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Sample records for acid reduced bioprotein

  1. Cheese whey: A potential resource to transform into bioprotein, functional/nutritional proteins and bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Yan, Song; Pilli, Sridhar; Kumar, Lalit; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2015-11-01

    The byproduct of cheese-producing industries, cheese whey, is considered as an environmental pollutant due to its high BOD and COD concentrations. The high organic load of whey arises from the presence of residual milk nutrients. As demand for milk-derived products is increasing, it leads to increased production of whey, which poses a serious management problem. To overcome this problem, various technological approaches have been employed to convert whey into value-added products. These technological advancements have enhanced whey utilization and about 50% of the total produced whey is now transformed into value-added products such as whey powder, whey protein, whey permeate, bioethanol, biopolymers, hydrogen, methane, electricity bioprotein (single cell protein) and probiotics. Among various value-added products, the transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is attractive and demanding. The main important factor which is attractive for transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory status of whey. Whey and whey permeate are biotransformed into proteinaceous feed and food-grade bioprotein/single cell protein through fermentation. On the other hand, whey can be directly processed to obtain whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, and individual whey proteins. Further, whey proteins are also transformed into bioactive peptides via enzymatic or fermentation processes. The proteinaceous products have applications as functional, nutritional and therapeutic commodities. Whey characteristics, and its transformation processes for proteinaceous products such as bioproteins, functional/nutritional protein and bioactive peptides are covered in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunotoxicity of nucleic acid reduced BioProtein - a bacterial derived single cell protein - in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-marie; Poulsen, Morten; Christensen, Hanne Risager

    2002-01-01

    , therefore, a nucleic acid reduced variant (NABP) has been developed by the manufacturer. The purpose of the present study was to establish the safety of NABP in a subchronic toxicity rat study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats were fed diets containing 0, 6, 12 or 24% NABP for 13 weeks. Feeding...

  3. The oral immunogenicity of BioProtein, a bacterial single-cell protein, is affected by its particulate nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Larsen, L.C.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    -culture homogenate induced immunoglobulin A in saliva but there was no systemic response. The antibodies from BP-fed mice cross-reacted with BP-culture homogenate revealing the presence of the same antigenic components in the two products despite the different oral immunogenicity. Thus, ingestion of BP induces...... shown that ingested BP induces a specific immune response. The objective of the present study was to characterize the type of response, its development over time and product-related causative factors. Mice were fed with diets containing 60 g nucleic acid-reduced BP/kg, 240 g nucleic acid-reduced BP...... and saliva. Ingested BP induced a steady specific mucosal and systemic immune response, characterized by a dose-dependent production of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin A in blood and immunoglobulin A in saliva. Basic BP and nucleic acid-reduced BP induced identical responses. However, feeding mice BP...

  4. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  5. n-3 fatty acids reduce plasma 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emilie; Beilin, Lawrence J; Puddey, Ian B; Watts, Gerald F; Irish, Ashley B; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-09-01

    Metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase leads to the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) that regulates vascular function, sodium homeostasis and blood pressure (BP). Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids is known to alter arachidonic acid metabolism and reduce the formation of the lipid peroxidation products F2-isoprostanes, but the effect of n-3 fatty acids on 20-HETE has not been studied. We previously reported a significant effect of n-3 fatty acids but not coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) to reduce BP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, wherein patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomized to n-3 fatty acids (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. This study examined the effect of n-3 fatty acids on plasma and urinary 20-HETE in the same study, as well as plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes, and relate these to changes in BP. Seventy-four patients completed the 8-week intervention. n-3 fatty acids but not CoQ significantly reduced plasma 20-HETE (P = 0.001) and F2-isoprostanes (P fatty acids. This is the first report that n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces plasma 20-HETE in humans and that this associates with reduced BP. These results provide a plausible mechanism for the reduction in BP observed in patients with CKD following n-3 fatty acid supplementation.

  6. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated. The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group. Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD. PMID:27977613

  7. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  8. A Case of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia Which Was Aggravated by Acid Reducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiomi Nakade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE is known to be characterized by red patches or spots in a diffuse or linear array in the antrum of the stomach. The precise etiology of GAVE remains to be elucidated. Argon plasma laser coagulation (APC has been used to control oozing from GAVE; however, there is no satisfactory long-term effect of APC in the control of oozing from GAVE. An acid reducer is used after APC because even physiological acid exposure might delay post-APC ulcer healing. We describe the case of a patient who had used an acid reducer and experienced repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to GAVE. After ceasing to administer the acid reducer, incidences of hospitalization due to oozing from GAVE stopped. After the administration of the acid reducer was restarted, the patient had tarry stool, and diffuse oozing of blood was seen again. We report a first case of GAVE which was aggravated by acid reducer.

  9. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  10. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  11. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  12. Procedure for reducing hydrogen ion concentration in acidic anion eluate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Baloun, S.; Plevac, S.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is suggested for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in the acidic anionic eluate formed during the separation of uranium. The procedure involves anex elution, precipitation, filtration, precipitate rinsing, and anex rinsing. The procedure is included in the uranium elution process and requires at least one ion exchanger column and at least one tank in the continuous or discontinuous mode. Sparing the neutralizing agent by reducing the hydrogen ion concentration in the acidic anionic eluate is a major asset of this procedure. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  13. Leaching of Carbothermic Reduced Titanium-bearing Blast Furnace Slag by Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yulan; ZHANG Guohua; CHOU Kuochih

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company with acid system under atmosphere pressure was studied. The results show that the temperature and concentration have significant influence on leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag by ac-id. The experimental data of leaching indicate that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the acid leaching. The apparent activation energy can be estimated to be from 23 to 32 kJ/mol. Fur-thermore, the main products are TiC and SiO2 after leaching.

  14. Strategies for Reduced Acid and Metalliferous Drainage by Pyrite Surface Passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujie Qian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD is broadly accepted to be a major global environmental problem facing the mining industry, requiring expensive management and mitigation. A series of laboratory-scale kinetic leach column (KLC experiments, using both synthetic and natural mine wastes, were carried out to test the efficacy of our pyrite passivation strategy (developed from previous research for robust and sustainable AMD management. For the synthetic waste KLC tests, initial treatment with lime-saturated water was found to be of paramount importance for maintaining long-term circum-neutral pH, favourable for the formation and preservation of the pyrite surface passivating layer and reduced acid generation rate. Following the initial lime-saturated water treatment, minimal additional alkalinity (calcite-saturated water was required to maintain circum-neutral pH for the maintenance of pyrite surface passivation. KLC tests examining natural potentially acid forming (PAF waste, with much greater peak acidity than that of the synthetic waste, blended with lime (≈2 wt % with and without natural non-acid-forming (NAF waste covers, were carried out. The addition of lime and use of NAF covers maintained circum-neutral leachate pH up to 24 weeks. During this time, the net acidity generated was found to be significantly reduced by the overlying NAF cover. If the reduced rate of acidity production from the natural PAF waste is sustained, the addition of smaller (more economically-feasible amounts of lime, together with application of NAF wastes as covers, could be trialled as a potential cost-effective AMD mitigation strategy.

  15. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, G.T.; Dickie, J.P.; Hamerski, D.A.; Magnuson, J.K.; Anderson, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB 3 H 4 followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded [ 3 H] glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and [ 3 H]glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue

  16. Study of Ascorbic Acid as Iron(III Reducing Agent for Spectrophotometric Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesar Elmagirbi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for iron(III has been investigated in order to obtain an alternative carcinogenic reducing agent, hydroxylamine, used in spectrophotometric standard method based on the formation of a red-orange complex of Fe(II-o-phenanthroline. The study was optimised with regards to ascorbic acid concentration as well as pH solution. The results showed that ascorbic acid showed maximum capacity as reducing agent of iron(III under concentration of 4.46.10-4 M and pH solution of 1-4.Under these conditions, ascorbic acid reduced iron(III proportionally and performed similarly to that of hydroxylamine.  The method gave result to linear calibration over the range of 0.2-2 mg/L withhigh accuracy of 97 % and relative standard deviation of less than 2 %. This method was successfully applied to assay iron speciation in water samples.

  17. Ascorbic acid reduces noise-induced nitric oxide production in the guinea pig ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Fischer, Ilka; Brieger, Jürgen; Rümelin, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Helling, Kai

    2008-05-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused, among other causes, by increased nitric oxide (NO) production in the inner ear leading to nitroactive stress and cell destruction. Some studies in the literature suggest that the degree of hearing loss (HL) could be reduced in an animal model through ascorbic acid supplementation. To identify the effect of ascorbic acid on tissue-dependent NO content in the inner ear of the guinea pig, we determined the local NO production in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall separately 6 hours after noise exposure. Prospective animal study in guinea pigs. Over a period of 7 days, male guinea pigs were supplied with minimum (25 mg/kg body weight/day) and maximum (525 mg/kg body weight/day) ascorbic acid doses, and afterwards exposed to noise (90 dB sound pressure level for 1 hour). The acoustic-evoked potentials were recorded before and after noise exposure. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall were incubated differently for 6 hours in culture medium, and the degree of NO production was determined by chemiluminescence. Ascorbic acid treatment reduced the hearing threshold shift after noise exposure depending on concentration. When the maximum ascorbic acid dose was substituted, NO production was significantly reduced in the lateral wall after noise exposure and slightly reduced in the organ of Corti. Oral supplementation of the natural radical scavenger ascorbic acid reduces the NO-production rate in the inner ear in noisy conditions. This finding supports the concept of inner ear protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

  18. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer: An Asian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated.The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group.Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD.

  19. Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Lactic Acid-Acetic Acid Blends, and Peracetic Acid To Reduce Salmonella on Chicken Parts under Simulated Commercial Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirex-Hernandez, Alejandra; Brashears, Mindy M; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2018-01-01

    The poultry processing industry has been undergoing a series of changes as it modifies processing practices to comply with new performance standards for chicken parts and comminuted poultry products. The regulatory approach encourages the use of intervention strategies to prevent and control foodborne pathogens in poultry products and thus improve food safety and protect human health. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions for reducing Salmonella on inoculated chicken parts under simulated commercial processing conditions. Chicken pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at 6 log CFU/mL and then treated with organic acids and oxidizing agents on a commercial rinsing conveyor belt. The efficacy of spraying with six different treatments (sterile water, lactic acid, acetic acid, buffered lactic acid, acetic acid in combination with lactic acid, and peracetic acid) at two concentrations was evaluated on skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs at three application temperatures. Skinless chicken breasts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of lactic acid and peracetic acid. The color stability of treated and untreated chicken parts was assessed after the acid interventions. The lactic acid and buffered lactic acid treatments produced the greatest reductions in Salmonella counts. Significant differences between the control and water treatments were identified for 5.11% lactic acid and 5.85% buffered lactic acid in both skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs. No significant effect of treatment temperature for skin-on chicken thighs was found. Lactic acid and peracetic acid were effective agents for eluting Salmonella cells attached to chicken breasts.

  20. Functional improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reduce volatile acidity in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zongli; Walkey, Christopher J; Madilao, Lufiani L; Measday, Vivien; Van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2013-08-01

    Control of volatile acidity (VA) is a major issue for wine quality. In this study, we investigated the production of VA by a deletion mutant of the fermentation stress response gene AAF1 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentations were carried out in commercial Chardonnay grape must to mimic industrial wine-making conditions. We demonstrated that a wine yeast strain deleted for AAF1 reduced acetic acid levels in wine by up to 39.2% without increasing the acetaldehyde levels, revealing a potential for industrial application. Deletion of the cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6 also reduced acetic acid levels dramatically, but increased the acetaldehyde levels by 41.4%, which is not desired by the wine industry. By comparison, ALD4 and the AAF1 paralog RSF2 had no effects on acetic acid production in wine. Deletion of AAF1 was detrimental to the growth of ald6Δ and ald4Δald6Δ mutants, but had no effect on acetic acid production. Overexpression of AAF1 dramatically increased acetic acid levels in wine in an Ald6p-dependent manner, indicating that Aaf1p regulates acetic acid production mainly via Ald6p. Overexpression of AAF1 in an ald4Δald6Δ strain produced significantly more acetic acid in wine than the ald4Δald6Δ mutant, suggesting that Aaf1p may also regulate acetic acid synthesis independently of Ald4p and Ald6p. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced humic acid nanosheets and its uses as nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraia, El-shazly M.; Henderson, B.; Beall, Gary W.

    2015-10-01

    Leonardite is highly oxidized form of lignite coal and contains a number of carboxyl groups around the edges of a graphene-like core. A novel approach has been developed to synthesize graphene oxide-like nanosheets in large scale utilizing leonardite as a starting material. Humic acid extracted from leonardite has been reduced by performing a high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction was carried out inside a high pressure stirred reactor at 150 °C and 750 psi (~5.2×106 Pa). Morphology of the as-synthesized samples showed porous platy particles and EDAX analysis indicates the carbon and oxygen atomic ratios as 96:4-97:3%. The as-synthesized material has been used as nanofiller in polyurethane. The reduced humic acid-polyurethane nanocomposite showed over 250% increase of Young's modulus. This new approach provides a low cost and scalable source for graphene oxide-like nanosheets in nanocomposite applications.

  2. The use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce mercury bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadán-Piedra, C; Alcántara, C; Monedero, V; Zúñiga, M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2017-08-01

    Mercury in food is present in either inorganic [Hg(II)] or methylmercury (CH 3 Hg) form. Intestinal absorption of mercury is influenced by interactions with other food components. The use of dietary components to reduce mercury bioavailability has been previously proposed. The aim of this work is to explore the use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the amount of mercury solubilized after gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Ten strains were tested by addition to aqueous solutions containing Hg(II) or CH 3 Hg, or to food samples, and submission of the mixtures to gastrointestinal digestion. All of the strains assayed reduce the soluble fraction from standards of mercury species under gastrointestinal digestion conditions (72-98%). However their effectiveness is lower in food, and reductions in bioaccessibility are only observed with mushrooms (⩽68%). It is hypothesized that bioaccessible mercury in seafood forms part of complexes that do not interact with lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roel J; Smout, Andre J P M; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-12-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an alginate formulation in relation to the acid pocket and the corresponding effects on reflux parameters and acid pocket positioning in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic GERD and large hiatal hernias to groups who were given either (111)In-labeled alginate-antacid (n = 8, Gaviscon Double Action Liquid) or antacid (n = 8, Antagel) after a standard meal. The relative positions of labeled alginate and acid pocket were analyzed for 2 hours by using scintigraphy; reflux episodes were detected by using high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring. The alginate-antacid label localized to the acid pocket. The number of acid reflux episodes was significantly reduced in patients receiving alginate-antacid (3.5; range, 0-6.5; P = .03) compared with those receiving antacid (15; range, 5-20), whereas time to acid reflux was significantly increased in patients receiving alginate-antacid (63 minutes; range, 23-92) vs those receiving antacid (14 minutes; range, 9-23; P = .01). The acid pocket was located below the diaphragm in 71% of patients given alginate-antacid vs 21% of those given antacid (P = .08). There was an inverse correlation between a subdiaphragm position of the acid pocket and acid reflux (r = -0.76, P acid pocket and displaces it below the diaphragm to reduce postprandial acid reflux. These findings indicate the importance of the acid pocket in GERD pathogenesis and establish alginate-antacid as an appropriate therapy for postprandial acid reflux. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roelof J; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-07-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Thirty-six patients with GERD (18 not taking PPIs, 18 taking PPIs; 19 men; age, 55 ± 2.1 y) were analyzed by concurrent high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring after a standardized meal. The acid pocket was visualized using scintigraphy after intravenous administration of (99m)technetium-pertechnetate. The size of the acid pocket was measured and its position was determined, relative to the diaphragm, using radionuclide markers on a high-resolution manometry catheter. At the end of the study, the acid pocket was aspirated, and its pH level was measured. The number of reflux episodes was comparable between patients on and off PPIs, but the number of acid reflux episodes was reduced significantly in patients on PPIs. In patients on PPIs, the acid pocket was smaller and more frequently located below the diaphragm. The mean pH of the acid pocket was significantly lower in patients not taking PPIs (n = 6) than in those who were (n = 16) (0.9; range, 0.7-1.2 vs 4.0; range, 1.6-5.9; P pH of acid pockets correlated significantly with the lowest pH values measured for refluxate (r = 0.72; P < .01). Based on analyses of acid pockets in patients with GERD, the acid pocket appears to be a reservoir from which reflux occurs when patients are receiving PPIs. PPIs might affect the size, acidity, or position of the acid pocket, which contributes to the efficacy in patients with GERD. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A reduced amino acid alphabet for understanding and designing protein adaptation to mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchebest, C; Benros, C; Bornot, A; Camproux, A-C; de Brevern, A G

    2007-11-01

    Protein sequence world is considerably larger than structure world. In consequence, numerous non-related sequences may adopt similar 3D folds and different kinds of amino acids may thus be found in similar 3D structures. By grouping together the 20 amino acids into a smaller number of representative residues with similar features, sequence world simplification may be achieved. This clustering hence defines a reduced amino acid alphabet (reduced AAA). Numerous works have shown that protein 3D structures are composed of a limited number of building blocks, defining a structural alphabet. We previously identified such an alphabet composed of 16 representative structural motifs (5-residues length) called Protein Blocks (PBs). This alphabet permits to translate the structure (3D) in sequence of PBs (1D). Based on these two concepts, reduced AAA and PBs, we analyzed the distributions of the different kinds of amino acids and their equivalences in the structural context. Different reduced sets were considered. Recurrent amino acid associations were found in all the local structures while other were specific of some local structures (PBs) (e.g Cysteine, Histidine, Threonine and Serine for the alpha-helix Ncap). Some similar associations are found in other reduced AAAs, e.g Ile with Val, or hydrophobic aromatic residues Trp with Phe and Tyr. We put into evidence interesting alternative associations. This highlights the dependence on the information considered (sequence or structure). This approach, equivalent to a substitution matrix, could be useful for designing protein sequence with different features (for instance adaptation to environment) while preserving mainly the 3D fold.

  6. Formamidine sulfinic acid as reducing agent in technetium-99m rhenium sulfide labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M; Patricio, L [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Technologia Industrial, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Radioisotopes; Ferronha, H [Laboratorio Nacional de Investigacao Veterinaria, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1989-08-01

    Labelling kinetic studies, radiochemical characterization and particle size evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc rhenium sulfide colloid using formamidine sulfinic acid as reducing agent are described. Comparison with the same colloid which makes use of Sn-sodium pyrophosphate complex as reducing agent showed higher labelling yields, simplification of labelling procedure and a longer shelf life when formamidine sulfinic acid was used. (author) 15 refs.; 7 figs.

