lauric acid, with MIC values acids against B. hyodysenteriae. PMID:26369432

  5. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  6. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived. PMID:26028753

  7. Effect of oilseeds rich in linoleic and linolenic acids on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia GAO; Tao SUN; Jianguo LI

    2009-01-01

    Nine multiparous cows averaging 93±13 days in milk production (DIM) were used in a triple 3×3 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding them whole roasted flaxseed, cracked roasted soybean and fresh alfalfa in the diet on milk production, milk fatty acid profiles and the digestibility of nutrients. Each experimental period lasted 30 d and a sample collection was performed during the last 7 d. The cows were fed on the control basal diet (CON) or diets containing whole roasted flaxseed (FLA) or cracked roasted soybean (SOY). All diets were fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) and had similar concentrations of crude protein (CP), Net Energy Lactation (NEL), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The dry matter intake (DMI) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but tended to increase in FLA and SOY diets compared with the control (P > 0.05). Cows in all treatments had a similar milk yield, although 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield was higher on the FLA and SOY diets than on the CON diet. Milk fat percentage (3.45%) increased in the FLA diet compared with the control (3.31%) and SOY diets (3.39%). Milk protein percentages were similar among the diets (P > 0.05). There were similar digestibilities of DM, CP and ADF among the treatments and lower digestibilities of NDF and ether extract in the SOY diet compared with the CON diet. Feeding various oilseeds significantly increased the concentrations of C18:1, C18:3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The FLA diet decreased the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty-acids in the milk, which would improve the nutritive value of the milk.

  8. Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

  9. Nodulation of cowpeas and survival of cowpeas Rhizobia in acid, aluminum-rich soils. [Vigna unguiculata; Rhizobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartel, P.G.; Whelan, A.M.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether the reduced nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown in certain acid, Alrich soils resulted from the poor survival of the potentially infective rhizobia. Two strains of Rhizobium capable of nodulating cowpeas were used. The lowest pH for growth in defined liquid medium was 4.2 for one strain and 3.9 for the other. Only the latter was Al tolerant and could grow in a defined liquid medium containing 50 ..mu..M KAl(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. The survival of the bacteria and their ability to nodulate cowpeas in three soils were measured after the soils were amended with Ca or Al salts to give pH values ranging from 5.7 to 4.1 and extractable-Al concentrations from < 0.1 to 3.7 cmol(p/sup +/)/kg of soil. Only small differences in survival in 7 or 8 weeks were noted between the two strains. Plants inoculated with the Al-sensitive strain bore significantly fewer nodules in the more acid, Al-rich soils than in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. No significant reduction in nodule number was evident for plants inoculated with the Al-tolerant strain and grown in the more acid, Al-rich soils compared to cowpeas grown in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. It is suggested that the Al content of soil is not a major factor in the survival of cowpea rhizobia but that it does have a significant effect on nodulation. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Effects of monounsaturated fatty acids-rich diet on glucose and lipids metabolism%富含单不饱和脂肪酸的饮食对血糖和血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠越华

    2012-01-01

    越来越多的证据显示,富含单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)的食物对心血管疾病及糖尿病患者有益.本文就富含MUFA的饮食模式对血糖、血脂的相关作用,以及橄榄油对血糖、血脂的调节作用机制进行阐述.%More and more evidences show that a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acid is benificial to. Patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. In this article, the role of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids in lipids and glucose metabolism has been reviewed, with an emphasis on the mechanism of olive oil in improving blood glucose and lipid profile.

  11. Physicochemical indexes and fatty acid composition of peony seed oil%牡丹籽油的理化指标和脂肪酸成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海梅; 马锦琦; 苗春雨; 胡吉良; 杨志勇; 李朴; 郑美玲

    2009-01-01

    The peony seed oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction.After saponification and esterification of the oil,the fatty acid composition was determined by capillary GC-MS,and the relative contents were determined by peak area normalization.The physicochemical index of peony seed oil was analyzed by state standard method.The results showed that 17 fatty acids were identified,and the major fatty acids were linolenic acid,oleic acid and linoleic acid.The content of unsaturated fatty acids was 83.05%,and that of saturated fatty acids was 14.33%.The physicochemical indexes of peony seed oil were as follows:acid value 1.784 mgKOH/g,iodine value 176.2 gI/100 g,saponification value 194.4 mgKOH/g, relative density 0.930 7.The peony seed was a new oil resource containing rich linolenic acid.%用索氏提取法获得牡丹籽油,经皂化、甲酯化后用毛细管GC-MS法对其脂肪酸成分进行分析,面积归一化法计算相对含量,同时按国家标准对牡丹籽油的理化指标进行了检测.结果表明,牡丹籽油中共有17种脂肪酸成分,主要为亚麻酸、油酸、亚油酸等,不饱和脂肪酸占83.05%,饱和脂肪酸占14.33%;牡丹籽油的酸值(KOH)为1.784 mg/g,碘值(I)为176.2 g/100 g,皂化值(KOH)为194.4 mg/g,相对密度0.930 7.说明牡丹籽是一种良好的油料资源,适宜开发利用.