  7. Altered fatty acid metabolism and reduced stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase activity in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, N; Schiavi, E; Frei, R; Ferstl, R; Wawrzyniak, P; Smolinska, S; Sokolowska, M; Sievi, N A; Kohler, M; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Michalovich, D; Simpson, K D; Hessel, E M; Jutel, M; Martin-Fontecha, M; Palomares, O; Akdis, C A; O'Mahony, L

    2017-11-01

    Fatty acids and lipid mediator signaling play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, yet this area remains largely underexplored. The aims of this study were (i) to examine fatty acid levels and their metabolism in obese and nonobese asthma patients and (ii) to determine the functional effects of altered fatty acid metabolism in experimental models. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid levels were quantified in serum from 161 human volunteers by LC/MS. Changes in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) expression and activity were evaluated in the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite (HDM) murine models. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients and controls were evaluated for SCD expression and activity. The serum desaturation index (an indirect measure of SCD) was significantly reduced in nonobese asthma patients and in the OVA murine model. SCD1 gene expression was significantly reduced within the lungs following OVA or HDM challenge. Inhibition of SCD in mice promoted airway hyper-responsiveness. SCD1 expression was suppressed in bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients. IL-4 and IL-13 reduced epithelial cell SCD1 expression. Inhibition of SCD reduced surfactant protein C expression and suppressed rhinovirus-induced IP-10 secretion, which was associated with increased viral titers. This is the first study to demonstrate decreased fatty acid desaturase activity in humans with asthma. Experimental models in mice and human epithelial cells suggest that inhibition of desaturase activity leads to airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced antiviral defense. SCD may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in asthma patients. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; Lütjohann, Dieter; Sjöberg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyroidism were compared with those in 14 healthy individuals after 14 days of treatment with the liver-selective TH analog eprotirome. Both hyperthyroidism and eprotirome treatment reduced circulating PCSK9, lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB and AI, and lipoprotein(a), while cholesterol synthesis was stable. Hyperthyroidism, but not eprotirome treatment, markedly increased bile acid synthesis and reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 and dietary cholesterol absorption. Eprotirome treatment, but not hyperthyroidism, reduced plasma triglycerides. Neither hyperthyroidism nor eprotirome treatment altered insulin, glucose, or FGF21 levels. TH reduces circulating PSCK9, thereby likely contributing to lower plasma LDL-cholesterol in hyperthyroidism. TH also stimulates bile acid synthesis, although this response is not critical for its LDL-lowering effect. PMID:25172631

  9. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  10. PseKRAAC: a flexible web server for generating pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yongchun; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yingli; Li, Guangpeng; Yan, Zhenhe; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The reduced amino acids perform powerful ability for both simplifying protein complexity and identifying functional conserved regions. However, dealing with different protein problems may need different kinds of cluster methods. Encouraged by the success of pseudo-amino acid composition algorithm, we developed a freely available web server, called PseKRAAC (the pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition). By implementing reduced amino acid alphabets, the protein complexity can be significantly simplified, which leads to decrease chance of overfitting, lower computational handicap and reduce information redundancy. PseKRAAC delivers more capability for protein research by incorporating three crucial parameters that describes protein composition. Users can easily generate many different modes of PseKRAAC tailored to their needs by selecting various reduced amino acids alphabets and other characteristic parameters. It is anticipated that the PseKRAAC web server will become a very useful tool in computational proteomics and protein sequence analysis. Freely available on the web at http://bigdata.imu.edu.cn/psekraac CONTACTS: yczuo@imu.edu.cn or imu.hema@foxmail.com or yanglei_hmu@163.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The stability of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in stored blood specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-06-01

    The long-term stability of the iso-α-acids, and three structurally similar but chemically altered iso-α-acids (known as 'reduced iso-α-acids' and consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-iso-α-acid groups) were investigated in whole blood. Pools of blank blood spiked with the four beer-specific ingredient congener groups at two different concentration levels were stored at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C; and extracted in duplicate in weeks 1, 3, 5 and 8, using a previously published method. A loss of 15% of the initial concentration was considered to indicate possible instability and losses greater than 30% demonstrated significant losses. The individual analytes within the four iso-α-acid groups were also measured to determine which iso-α-acids were subject to greater degradation and were responsible for the overall group instability. All four iso-α-acid groups showed significant losses after 8 weeks of storage under room temperature conditions in particularly the natural iso-α-acid group where major losses were observed (96% and 85% losses for low and high concentrations, respectively). Some degradation in all iso-α-acid groups were seen at 4°C samples predominantly due to the 'n' analogs of the groups showing an increased instability in blood. The -20°C storage conditions resulted in minimal changes in concentrations of all analytes. Higher than frozen storage temperatures can result in substantial changes on the stability of the iso-α-acid type groups in blood. The aim of this study was to highlight the stabilities of the IAA analytes in order to assist in the interpretation of IAA in stored blood specimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss during Major Cardiac Surgery? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Frances; Wahed, Amer; Gregoric, Igor; Kar, Biswajit; Dasgupta, Amitava; Tint, Hlaing

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in preventing intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery. Out of initial 81 patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (both coronary artery bypass and valve repair procedures) at our teaching hospital, sixty-seven patients were selected for this study. We compared estimated blood loss, decrease in percent hemoglobin and hematocrit following surgery between two groups of patients (none of them received any blood product during surgery), one group receiving no tranexamic acid (n=17) and another group receiving tranexamic acid (n=25). In the second study, we combined these patients with patients receiving modest amounts of blood products (1-2 unit) and compared these parameters between two groups of patients (25 patients received no tranexamic acid, 42 patients received tranexamic acid). In patients who received no blood product during surgery, those who received no tranexamic acid showed statistically significant (independent t-test two tailed at p tranexamic acid (mean: 987.2 mL, SD: 459.9, n=25). We observed similar results when the patients receiving no blood products and patients receiving modest amount of blood products were combined based on the use of tranexamic acid or not. No statistically significant difference was observed in percent reduced hemoglobin or hematocrit following surgery in any group of patients. We conclude that intraoperative antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid does not reduce intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery which contradicts popular belief. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section: A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr H. Yehia

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  14. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  15. Reducing the acidity of Arabica coffee beans by ohmic fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polygons, and it stimulates brain performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. Arabica coffee has high acidity that needs to be reduced than Luwak coffee, although it is cheaper. Hence, the ohmic technology with a time and temperature variation were applied to measure the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed that the total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions (0.18% – 0.73%. Generally, the longer the fermentation and the higher the temperature, the lower the total acidity. The acidity of the Luwak coffee through natural fermentation was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the total acidity from the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality.

  16. Oral Tranexamic Acid Reduces Transfusions in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Roger E; Fournier, Christine A; Mattingly, David A; Junghans, Richard P; Talmo, Carl T

    2017-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces intraoperative blood loss and transfusions in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Although numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of intravenous and topical TXA in these patients, few demonstrate the effectiveness and appropriate dosing recommendations of oral formulations. A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate differences in transfusion requirements in patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty with either no TXA (n = 866), a single-dose of oral TXA (n = 157), or both preoperative and postoperative oral TXA (n = 1049). Secondary outcomes included postoperative hemoglobin drop, total units transfused, length of stay, drain output, and cell salvage volume. Transfusion rates decreased from 15.4% in the no-oral tranexamic acid (OTA) group to 9.6% in the single-dose OTA group (P < .001) and 7% in the 2-dose group (P < .001), with no difference in transfusion rates between the single- and 2-dose groups (P = .390). In addition, postoperative hemoglobin drop was reduced from 4.2 g/dL in the no-OTA group to 3.5 g/dL in the single-dose group (P < .01) and to 3.4 g/dL in the 2-dose group (P < .01), without a difference between the single- and 2-dose groups (P = .233). OTA reduces transfusions, with greater ease of administration and improved cost-effectiveness relative to other forms of delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Reduces Acid-Induced Heartburn Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin production, on induction of esophageal sensation by acid perfusion in healthy men. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, cross-over study over 3 visits in 12 healthy men. Diclofenac was given 6 hours and 2 hours before an acid perfusion test. During the test, hydrochloric acid (0.15 mol/L) was perfused into the lower esophagus for 30 minutes; we evaluated upper gastrointestinal symptoms using a validated categoric rating scale. Then, we calculated and assessed the acid perfusion sensitivity score (APSS). Biopsy specimens were collected by endoscopy of the distal esophagus before and after acid perfusion; levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (pg/mg) were measured in the samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with placebo, diclofenac significantly reduced the APSS for heartburn (82.2 ± 12.2 for placebo and 47.5 ± 8.9 for diclofenac; P heartburn was reduced significantly by diclofenac. Compared with placebo, diclofenac reduced the overproduction of PGE2 by esophageal tissues after acid perfusion (23.3 ± 5.2 for placebo and 11.4 ± 3.5 for diclofenac; P heartburn and esophageal levels of PGE2 (r = 0.53; P heartburn vs PGE2). Diclofenac attenuated acid-induced heartburn by inhibiting PGE2 overproduction in the esophagus. Esophageal PGE2 might be involved in producing heartburn symptoms. Clinical Trials Registry no: UMIN000014595. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  19. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin

    2009-01-01

    levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal....../retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism....

  20. Comparison of methods for the determination of reduced inorganic sulphur in acid sulphate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santomartino, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The management of acid sulphate soils requires analytical methods that provide accurate data on the quantity of reduced inorganic sulphur within a soil, as it is this fraction that produces acid upon oxidation. This study uses sulphidic Coode Island Silt samples to compare common analytical methods including POCAS (Peroxide Oxidation-Combined Acidity and Sulphate) which consists of TSA (Total Sulphidic Acidity), S pos (Peroxide Oxidisable Sulphur), TOS (Total Oxidisable Sulphur) and chromium-reducible sulphur. The determination of total sulphur by Leco sulphur is strongly correlated with, but slightly less than, that analysed by XRF. Comparison of soil sulphide content by chromium-reducible sulphur, TSA and TOS methods indicates that TOS values are substantially higher than both other methods. The problem with the TOS method lies in the sulphate extraction procedure. Hot distilled water and HCI are commonly used as extractants, however hot distilled water fails to remove organic sulphur, thereby overestimating the sulphide content of the soil. Leco carbon analyses verify that a substantial proportion of organic matter exists within the samples. The HCI extraction process, which uses Ion Chromatography to analyse for sulphate, produces highly inaccurate results due to the interference of the sulphate peak by the chloride peak during analysis. An alternative method involving HCI extraction and XRF analysis of the soil residue is currently being undertaken. The use of KCI to extract sulphate generally produces values similar to the hot distilled water method. The sulphidic content measured by TSA is strongly correlated with, but slightly higher than that determined by the chromium-reducible sulphur method. This is attributed to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the TSA method, which oxidises organic matter to organic acids in addition to oxidising sulphides. These preliminary findings indicate that the chromium-reducible sulphur method is the most suitable

  1. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  2. BASE COMPOSITION OF THE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGAL, N; SENEZ, J C; LEGALL, J; SEBALD, M

    1963-06-01

    Sigal, Nicole (Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne du CNRS, Marseille, France), Jacques C. Senez, Jean Le Gall, and Madeleine Sebald. Base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85:1315-1318. 1963-The deoxyribonucleic acid constitution of several strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been analytically determined. The results of these studies show that this group of microorganisms includes at least four subgroups characterized by significantly different values of the adenine plus thymine to guanine plus cytosine ratio. The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c(3) and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. One includes the fresh-water, nonhalophilic strains with base ratio from 0.54 to 0.59, and the other includes the halophilic or halotolerant strains with base ratio from 0.74 to 0.77. The sporulated, peritrichous strains without cytochrome and desulfoviridin ("nigrificans" and "orientis") are distinct from the above two types and differ from each other, having base ratios of 1.20 and 1.43, respectively.

  3. Effect of Thiamine, Ascorbic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA3 on Growth Characteristics, Pigment Content and Reduced Sugars of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    moslem salehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bedding plants, especially petunia is important element for urban landscaping and attracted the attention of landscapers. This is due to some properties such as growth habit and color. The petunia (Petunia hybrida L. belongs to Solanaceae family that has annual and perennial varieties. This plant is originally from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Some plant growth regulators such as gibberellic acid (GA3 and vitamins including thiamine and ascorbic acid affect plant growth and development and may extend flowering period. Vitamin C affects cell division and cell growth in plants and is effective on the feeding cycle activity in higher plants and it has an important role in electron transport system. The concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm of vitamin C and thiamine can increase the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, and chemical compounds of the Syngonium plant. The application of 100 mg/l of GA3 significantly increased plant height and the number of leaves of gladiolus. Material and methods: The experiment was arranged in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. In this research, growth characteristics (lateral branch number, flower number, flower diameter, stem diameter, root length, and lateral branch length and biochemical characteristics (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and reducing sugar were measured. After seeding and transplanting the seedling at 6 leaf stage, plants sprayed at 4 various growth stages with following treatments: 1-\tControl 2-\tVitamin C(100 mg/l 3-\tThiamin (100 mg/l 4-\tGibberellic acid (100 mg/l 5-\tVitamin C and Thiamin (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 6-\tVitamin C and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 7-\tThiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 8-\tVitamin C, Thiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of three 100 mg/l Data obtained from the measured parameters

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Amyloid β Production via Multiple Pleiotropic Mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Kuchenbecker, Johanna; Grösgen, Sven; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Friess, Petra; de Wilde, Martijn C.; Broersen, Laus M.; Penke, Botond; Péter, Mária; Vígh, László; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with decreased amyloid deposition and a reduced risk in Alzheimer disease in several epidemiological trials; however, the exact underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of DHA on amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic APP processing and the potential cross-links to cholesterol metabolism in vivo and in vitro. DHA reduces amyloidogenic processing by decreasing β- and γ-secretase activity, whereas the expression and protein levels of BACE1 and presenilin1 remain unchanged. In addition, DHA increases protein stability of α-secretase resulting in increased nonamyloidogenic processing. Besides the known effect of DHA to decrease cholesterol de novo synthesis, we found cholesterol distribution in plasma membrane to be altered. In the presence of DHA, cholesterol shifts from raft to non-raft domains, and this is accompanied by a shift in γ-secretase activity and presenilin1 protein levels. Taken together, DHA directs amyloidogenic processing of APP toward nonamyloidogenic processing, effectively reducing Aβ release. DHA has a typical pleiotropic effect; DHA-mediated Aβ reduction is not the consequence of a single major mechanism but is the result of combined multiple effects. PMID:21324907

  5. Catalytic properties of graphene–metal nanoparticle hybrid prepared using an aromatic amino acid as the reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Bimalendu; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    An easy and single step process of making reduced graphene oxide nanosheet from graphene oxide (GO) in water medium has been demonstrated by using a naturally occurring non-proteinaceous amino acid (2,4-dihydroxy phenyl alanine, Dopa) as a new reducing agent and stabilizing agent. This amino acid has also been used to reduce the noble metal salt (AuCl 3 /AgNO 3 ) to produce the corresponding noble metal nanoparticles (MNP) without using any external reducing and stabilizing agents. So, this amino acid has been used to reduce simultaneously GO to RGO and noble metal salts to produce corresponding MNP to form RGO–MNP nanohybrid system in a single step in water medium and also in absence of any external toxic reducing and stabilizing agents. Different techniques UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and others have been used to characterize the reduction of GO to RGO, metal salts to produce corresponding MNPs and the formation of RGO–MNP nanohybrid systems. Moreover, this metal nanoparticle containing RGO–MNP nanohybrid system acts as a potential catalyst for the reduction of aromatic nitro to aromatic amino group. - Graphical abstract: This study demonstrates an easy, single step and eco-friendly method to make RGO and Au/AgNP simultaneously from respective precursors to form a RGO–Au/AgNP nanohybrid system using an aromatic amino acid (2,4-dihydroxy phenyl alanine, Dopa) as a new reducing agent as well as stabilizing agent in water medium. Highlights: ► Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheet using an amino acid. ► The amino acid (Dopa) can reduce noble metal salt (Au 3+ /Ag + ) to metal nanoparticle (MNP). ► Single step and eco-friendly synthesis of RGO-MNP nanohybrid using Dopa. ► Characterization of RGO, MNP and RGO–MNP nanohybrid. ► RGO-MNP nanohybrid acts as a catalyst for the reduction of aromatic nitro

  6. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO 2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO 2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO 2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO 2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  8. Lauric acid as feed additive - An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Katrin; Popp, Johanna; Becker, André; Hankel, Julia; Visscher, Christian; Klein, Guenter; Meemken, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308) and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA) broilers in three independent trials (n = 3). Although slaughter parameters did not show any significant differences, the fatty acid profile of both breeds revealed significantly higher lauric acid concentrations (P meat quality traits showed no differences in the R308 breed (P > 0.05), but HJA test broilers had higher values for drip loss, electrical conductivity, CIE color values L* and b*, and lower pH values. The inoculation trials of R308 showed that initial bacterial loads of 5.9 log10 cfu/g were reduced during six days of storage (4°C) to approximately 4.3 log10 cfu/g in the control groups compared to 3.5 log10 cfu/g in the treatment groups (P = 0.0295), which could be due to antimicrobial effects of lauric acid within the muscle. This study therefore suggests that lauric acid as a feed additive has the potential to improve food safety by reducing the numbers of Campylobacter coli in broiler meat. However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle.

  9. Lauric acid as feed additive - An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Zeiger

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308 and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA broilers in three independent trials (n = 3. Although slaughter parameters did not show any significant differences, the fatty acid profile of both breeds revealed significantly higher lauric acid concentrations (P 0.05, but HJA test broilers had higher values for drip loss, electrical conductivity, CIE color values L* and b*, and lower pH values. The inoculation trials of R308 showed that initial bacterial loads of 5.9 log10 cfu/g were reduced during six days of storage (4°C to approximately 4.3 log10 cfu/g in the control groups compared to 3.5 log10 cfu/g in the treatment groups (P = 0.0295, which could be due to antimicrobial effects of lauric acid within the muscle. This study therefore suggests that lauric acid as a feed additive has the potential to improve food safety by reducing the numbers of Campylobacter coli in broiler meat. However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle.

  10. Lactic acid fermentation of human urine to improve its fertilizing value and reduce odour emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N; Ronteltap, M; Boincean, B; Wernli, M; Zubcov, E; Bagrin, N; Borodin, N; Lens, P N L

    2017-08-01

    During storage of urine, urea is biologically decomposed to ammonia, which can be lost through volatilization and in turn causes significant unpleasant smell. In response, lactic acid fermentation of urine is a cost-effective technique to decrease nitrogen volatilization and reduce odour emissions. Fresh urine (pH = 5.2-5.3 and NH 4 + -N = 1.2-1.3 g L -1 ) was lacto-fermented for 36 days in closed glass jars with a lactic acid bacterial inoculum from sauerkraut juice and compared to untreated, stored urine. In the lacto-fermented urine, the pH was reduced to 3.8-4.7 and the ammonium content by 22-30%, while the pH of the untreated urine rose to 6.1 and its ammonium content increased by 32% due to urea hydrolysis. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria in lacto-fermented urine was 7.3 CFU ml -1 , suggesting that urine is a suitable growth medium for lactic acid bacteria. The odour of the stored urine was subjectively perceived by four people to be twice as strong as that of lacto-fermented samples. Lacto-fermented urine induced increased radish germination compared to stored urine (74-86% versus 2-31%). Adding a lactic acid bacterial inoculum to one week old urine in the storage tanks in a urine-diverting dry toilet reduced the pH from 8.9 to 7.7 after one month, while the ammonium content increased by 35%, probably due to the high initial pH of the urine. Given that the hydrolyzed stale urine has a high buffering capacity, the lactic acid bacterial inoculum should be added to the urine storage tank of a UDDT before urine starts to accumulate there to increase the efficiency of the lactic acid fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A procedure for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate and equipment therefore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Baloun, S.; Plevac, S.

    1989-01-01

    The method is described of reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate produced in the separation of uranium or other metals, in which anion exchanger elution, precipitation, filtration and precipitate and anion exchanger washing are used. The technological line for such elution comprises at least one ion exchange column and at least one container. They together form the first and the second stages of preparation of the acid anion elution solution, the sorption-elution separation of hydrogen ions on an cation exchanger being inserted between them. The preparation of the solution is divide into two stages. In the first stage, the acid and part of the solution for the preparation of the acid anion elution solution are supplied. The resulting enriched acid elution solution is fe onto the cation exchanger where the hydrogen ion concentration i reduced. It is then carried into the second stage where it is mixed with the remaining part of the solution. (B.S.)

  12. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p 0.05). The combined administration of low-dose epinephrine and tranexamic acid demonstrated an increased effect in reducing perioperative blood loss and the inflammatory response compared with tranexamic acid alone, with no apparent increased incidence of thromboembolic and other complications. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehr-Aein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after protamin infusion, and 33 patients received only saline. Preoperative hematologic variables, postoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusions were considered. D-dimer plasma levels were also evaluated to monitor the activation of fibrinolysis. Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group compared with the control group (320 ± 38 mL vs. 480 ± 75 mL at 12 hour, P < 0.001. The tranexamic acid group had significantly lesser need for allogeneic blood products (0.46 units/patients vs. 0.94 units/patients, P < 0.001. They had also lower post-operative D-dimer plasma levels. No postoperative thrombotic complications were observed in either group. The defective hemostasis occurs even in the OPCABG. Tranexamic acid effectively reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products after OPCAB is decreased.

  14. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ferulic acid and sinapic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramesh B; Bastress, Kristen L; Ruegger, Max O; Denault, Jeff W; Chapple, Clint

    2004-02-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall-esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes.

  15. Suitable Concentrations of Uric Acid Can Reduce Cell Death in Models of OGD and Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Ning; Lin, Shao-Peng; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability. After establishing models of OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation) with HT22 and BV-2 cells, uric acid at a low concentration (50 μM) cannot improve cell viability and apoptosis, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during OGD/reoxygenation; a suitable concentration (300 μM) of uric acid can significantly improve cell viability and apoptosis, and reduce ROS production during OGD/reoxygenation; but a high concentration (1000 μM) of uric acid can further reduce cell viability and enhance ROS production. After establishing middle cerebral artery occlusion of male rats with suture method, damage and increase of ROS production in brain tissue could be seen, and after adding suitable concentration of uric acid, the degree of brain damage and ROS production was reduced. Therefore, different concentrations of uric acid should have different effect, and suitable concentrations of uric acid have neuroprotective effect, and this finding may provide guidance for study on the clinical curative effect of uric acid.

  16. Role of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyankur; Sujatha, M S; Bhandiwad, Ambarisha; Biswas, Bivas

    2016-10-01

    Anti-fibrinolytic agents are used to reduce obstetric blood loss as the fibrinolytic system is known to get activated after placental delivery. To evaluate the efficacy of parenteral tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during normal labour and to compare it with the amount of blood loss in patients who received placebo in the third stage of labour. Patients with spontaneous labour or planned for induction of labour and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. In each patient, the pre-delivery pulse rate, blood pressure, Hb gm% and PCV% were noted. Labour was monitored carefully using a partogram. The study group received Inj. Oxytocin and Inj. Tranexamic acid. The control group received Inj. Oxytocin and Placebo injection. Immediately after delivery of the baby, when all the liquor was drained, the patient was placed over a blood drape-a disposable conical, graduated plastic collection bag. The amount of blood collected in the blood drape was measured. Then the patient was given pre-weighed pads, which were weighed 2 h post-partum. The blood loss was measured by measuring the blood collected in the drape and by weighing the swabs before and after delivery. The total number of patients studied was 100-equally distributed in both the groups. The age group of the patients and BMI were comparable. There was a significant increase in the pulse rate and decrease in blood pressure in the control group as compared with the study group. The post-delivery haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in the control group as compared to the study group. The mean blood loss at the end of 2 h was 105 ml in the study group and 252 ml in the control group. There was a significant increase in the usage of uterotonics and also in the need for blood transfusion in the control group; 12 % of the patients in the control group had to stay for more than 3 days compared to 2 % in the study group. Tranexamic acid injection, an antifibrinolytic

  17. Inhibiting mitochondrial β-oxidation selectively reduces levels of nonenzymatic oxidative polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Masoodi, Mojgan; Bazinet, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    Schönfeld and Reiser recently hypothesized that fatty acid β-oxidation is a source of oxidative stress in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited brain mitochondrial β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP) and measured oxidative polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites in the rat brain. Upon MEP treatment, levels of several nonenzymatic auto-oxidative PUFA metabolites were reduced with few effects on enzymatically derived metabolites. Our finding confirms the hypothesis that reduced fatty acid β-oxidation decreases oxidative stress in the brain and β-oxidation inhibitors may be a novel therapeutic approach for brain disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  18. Tranexamic Acid Reduced the Percent of Total Blood Volume Lost During Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

  19. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions.

  20. Supplementation with Abscisic Acid Reduces Malaria Disease Severity and Parasite Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Elizabeth K. K.; Adams, L. Garry; Hicks, Derrick R.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Luckhart, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of the world's population is at risk for malaria. Increasing drug resistance has intensified the need for novel therapeutics, including treatments with intrinsic transmission-blocking properties. In this study, we demonstrate that the isoprenoid abscisic acid (ABA) modulates signaling in the mammalian host to reduce parasitemia and the formation of transmissible gametocytes and in the mosquito host to reduce parasite infection. Oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of malaria was well tolerated and led to reduced pathology and enhanced gene expression in the liver and spleen consistent with infection recovery. Oral ABA supplementation also increased mouse plasma ABA to levels that can signal in the mosquito midgut upon blood ingestion. Accordingly, we showed that supplementation of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal with ABA increased expression of mosquito nitric oxide synthase and reduced infection prevalence in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. Identification of the mechanisms whereby ABA reduces parasite growth in mammals and mosquitoes could shed light on the balance of immunity and metabolism across eukaryotes and provide a strong foundation for clinical translation. PMID:27001761

  1. Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Boland, Martin P; Roessner, Ute; Yates, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead topostoperative acute anemia and some other complications.Tranexamic acid (TA is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusionrequirements during some elective surgeries (1-3.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA on intraoperative blood loss and asubsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting.Methods:Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullarynailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. GroupI, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA via intravenous infusion before surgical incision.Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline.Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobinchange as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups.Results:Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups,respectively (P=0.570. Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group(5.6% compared to the placebo group (30% (P=0.06. No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during thesurgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894.Conclusion:Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion duringtraumatic femoral fracture operation.

  3. Folic Acid Reduces Tau Phosphorylation by Regulating PP2A Methylation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaoyan; Zou, Chen; Li, Mengyue; Huang, Guowei; Gao, Yuxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    High incidence rate of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice induced by STZ, at the age of 10 weeks, were administered with three levels of folic acid: folic acid-deficient diet, diet with normal folic acid content, and 120 μg/kg folic acid diet for 8 weeks. Levels of serum folate and blood glucose were monitored. Tau phosphorylation, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) methylation, and Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation were detected using Western blot. The S-adenosyl methionine:S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (SAM:SAH) in brain tissues was also determined. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA expression levels were detected using real-time PCR. Folic acid reduced tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396 in the brain of diabetes mellitus (DM) mice. In addition, PP2A methylation and DNMT1 mRNA expression were significantly increased in DM mice post folic acid treatment. GSK-3β phosphorylation was not regulated by folic acid administration. Folic acid can reduce tau phosphorylation by regulating PP2A methylation in diabetic mice. These results support that folic acid can serve as a multitarget neuronal therapeutic agent for treating diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction. PMID:28422052

  4. Romanian plant produces protein concentrate from paraffin-nourished yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    One of the world's few factories in which proteins are produced by continuous biotechnology is located in Romania. Here, at the bioproteins plant, microorganisms are converted into a flour which contains a protein concentrate that is so essential to the fattening of swine, cattle, sheep, fowl, and fish. These microorganisms are Candida type yeasts. The culture medium in which they are grown contains sulfates and phosphates. Paraffin, a petroleum product, supplies the carbon that is essential to the microorganisms viability.

  5. Reduced Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants by Bactericidal Peroxyacetic Acid Mixture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetic acid mixture Perosan, composed of peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid, was evaluated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt by Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum. Perosan drastically suppressed in vitro growth of R. pseudosolanacearum in liquid cultures in dose- and incubation time-dependent manners. Higher perosan doses (0.1 and 1% caused lowered pH and phytotoxicity to detached leaves of two tomato cultivars Cupirang and Benekia 220 in aqueous solution. Treatment with 0.01% of Perosan delayed wilting symptom significantly in the detached leaves of two cultivars inoculated with R. pseudosolanacearum (10⁷ cfu/ml. Soil drenching of 5% Perosan solution in pots caused severe tissue collapse of tomato seedlings at the four-week-old stage of two tomato cultivars. Treatment with 1% Perosan by soil-drenching significantly reduced bacterial wilt in the tomato seedlings of two cultivars. These findings suggest that Perosan treatment can be applied to suppress bacterial wilt during tomato production.

  6. Friction reducing behavior of stearic acid film on a textured aluminum substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wan, Yong, E-mail: wanyong@qtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Li, Yang; Yang, Shuyan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Yao, Wenqing [Analysis Center of Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-09-01

    A simple two-step process was developed to render the aluminum hydrophobicity with lower friction. The textured aluminum substrate was firstly fabricated by immersed in a sodium hydroxide solution at 100 °C for 1 h. Stearic acid film was then deposited to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, chemical structure and hydrophobicity of prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction reducing behavior of the organic–inorganic composite film on aluminum sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the stearic acid film on the textured aluminum led to decreased friction with significantly extended life.

  7. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yutong; Li, Zhirui; Gong, Ke; An, Xiao; Dong, Jiyuan; Tang, Peifu

    2018-01-01

    Obesity can result in increased blood loss, which is correlated with poor prognosis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Clinical application of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss in TKA. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of tranexamic acid in the whole population, neglecting patients with specific health conditions, such as obesity. We hypothesized that tranexamic acid would reduce blood loss to a greater extent in obese patients than in those of normal weight. A total of 304 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated with TKA from October 2013 to March 2015 were separated into tranexamic, non-tranexamic, obese, and non-obese groups. The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, and hematological indices were all recorded. We first investigated the ability of intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce intraoperative blood loss in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing unilateral TKA. Second, we performed subgroup analysis to compare the effects of tranexamic acid between obese and non-obese patients separately. Of the 304 patients, 146 (52.0%) received tranexamic acid and 130 (42.8%) were obese. In the analysis of the whole group, both the actual and occult blood loss volume were lower in the tranexamic acid group (both P tranexamic acid group ( P tranexamic acid was shown to reduce theoretical and actual blood loss in both the obese and non-obese groups ( P Tranexamic acid reduced occult blood loss and tourniquet time in the obese group ( P 0.05). Tranexamic acid can reduce occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese patients to a greater extent than in patients of normal weight. Therefore, obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA can benefit more from tranexamic acid.

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single...

  9. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  10. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  11. The bile acid deoxycholate elicits defences in Arabidopsis and reduces bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarattini, Marco; Launay, Alban; Farjad, Mahsa; Wénès, Estelle; Taconnat, Ludivine; Boutet, Stéphanie; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Fagard, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    Disease has an effect on crop yields, causing significant losses. As the worldwide demand for agricultural products increases, there is a need to pursue the development of new methods to protect crops from disease. One mechanism of plant protection is through the activation of the plant immune system. By exogenous application, 'plant activator molecules' with elicitor properties can be used to activate the plant immune system. These defence-inducing molecules represent a powerful and often environmentally friendly tool to fight pathogens. We show that the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) induces defence in Arabidopsis and reduces the proliferation of two bacterial phytopathogens: Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. We describe the global defence response triggered by this new plant activator in Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level. Several induced genes were selected for further analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We describe the kinetics of their induction and show that abiotic stress, such as moderate drought or nitrogen limitation, does not impede DCA induction of defence. Finally, we investigate the role in the activation of defence by this bile acid of the salicylic acid biosynthesis gene SID2, of the receptor-like kinase family genes WAK1-3 and of the NADPH oxidase-encoding RbohD gene. Altogether, we show that DCA constitutes a promising molecule for plant protection which can induce complementary lines of defence, such as callose deposition, reactive oxygen species accumulation and the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling pathways. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby

    2017-04-01

    The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila , bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD. IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered. Here, we

  13. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  14. The role of urban forest to reduce rain acid in urban industrial areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, B.; Agustiarni, Y.; Hidayati; Basyuni, M.

    2018-03-01

    Urban forest has many functions mainly on improving the quality of the urban environment. One of the functions is to increase pH and reduce dangerous chemical content. The aim of the research is to find out the role of vegetation density of urban forest around the industrial area in reducing the acid rain. The condition of land cover was classified into four classes which are dense, medium, sparse and open area. The water of the throughfall and stemflow was taken from each type of land cover except in the open area. Parameters measured in this study are water acidity (pH), anion content (SO4 2- and NO3 -), cation content (Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4 +) and electrical conductivity (EC). The results indicated that urban forest vegetation was able to increase the pH of rain water from 5.42 which is in an open area without vegetation to be 7.13 and 7.32 in dense and moderate vegetation cover by throughfall mechanism, respectively. Rain water acidity also decreased through stemflow mechanism with a pH ranged from 5.92 - 6.43. Urban forest vegetation decreased sulfate content (SO42-) from 528.67 mg/l in open area to 44 - 118 mg/l by throughfall mechanism and ranged from 90 to 366.67 mg/l through stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation significantly decreased the rainwater nitrate content from 27 mg/l to 0.03 - 0.70 mg/l through the mechanism of throughfall and between 1.53 - 8.82 mg/l through the stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation also increased the concentration of cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) compared with open areas. Urban forest vegetation showed increased the electrical conductivity (EC) from 208.12 μmhos/cm to 344.67 - 902.17 μmhos/cm through the through fall mechanism and 937.67 - 1058.70 μmhos/cm through the stemflow mechanism. The study suggested that urban forests play a significant role in reducing rainwater acidity and improving the quality of rainwater that reached the soil surface.

  15. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  16. Treatment of supragastric belching with cognitive behavioral therapy improves quality of life and reduces acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasinovic, E; Wynter, E; Arguero, J; Ooi, J; Nakagawa, K; Yazaki, E; Hajek, P; Psych, C Clin; Woodland, P; Sifrim, D

    2018-04-01

    Excessive supragastric belching (SGB) manifests as troublesome belching, and can be associated with reflux and significant impact on quality of life (QOL). In some GERD patients, SGB-associated reflux contributes to up to 1/3 of the total esophageal acid exposure. We hypothesized that a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) might reduce SGB, improve QOL, and reduce acid gastroesophageal reflux (GOR). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of CBT in patients with pathological SGB. Patients with SGB were recruited at the Royal London Hospital. Patients attended CBT sessions focused on recognition of warning signals and preventative exercises. Objective outcomes were the number of SGBs, esophageal acid exposure time (AET), and proportion of AET related to SGBs. Subjective evaluation was by patient-reported questionnaires. Of 51 patients who started treatment, 39 completed the protocol, of whom 31 had a follow-up MII-pH study. The mean number of SGBs decreased significantly after CBT (before: 116 (47-323) vs. after 45 (22-139), P50%. In patients with increased AET at baseline, AET after CBT was decreased: 9.0-6.1% (P=0.005). Mean visual analog scale severity scores decreased after CBT (before: 260 (210-320) mm vs. after: 140 (80-210) mm, Pacid reflux predominantly driven by SGB. In these patients, CBT can reduce esophageal acid exposure.

  17. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety.

  18. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir Kizilay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7: control (C, boric acid (BA, sciatic nerve injury (I , and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI. Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions.

  19. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Wen-yuan; Ye, Fang; Yang, Jun-lin

    2016-04-27

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery usually require prolonged operative times with extensive soft tissue dissection and significant perioperative blood loss, and allogeneic blood products are frequently needed. Methods to reduce the requirement for transfusion would have a beneficial effect on these patients. Although many previous studies have revealed the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spinal surgery, there is still a lack of agreement concerning the reduction of both blood loss and transfusion requirements of large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The objective of this study was to elevate the efficacy and safety of a large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery using a retrospective study designed with historical control group. One hundred thirty seven consecutive AIS patients who underwent surgery treatment with posterior spinal pedicle systems from August 2011 to March 2015 in our scoliosis center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, the TXA group and the historical recruited no TXA group (NTXA). Preoperative demographics, radiographic parameters, operative parameters, estimated blood loss (EBL), total irrigation fluid, number of patients requiring blood transfusion, mean drop of Hb (Pre-op Hb-Post-op Hb), haematocrit pre and post-surgery, mean volume of blood transfusion, hospitalization time, and adverse effect were recorded and compared. All the patients were successfully treated with satisfied clinical and radiographic outcomes. There were 71 patients in the TXA group and 66 patients in the NTXA group. The preoperative demographics were homogeneity between two groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant difference in average operative time between two groups (209 min vs 215 min, p >0.05). Number of patients in the TXA group showed a significant decrease in

  20. Synthesis and Physicochemical Evaluation of Entecavir-Fatty Acid Conjugates in Reducing Food Effect on Intestinal Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Jun Jung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The oral bioavailability of entecavir (EV, an anti-viral agent commonly prescribed to treat hepatitis B infections, is drastically reduced under a post-prandial state. This is primarily due to its low permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. To reduce the food effect on the intestinal absorption of the nucleotide analogue, four lipidic prodrugs were synthesized via the esterification of the primary alcohol of EV with fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, and dodecanoic acid. EV-3-dodecanoate (or EV-C12 exhibited high solubility in a fed state simulated intestinal fluid (78.8 μg/mL, with the acceptable calculated logP value (3.62 and the lowest hydrolysis rate (22.5% for 12 h in simulated gastric fluid, pH 1.2. Therefore, it was chosen as a candidate to improve intestinal absorption of EV, especially under a fed state condition. Physical characterization using scanning electron microscopy, a differential scanning calorimeter, and X-ray powder diffraction revealed that EV-C12 had a rectangular-shaped crystalline form, with a melting point of about 170 °C. In a release test in biorelevant media, such as fasted and fed state-simulated intestinal and/or gastric fluid, more than 90% of the prodrug was released within 2 h in all media tested. These data suggest that this lipidic prodrug might have the potential to alleviate the negative food effect on the intestinal absorption of EV with increased therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance.