  12. Comparative effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acid-rich diet consumption on lupus nephritis, autoantibody production and CD4+ T cell-related gene responses in the autoimmune NZBWF1 mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Pestka

    Full Text Available Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1 n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO, 2 n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN or 3 n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS. Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other

  13. New conjugated hydroxydienoic fatty acids and acetotriacylglycerols from Securidaca longipedunculata seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C R; Madrigal, R V; Plattner, R D

    1979-02-26

    Like other members of the plant family Polygalaceae, Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., is a source of fatty acids and triacylglycerols with unusual structures. Its seed oil contains at least seven chromatographically distinct groups of triacylglycerols divided into two series: One series represents monoacetotriacylglycerols, and the other 'normal' triacylglycerols having only long-chain fatty acids. Each series has groups containing zero, one or two conjugated hydroxydienoic acids. In addition, there is a small amount of triacylglycerol incorporating three hydroxy acids. In addition to coriolic (13-hydroxyoctadeca-cis-9,trans-11-dienoic) acid (27%), two of its previously unknown homologs are present: 11-hydroxyhexadeca-cis-7,trans-9-dienoic acid (15%) and 9-hydroxytetradeca-cis-5,trans-7-dienoic acid (2%). PMID:427179

  14. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage...

  15. Fatty acid composition of Achene oils from five Moroccan climatic cultivars of Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzouki, A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of achene oil from five Cannabis climatic cultivars cultivated in the nort of Morrocco is determined. Linoleic acid predominated (40 to 45%, followed by linolenic (12 to 17% and oleic (7 to 10% acids. Differences in the fatty acid composition of oils are attributed to environmental factors.

    Se estudia la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de los aquenios de cinco variedades climáticas del cáñamo (Cannabis sativa L cultivadas en el norte de Marruecos. Predomina el ácido linoleico (40 a 45% seguido por el linolénico (12 a 17% y el oleico (7 a 10%. Las diferencias en la composición de los ácidos grasos del aceite se atribuyen a factores ambientales.

  16. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  17. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026 and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128. A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM. Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition. At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV, myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3

  18. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  19. Effect of Plant Oils upon Lipase and Citric Acid Production in Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Darvishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates to produce organic acids, single-cell oil, lipases, and so forth. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical behavior and simultaneous production of valuable metabolites such as lipase, citric acid (CA, and single-cell protein (SCP by Yarrowia lipolytica DSM 3286 grown on various plant oils as sole carbon source. Among tested plant oils, olive oil proved to be the best medium for lipase and CA production. The Y. lipolytica DSM 3286 produced 34.6 ± 0.1 U/mL of lipase and also CA and SCP as by-product on olive oil medium supplemented with yeast extract. Urea, as organic nitrogen, was the best nitrogen source for CA production. The results of this study suggest that the two biotechnologically valuable products, lipase and CA, could be produced simultaneously by this strain using renewable low-cost substrates such as plant oils in one procedure.

  20. Molecular dynamic simulation of asphaltene co-aggregation with humic acid during oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinzhe; Chen, Daoyi; Wu, Guozhong

    2015-11-01

    Humic acid in water and sediment plays a key role in the fate and transport of the spilled oil, but little is known about its influence on the aggregation of heavy oil asphaltenes which is adverse for remediation. Molecular dynamic simulation was performed to characterize the co-aggregation of asphaltenes (continental model and Violanthrone-79 model) with Leonardite humic acid (LHA) at the toluene-water interface and in bulk water, respectively, to simulate the transport of asphaltenes from oil to water. At the toluene-water interface, a LHA layer tended to form and bind to the water by hydrogen bonding which provided a surface for the accumulation of asphaltenes by parallel or T-shape stacking. After entering the bulk water, asphaltene aggregates stacked in parallel were tightly sequestrated inside the inner cavity of LHA aggregates following surface adsorption and structure deformation. Asphaltene aggregation in water was 2-fold higher than at the toluene-water interface. The presence of LHA increased the intensity of asphaltene aggregation by up to 83% in bulk water while relatively less influence was observed at the toluene-water interface. Overall results suggested that the co-aggregation of asphaltene with humic acid should be incorporated to the current oil spill models for better interpreting the overall environmental risks of oil spill. PMID:26149857