  1. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion; Gahl, Anja; Scheeder, Martin R.L.; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Monika

    2005-01-01

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  2. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-01-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  3. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogue, Alexandra [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Umbdenstock, Thierry [Technologie Servier, Orléans (France); Claude, Nancy [Institut de Recherches Servier, Courbevoie (France); Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J. [Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Guillouzo, André, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.fr [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  4. EGFR-dependent signalling reduced and p38 dependent apoptosis required by Gallic acid in Malignant Mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroglu-Zergeroglu, Asuman; Candemir, Gulsife; Turhanlar, Ebru; Sagir, Fatma; Ayvali, Nurettin

    2016-12-01

    The unrestrained EGFR signalling contributes to malignant phenotype in a number of cancers including Malignant Mesotheliomas. Present study was designed to evaluate EGFR-dependent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Gallic acid in transformed Mesothelial (MeT-5A) and Malignant Mesothelioma (SPC212) cells. Gallic acid reduced the viability of Malignant Mesothelioma cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, viability of mesothelial cells reduced only at high concentration and longer time periods. Gallic acid restrained the activation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and AKT proteins and down regulated expression of Cyclin D and Bcl-2 genes, but upregulated the expression of p21 gene in EGF-induced SPC212 cells. GA-induced transitory G1 arrest and triggered mitochondrial and death receptor mediated apoptosis, which requires p38MAPK activation. The data provided here indicate that GA is able to inhibit EGFR dependent proliferation and survival signals and induces p38 pathway dependent apoptosis in Malignant Mesothelioma cells. On the basis of these experimental findings it is worthwhile to investigate further the biological activity of Gallic acid on other Mesothelioma cell lines harbouring aberrant EGFR signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Importance of different physiological groups of iron reducing microorganisms in an acidic mining lake remediation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Katharina; Meier, Jutta; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin

    2009-05-01

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing microorganisms play an important role for alkalinity-generating processes in mining lakes with low pH. In the acidic mining lake 111 in Lusatia, Germany, a passive in situ remediation method was tested in a large scale experiment, in which microbial iron and sulfate reduction are stimulated by addition of Carbokalk (a mixture of the nonsugar compounds of sugar beets and lime) and straw. The treated surface sediment consisted of three layers of different pH and geochemical composition. The top layer was acidic and rich in Fe(III), the second and third layer both showed moderately acidic to circum-neutral pH values, but only the second was rich in organics, strongly reduced and sulfidic. Aim of the study was to elucidate the relative importance of neutrophilic heterotrophic, acidophilic heterotrophic, and acidophilic autotrophic iron-reducing microorganisms in each of the three layers. In order to distinguish between them, the effect of their respective characteristic electron donors acetate, glucose, and elemental sulfur on potential iron reduction rates was investigated. Limitation of iron reduction by the availability of Fe(III) was revealed by the addition of Fe(OH)(3). The three groups of iron-reducing microorganisms were quantified by most probable number (MPN) technique and their community composition was analyzed by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In the acidic surface layer, none of the three electron donors stimulated iron reduction; acetate even had an inhibiting effect. In agreement with this, no decrease of the added electron donors was observed. Iron reduction rates were low in comparison to the other layers. Iron reduction in layers 2 and 3 was enhanced by glucose and acetate, accompanied by a decrease of these electron donors. Addition of elemental sulfur did not enhance iron reduction in either layer. Layer 2 exhibited the highest iron reduction rate (4.08 mmol dm(-3) d(-1)) and the highest cell numbers in MPN

  6. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  8. Effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Supoken, Amornrat; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake

    2016-01-23

    Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynaecological cancer worldwide, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 6.1 per 10,000 women. Standard therapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) includes a combination of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Cytoreductive surgery aims to remove as much of the visible tumour as possible. As extensive intraperitoneal metastases are typical of advanced EOC, cytoreductive surgery is usually an extensive procedure with the risk of excessive bleeding. Tranexamic acid given perioperatively is effective in reducing blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion requirements in a variety of surgical settings. Therefore, tranexamic acid seems to be a promising agent for minimising blood loss and the need for blood transfusion among women with advanced EOC undergoing cytoreductive surgery. To assess the effects of tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss associated with cytoreductive surgery in women with advanced EOC (stage III to IV). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological, Neuro-oncology and Orphan Cancers Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference proceedings to May 2015. We also checked registers of clinical trials, citation lists of included studies, key textbooks and previous systematic reviews for potentially relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tranexamic acid given during surgery versus placebo or no treatment, in adult women diagnosed with advanced EOC. Two review authors (CK, AS) independently selected potentially relevant trials, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, compared results and resolved disagreements by discussion. We found only one study that met our inclusion criteria. This was a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of intravenous tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) versus

  9. Combination of peracetic acid and ultrasound reduces Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luiza Oliveira; do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; Giori, Ana Carolina Garcia; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Marques, Clara Suprani; Coelho, Jussara Moreira; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella outbreaks related to fruits and vegetables have been reported being lettuce one of the most contaminated. Peracetic acid (PA) at 50 mg/L, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SD) at 100 mg/L, and the combination of SD at 100 mg/L and babaçu coconut ( Attalea speciosa ) oil detergent at 100 mg/L were applied to fresh lettuce. Natural contaminant microbiota, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory attributes were evaluated. PA and SD reduced mesophilic aerobic counts by 2.1 and 1.5 log cfu/g, respectively. The most efficient treatment in reducing natural microbiota (i.e., PA) was applied alone and in combination with ultrasound (US). It reduced Salmonella enterica Typhimurium counts to undetectable levels (< 1 log cfu/g). US further reduced S. Typhimurium counts by 0.6 log cfu/g in relation to PA, treatment which lessened the pH but increased the titratable acidity of lettuce, but did not cause total color difference. Therefore, the combination of PA and US holds a potential industrial application for sanitization purposes.

  10. Phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide based fluorescence nano sensor for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiruddin, SK; Swain, Sarat K., E-mail: swainsk2@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene has emerged as promising tools for detection based application of biomolecules as it has high surface area with strong fluorescence quenching property. We have used the concept of fluorescent quenching property of reduced graphene oxide to the fluorescent probes which are close vicinity of its surface. In present work, we have synthesized fluorescent based nano-sensor consist of phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO–PBA) and di-ol modified fluorescent probe for detection of biologically important glucose molecules. This fluorescent graphene based nano-probe has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), UV–visible, Photo-luminescence (PL) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Finally, using this PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano-sensor, we were able to detect glucose molecule in the range of 2 mg/mL to 75 mg/mL in aqueous solution of pH 7.4. - Highlights: • Easy and simple synthesis of PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano probe. • PBA functionalized reduced GO graphene based nano-probes are characterized. • PBA functionalized reduced GO nano probe is used to detect glucose molecules. • It is very cost-effective and enzyme-free detection of glucose in solution.

  11. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  12. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; L?tjohann, Dieter; Sj?berg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyr...

  15. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, nanoparticles of silver (NAg, and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1. RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05. Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization.

  16. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  17. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roelof J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

  18. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  19. Reprogramming amino acid catabolism in CHO cells with CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing improves cell growth and reduces by-product secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2017-01-01

    CHO cells primarily utilize amino acids for three processes: biomass synthesis, recombinant protein production and catabolism. In this work, we disrupted 9 amino acid catabolic genes participating in 7 dierent catabolic pathways, to increase synthesis of biomass and recombinant protein, while red...... reducing production of growth-inhibiting metabolic by-products from amino acid catabolism....

  20. Cardiomyocyte Triglyceride Accumulation and Reduced Ventricular Function in Mice with Obesity Reflect Increased Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonarteriosclerotic cardiomyopathy is increasingly seen in obese patients. Seeking a rodent model, we studied cardiac histology, function, cardiomyocyte fatty acid uptake, and transporter gene expression in male C57BL/6J control mice and three obesity groups: similar mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and db/db and ob/ob mice. At sacrifice, all obesity groups had increased body and heart weights and fatty livers. By echocardiography, ejection fraction (EF and fractional shortening (FS of left ventricular diameter during systole were significantly reduced. The Vmax for saturable fatty acid uptake was increased and significantly correlated with cardiac triglycerides and insulin concentrations. Vmax also correlated with expression of genes for the cardiac fatty acid transporters Cd36 and Slc27a1. Genes for de novo fatty acid synthesis (Fasn, Scd1 were also upregulated. Ten oxidative phosphorylation pathway genes were downregulated, suggesting that a decrease in cardiomyocyte ATP synthesis might explain the decreased contractile function in obese hearts.

  1. Removal of Arsenic Using Acid/Metal-Tolerant Sulfate Reducing Bacteria: A New Approach for Bioremediation of High-Arsenic Acid Mine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Serrano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments, soils, and natural waters in northern Chile are characterized by high arsenic (As content. Mining operations in this area are potential sources of As and other metal contaminants, due to acid mine drainage (AMD generation. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB has been used for the treatment of AMD, as they allow for the reduction of sulfate, the generation of alkalinity, and the removal of dissolved heavy metals and metalloids by precipitation as insoluble metal sulfides. Thus, SRB could be used to remove As and other heavy metals from AMD, however the tolerance of SRB to high metal concentrations and low pH is limited. The present study aimed to quantify the impact of SRB in As removal under acidic and As-Fe-rich conditions. Our results show that SRB tolerate low pH (up to 3.5 and high concentrations of As (~3.6 mg·L−1. Batch experiments showed As removal of up to 73%, Iron (Fe removal higher than 78% and a neutralization of pH from acidic to circum-neutral conditions (pH 6–8. In addition, XRD analysis showed the dominance of amorphous minerals, while Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX analysis showed associations between As, Fe, and sulfur, indicating the presence of Fe-S-As compounds or interaction of As species with amorphous and/or nanocrystalline phases by sorption processes. These results indicate that the As removal was mediated by acid/metal-tolerant SRB and open the potential for the application of new strains of acid/metal-tolerant SRB for the remediation of high-As acid mine waters.

  2. Melatonin reduces the expression of chemokines in rat with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun H.; Zhou, W.; Liu, K.; Li, Hong X.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the colon inflammatory injury of rats with colitis and determine whether this effect is associated with inhibition of chemoattractant molecules interleukins (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1.The study was designed and implemented in JingMen No.1 People's Hospital, HuBei Province, from May 2006 to April 2007. It involved 72 animals divided into 6 groups of 12 each: normal group, model group, 5-aminosalisalicylic acid group, and melatonin group (dose of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg). Rat colitis model was established by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. Interleukin-8 and MCP-1 proteins in colon tissue were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The messenger-RNA expressions of chemokines were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid enema resulted in pronounced pathological changes of colonic mucosa in model rats, which were in accordance with the significantly elevated Myeloperoxidase activity. Expressions of chemokines were up-regulated in colitis. Melatonin treatment reduced colonic lesions and improved colitis symptom, and decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of IL-8 and MCP-1 significantly in colon tissues of rats with colitis. Chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 are elevated in mucosal tissues in colitis and play an important role in the perpetuation of tissue destructive inflammatory process; melatonin reduces colonic inflammatory injury of rats colitis through down-regulating the expressions of chemokines. Melatonin can be considered as a novel therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (author)

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid pretreatment reduces oral bioavailability of the multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2 substrate baicalin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Li, Xi-Ping; Xu, Yan-Jiao; Du, Guang; Liu, Dong

    2013-11-01

    Baicalin is a major bioactive component of Scutellaria baicalensis and a substrate of multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2. Expression of multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2 is regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2. The aim of this study was to explore whether ursodeoxycholic acid, an NF-E2-related factor 2 activator, could influence the oral bioavailability of baicalin. A single dose of baicalin (200 mg/kg) was given orally to rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid (75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, per day, intragastrically) or normal saline (per day, intragastrically) for six consecutive days. The plasma concentration of baicalin was measured with the HPLC method. The result indicated that the oral bioavailability of baicalin was significantly and dose-dependently reduced in rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Compared with control rats, the mean area under concentration-time curve of baicalin was reduced from 13.25 ± 0.24 mg/L h to 7.62 ± 0.15 mg/L h and 4.97 ± 0.21 mg/L h, and the C(max) value was decreased from 1.31 ± 0.03 mg/L to 0.62 ± 0.05 mg/L and 0.36 ± 0.04 mg/L in rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid at doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively, for six consecutive days. Hence, ursodeoxycholic acid treatment reduced the oral bioavailability of baicalin in rats, probably due to the enhanced efflux of baicalin from the intestine and liver by multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  5. Reduced Gut Acidity Induces an Obese-Like Phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster and in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Sheng Lin

    Full Text Available In order to identify genes involved in stress and metabolic regulation, we carried out a Drosophila P-element-mediated mutagenesis screen for starvation resistance. We isolated a mutant, m2, that showed a 23% increase in survival time under starvation conditions. The P-element insertion was mapped to the region upstream of the vha16-1 gene, which encodes the c subunit of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. We found that vha16-1 is highly expressed in the fly midgut, and that m2 mutant flies are hypomorphic for vha16-1 and also exhibit reduced midgut acidity. This deficit is likely to induce altered metabolism and contribute to accelerated aging, since vha16-1 mutant flies are short-lived and display increases in body weight and lipid accumulation. Similar phenotypes were also induced by pharmacological treatment, through feeding normal flies and mice with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide or proton pump inhibitor (PPI, lansoprazole to suppress gut acid production. Our study may thus provide a useful model for investigating chronic acid suppression in patients.

  6. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of liposomes containing phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin reduce amyloid-β levels in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Re, Francesca; Bereczki, Erika

    2015-01-01

    , it was hypothesized that shifting this equilibrium towards the blood by enhancing peripheral clearance might reduce Aβ levels in the brain: the 'sink effect'. We tested this hypothesis by intraperitoneally injecting APP/PS1 transgenic mice with small unilamellar vesicles containing either phosphatidic acid...... Aβ may be therapeutically relevant in AD. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: Intraperitoneal injection of small unilamellar vesicles containing phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin significantly reduced the amount of amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide in the plasma in a rodent model. Brain levels of Aß were also affected...

  7. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwon Moon

    Full Text Available This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2 and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2. We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR, a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein.

  9. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  10. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  11. Characterization of specific membrane fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvert, M.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane fatty acids were extracted from a sediment core above marine gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific. Anaerobic sediments from this environment are characterized by high sulfate reduction rates driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The assimilation of methane carbon......-reducing bacteria (SRB) of the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group, which are present in the aggregates of AOM consortia in extremely high numbers, these specific fatty acids appear to provide a phenotypic fingerprint indicative for SRB of this group. Correlating depth profiles of specific fatty acid content...

  12. Phenolic acids inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products in food simulation systems depending on their reducing powers and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hengye; Virk, Muhammad Safiullah; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    The concentration of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foods, which are formed by Maillard reaction, has demonstrated as risk factors associated with many chronic diseases. The AGEs inhibitory activities of five common phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, dihydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and salicylic acid) with different chemical properties had been investigated in two food simulation systems (glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oleic acid-BSA). The results substantiated that the AGEs inhibitory abilities of phenolic acids in the oleic acid BSA system were much better than the glucose-BSA system for their strong reducing powers and structures. Among them, dihydrogenferulic acid showed strong inhibition of AGEs formation in oleic acid-BSA system at 0.01 mg/mL compared to nonsignificant AGEs inhibitory effect in oleic acid-BSA system at 10-fold higher concentration (0.1 mg/mL). This study suggests that edible plants rich in phenolic acids may be used as AGEs inhibitor during high-fat cooking.

  13. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = −0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.792, −0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = −0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.667, −0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid

  14. Obeticholic acid raises LDL-cholesterol and reduces HDL-cholesterol in the Diet-Induced NASH (DIN) hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Quinsat, Marjolaine; Burcelin, Rémy; Sulpice, Thierry

    2018-01-05

    The use of rat and mouse models limits the translation to humans for developing novel drugs targeting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Obeticholic acid (OCA) illustrates this limitation since its dyslipidemic effect in humans cannot be observed in these rodents. Conversely, Golden Syrian hamsters have a lipoprotein metabolism mimicking human dyslipidemia since it does express the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We therefore developed a Diet-Induced NASH (DIN) hamster model and evaluated the impact of OCA. Compared with chow fed controls, hamsters fed for 20 weeks with a free-choice (FC) diet, developed obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and NASH (microvesicular steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning and perisinusoidal to bridging fibrosis). After 20 weeks of diet, FC fed hamsters were treated without or with obeticholic acid (15mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Although a non-significant trend towards higher dietary caloric intake was observed, OCA significantly lowered body weight after 5 weeks of treatment. OCA significantly increased CETP activity and LDL-C levels by 20% and 27%, and reduced HDL-C levels by 20%. OCA blunted hepatic gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 and reduced fecal bile acids mass excretion by 64% (P OCA showed a trend towards higher scavenger receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) and lower LDL-receptor hepatic protein expression. OCA reduced NAS score for inflammation (P OCA as observed in humans, and should be useful for evaluating novel drugs targeting NASH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment Combined with Peracetic Acid Treatment Reduces Decay and Maintains Quality in Loquat Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultrasonic treatment (UT, 400 watts for 6 min combined with peracetic acid (PA, 0.4% (W/W treatment on fruit decay, browning, and quality and physiological changes in loquat fruit stored at 20°C were investigated. The results showed that treatment with UT or PA alone significantly reduced both decay and browning index in loquat fruit compared with the control. The combined treatment was more effective in decreasing decay and browning index and maintaining higher quality parameters than UT or PA treatment alone. Loquat fruits treated with the combined treatment maintained higher activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD than those treated with other treatments. In addition, UT combined with PA treatment significantly reduced the increase of firmness and increased fruit extractable juice, total soluble solid (TSS, and ascorbic acid content in loquat fruit. Moreover, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were enhanced by the combination of UT and PA treatment. The combination of UT and PA treatment could be a useful method to reduce decay and browning in loquat fruit stored at room temperature, which has potential for application in the loquat industry.

  16. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  17. Reductive Leaching Kinetics of Low Grade Manganese Deposits in H2SO4 Solution Using Malonic Acid as Reducing Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Taysser Lasheen; S. A. Abu Elenein; W. A. Saleh; A. H Orabi; D. A Ismaiel

    2014-01-01

    A leaching process was developed to extract manganese and metal values from Alloga manganese concentrate. The preferential leaching process was achieved through reductive leaching in dilute sulfuric acid medium with malonic acid as the reducing agent. Leaching parameters were optimized as 1.0 M H2SO4, 10% malonic acid in solid/liquid ratio 1:10 for 90 min at 80 C and using ore ground to – 74 µm. Under these conditions, the leaching efficiency of manganese reaches 97%, whilst iron dissolution ...

  18. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing Li; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  19. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  20. Role of Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Peritrochanteric Fracture Surgery in the Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani SR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritrochanteric fractures are common injuries occurring in elderly patients. Surgeries for these fractures are associated with significant blood loss. Intravenous tranexamic acid has a proven track record in many orthopaedic surgeries including trauma, arthroplasty and spine surgeries. Objective: To study the effect of local subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and the requirement for blood transfusion in intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Study Design: Single centre prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients above 65 years of age were included in the study, divided into two groups: the intervention group received subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of 2g tranexamic acid before wound closure and the control group of alternate patients did not receive any tranexamic acid infiltration. The postoperative drain output was recorded, as well as the haemoglobin level and the patients needing blood transfusion. Results and Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin values were recorded. The mean preoperative haemoglobin was 10.9% and 10.8% (p=0.79 in the trial and control groups respectively. The mean postoperative haemoglobin was 9.5gm% and 9.2gm% (p=0.36 in the two groups. The total postoperative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group and the control group was 190.3ml and 204.3ml respectively (p=0.25. Ten patients (14.9% in the intervention group and 12 patients (17.1% in the control group required blood transfusion. We conclude that tranexamic acid does not play a significant role in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion when used locally in peritochanteric fracture surgery. However a larger double blinded study comparing various modalities of use of tranexamic acid is needed to conclusively establish its role.

  1. Chir99021 and Valproic acid reduce the proliferative advantage of Apc mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlands, Alistair J; Carroll, Thomas D; Chen, Yu; Näthke, Inke

    2018-02-15

    More than 90% of colorectal cancers carry mutations in Apc that drive tumourigenesis. A 'just-right' signalling model proposes that Apc mutations stimulate optimal, but not excessive Wnt signalling, resulting in a growth advantage of Apc mutant over wild-type cells. Reversal of this growth advantage constitutes a potential therapeutic approach. We utilised intestinal organoids to compare the growth of Apc mutant and wild-type cells. Organoids derived from Apc Min/+ mice recapitulate stages of intestinal polyposis in culture. They eventually form spherical cysts that reflect the competitive growth advantage of cells that have undergone loss of heterozygosity (LOH). We discovered that this emergence of cysts was inhibited by Chiron99021 and Valproic acid, which potentiates Wnt signalling. Chiron99021 and Valproic acid restrict the growth advantage of Apc mutant cells while stimulating that of wild-type cells, suggesting that excessive Wnt signalling reduces the relative fitness of Apc mutant cells. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that Chiron99021-treated Apc mutant organoids were rendered susceptible to TSA-induced apoptosis, while wild-type cells were protected.

  2. Square-wave stripping voltammetric determination of caffeic acid on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-Nafion composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Hayati; Çetintaş, Gamze; Avan, Asiye Aslıhan; Aydar, Sevda; Koç, Serkan Naci; Boz, İsmail

    2013-11-15

    An electrochemical sensor composed of Nafion-graphene nanocomposite film for the voltammetric determination of caffeic acid (CA) was studied. A Nafion graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated by a simple drop-casting method and then graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced over the glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical analysis method was based on the adsorption of caffeic acid on Nafion/ER-GO/GCE and then the oxidation of CA during the stripping step. The resulting electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of caffeic acid (CA). The electrochemistry of caffeic acid on Nafion/ER-GO modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were studied by cyclic voltammetry and square-wave adsorption stripping voltammetry (SW-AdSV). At optimized test conditions, the calibration curve for CA showed two linear segments: the first linear segment increased from 0.1 to 1.5 and second linear segment increased up to 10 µM. The detection limit was determined as 9.1×10(-8) mol L(-1) using SW-AdSV. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to determine CA in white wine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid increases SorLA/LR11, a sorting protein with reduced expression in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD): relevance to AD prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Teter, Bruce; Ubeda, Oliver J; Morihara, Takashi; Dhoot, Dilsher; Nyby, Michael D; Tuck, Michael L; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2007-12-26

    Environmental and genetic factors, notably ApoE4, contribute to the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Reduced mRNA and protein for an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor family member, SorLA (LR11) has been found in LOAD but not early-onset AD, suggesting that LR11 loss is not secondary to pathology. LR11 is a neuronal sorting protein that reduces amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking to secretases that generate beta-amyloid (Abeta). Genetic polymorphisms that reduce LR11 expression are associated with increased AD risk. However these polymorphisms account for only a fraction of cases with LR11 deficits, suggesting involvement of environmental factors. Because lipoprotein receptors are typically lipid-regulated, we postulated that LR11 is regulated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid related to reduced AD risk and reduced Abeta accumulation. In this study, we report that DHA significantly increases LR11 in multiple systems, including primary rat neurons, aged non-Tg mice and an aged DHA-depleted APPsw AD mouse model. DHA also increased LR11 in a human neuronal line. In vivo elevation of LR11 was also observed with dietary fish oil in young rats with insulin resistance, a model for type II diabetes, another AD risk factor. These data argue that DHA induction of LR11 does not require DHA-depleting diets and is not age dependent. Because reduced LR11 is known to increase Abeta production and may be a significant genetic cause of LOAD, our results indicate that DHA increases in SorLA/LR11 levels may play an important role in preventing LOAD.

  4. A retinoic acid receptor β2 agonist reduces hepatic stellate cell activation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasino, Steven E; Tang, Xiao-Han; Jessurun, Jose; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are an important cellular target for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to prevent and treat nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Using a high fat diet (HFD) model of NAFLD, we sought to determine if synthetic selective agonists for retinoic acid receptor β2 (RARβ2) and RARγ can mitigate HSC activation and HSC relevant signaling pathways during early stages of NAFLD, before the onset of liver injury. We demonstrate that the highly selective RARβ2 agonist, AC261066, can reduce the activation of HSCs, marked by decreased HSC expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), in mice with HFD-induced NAFLD. Livers of HFD-fed mice treated with AC261066 exhibited reduced steatosis, oxidative stress, and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Kupffer cell (macrophage) expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which plays a critical role in early HSC activation, was markedly reduced in AC261066-treated, HFD-fed mice. In contrast, HFD-fed mice treated with an RARγ agonist (CD1530) showed no decreases in steatosis, HSC activation, or Kupffer cell TGF-β1 levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that RARβ2 is an attractive target for development of NAFLD therapies. • Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are an important pharmacological target for the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). • Retinoids and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) possess favorable metabolic modulating properties. • We show that an agonist for retinoic acid receptor-β2 (RARβ2), but not RARγ, mitigates HSC activation and NAFLD.

  5. Lithium-storage Properties of Gallic Acid-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Silicon-Graphene Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Binghui; Zhang, Jintao; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Zhi; Al Abdulla, Wael; Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Zhao, X.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was de-oxygenated using gallic acid under mild conditions to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The resultant RGO showed a lithium-ion storage capacity of 1280 mA h g −1 at a current density of 200 mA g −1 after 350 cycles when used as an anode for lithium ion batteries. The RGO was further used to stabilize silicon (Si) nanoparticles to prepare silicon-graphene composite electrode materials. Experimental results showed that a composite electrode prepared with a mass ratio of Si:GO = 1:2 exhibited the best lithium ion storage performance.

  6. Retinoic acid reduces human neuroblastoma cell migration and invasiveness: effects on DCX, LIS1, neurofilaments-68 and vimentin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messi, Elio; Florian, Maria C; Caccia, Claudio; Zanisi, Mariarosa; Maggi, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a severe pediatric tumor, histologically characterised by a variety of cellular phenotypes. One of the pharmacological approaches to neuroblastoma is the treatment with retinoic acid. The mechanism of action of retinoic acid is still unclear, and the development of resistance to this differentiating agent is a great therapy problem. Doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a molecular marker for the detection of minimal residual disease in human neuroblastoma. Nevertheless, no information is available on the expression of doublecortin in the different cell-types composing human neuroblastoma, its correlation with neuroblastoma cell motility and invasiveness, and the possible modulations exerted by retinoic acid treatment. We analysed by immunofluorescence and by Western blot analysis the presence of doublecortin, lissencephaly-1 (another protein involved in neuronal migration) and of two intermediate filaments proteins, vimentin and neurofilament-68, in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line both in control conditions and under retinoic acid treatment. Migration and cell invasiveness studies were performed by wound scratch test and a modified microchemotaxis assay, respectively. Doublecortin is expressed in two cell subtypes considered to be the more aggressive and that show high migration capability and invasiveness. Vimentin expression is excluded by these cells, while lissencephaly-1 and neurofilaments-68 are immunodetected in all the cell subtypes of the SK-N-SH cell line. Treatment with retinoic acid reduces cell migration and invasiveness, down regulates doublecortin and lissencephaly-1 expression and up regulates neurofilament-68 expression. However, some cells that escape from retinoic acid action maintain migration capability and invasiveness and express doublecortin. a) Doublecortin is expressed in human neuroblastoma cells that show high motility and invasiveness; b

  7. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Application of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria for the Heavy Metals Elimination from Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptáková

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems affecting mining companies around the world is the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD is characterised by its high acidity, high concentration of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd,… and high concentration of dissolved sulphates. The techniques traditionally used for the treatment of AMD have been based on chemical methods of neutralization and precipitation. A possible alternative to the chemical treatment of AMD is bioremediation using anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. The treatment of AMD by SRB is based on the ability of SRB to reduce sulphates to hydrogen sulphide, which binds readily with metals to form sparingly soluble precipitates. In this study we have attempted to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic biotreatment of the copper contaminated model solution and a real effluent AMD from the shaft Pech (the locality Smolnik using SRB. This method involves three stages: The H2S production by sulphate-reducing bacteria, the metals precipitation by the biologically produced H2S and the metal sulphides filtration. The studies confirm that copper was effectively recovered from the solution using bacterial produced H2S. An initial copper concentration 10 mg.l-1 was decreased to less than 0.05 mg.l-1 after 3 hours. The most adequate pH value for cooper precipitation was 2.5. Results of the copper precipitation from the areal effluent indicates that the optimal pH value for the copper precipitation is 3.5, but the created precipitates contain a mixture of copper and iron sulphides.

  9. Synergistic effects of intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss in revision total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangwei; Wang, Jiaxing; Wang, Qiaojie; Zhang, Xianlong

    2018-04-01

    Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty, and no related prospective randomized clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in revision total knee arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted this work to evaluate the synergistic effects of intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss compared with intra-articular tranexamic acid alone in revision total knee arthroplasty. This prospective, controlled study randomized 96 patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty into two groups: an intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group (48 patients who received 20 mg/kg intravenous tranexamic acid and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid); and an intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (48 patients who received the same intravenous volume of normal saline and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid). The primary outcome was hemoglobin loss. Secondary outcomes included the volume of drain output, the percentage of patients who received transfusions, the number of units transfused, and thromboembolic events. The baseline data, preoperative hemoglobin, and tourniquet time were similar in both groups. There was significantly less hemoglobin loss in the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group compared with the intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (2.7 ± 0.6 g/dL and 3.7 ± 0.7 g/dL; p tranexamic acid alone group, the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group also had significantly less drain output, fewer patients who received transfusions, and fewer units transfused (all p tranexamic acid alone, combined intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid significantly reduced hemoglobin loss and the need for transfusion without an apparent increase in thromboembolic events in patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty. © 2018 AABB.

  10. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  11. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  12. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  13. Reducing the Dietary Acid Load: How a More Alkaline Diet Benefits Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that a low-protein diet will slow progression of chronic kidney disease although studies have not always supported this belief. The accepted practice is that 60% to 70% of protein comes from high biological value (HBV) protein, but this limits patient choice and patients struggle to follow the diet. When a diet with only 30% HBV protein was trialed, there was a significant increase in serum bicarbonate, and patients preferred the diet. The dietary advice given in predialysis clinics was changed. HBV protein was restricted to approximately 50% of total protein, bread and cereal foods were allowed freely, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) were encouraged. Patients who followed the diet have seen a slowing of progression and occasionally regression of their renal function. Both observations and scientific literature indicate that this is because of a reduction in the acid content of the diet. When foods are metabolized, most proteins produce acid, and most F&V produce alkali. A typical 21 st -century diet produces 50 to 100 mEq H + per day which the kidney is challenged to excrete. Acid is excreted with phosphate and is limited to about 45 mEq H + per day. With chronic kidney disease, this falls progressively to below 20 mEq H + per day. Historically, ammonium excretion was believed to be excretion of acid (NH 3 +  + H + → NH 4 + ), but it is now understood to be a by-product in the neutralization of acid by glutamine. The remaining acid is neutralized or stored within the body. Bone and muscle are lost in order to neutralize the acid. Acid also accumulates within cells, and serum bicarbonate falls. The author postulates that reducing the acid load through a low-protein diet with greater use of vegetable proteins and increased F&V intake will slow progression or occasionally improve renal function while maintaining the nutritional status of the individual. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Urinary Loss of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates As Revealed by Metabolomics Studies: An Underlying Mechanism to Reduce Lipid Accretion by Whey Protein Ingestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by 1H NMR and LC–MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC–MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC–MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice. PMID:24702026

  15. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  16. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  17. Pomegranate seed oil influences the fatty acids profile and reduces the activity of desaturases in livers of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Stawarska, Agnieszka; Bodecka, Joanna; Białek, Małgorzata; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the influence of diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil - as conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) source, or conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and to examine the mechanism of their activity. The content of fatty acids, levels of biomarkers of lipids' oxidation and the activity of key enzymes catalyzing lipids metabolism were measured. Obtained results revealed that conjugated fatty acids significantly decrease the activity of Δ5-desaturase (p=0.0001) and Δ6-desaturase (p=0.0008) and pomegranate seed oil reduces their activity in the most potent way. We confirmed that diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil - a rich source of punicic acid leads to the increase of cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in livers (p=0.0003). Lack of side effects and beneficial influence on desaturases activity and fatty acids profile claim pomegranate seed oil to become interesting alternative for CLA as functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A MapReduce approach to diminish imbalance parameters for big deoxyribonucleic acid dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Sarwar; Ripon, Shamim Hasnat; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Santhi, V

    2016-07-01

    In the age of information superhighway, big data play a significant role in information processing, extractions, retrieving and management. In computational biology, the continuous challenge is to manage the biological data. Data mining techniques are sometimes imperfect for new space and time requirements. Thus, it is critical to process massive amounts of data to retrieve knowledge. The existing software and automated tools to handle big data sets are not sufficient. As a result, an expandable mining technique that enfolds the large storage and processing capability of distributed or parallel processing platforms is essential. In this analysis, a contemporary distributed clustering methodology for imbalance data reduction using k-nearest neighbor (K-NN) classification approach has been introduced. The pivotal objective of this work is to illustrate real training data sets with reduced amount of elements or instances. These reduced amounts of data sets will ensure faster data classification and standard storage management with less sensitivity. However, general data reduction methods cannot manage very big data sets. To minimize these difficulties, a MapReduce-oriented framework is designed using various clusters of automated contents, comprising multiple algorithmic approaches. To test the proposed approach, a real DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) dataset that consists of 90 million pairs has been used. The proposed model reduces the imbalance data sets from large-scale data sets without loss of its accuracy. The obtained results depict that MapReduce based K-NN classifier provided accurate results for big data of DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New food approaches to reduce and/or eliminate increased gastric acidity related to gastroesophageal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Ciro; Naviglio, Daniele; Marino, Marina; Calogero, Armando; Gallo, Monica

    2018-03-22

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is very common in industrialized countries and rapidly and significantly increasing even in developing countries. The approach in this study is one not commonly found to date in the scientific literature. To assess the ability of reduced-carbohydrate diets and foods that are enriched with acid potential of hydrogen (pH; lemon and tomato) to quickly and exponentially reduce symptoms that are related to conditions such as gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux and unrelated to Helicobacter pylori. After the administration of an anamnestic test, 130 patients were selected including 73 women and 57 men, 21 to 67 y, and with a gastritis diagnosis for 92 patients (56 women, 36 men) and reflux gastritis for 38 patients (17 women, 21 men). Study participants followed three dietary treatments in succession. Each treatment lasted 2 wk and treatments were separated by 2 wk of washout. The patients followed a diet that consisted primarily of proteins and fats and included the exponential reduction of glycides (simple and complex). In addition, the treatment provided for the daily intake of the juice of two lemons and approximately 100 g of fresh orange tomato without seeds eaten either raw or cooked and peeled. During treatment and at the end of 2 wk of treatment, the patients reported significant improvements including an almost total disappearance of symptoms that were related to the disease in question. This study shows that a carbohydrate-free diet and/or highly hypoglycidal diet that is enriched with acid pH foods appears to lead to a decrease in the pH of the gastric contents, thus inhibiting the further production of hydrochloric acid with a reduction or disappearance of heartburn symptoms that are typical of gastroesophageal diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The omega-3 fatty acid DHA dose-dependently reduces atherosclerosis: a putative role for F4-neuroprostanes a specific class of peroxidized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...

  1. Reduced amino acids in the bovine uterine lumen of cloned versus in vitro fertilized pregnancies prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, Anna E; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Bauersachs, Stefan; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Daniel, Hannelore; Büttner, Mathias; Reichenbach, Horst D; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Wolf, Eckhard; Ulbrich, Susanne E

    2011-10-01

    Fetal overgrowth and placental abnormalities frequently occur in pregnancies following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). An optimal intrauterine supply of amino acids (AA) is of specific importance for the development of the bovine preimplantation embryo, and a defective regulation of AA supply might contribute to pregnancy failures. Thus, we analyzed 41 AA and derivatives by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in uterine flushings of day 18 pregnant heifers carrying in vitro fertilized (IVF) or SCNT embryos, which were cultured under identical conditions until transfer to recipients. The concentrations of several AA were reduced in samples from SCNT pregnancies: L-leucine (1.8-fold), L-valine (1.6-fold), L-isoleucine (1.9-fold), L-phenylalanine (1.5-fold), L-glutamic acid (3.9-fold), L-aspartic acid (4.0-fold), L-proline (2.6-fold), L-alanine (2.0-fold), L-arginine (2.5-fold), and L-lysine (1.9-fold). The endometrial transcript abundance for the AA transporter solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter, L-type), member 8 (SLC7A8) was also 2.4-fold lower in SCNT pregnancies. O-phosphoethanolamine (PetN) was 11-fold (p=0.0001) reduced in the uterine fluid of animals carrying an SCNT conceptus, pointing toward changes of the phospholipid metabolism. We provide evidence for disturbed embryo-maternal interactions in the preimplantation period after transfer of SCNT embryos, which may contribute to developmental abnormalities. These are unlikely related to the major embryonic pregnancy recognition signal interferon-tau, because similar activities were detected in uterine flushings of the SCNT and IVF groups.

  2. Fodder shrubs and fatty acids: strategies to reduce enteric methane production in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Cardona-Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the use of fodder shrubs and polyunsaturated fatty acids as a nutritional strategy to mitigate enteric methane production in cattle. Special emphasis was made on the use of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (Mexican sun ower, as a species with antimethanogenic potential. Bibliographic information for this review was obtained between July and September 2015 by using key words. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG, the increase of its atmospheric concentration is caused mainly by emissions from agriculture and industry, but it is also estimated that a proportion of methane is emitted by ruminants as a product of enteric and anaerobic fermentation of diet. This causes an environmental and productive problem in livestock production systems worldwide. Although there is controversy about the real contribution of methane by ruminants and its impact on environmental issues, the amount of emissions should try to be reduced.This document emphasizes the search for nutritional strategies such as supplementation with forage shrubs and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have shown potential to maintain animal production ef ciency and decrease enteric methane synthesis.

  3. Does topical tranexamic acid reduce postcoronary artery bypass graft bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirmohammadsadeghi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative bleeding is a common problem in cardiac surgery. We tried to evaluate the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TA on reducing postoperative bleeding of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six isolated primary CABG patients were included in this clinical trial. They were divided blindly into two groups; Group 1, patients receiving 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline poured into mediastinal cavity before closing the chest and Group 2, patients receiving 100 ml normal saline at the end of operation. First 24 and 48 h chest tube drainage, hemoglobin decrease and packed RBC transfusion needs were compared. Results: Both groups were the same in baseline characteristics including gender, age, body mass index, ejection fraction, clamp time, bypass time, and operation length. During the first 24 h postoperatively, mean chest tube drainage in intervention group was 567 ml compared to 564 ml in control group (P = 0.89. Mean total chest tube drainage was 780 ml in intervention group and 715 ml in control group (P = 0.27. There was no significant difference in both mean hemoglobin decrease (P = 0.26 and packed RBC transfusion (P = 0.7. Topical application of 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline does not reduce postoperative bleeding of isolated on-pump CABG surgery. Conclusion: We do not recommend topical usage of 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline for decreasing blood loss in on-pump CABG patients.