  1. Kinetics of Non-Catalytic Esterification of Free Fatty Acids Present in Jatropha Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Rani, Karna Narayana; Ramana Neeharika, Tulasi Sri Venkata; Kumar, Thella Prathap; Satyavathi, Bankupalli; Sailu, Chintha

    2016-05-01

    Non-catalytic esterfication of free fatty acids (FFA) present in vegetable oils is an alternative pretreatment process for the biodiesel production. Biodiesel, consists of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fat. This study presents kinetics of thermal esterification of free fatty acids present in jatropha oil with methanol. The effect of process parameters like reaction time (1-5 h), temperature (170-190°C) and oil to methanol ratio (1:3-1:5) at constant pressure was investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be oil to methanol ratio of 1:4, 190°C, at 27.1 bar and 5 h which gave a maximum conversion of 95.1%. A second order kinetic model for both forward and backward reactions was proposed to study the reaction system. A good agreement was observed between the experimental data and the model values. The activation energy for forward reaction and the heat of reaction were found to be 36.364 Kcal/mol and 1.74 Kcal/mol respectively. PMID:27086997

  2. Molecular dynamic simulation of asphaltene co-aggregation with humic acid during oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinzhe; Chen, Daoyi; Wu, Guozhong

    2015-11-01

    Humic acid in water and sediment plays a key role in the fate and transport of the spilled oil, but little is known about its influence on the aggregation of heavy oil asphaltenes which is adverse for remediation. Molecular dynamic simulation was performed to characterize the co-aggregation of asphaltenes (continental model and Violanthrone-79 model) with Leonardite humic acid (LHA) at the toluene-water interface and in bulk water, respectively, to simulate the transport of asphaltenes from oil to water. At the toluene-water interface, a LHA layer tended to form and bind to the water by hydrogen bonding which provided a surface for the accumulation of asphaltenes by parallel or T-shape stacking. After entering the bulk water, asphaltene aggregates stacked in parallel were tightly sequestrated inside the inner cavity of LHA aggregates following surface adsorption and structure deformation. Asphaltene aggregation in water was 2-fold higher than at the toluene-water interface. The presence of LHA increased the intensity of asphaltene aggregation by up to 83% in bulk water while relatively less influence was observed at the toluene-water interface. Overall results suggested that the co-aggregation of asphaltene with humic acid should be incorporated to the current oil spill models for better interpreting the overall environmental risks of oil spill.

  3. Oxidation Effect on Tribological Pproperties of Rapeseed oil and Lard Mixtures Containing Monoglycerides and Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Makareviciene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and animal fats are increasingly popular base material to produce environmentally friendly lubricants. This is a renewable and easily biodegradable in the natural environment material. The main disadvantage of vegetable oils and animal fats as raw materials and its lubricants is pour oxidation stability. There are already a wide range of environmentally friendly lubricants in the market, while the variety of greases offer is not so high. This research aims to explore the properties of prepared compositions of lubricating greases produced from rapeseed oil and lard, modifying them with monoglycerides, stearic and oleic acids. The plastic properties (penetration and oxidation influence on tribological and corrosive properties of these compositions were studied. It was found that modifying rapeseed oil and lard with monoglycerides, oleic and stearic acids a few lubricating compositions of NLGI grades can be achieved: soft or very soft rapeseed oil based greases and medium or nearly hard consistency lard based compositions. The oxidation studies showed that it decreases the tribological properties of base and monoglycerides modified lubricants. Oxidation has greater negative impact on lard and lard based compositions. Oleic and stearic acids reduces or completely eliminates the negative influence of oxidation. Corrosion studies have shown that both fresh and oxidized lubricant compositions have no significant affect on copper strip corrosion.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1763

  4. Biodiesel Production from Waste Edible Oils and Grease Containing Free Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Fenghong; Guo Pingmei; Huang Qingde

    2005-01-01

    Till now, most part of the biodiesel is produced from the refined vegetable oils using methanol as feedstock in the presence of an alkali catalyst. However, large amount of waste edible oils and grease are available. The difficulty with alkali-catalyzed esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), polymers and decomposition products. These free fatty acids can quickly react with the alkali catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the ester and glycerine. An esterification and transesterification process is developed to convert the high FFA oil to its monoesters. The first step, the acidcatalyzed esterification with glycerine and these FFA reduces the FFA content of the oil and grease to less than3%, and then an azeotropic distillation solvent is used to remove the water. The major factors affecting the conversion efficiency of the process such as glycerol to free fatty acid molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction duration are analyzed. The second step, alkali-catalyzed transesterification process converts the products of the first step to its monoesters and glycerol, and then the glycerol is recycled for utilization in the first step. Technical indicators of the biodiesel product can meet the ASTM 6751 standard.