  4. Early dinner reduces nocturnal gastric acidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Duroux, P; Bauerfeind, P; Emde, C; Koelz, H R; Blum, A L

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether eating food at different times has differential effects on intragastric pH. Experiments were done in 23 healthy volunteers (12 men). Intragastric acidity was monitored by ambulatory 22 hour pH-metry. Composition of meals was standardised: breakfast and lunch at 7 am and 12 noon respectively, and dinner at 6 or 9 pm, in random order. The time of going to bed and getting up was also standardised. With early dinner nocturnal pH was higher, than with late dinner (pH me...

  5. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The “Nutritional Light Signal” of the Renal Acid Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Raffaele Di Iorio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2. We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP, inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p < 0.0001, DBP (p < 0.001, plasma urea (p < 0.0001 protein intake (p < 0.0001, calcemia (p < 0.0001, phosphatemia (p < 0.0001, phosphate intake (p < 0.0001, urinary sodium (p < 0.0001, urinary potassium (p < 0.002, and urinary phosphate (p < 0.0001. NEAP and PRAL were significantly reduced in VLPD during follow-up. Conclusion: VLPD reduces intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and

  6. Exogenous and endogenous hyaluronic acid reduces HIV infection of CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peilin; Fujimoto, Katsuya; Bourguingnon, Lilly; Yukl, Steven; Deeks, Steven; Wong, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Preventing mucosal transmission of HIV is critical to halting the HIV epidemic. Novel approaches to preventing mucosal transmission are needed. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular component of mucosa and the primary ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44. CD44 enhances HIV infection of CD4+ T cells, but the role of HA in this process is not clear. To study this, virions were generated with CD44 (HIVCD44) or without CD44 (HIVmock). Exogenous HA reduced HIV infection of unstimulated CD4+ T cells in a CD44-dependent manner. Conversely, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of endogenous HA on the cell surface enhanced HIV binding to and infection of unstimulated CD4+ T cells. Exogenous HA treatment reduced activation of protein kinase C alpha via CD44 on CD4+ T cells during infection with HIVCD44. These results reveal new roles for HA during the interaction of HIV with CD4+ T cells that may be relevant to mucosal HIV transmission and could be exploitable as a future strategy to prevent HIV infection. PMID:24957217

  7. Performance and microbial community dynamics of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor treating coal generated acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Andrew S; Pugh, Charles W; Segid, Yosief T; Behum, Paul T; Lefticariu, Liliana; Bender, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    The effectiveness of a passive flow sulfate-reducing bioreactor processing acid mine drainage (AMD) generated from an abandoned coal mine in Southern Illinois was evaluated using geochemical and microbial community analysis 10 months post bioreactor construction. The results indicated that the treatment system was successful in both raising the pH of the AMD from 3.09 to 6.56 and in lowering the total iron level by 95.9%. While sulfate levels did decrease by 67.4%, the level post treatment (1153 mg/l) remained above recommended drinking water levels. Stimulation of biological sulfate reduction was indicated by a +2.60‰ increase in δ(34)S content of the remaining sulfate in the water post-treatment. Bacterial community analysis targeting 16S rRNA and dsrAB genes indicated that the pre-treated samples were dominated by bacteria related to iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, while the post-treated water directly from the reactor outflow was dominated by sequences related to sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria and complex carbon degrading Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phylums. Analysis of the post-treated water, prior to environmental release, revealed that the community shifted back to predominantly iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. DsrA analysis implied limited diversity in the sulfate-reducing population present in both the bioreactor outflow and oxidation pond samples. These results support the use of passive flow bioreactors to lower the acidity, metal, and sulfate levels present in the AMD at the Tab-Simco mine, but suggest modifications of the system are necessary to both stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria and inhibit sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  8. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  9. Role of ascorbic acid supplement in reducing oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Y.; Hussain, M.M.; Aleem, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to measure the oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxicated sprague dawley rats with and without supplementation of ascorbic acid. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place of Study: Physiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi. (From Oct 2007 to Sep 2008) Material and Methods: One hundred and five male rats (age, 90-120 days; weight 200 - 250 gm) were divided into three groups each having 35 rats. Rats of group 1 and group 2 were given weekly injections of sodium acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) and lead acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) respectively, whereas rats of group 3 were administered lead acetate(10 mg /kg body weight) through weekly injections and ascorbic acid in drinking water (500 mg/l). After 6 weeks, 4 ml of blood was drawn from each rat by cardiac puncture. The blood was allowed to clot and serum was separated for estimation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels on spectrophotometer; and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels on Merck Micorlab 200. Results: Lead intoxication of rats revealed that serum MDA levels were raised to 7.8 +- 0.48 micro mol/l (control, 3.2 +-0.39 micro mol/l), ALT levels to 76.26 +- 5.88 IU/l (control, 44.1 +- 3.26) and AST levels to 258.06 +- 13.30 IU/l (control, 156.2 +- 4.97). Ascorbic acid supplementation significantly lowered serum MDA levels (3.8 +- 0.34 micro mol/l), ALT levels (52.26 +-4.57 IU/l) and AST levels (188.13 +- 12.91 IU/l). Conclusion: Ascorbic acid supplementation ameliorates lead intoxication probably by reducing the oxidative stress, thus preventing the development of hepatotoxicity, but this amelioration is not equal to the control. (author)

  10. A glassy carbon electrode modified with porous Cu_2O nanospheres on reduced graphene oxide support for simultaneous sensing of uric acid and dopamine with high selectivity over ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Li-Ping; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Wu, Liang; Chen, Jian-Rong; Shen, Liguo; Wang, Ai-Jun; Xie, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Porous cuprous oxide nanospheres were deposited on reduced graphene oxide (pCu_2O NS-rGO) by a solvothermal approach that uses hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as the capping agent and L-glutamic acid as the reducing agent. The nanomaterial was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and electrochemical methods. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with pCu_2O NS-rGO, and the respective electrode displays a well expressed oxidation peak for dopamine (DA) located at 160 mV (vs. SCE). It also gives a strong peak for uric acid (UA) which is separated from the DA peak by 130 mV (vs. SCE). No signals can be detected for ascorbic acid (AA) in concentrations up to 2.0 mM. The findings are exploited in a method for simultaneous determination of UA and DA. The linear ranges are from 1.0 to 138 μM for UA, and from 0.05 to 109 μM for DA even in the presence of relatively high concentrations of AA. The detection limits are 112 nM for UA and 15 nM for DA (at an S/N ratio of 3). (author)

  11. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latter David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA group (19 patients received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each (P = 0.82. Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit than in placebo group (median 2 units (P = 0.03. Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient.

  12. Effectiveness of chlorine, organic acids and UV treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M E; Velázquez, L; Favier, G; de Guzmán, A M

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of 200 and 500 ppm of chlorine and organic acids (0.5% lactic acid and 0.5% citric acid) in wash solutions, and UV radiation for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples contaminated by two different methods. Residual levels of these pathogens after different treatments were compared. On dip inoculated apples, Y. enterocolitica reductions of 2.66 and 2.77 logs were obtained with 200 and 500 ppm chlorine combined with 0.5% lactic acid, respectively. The E. coli O157:H7 population decreased 3.35 log with 0.5% lactic acid wash solution, and 2.72 and 2.62 logs after 500 ppm chlorine and 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid treatments, respectively. Similar reductions were obtained with UV radiation. On spot inoculated apples, significant (p acid treatment as compared with the control. In sectioned apples, microorganisms infiltrated in inner core region and pulp were not significantly (p apples. Reductions such as those obtained with 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid solution were very proximal to the 5-log score required by FDA for apple disinfection.

  13. SureCure{sup (R)}-A new material to reduces curing time and improve curing reproducibility of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, David P.; Loosemore, Daniel V.; Botts, G. Dean [Hammond Lead Products Division, Hammond Group Inc., 2323 165th Street, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2006-08-25

    This paper introduces a technology that considerably reduces the time to cure the positive plates of lead-acid batteries. In each of several full-scale trials at automotive and industrial battery manufacturers, the simple replacement of 1wt.% of leady oxide with finely-divided tetrabasic lead sulfate (SureCure(TM) by Hammond Group Inc.) is shown to accelerate significantly the conversion of tribasic lead sulfate (3BS) to tetrabasic lead sulfate (4BS) in the curing process while improving crystal structure and reproducibility. Shorter curing times result in reduced labour and energy costs, as well as reduced fixed (curing chambers and plant footprint) and working (plate inventory) capital investment. (author)

  14. Novel acid-base hybrid membrane based on amine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide and sulfonated polyimide for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Li; Sun, Qingqing; Gao, Yahui; Liu, Luntao; Shi, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel acid-base hybrid membranes (SPI/PEI-rGO) based on sulfonated polyimide (SPI) with polyethyleneimine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PEI-rGO) are prepared by a solution-casting method for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). FT-IR and XPS results prove the successful fabrication of PEI-rGO and SPI/PEI-rGO hybrid membranes, which show a dense and homogeneous structure observed by SEM. The physicochemical properties such as water uptake, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability are well controlled by the incorporated PEI-rGO fillers. The interfacial-formed acid-base pairs between PEI-rGO and SPI matrix effectively reduce the swelling ratio and vanadium ion permeability, increasing the stability performance of the hybrid membranes. SPI/PEI-rGO-2 hybrid membrane exhibits a higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 95%) and energy efficiency (EE, 75.6%) at 40 mA cm −2 , as compared with Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 91% and EE, 66.8%). The self-discharge time of the VRB with SPI/PEI-rGO-2 hybrid membrane (80 h) is longer than that of Nafion 117 membrane (26 h), demonstrating the excellent blocking ability for vanadium ion. After 100 charge-discharge cycles, SPI/PEI-rGO-2 membrane exhibits the good stability under strong oxidizing and acid condition, proving that SPI/PEI-rGO acid-base hybrid membranes could be used as the promising candidates for VRB applications

  15. Sensitive electrochemical sensors for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid based on Au@Pd-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xuezhong

    2014-09-01

    Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 μM with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the concentrations of AA, DA, and UA, the linear response ranges were 1-800, 0.1-100, and 0.1-350 μM with detection limits of 0.28, 0.024, and 0.02 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The fabricated sensors were further applied to the detection of AA, DA, and UA in urine samples. The Au@Pd-RGO nanocomposites have promising applications in highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing.Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 μM with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the

  16. Acidic pH reduces VEGF-mediated endothelial cell responses by downregulation of VEGFR-2; relevance for anti-angiogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Seraina; Uldry, Emilie; Planche, Anne; Santoro, Tania; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2016-12-27

    Anti-angiogenic treatments targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor or its receptors have shown clinical benefits. However, impact on long-term survival remains limited. Solid tumors display an acidic microenvironment that profoundly influences their biology. Consequences of acidity on endothelial cells and anti-angiogenic therapies remain poorly characterized and hence are the focus of this study. We found that exposing endothelial cells to acidic extracellular pH resulted in reduced cell proliferation and migration. Also, whereas VEGF increased endothelial cell proliferation and survival at pH 7.4, it had no effect at pH 6.4. Furthermore, in acidic conditions, stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF did not result in activation of downstream signaling pathways such as AKT. At a molecular level, acidity significantly decreased the expression of VEGFR-2 by endothelial cells. Consequently, anti-angiogenic therapies that target VEGFR-2 such as sunitinib and sorafenib failed to block endothelial cell proliferation in acidic conditions. In vivo, neutralizing tumor acidity with sodium bicarbonate increased the percentage of endothelial cells expressing VEGFR-2 in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, combining sodium bicarbonate with sunitinib provided stronger anti-cancer activity than either treatment alone. Histological analysis showed that sunitinib had a stronger anti-angiogenic effect when combined with sodium bicarbonate. Overall, our results show that endothelial cells prosper independently of VEGF in acidic conditions partly as a consequence of decreased VEGFR-2 expression. They further suggest that strategies aiming to raise intratumoral pH can improve the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatments.

  17. Volume reducing and modifying of neutralized sludge from acid waste water treatment of uranium ore heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Pingru; Ding Tongsen; Gu Jianghan

    1997-01-01

    A process is worked out on the basis of traditional lime neutralization, viz. acid waste water from uranium ore heap leaching is treated by limestone and lime double neutralizing-sludge recycling. First, the waste water is reacted with cheaper limestone to precipitate some metal ions, such as Fe and Al, which form hydroxides at lower pH, and neutralize strong acid, then neutralized with lime to required pH value. The formed precipitate as sludge is steadily recycled in the process. The principal advantage of the process over lime neutralization process is that reagent cost saved by 1/3 and formed sludge volume decreased by 2/3. Besides, the performances of sludge filtrating and settling are improved. The mechanism of sludge volume reducing and modification is also investigated

  18. Valnoctamide, which reduces rat brain arachidonic acid turnover, is a potential non-teratogenic valproate substitute to treat bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hiren R; Ma, Kaizong; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2017-08-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), is teratogenic by inhibiting histone deacetylase. In unanaesthetized rats, chronic VPA, like other mood stabilizers, reduces arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in brain phospholipids, and inhibits AA activation to AA-CoA by recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl-4) in vitro. Valnoctamide (VCD), a non-teratogenic constitutional isomer of VPA amide, reported effective in BD, also inhibits recombinant Acsl-4 in vitro. VCD like VPA will reduce brain AA turnover in unanaesthetized rats. A therapeutically relevant (50mg/kg i.p.) dose of VCD or vehicle was administered daily for 30 days to male rats. AA turnover and related parameters were determined using our kinetic model, following intravenous [1- 14 C]AA in unanaesthetized rats for 10min, and measuring labeled and unlabeled lipids in plasma and high-energy microwaved brain. VCD, compared with vehicle, increased λ, the ratio of brain AA-CoA to unesterified plasma AA specific activities; and decreased turnover of AA in individual and total brain phospholipids. VCD's ability like VPA to reduce rat brain AA turnover and inhibit recombinant Acsl-4, and its efficacy in BD, suggest that VCD be further considered as a non-teratogenic VPA substitute for treating BD. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roel J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2013-01-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an

  20. Treatment of menorrhagia during menstruation: randomised controlled trial of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnar, J; Sheppard, B L

    1996-09-07

    To compare the efficacy and acceptability of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid for treating menorrhagia. Randomised controlled trial. A university department of obstetrics and gynaecology. 76 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Treatment for five days from day 1 of menses during three consecutive menstrual periods. 27 patients were randomised to take ethamsylate 500 mg six hourly, 23 patients to take mefenamic acid 500 mg eight hourly, and 26 patients to take tranexamic acid 1 g six hourly. Menstrual loss measured by the alkaline haematin method in three control menstrual periods and three menstrual periods during treatment; duration of bleeding; patient's estimation of blood loss; sanitary towel usage; the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea; and unwanted events. Ethamsylate did not reduce mean menstrual blood loss whereas mefenamic acid reduced blood loss by 20% (mean blood loss 186 ml before treatment, 148 ml during treatment) and tranexamic acid reduced blood loss by 54% (mean blood loss 164 ml before treatment, 75 ml during treatment). Sanitary towel usage was significantly reduced in patients treated with mefenamic acid and tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid given during menstruation is a safe and highly effective treatment for excessive bleeding. Patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding should be offered medical treatment with tranexamic acid before a decision is made about surgery.

  1. TRPM5 mediates acidic extracellular pH signaling and TRPM5 inhibition reduces spontaneous metastasis in mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyonobu; Suzuki, Atsuko; Koga, Kaori; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Maehata, Yojiro; Ozawa, Shigeyuki; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; Nagashima, Yoji; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Kato, Yasumasa

    2017-10-03

    Extracellular acidity is a hallmark of solid tumors and is associated with metastasis in the tumor microenvironment. Acidic extracellular pH (pH e ) has been found to increase intracellular Ca 2+ and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression by activating NF-κB in the mouse B16 melanoma model. The present study assessed whether TRPM5, an intracellular Ca 2+ -dependent monovalent cation channel, is associated with acidic pH e signaling and induction of MMP-9 expression in this mouse melanoma model. Treatment of B16 cells with Trpm5 siRNA reduced acidic pH e -induced MMP-9 expression. Enforced expression of Trpm5 increased the rate of acidic pH e -induced MMP-9 expression, as well as increasing experimental lung metastasis. This genetic manipulation did not alter the pH e critical for MMP-9 induction but simply amplified the percentage of inducible MMP-9 at each pH e . Treatment of tumor bearing mice with triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), an inhibitor of TRPM5, significantly reduced spontaneous lung metastasis. In silico analysis of clinical samples showed that high TRPM5 mRNA expression correlated with poor overall survival rate in patients with melanoma and gastric cancer but not in patients with cancers of the ovary, lung, breast, and rectum. These results showed that TRPM5 amplifies acidic pH e signaling and may be a promising target for preventing metastasis of some types of tumor.

  2. A Modified method for reducing renal injury in zoledronic acid treatment of hypercalcemia and adverse skeletal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this paper, we have reported a previously undescribed risk factor of deterioration of renal function in zoledronic acid treatment of skeletal metastasis - high serum calcium level. Based on this consideration, a modified method of treatment of hypercalcemia (HCM with zoledronic acid is suggested in this paper. Material and Methods: Bone scan findings of 1090 cancer patients were analyzed, of which 26 had intense renal parenchymal uptake as a result of HCM or bone metastases. Subsequently, a total of 56 bone metastases patients with zoledronic acid treatment were divided into three groups: HCM group who were pre-treated to normal serum calcium level (13 patients, HCM group (19 patients, and normal serum calcium group (24 patients. Results: More patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were hyperglycemic, statistically significantly (18/26 versus 19/1064, P = 2.1, E-78. No more patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were associated with bone metastases (14/26 versus 438/1064, P = 0.20. Subsequently, more HCM patients receiving zoledronic acid treatment showed renal injury compared to patients with normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 2/24, P < 0.05 and HCM patients with pre-treatment to normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 1/17, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Intense renal parenchymal uptake of bisphosphonates is closely related to HCM rather than to bone metastases in cancer patients. The serum calcium should be measured and reduced to normal level before zoledronic acid is used in managements of adverse skeletal events in order to decrease the risk of renal injury.

  3. Combined alkali and acid pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for reducing sugar and biofertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Liu, Jia-Heng; Sun, Li-Fan; Hu, Zong-Fu; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pretreated with alkaline reagents including potassium hydroxide, lime and ammonia to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Under the best pretreatment conditions (1M KOH, 80 °C, 90 min; 1M lime, 80 °C, 120 min; 10 M ammonia, 70 °C, 120 min), the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield reached 258.6, 204.2 and 251.2 mg/g raw SMS, which were respectively 6.15, 4.86, and 5.98 times of untreated SMS. The effects of pretreatment by above alkaline reagents and sulfuric acid on the composition and structure of SMS were evaluated to provide comparative performance data. A new process, combined alkali and acid (CAA) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, was innovatively proposed to improve the cost-effectiveness and avoid environmental problems. The SMS residue after CAA pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis process was converted to biofertilizer with Pichia farinose FL7 and a cell density of 3.0×10(8) cfu/g in biomass was attained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sacubitril/valsartan reduces serum uric acid concentration, an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in PARADIGM-HF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik M.; Køber, Lars; Jhund, Pardeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Elevated serum uric acid concentration (SUA) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but this may be due to unmeasured confounders. We examined the association between SUA and outcomes as well as the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on SUA in patients with heart...... (adjusted hazard ratios) Q5 vs. Q1=1.28 [95% confidence intervals (1.09-1.50), P=0.003], cardiovascular death [1.44 (1.11-1.77), P=0.001], HF hospitalization [1.37 (1.11-1.70), P=0.004], and all-cause mortality [1.36 (1.13-1.64), P=0.001]. Compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced SUA by 0.24 (0.......17-0.32) mg/dL over 12months (PSacubitril/valsartan improved outcomes, irrespective of SUA concentration. Conclusion: Serum uric acid concentration was an independent predictor of worse outcomes after multivariable adjustment in patients with HFrEF. Compared with enalapril, sacubitril...

  5. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The "Nutritional Light Signal" of the Renal Acid Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca

    2017-01-17

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T -test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP ( p protein intake ( p intake ( p intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks-the "acid load dietary traffic light".

  6. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Reduced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Oxidation in Rodent Liver: Is This Accounted for Hydroxytyrosol-Fatty Acid Conjugation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yiu Yiu; Crauste, Céline; Wang, Hualin; Leung, Ho Hang; Vercauteren, Joseph; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2016-10-17

    The effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced oxidative stress in rats were determined by the generation of isoprostanoids. These are known to be robust biomarkers to evaluate nonenzymatic and free radical related oxidation. Other oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were also determined. The rodents received a control diet, high-fat diet (20% w/w) composed of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), corn oil (CO), or lard, and high-fat diets with CCl 4 insult throughout the experimental period. The EVOO diet was found to suppress the formation of isoprostanoids and COPs compared to that of the control. EVOO also had a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to those of CO and lard and may be contributed to by the hydroxytyrosol component conjugated to fatty acids (HT-FA). This is the first study to identify HT-FA in EVOO, and it was 4-fold higher than that of olive oil, whereas none was found in corn oil. Furthermore, the EVOO diet showed reduced liver lipid vesicles in CCl 4 treated rats compared to that of the control. However, liver toxicity measurements of AST (aspartate transaminase) and ALT (alanine transaminase) activities showed augmentation with CCl 4 treatment but were not alleviated by the diets given. Our findings suggest that EVOO is a daily functional food capable of enhancing the antioxidant system for liver protection; the effect is potentially attributed to the phenolic and lipophenolic (phenol conjugated by fatty acids) content.

  7. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentration is Reduced in Visual Cortex in Schizophrenia and Correlates with Orientation-Specific Surround Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jong H.; Maddock, Richard J.; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A.; Minzenberg, Michael J.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Carter, Cameron S.

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypothesis proposes that reduced neuronal GABA concentration and neurotransmission results in cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, few in vivo studies have directly examined this hypothesis. We employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at high field to measure visual cortical GABA levels in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 13 demographically matche...

  8. Green Tea, Phytic Acid, and Inositol in Combination Reduced the Incidence of Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Tumors in Fisher 344 Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Khatiwada, Janak; Verghese, Martha; Davis, Shurrita; Williams, Leonard L.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental as well as epidemiologic studies in human populations provide evidence that consumption of phytochemicals reduces the incidence of degenerative diseases. Green tea (GT) catechins are known for their antioxidative potential. Phytic acid (PA) also acts as a natural antioxidant and may have numerous health benefits. This experiment was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of combinations of 1% and 2% GT, PA, and inositol (I) in reducing the incidence of azoxymethane-induce...

  9. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. The present review includes updated searches of randomised trials on tranexamic acid versus placebo, cimetidine or lansoprazole....

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, B.; Graham, T.

    2006-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, carbohydrate oxidation may result from decreased pyruvate production and increased fatty acid supply and ultimately lead to reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Pyruvate also interacts with the amino acids alanine, glutamine, and glutamate, whereby the decline...... amino acid taken up during exercise and recovery. Alanine and glutamine were also associated...... with pyruvate metabolism, and they comprised 68% of total amino-acid release during exercise and recovery. Thus reduced pyruvate production was primarily associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, whereas the greatest production of pyruvate was related to glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism...

  11. The potential for military diets to reduce depression, suicide, and impulsive aggression: a review of current evidence for omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Gow, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort trials indicate that Mediterranean diet patterns reduce risk of clinical depressions. Specific nutrients and foods of biological interest in relation to mental health outcomes are then discussed and evaluated. Moderate evidence indicates that when fish consumption decreases and simultaneously omega-6 increases, the risk of clinical depressive symptoms are elevated. One meta-analysis examining tissue compositions provides moderate to strong evidence that higher levels of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) are associated with decreased risk of clinical depressions. Other meta-analytic reviews of randomized placebo-controlled trials provide moderate to strong evidence of significantly improving clinically depressive symptoms when the formulation given was >50% in eicosapentaenoic acid. Finally, a meta-analysis of omega-3 HUFAs provides modest evidence of clinical efficacy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article recommends that a rebalancing of the essential fatty acid composition of U.S. military diets, achieve tissue compositions of HUFAs consistent with traditional Mediterranean diets, may help reduce military psychiatric distress and simultaneously increase force efficacy substantially. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Zoledronic Acid in Reducing Clinical Fracture and Mortality after Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Kenneth W; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Magaziner, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    analysis, 101 of 1054 patients in the zoledronic acid group (9.6%) and 141 of 1057 patients in the placebo group (13.3%) died, a reduction of 28% in deaths from any cause in the zoledronic-acid group (P = 0.01). The most frequent adverse events in patients receiving zoledronic acid were pyrexia, myalgia......, and bone and musculoskeletal pain. No cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported, and no adverse effects on the healing of fractures were noted. The rates of renal and cardiovascular adverse events, including atrial fibrillation and stroke, were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: An annual...

  13. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors

    2013-01-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, inst...

  14. Arachidonic acid reduces the stress response of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, WM; Nixon, O.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the influence of the dietary level of the fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) was determined on the acute stress response and osmoregulation of adult gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Seabream were fed a diet containing either 0.9% or 2.4% of total fatty acids as ArA for 18

  15. Uptake of actinides by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin from acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaya Mohandas; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijayakumar, N.; Kumar, T.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium and americium from nitric acid solutions by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin has been investigated. The capacity of the sulphonated resin exceeds the capacities of phosphinic acid resin and commercial cation exchange resin. Other advantages of the sulphonated resin for uranium and americium removal include reduced sensitivity to acidity and inert salt concentration. (author)

  16. Elevated blood pressure in cytochrome P4501A1 knockout mice is associated with reduced vasodilation to omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbor, Larry N.; Walsh, Mary T.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walker, Mary K., E-mail: mwalker@salud.unm.edu

    2012-11-01

    In vitro cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n − 3 PUFAs); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), primarily to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP), respectively. These metabolites have been shown to mediate vasodilation via increases in nitric oxide (NO) and activation of potassium channels. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of CYP1A1 would reduce vasodilatory responses to n − 3 PUFAs, but not the metabolites, and increase blood pressure (BP) due to decreases in NO. We assessed BP by radiotelemetry in CYP1A1 wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice ± NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. We also assessed vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh), EPA, DHA, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP in aorta and mesenteric arterioles. Further, we assessed vasodilation to an NO donor and to DHA ± inhibitors of potassium channels. CYP1A1 KO mice were hypertensive, compared to WT, (mean BP in mm Hg, WT 103 ± 1, KO 116 ± 1, n = 5/genotype, p < 0.05), and exhibited a reduced heart rate (beats per minute, WT 575 ± 5; KO 530 ± 7; p < 0.05). However, BP responses to NOS inhibition and vasorelaxation responses to ACh and an NO donor were normal in CYP1A1 KO mice, suggesting that NO bioavailability was not reduced. In contrast, CYP1A1 KO mice exhibited significantly attenuated vasorelaxation responses to EPA and DHA in both the aorta and mesenteric arterioles, but normal vasorelaxation responses to the CYP1A1 metabolites, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP, and normal responses to potassium channel inhibition. Taken together these data suggest that CYP1A1 metabolizes n − 3 PUFAs to vasodilators in vivo and the loss of these vasodilators may lead to increases in BP. -- Highlights: ► CYP1A1 KO mice are hypertensive. ► CYP1A1 KO mice exhibit reduced vasodilation responses to n-3 PUFAs. ► Constitutive CYP1A1 expression regulates blood pressure and vascular function.

  17. Elevated blood pressure in cytochrome P4501A1 knockout mice is associated with reduced vasodilation to omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbor, Larry N.; Walsh, Mary T.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walker, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n − 3 PUFAs); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), primarily to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP), respectively. These metabolites have been shown to mediate vasodilation via increases in nitric oxide (NO) and activation of potassium channels. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of CYP1A1 would reduce vasodilatory responses to n − 3 PUFAs, but not the metabolites, and increase blood pressure (BP) due to decreases in NO. We assessed BP by radiotelemetry in CYP1A1 wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice ± NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. We also assessed vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh), EPA, DHA, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP in aorta and mesenteric arterioles. Further, we assessed vasodilation to an NO donor and to DHA ± inhibitors of potassium channels. CYP1A1 KO mice were hypertensive, compared to WT, (mean BP in mm Hg, WT 103 ± 1, KO 116 ± 1, n = 5/genotype, p < 0.05), and exhibited a reduced heart rate (beats per minute, WT 575 ± 5; KO 530 ± 7; p < 0.05). However, BP responses to NOS inhibition and vasorelaxation responses to ACh and an NO donor were normal in CYP1A1 KO mice, suggesting that NO bioavailability was not reduced. In contrast, CYP1A1 KO mice exhibited significantly attenuated vasorelaxation responses to EPA and DHA in both the aorta and mesenteric arterioles, but normal vasorelaxation responses to the CYP1A1 metabolites, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP, and normal responses to potassium channel inhibition. Taken together these data suggest that CYP1A1 metabolizes n − 3 PUFAs to vasodilators in vivo and the loss of these vasodilators may lead to increases in BP. -- Highlights: ► CYP1A1 KO mice are hypertensive. ► CYP1A1 KO mice exhibit reduced vasodilation responses to n-3 PUFAs. ► Constitutive CYP1A1 expression regulates blood pressure and vascular function.

  18. The use of ultrasound and infrared radiation to reduce microbiological contamination of raw materials in the production of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharova, N.Yu.; Kamen'kova, N.V.

    2012-01-01

    The microflora of the main raw materials for producing citric acid (beet molasses and grain) is capable of greatly reducing the yield of target metabolite or changing the focus of biosynthesis. Rye, oats and barley grain with humidity of 16% and its grinds (a particle size 1 mm) was treated ultrasound having a capacity of 1.5 kW, frequency 15 and 22 kHz. Infrared radiation treatment was carried out at t 120 to 180 degrees C for 2-30 min and the exposure power W/sq. cm. In molasses there were found spore-forming heat-resistant bacteria with Bacillus subtilis and B. mesentericus being predominated, gaseous, nitrite-forming, acid-forming bacteria, yeast of gen. Candida, Leuconostoc mesenteroides that consume sugar, nitric and mineral substances reducing the biosynthetic activity of Aspergillus niger producer. For molasses treated with ultrasound 1.5 kW and frequency 22 kHz, the total viable count reduces by the order compared to the control. Increasing the exposure time up to 30 min results in slightly reducing the achieved level. Under influence of ultrasound the contamination with bacteria and mold fungi of rye, oats and barley grain grinds reduces by 2-3 orders compared to the control and much more at frequency 22 kHz. The great increase in the parameter of the total viable count is achieved by IR-treatment of grain and grinds. The microflora practically entirely dies by increasing the temperature up to 160-180 degrees C even in case of 2 minute exposure. IR treatment providing t 120 degrees C for 2-6 min resulted in reducing the number of cells of microorganisms by 3-4 orders compared to the untreated control

  19. Effect of azithromycin on acid reflux, hiatus hernia and proximal acid pocket in the postprandial period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, W O; Bennink, R J; de Ruigh, A A; Hirsch, D P; Zwinderman, A H; Boeckxstaens, G E

    2012-12-01

    The risk for acidic reflux is mainly determined by the position of the gastric acid pocket. It was hypothesised that compounds affecting proximal stomach tone might reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux by changing the acid pocket position. To study the effect of azithromycin (Azi) on acid pocket position and acid exposure in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Nineteen patients with GORD were included, of whom seven had a large hiatal hernia (≥3 cm) (L-HH) and 12 had a small or no hiatal hernia (S-HH). Patients were randomised to Azi 250 mg/day or placebo during 3 days in a crossover manner. On each study day, reflux episodes were detected using concurrent high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring after a standardised meal. The acid pocket was visualised using scintigraphy, and its position was determined relative to the diaphragm. Azi reduced the number of acid reflux events (placebo 8.0±2.2 vs Azi 5.6±1.8, pacid exposure (placebo 10.5±3.8% vs Azi 5.9±2.5%, preflux episodes. Acid reflux occurred mainly when the acid pocket was located above, or at the level of, the diaphragm, rather than below the diaphragm. Treatment with Azi reduced hiatal hernia size and resulted in a more distal position of the acid pocket compared with placebo (below the diaphragm 39% vs 29%, p=0.03). Azi reduced the rate of acid reflux episodes in patients with S-HH (38% to 17%) to a greater extent than in patients with L-HH (69% to 62%, p=0.04). Azi reduces acid reflux episodes and oesophageal acid exposure. This effect was associated with a smaller hiatal hernia size and a more distal position of the acid pocket, further indicating the importance of the acid pocket in the pathogenesis of GORD. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1970 NTR1970.

  20. Metabolic flux rearrangement in the amino acid metabolism reduces ammonia stress in the α1-antitrypsin producing human AGE1.HN cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesnitz, Christian; Niklas, Jens; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Heinzle, Elmar

    2012-03-01

    This study focused on metabolic changes in the neuronal human cell line AGE1.HN upon increased ammonia stress. Batch cultivations of α(1)-antitrypsin (A1AT) producing AGE1.HN cells were carried out in media with initial ammonia concentrations ranging from 0mM to 5mM. Growth, A1AT production, metabolite dynamics and finally metabolic fluxes calculated by metabolite balancing were compared. Growth and A1AT production decreased with increasing ammonia concentration. The maximum A1AT concentration decreased from 0.63g/l to 0.51g/l. Central energy metabolism remained relatively unaffected exhibiting only slightly increased glycolytic flux at high initial ammonia concentration in the medium. However, the amino acid metabolism was significantly changed. Fluxes through transaminases involved in amino acid degradation were reduced concurrently with a reduced uptake of amino acids. On the other hand fluxes through transaminases working in the direction of amino acid synthesis, i.e., alanine and phosphoserine, were increased leading to increased storage of excess nitrogen in extracellular alanine and serine. Glutamate dehydrogenase flux was reversed increasingly fixing free ammonia with increasing ammonia concentration. Urea production additionally observed was associated with arginine uptake by the cells and did not increase at high ammonia stress. It was therefore not used as nitrogen sink to remove excess ammonia. The results indicate that the AGE1.HN cell line can adapt to ammonia concentrations usually present during the cultivation process to a large extent by changing metabolism but with slightly reduced A1AT production and growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S

    2018-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effect of Reduced Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times 
on Enamel Surface Characteristics and Shear Fatigue Strength Using Universal Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Fischer, Nicholas; Barkmeier, Wayne; Baruth, Andrew; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times on enamel fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives and surface characteristics by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three universal adhesives were used in this study (Clearfil Universal Bond [C], G-Premio Bond [GP], Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SU]). Four pre-etching groups were employed: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid and immediately rinsed with an air-water spray, and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 5, 10, or 15 s. Ground enamel was used as the control group. For the initial bond strength test, 15 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were used. For the shear fatigue test, 20 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were loaded using a sine wave at a frequency of 20 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of composite adhesively bonded to ground and pre-etched enamel were determined. AFM observations of ground and pre-etched enamel were also conducted, and surface roughness as well as surface area were evaluated. The initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of the universal adhesives in the pre-etched groups were significantly higher than those of the control group, and were not influenced by the pre-etching time. Significantly higher surface roughness and surface area of enamel surfaces in pre-etched groups were observed compared with those in the control group. While the surface area was not significantly influenced by etching time, surface roughness of the enamel surfaces in the pre-etched groups significantly increased with pre-etching time. The results of this in vitro study suggest that reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times do not impair the fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives. Although fatigue bond strength and surface area were not influenced by phosphoric-acid etching times, surface roughness increased with increasing etching time.

  3. DOES INTRAVENOUS TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS DURING SURGICALLY ASSISTED RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine AKBAŞ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA in reducing blood loss during surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE procedure. Subjects and Methods: A total of 34 patients (12 male, 22 female who had been treated surgically under general anesthesia with SARPE including pterygoid disjunction for transverse maxillary deficiency (TMD were included in this study. The study group (n=17 received intravenous (IV TXA 10 mg/kg as a preoperative bolus; the control group (n=17 received normal saline solution. Preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit values, intraoperative blood loss, and any blood product transfusion were recorded. Results: Blood loss during SARPE was statistically significantly less in the study group than the control group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Preoperative IV administration of TXA can effectively control blood loss during when SARPE with pterygoid disjunction is performed.

  4. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  5. Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improves protein utilization efficiency while vitamin E supplementation reduces markers of the inflammatory response in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Cheol Kim; Bruce P.Mullan; John L.Black; Robert J.E.Hewitt; Robert J.van Barneveld; John R.Pluske

    2017-01-01

    Background:This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA),a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor,will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.Methods:The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6.6 ± 0.04 kg (mean ± SEM).The pigs were experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli and were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial design with the respective factors being without and with 125 ppm ASA and three levels ofVit E supplementation (50,100 or 200 IU/kg diet,dl-α-tocopheryl acetate).Results:Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improved average daily gain (P < 0.05) and tended to improve feed:gain ratio (P < 0.10) during the first 14 d after weaning.Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation also improved (P < 0.001) amino acid utilization efficiency (as assessed by plasma urea level) and tended to decrease (P < 0.10) PGE2 production in the liver without affecting small intestinal histology and tight junction protein mRNA expression in the jejunal epithelium.Vitamin E supplementation greater than 100 IU/kg diet sustained both the plasma Vit E concentration (P < 0.001) and plasma haptoglobin content (P < 0.001) after weaning.However,there was no additive effects of the combined supplementation of ASA and Vit E on performance,intestinal barrier function and inflammatory responses of weaned pigs.Conclusions:Although ASA and vitamin E improved amino acid utilization efficiency and reduced acute inflammatory responses,ASA and vitamin E did not additively reduce production of PGE2 and inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.

  6. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb, which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  7. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  8. Biologically-induced precipitation of sphalerite-wurtzite nanoparticles by sulfate-reducing bacteria: implications for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Julio; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José M; Martins, Mónica; Costa, M Clara; Olías, Manuel; Cerón, Juan C; Tucoulou, Rémi

    2012-04-15

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-μm-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-μ-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  10. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:24843386

  11. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonçalves Araujo; Zanatta, Ângela; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The

  12. Exogenous modification of platelet membranes with the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA reduces platelet procoagulant activity and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mark K; Tormoen, Garth W; Weaver, Lucinda J; Luepke, Kristen J; Patel, Ishan A; Hjelmen, Carl E; Ensz, Nicole M; McComas, Leah S; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have implicated the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in inhibition of normal platelet function, suggesting a role for platelets in EPA- and DHA-mediated cardioprotection. However, it is unclear whether the cardioprotective mechanisms arise from alterations to platelet-platelet, platelet-matrix, or platelet-coagulation factor interactions. Our previous results led us to hypothesize that EPA and DHA alter the ability of platelets to catalyze the generation of thrombin. We tested this hypothesis by exogenously modifying platelet membranes with EPA and DHA, which resulted in compositional changes analogous to increased dietary EPA and DHA intake. Platelets treated with EPA and DHA showed reductions in the rate of thrombin generation and exposure of platelet phosphatidylserine. In addition, treatment of platelets with EPA and DHA decreased thrombus formation and altered the processing of thrombin precursor proteins. Furthermore, treatment of whole blood with EPA and DHA resulted in increased occlusion time and a sharply reduced accumulation of fibrin under flow conditions. These results demonstrate that EPA and DHA inhibit, but do not eliminate, the ability of platelets to catalyze thrombin generation in vitro. The ability of EPA and DHA to reduce the procoagulant function of platelets provides a possible mechanism behind the cardioprotective phenotype in individuals consuming high levels of EPA and DHA.