  5. Genotypic Variation on Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Phenolic Compounds in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAYNAK KANMAZ, Evrim; Ova, Gülden

    2015-01-01

    Linseed is used as a functional food ingredient in food products because ofits valuable bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of cultivar varietyon total oil content, fatty acid composition, level of α-linolenic acid, SDG(secoisolariciresinol diglucosid) lignan, phenolic (free and esterified) andflavonoid (free and esterified) content of linseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.)cultivated in Turkey was investigated. Also, it was aimed to determine thecorrelations between the bioactive compou...

  6. Oil components modulate the skin delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its ester prodrug from oil-in-water and water-in-oil nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang LW

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-Wen Zhang1, Saleh A Al-Suwayeh2, Chi-Feng Hung3, Chih-Chieh Chen1, Jia-You Fang1,2,41Pharmaceutics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei County, Taiwan; 4Department of Cosmetic Science, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan, TaiwanAbstract: The study evaluated the potential of nanoemulsions for the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA and methyl ALA (mALA. The drugs were incorporated in oil-in-water (O/W and water-in-oil (W/O formulations obtained by using soybean oil or squalene as the oil phase. The droplet size, zeta potential, and environmental polarity of the nanocarriers were assessed as physicochemical properties. The O/W and W/O emulsions showed diameters of 216–256 and 18–125 nm, which, respectively, were within the range of submicron- and nano-sized dispersions. In vitro diffusion experiments using Franz-type cells and porcine skin were performed. Nude mice were used, and skin fluorescence derived from protoporphyrin IX was documented by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. The loading of ALA or mALA into the emulsions resulted in slower release across cellulose membranes. The release rate and skin flux of topical drug application were adjusted by changing the type of nanocarrier, the soybean oil O/W systems showing the highest skin permeation. This formulation increased ALA flux via porcine skin to 180 nmol/cm2/h, which was 2.6-fold that of the aqueous control. The CLSM results showed that soybean oil systems promoted mALA permeation to deeper layers of the skin from ~100 µm to ~140 µm, which would be beneficial for treating subepidermal and subcutaneous lesions. Drug permeation from W/O systems did not surpass that from the aqueous solution. An in vivo dermal irritation test

  7. Steel Corrosion Inhibition by Acid Garlic Essential Oil as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor a nd Sorption Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Afia, L.; Benali, O.; Salghi, R.; Ebenso, Eno E.; Jodeh, S.; Zougagh, M.; Hammouti, B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the inhibition effect of acid garlic essential oil (GO oil) as an inhibitor on the corrosion of carbon steel in a 1M HCl solution at different temperatures by weight loss,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The GO oil acts as an effective corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in a hydrochloric acid medium. The inhibition process is attributed to the formatio...

  8. Incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids in response to different omega-3 fatty acid formulations - a comparative bioavailability study of fish oil vs. krill oil

    OpenAIRE

    Schuchardt Jan; Schneider Inga; Meyer Henrike; Neubronner Juliane; von Schacky Clemens; Hahn Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids (FA) depends on their chemical form. Superior bioavailability has been suggested for phospholipid (PL) bound omega-3 FA in krill oil, but identical doses of different chemical forms have not been compared. Methods In a double-blinded crossover trial, we compared the uptake of three EPA+DHA formulations derived from fish oil (re-esterified triacylglycerides [rTAG], ethyl-esters [EE]) and krill oil (mainly PL). Changes of the FA composi...

  9. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... (VA). Healthy young men (n = 60) with a BMI of 22.5 +/- 2 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD) participated in this double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study. The participants substituted 115 g of their daily fat intake with fat from 1 of 3 test diets: 1) CLA-diet rich in CLA (4.7 g/d of c9, t11......- and t10, c12-CLA isomers in equal amounts); 2) VA-diet rich in VA (3.6 g/d); or 3) C-diet, a control diet with a low content of VA and CLA. All test diets were based on milk fat. BP and AE (measured by an oscillometric method) were measured before and after the intervention period. The effects...

  10. DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn AND FREE FATTY ACIDS IN PEQUI OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. S. Mimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., a typical fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, is an important source of micronutrients and fatty acids. In this work, a new approach for the acid digestion (using H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 of pequi oil samples and the determination of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS was employed. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE was used for free fatty acid (FFA determination after simple and fast extraction with heated ethanol. Good results regarding precision (RSD < 10%, in most cases, sensitivity and adequate LOD and LOQ values were obtained. The accuracy was evaluated using spike tests and the recoveries were from 97 to 107%. The analytes were investigated in four different pequi oil samples. Fe was the trace element with the highest concentration (from 1.99 to 10.3 mg/100 g, followed by Zn, Mn and Cu (1.15 to 3.19, 0.42 to 0.91 and 0.31 to 0.56 mg/100 g, respectively. The main FFA found were oleic acid and palmitic acid (1.61 to 10.7 and 0.82 to 2.69 g/100 g, respectively, while linoleic acid (0.50 g/100 g was detected in only one sample. The pequi oil chemical composition showed good characteristics to be used as a food additive, in cosmetic formulations and for traditional medicine.

  11. Nanostructured Polylactic Acid/Candeia Essential Oil Mats Obtained by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia L. S. de Oliveira Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different contents of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus essential oil (whose alpha-bisabolol is the main terpene on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA nanostructured mats and their relationship with fiber morphology and structure. The interaction occurring between the PLA and the candeia essential oil was confirmed by thermal and microscopy analysis. Addition of candeia essential oil increased nanofiber diameter and decreased the glass transition and melting temperatures of the nanofibers, suggesting lower energy input for processing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images provided evidence of a homogeneous structure for the nanostructured mats. X-ray diffraction did not show differences in the crystallization of the nanofibers. This ongoing research confirms the possibility of incorporation of candeia essential oil in the production of nanofibers that will be studied for multipurpose applications.

  12. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakpong, Piyanuch; Wootthikanokkhan, Sasiwimol [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep, 2 Nanglinchee Road, Sathorn, Bangkok 10120 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Coconut oil having 12.8% free fatty acid (FFA) was used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step process. In the first step, FFA level of the coconut oil was reduced to 0.6% by acid-catalyzed esterification. In the second step, triglycerides in product from the first step were transesterified with methanol by using an alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters and glycerol. Effect of parameters related to these processes was studied and optimized, including methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Methyl ester content of the coconut biodiesel was determined by GC to be 98.4% under the optimum condition. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel product was very close to that of Thai petroleum diesel and other measured properties met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specification. (author)

  13. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc;

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1–C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic...... compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter...... (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might...

  14. Solutions for Foaming Problems in Biogas Reactors Using Natural Oils or Fatty Acids as Defoamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the most common and important problems in biogas plants, leading to severe operational, economical, and environmental drawbacks. Because addition of easily degradable co-substrates for boosting the biogas production can suddenly raise the foaming problem, the full-scale biogas...... promoted by the addition of protein, lipid, or carbohydrate co-substrates. However, in most cases, the defoaming efficiency of rapeseed oil was greater than that of oleic acid, and therefore, rapeseed oil is recommended to be used in biogas reactors to solve foaming problems....... results from our previous extensive research along with some unpublished data on defoaming by rapeseed oil and oleic acid in manure-based biogas reactors. It was found that both compounds exhibited remarkable defoaming efficiency ranging from 30 to 57% in biogas reactors suffering from foaming problems...

  15. Importance of the proline-rich multimerization domain on the oligomerization and nucleic acid binding properties of HIV-1 Vif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Serena; Mercenne, Gaëlle; Tournaire, Clémence; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2011-03-01

    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is required for productive infection of non-permissive cells, including most natural HIV-1 targets, where it counteracts the antiviral activities of the cellular cytosine deaminases APOBEC-3G (A3G) and A3F. Vif is a multimeric protein and the conserved proline-rich domain (161)PPLP(164) regulating Vif oligomerization is crucial for its function and viral infectivity. Here, we expressed and purified wild-type Vif and a mutant protein in which alanines were substituted for the proline residues of the (161)PPLP(164) domain. Using dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, we established the impact of these mutations on Vif oligomerization, secondary structure content and nucleic acids binding properties. In vitro, wild-type Vif formed oligomers of five to nine proteins, while Vif AALA formed dimers and/or trimers. Up to 40% of the unbound wild-type Vif protein appeared to be unfolded, but binding to the HIV-1 TAR apical loop promoted formation of β-sheets. Interestingly, alanine substitutions did not significantly affect the secondary structure of Vif, but they diminished its binding affinity and specificity for nucleic acids. Dynamic light scattering showed that Vif oligomerization, and interaction with folding-promoting nucleic acids, favor formation of high molecular mass complexes. These properties could be important for Vif functions involving RNAs. PMID:21076154

  16. Conversion of cheese whey into a fucose- and glucuronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide by Enterobacter A47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-09-20

    Cheese whey was used as the sole substrate for the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by Enterobacter A47. An EPS concentration of 6.40 g L(-1) was reached within 3.2 days of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 2.00 g L(-1) d(-1). The produced EPS was mainly composed of glucuronic acid (29 mol%) and fucose (29 mol%), with lower contents of glucose and galactose (21 mol% each) and a total acyl groups content of 32 wt.%. The polymer had an average molecular weight of 1.8×10(6) Da, with a polydispersity index of 1.2, and an intrinsic viscosity of 8.0 dL g(-1). EPS aqueous solutions (1.0 wt.% in 0.01 M NaCl, at pH 8.0) presented a shear thinning behavior with a viscosity of the first Newtonian plateau approaching 0.1 Pas. This novel glucuronic acid-rich polymer possesses interesting rheological properties, which, together with its high content of glucuronic acid and fucose, two bioactive sugar monomers, confers it a great potential for use in high-value applications, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  17. Gamma-linolenic acid in borage oil reverses epidermal hyperproliferation in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S; Kong, S; Seong, K; Cho, Y

    2002-10-01

    As dietary sources of gamma-linolenic acid [GLA; 18:3(n-6)], borage oil (BO; 24-25 g/100 g GLA) and evening primrose oil (PO; 8-10 g/100 g GLA) are efficacious in treating skin disorders. The triglycerol stereospecificity of these oils is distinct, with GLA being concentrated in the sn-2 position of BO and in the sn-3 position of PO. To determine whether the absolute level and/or the triglycerol stereospecificity of GLA in oils affect biological efficacy, epidermal hyperproliferation was induced in guinea pigs by a hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) diet for 8 wk. Subsequently, guinea pigs were fed diets of PO, BO or a mixture of BO and safflower oil (SO) for 2 wk. The mixture of BO and SO (BS) diet had a similar level of GLA as PO but with sn-2 stereospecificity. As controls, two groups were fed SO and HCO for 10 wk. Epidermal hyperproliferation was reversed by all three oils in the order of BO > BS > PO. However, proliferation scores of group PO were higher than of the normal control group, SO. The accumulations of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [DGLA; 20:3(n-6)], an elongase product of GLA, into phospholipids and ceramides, of 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-HETrE), the potent antiproliferative metabolite of DGLA, and of ceramides, the major lipid maintaining epidermal barrier, in the epidermis of group BO were greater than of groups BS and PO. Group BS had higher levels of DGLA, 15-HETrE and ceramides than group PO. With primary dependence on absolute levels, our data demonstrate that the antiproliferative efficacy of GLA in the epidermis is preferably exerted from sn-2 stereospecificity of GLA in BO.

  18. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  19. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON DELTA 7 STIGMASTENOL CONTENT OF PALESTINIAN OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad M. Quasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil quality is a term influenced by many factors. Δ7 Stigmastenol is a new criteria used to determine olive oil quality especially its purity from adulteration with other types of seeds oil. Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation were investigated through studying the effect of the literature’s highlighted factors, namely; Olive fly infection, the land topographic and the preservation of olive before pressing. In this study,13 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas in Palestine to study the factors that affect Δ7 Stigmastenol in Olive Oil. This study starts on October 2007 and ends on July 2008. The results obtained were very interesting and varied between having positive Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation as in case of infection mode factors and preservation of olive fruit before pressing negative Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation for other factors as found to the land topographic factors. Further studies are needed to investigate the correlation between acidity and other factors.

  20. Determination of free fatty acids in cooking oil: traditional spectrophotometry and optothermal window assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goyrik, M.; Ajtony, Z.; Doka, O.; Alebic-Juretic, A.; Bicanic, D.D.; Koudijs, A.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of optothermal window (OW) (with 632.8 nm He-Ne laser used as a radiation source), combined with copper soap based colorimetry, was proposed as a new analytical tool to determine total free fatty acid (FFA) content in thermally treated cooking oil. The results obtained were compared to t