  13. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Y.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, van den M.; Holst, J.J.; Moreto, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Kulik, W.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Piglets are highly susceptible to gut health-related problems. Intravenously administered chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) affects gut health mediated through glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). To test whether CDCA is a suitable feed additive for improving gut health, a trial was performed with newly

  14. Use of octaketide synthases to produce kermesic acid and flavokermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method for producing an octaketide derived aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid), wherein the method comprises (I): heterologous expression of a recombinantly introduced Type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene encoding an octaketide synthase (OKS) to obtain non-reduced octaketide...... in vivo within the recombinant host cell and (II): converting in vivo the non-reduced octaketide of step (I) into a C14-C34 aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid)....

  15. Use of octaketide synthases to produce kermesic acid and flavokermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A method for producing an octaketide derived aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid), wherein the method comprises (I): heterologous expression of a recombinantly introduced Type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene encoding an octaketide synthase (OKS) to obtain non-reduced octaketide...... in vivo within the recombinant host cell and (II): converting in vivo the non-reduced octaketide of step (I) into a C14-C34 aromatic compound of interest (e.g. carminic acid)....

  16. Preparation of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid composite coating with superhydrophobicity on copper substrate and evaluation of its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peipei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen, Xinhua [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-01-15

    A simple two-step solution immersion process was combined with surface-modification by stearic acid to prepare superhydrophobic coatings on copper substrates so as to reduce friction coefficient, increase wear resistance and improve the anticorrosion ability of copper. Briefly, cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) crystal coating with uniform and compact tetrahedron structure was firstly created by immersing copper substrate in 2 mol L{sup −1} NaOH solution. As-obtained Cu{sub 2}O coating was then immersed in 0.33 mmol L{sup −1} AgNO{sub 3} solution to incorporate silver nanoparticles, followed by modification with stearic acid (denoted as SA) coating to achieve hydrophobicity. The surface morphology and chemical composition of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid (denoted as Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA) composite coating were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS); and its phase structure was examined with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Moreover, the contact angle of water on as-prepared Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA composite coating was measured, and its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities were evaluated. It was found that as-prepared Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA composite coating has a water contact angle of as high as 152.4{sup o} and can provide effective friction-reducing, wear protection and anticorrosion protection for copper substrate, showing great potential for surface-modification of copper.

  17. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Guan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. Methods The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. Results The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940 and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 for 2 h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0 for 3 h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24 h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. Conclusion These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health.

  18. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Reduced abscisic acid content is responsible for enhanced sucrose accumulation by potassium nutrition in vegetable soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bingjie; Liu, Changkai; Tian, Bowen; Zhang, Qiuying; Liu, Xiaobing; Herbert, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the physiological mechanism of potassium (K) application in enhancing sugar content of vegetable soybean seeds, pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with two vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars (c.v. Zhongkemaodou 1 and c.v. 121) under normal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application. Three potassium (K) fertilization treatments were imposed: No K application (K0), 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seeding (K1), and 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seedling + 1% K 2 SO 4 foliar application at flowering (K2). Contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA), cytokinins (ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seeds were determined from 4 to 8 weeks after flowering. K fertilization increased the contents of IAA, GA, ZR, soluble sugar, sucrose and fresh pod yield, but reduced ABA content consistently. When the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose reached the highest level at 7 weeks after flowering for the 2 cultivars, the contents of IAA、GA、ZR all reached the lowest level in general. The content of ABA in seed was negatively correlated with the sucrose content (P abscisic acid content plays a critical role in enhancing sucrose content, which might be a partial mechanism involved in K nutrition to improve the quality of vegetable soybean.

  20. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  1. Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Joshua Hakimian

    Full Text Available Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and

  2. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

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    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  3. Use of Tranexamic Acid Is Associated with Reduced Blood Product Transfusion in Complex Skull Base Neurosurgical Procedures: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebel, Dmitry; Akagami, Ryojo; Flexman, Alana M

    2016-02-01

    Compared with other procedures, complex skull base neurosurgery has the potential for increased intraoperative blood loss yet coagulation near eloquent cranial structures should be minimized. The safety and efficacy of the antifibrinolytic, tranexamic acid in elective neurosurgical procedures is not known. Our primary objective was to determine the relationship between the use of tranexamic acid and transfusion at our institution. Our secondary objective was to determine the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of tranexamic acid. In this retrospective cohort study, we included all patients who underwent complex skull base neurosurgical procedures at our institution between 2001 and 2013. Tranexamic acid was introduced during these procedures in 2006. Patient and surgical variables, transfusion data, and adverse events in the perioperative period were abstracted from the medical record. The rates of transfusion and adverse events were compared between patients who did and did not receive tranexamic acid. Multivariate regression was used to identify independent predictors of perioperative transfusion. We compared 245 patients who received tranexamic acid with 274 patients who did not receive the drug during the study period. The 2 groups were similar, with the exception that patients who received tranexamic acid had larger tumors (mean, 3.5 vs 2.9 cm; P tranexamic acid was lower (7% vs 13%, P = 0.04). After adjusting for preoperative hemoglobin, tumor diameter, and surgical procedure category, the use of tranexamic acid was independently predictive of perioperative transfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.65, P = 0.002). The rates of thromboembolic events and seizure were similar between the 2 groups. Our results demonstrate that tranexamic acid use is associated with reduced transfusion rates in our study population, with no apparent increase in seizure or thrombotic complications. Our data support the need for further

  4. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

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    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  5. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  7. Rinsing with antacid suspension reduces hydrochloric acid-induced erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria do Socorro Coelho; Mantilla, Taís Fonseca; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinsing with antacids, following erosive episodes, have been suggested as a preventative strategy to minimize tooth surface loss due to their neutralizing effect. The purpose of this in situ study was to evaluate the effect of an antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate in controlling simulated erosion of enamel of intrinsic origin. The experimental units were 48 slabs (3×3×2mm) of bovine enamel, randomly divided among 12 volunteers who wore palatal appliances with two enamel slabs. One of them was exposed extra-orally twice a day to 25mL of a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (0.01M, pH 2) for 2min. There were two independent phases, lasting 5 days each. In the first phase, according to a random scheme, half of the participants rinsed with 10mL of antacid suspension (Gaviscon(®), Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Ltd.), while the remainder was rinsed with deionized water, for 1min. For the second phase, new slabs were inserted and participants switched to the treatment not received in the first stage. Therefore, the groups were as follows: (a) erosive challenge with HCl+antacid suspension; (b) erosive challenge with HCl+deionized water (DIW); (c) no erosive challenge+antacid suspension; (d) no erosive challenge+DIW. Specimens were assessed in terms of surface loss using optical profilometry and Knoop microhardness. The data were analyzed using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Compared to DIW rinses, surface loss of enamel was significantly lower when using an antacid rinse following erosive challenges (p=0.015). The Knoop microhardness of the enamel was significantly higher when the antacid rinse was used (p=0.026). The antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate, rinsed after erosive challenges of intrinsic origin, reduced enamel surface loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-03-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0.08, 0.12, and 0.17 M NaCl, whereas the two peaks of the variant, with 0.01 and 0.06 M NaCl. The pH optimum and thermal denaturation at 57 degrees C were the same in all enzyme peaks of both isozymes. Rabbit antiacid alpha-glucosidase antibodies produced against the common isozyme were found to cross-react with both peaks of the variant isozyme. The two isozymes shared antigenic identity and had similar Km's with maltose as substrate. Normal substrate saturation kinetics were observed with the common isozyme when glycogen was the substrate, but the variant produced an S-shaped saturation curve indicating a phase of negative and positive cooperativity at low and high glycogen concentrations, respectively. The activity of the variant was only 8.6% and 19.2% of the common isozyme when assayed with nonsaturating and saturating concentrations of glycogen, respectively. A similar rate of hydrolysis of isomaltose by both isozymes was found indicating that the reduced catalytic activity of the variant isozyme toward glycogen is not the result of a reduced ability of this enzyme to cleave the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen.

  9. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  10. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

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    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  11. Alginate antacid (Gaviscon DA) chewable tablets reduce esophageal acid exposure in Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and heartburn symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yao Zong; Fang, Jing Yuan; Zou, Duo Wu; Levinson, Nigel; Jenner, Bartosz; Wilkinson, Joanne

    2016-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of Gaviscon Double Action (DA) alginate antacid chewable tablets for reducing esophageal acid exposure in Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Altogether 44 patients reporting moderate to severe heartburn symptoms underwent two pH monitoring visits. The treatment sequence was randomized to patients received DA alginate antacid or placebo at one visit and the alternate treatment 7 days later. After a standardized reflux-provoking meal, patients took four tablets of DA alginate antacid or placebo. Esophageal pH was measured for 4 h post-dosing using an electrode positioned 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. The primary end-point was the percentage of 4-h post-dosing period with pH acid reflux episodes (pH reflux time and DeMeester scores. All 44 patients completed the study and provided data for analysis. With DA alginate antacid, the mean percentage time with pH acid exposure without serious clinically relevant health risks. These findings suggest DA alginate antacid tablets are appropriate for treating acid reflux in Chinese GERD patients with heartburn symptoms. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Brain and Hepatic Mt mRNA Is Reduced in Response to Mild Energy Restriction and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency in Juvenile Rats

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    Aaron A. Mehus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of undernutrition upon MT expression in growing animals. We tested the hypothesis that ER with and without dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency reduces MT expression in juvenile rats. ER rats were individually pair-fed at 75% of the ad libitum (AL intake of control rats provided diets consisting of either soybean oil (SO that is α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3 sufficient or corn oil (CO; ALA-deficient. Fatty acids (FA and metal concentrations of liver and brain regions were analyzed. Tissue expression of MTs (Mt1-3 and modulators of MT expression including glucocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2 and several mediators of thyroid hormone regulation (Dio1-3, Mct8, Oatp1c1, Thra, and Thrb were measured. Plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine levels were also evaluated. ER, but not metal deficiency, reduced Mt2 expression in the cerebellum (50% and cerebral cortex (23%. In liver, a reduction in dietary n-3 PUFA reduced Mt1, Mt2, Nr3c1, Mct8, and Thrb. ER elevated Nr3c1, Dio1, and Thrb and reduced Thra in the liver. Given MT’s role in cellular protection, further studies are needed to evaluate whether ER or n-3 PUFA deficiency may leave the juvenile brain and/or liver more susceptible to endogenous or environmental stressors.

  13. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Antagonizing Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids Reduces Inflammatory Th17 and Th1 Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Colitis Severity

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    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA- derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23, decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P≤0.05. Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  15. Effects of tempering (annealing), acid hydrolysis, low-citric acid substitution on chemical and physicochemical properties of starches of four yam (Dioscorea spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ayetigbo, Oluwatoyin E

    2017-05-01

    The effects of tempering (annealing), acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution on chemical and physicochemical properties of starches of four Nigerian yam cultivars were investigated. Crude fat and protein contents of the native starches decreased significantly after the modifications, while nitrogen-free extract increased significantly with acid hydrolysis and citric acid substitution. Acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution reduced the least concentration for gel formation of the starches from 4 to 2% w/v, but tempering had no effect. Swelling power of the starches reduced significantly, and water solubility increased significantly at 75 and 85 °C, especially with acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution. However, tempering significantly reduced starch solubility in the four cultivars. Paste clarity of starches of white (29.17%), water (18.90%), yellow (30.90%) and bitter (10.57%) yams reduced significantly with tempering to 14.43, 11.83, 16.93 and 7.27%, but increased significantly with acid hydrolysis to 41.40, 35.37, 28.77 and 32.33%, and low-citric acid substitution to 36.60, 44.17, 50.67 and 14.33%, respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities and peak time of native starches reduced significantly with acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution, however, tempering significantly increased their pasting temperature, peak time, setback and final viscosities.

  16. Administration of Protocatechuic Acid Reduces Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Neuronal Death

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    Sang Hwon Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid (PCA was first purified from green tea and has shown numerous biological activities, including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. The effect of PCA on traumatic brain injury (TBI-induced neuronal death has not previously been evaluated. TBI is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile. TBI causes neuronal death in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of PCA on TBI-induced neuronal death. Here, TBI was induced by a controlled cortical impact model using rats. PCA (30 mg/kg was injected into the intraperitoneal (ip space immediately after TBI. Neuronal death was evaluated with Fluoro Jade-B (FJB staining at 24 h after TBI. Oxidative injury was detected by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE, glutathione (GSH concentration was analyzed by glutathione adduct with N-ethylmaleimide (GS-NEM staining at 24 h after TBI, and microglial activation in the hippocampus was detected by CD11b immunohistochemistry at one week after TBI. We found that the proportion of degenerating neurons, oxidative injury, GSH depletion, and microglia activation in the hippocampus and cortex were all reduced by PCA treatment following TBI. Therefore, our study suggests that PCA may have therapeutic potential in preventing TBI-induced neuronal death.

  17. Differential gene expression in tomato fruit and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during colonization of the RNAi-SlPH tomato line with reduced fruit acidity and higher pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Sela, Noa; Dubey, Amit K; Kumar, Dilip; Luria, Neta; Ment, Dana; Cohen, Shahar; Schaffer, Arthur A; Prusky, Dov

    2017-08-04

    The destructive phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose disease in fruit. During host colonization, it secretes ammonia, which modulates environmental pH and regulates gene expression, contributing to pathogenicity. However, the effect of host pH environment on pathogen colonization has never been evaluated. Development of an isogenic tomato line with reduced expression of the gene for acidity, SlPH (Solyc10g074790.1.1), enabled this analysis. Total RNA from C. gloeosporioides colonizing wild-type (WT) and RNAi-SlPH tomato lines was sequenced and gene-expression patterns were compared. C. gloeosporioides inoculation of the RNAi-SlPH line with pH 5.96 compared to the WT line with pH 4.2 showed 30% higher colonization and reduced ammonia accumulation. Large-scale comparative transcriptome analysis of the colonized RNAi-SlPH and WT lines revealed their different mechanisms of colonization-pattern activation: whereas the WT tomato upregulated 13-LOX (lipoxygenase), jasmonic acid and glutamate biosynthesis pathways, it downregulated processes related to chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amide biosynthesis; the RNAi-SlPH line upregulated UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I and free phenylpropanoid acid biosynthesis, but mainly downregulated pathways related to sugar metabolism, such as the glyoxylate cycle and L-arabinose degradation II. Comparison of C. gloeosporioides gene expression during colonization of the WT and RNAi-SlPH lines showed that the fungus upregulates ammonia and nitrogen transport and the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process during colonization of the WT, while on the RNAi-SlPH tomato, it mainly upregulates the nitrate metabolic process. Modulation of tomato acidity and pH had significant phenotypic effects on C. gloeosporioides development. The fungus showed increased colonization on the neutral RNAi-SlPH fruit, and limited colonization on the WT acidic fruit

  18. Microbiota-Derived Metabolic Factors Reduce Campylobacteriosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolun; Winglee, Kathryn; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Gauthier, Josee; He, Zhen; Tripathi, Prabhanshu; Avram, Dorina; Bruner, Steven; Fodor, Anthony; Jobin, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a prevalent foodborne bacterial pathogen, exploits the host innate response to induce colitis. Little is known about the roles of microbiota in C jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation. We investigated interactions between microbiota and intestinal cells during C jejuni infection of mice. Germ-free C57BL/6 Il10 -/- mice were colonized with conventional microbiota and infected with a single dose of C jejuni (10 9 colony-forming units/mouse) via gavage. Conventional microbiota were cultured under aerobic, microaerobic, or anaerobic conditions and orally transplanted into germ-free Il10 -/- mice. Colon tissues were collected from mice and analyzed by histology, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. Fecal microbiota and bile acids were analyzed with 16S sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, respectively. Introduction of conventional microbiota reduced C jejuni-induced colitis in previously germ-free Il10 -/- mice, independent of fecal load of C jejuni, accompanied by reduced activation of mammalian target of rapamycin. Microbiota transplantation and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing experiments showed that Clostridium XI, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus were enriched in fecal samples from mice colonized with microbiota cultured in anaerobic conditions (which reduce colitis) compared with mice fed microbiota cultured under aerobic conditions (susceptible to colitis). Oral administration to mice of microbiota-derived secondary bile acid sodium deoxycholate, but not ursodeoxycholic acid or lithocholic acid, reduced C jejuni-induced colitis. Depletion of secondary bile acid-producing bacteria with antibiotics that kill anaerobic bacteria (clindamycin) promoted C jejuni-induced colitis in specific pathogen-free Il10 -/- mice compared with the nonspecific antibiotic nalidixic acid; colitis induction by antibiotics was associated with reduced level of luminal deoxycholate. We identified a

  19. Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets and Reduced Graphene Oxide on Poly(lactic acid and Plasticized Poly(lactic acid: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The superlative mechanical properties of graphene-based materials make them the ideal filler materials for polymer composites reinforcement. Two types of graphene-based materials, graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP and reduced graphene oxide (rGO, were used as nanofiller in poly(lactic acid (PLA polymer matrix, as well as plasticized PLA. The addition of rGO into PLA or plasticized PLA substantially enhanced the tensile strength without deteriorating elasticity, compared to xGnP nanocomposites. In addition, the investigation of the thermal properties has found that the presence of rGO in the system is very beneficial for improving thermal stability of the PLA or plasticized PLA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the rGO nanocomposites display homogenous and good uniformity morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images revealed that the rGO remained intact as graphene sheet layers and were dispersed well into the polymer matrix, and it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD results, which shows no graphitic peak in the XRD pattern.

  20. Intake of fish oil, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E for 1 year decreases plasma C-reactive protein and reduces coronary heart disease risk factors in male patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Fonollá, Juristo; Marti, José Luis; Jiménez, Jesús; Boza, Julio J; López-Huertas, Eduardo

    2007-02-01

    Certain nutrients have been shown to be effective in preventing coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that a daily intake of low amounts of a number of these nutrients would exert beneficial effects on risk factors and clinical variables in patients that suffered from myocardial infarction (MI) and were following a cardiac rehabilitation program. Forty male MI patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The supplemented group consumed 500 mL/d of a fortified dairy product containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins A, B-6, D, and E. The control group consumed 500 mL/d of semi-skimmed milk with added vitamins A and D. The patients received supervised exercise training, lifestyle and dietary recommendations, and they were instructed to consume the products in addition to their regular diet. Blood extractions and clinical examinations were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin E increased after supplementation (Preactive protein concentrations decreased in the supplemented group (Pprogram comprising regular exercise and the intake of a combination of dietary nutrients, reduced a variety of risk factors in MI patients, which supports the rationale for nutritional programs in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

  1. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  2. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, A J M; Plugge, C M; de Bok, F A M; van Houten, B H G W; Lens, P; Dijkman, H; Weijma, J

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens is essential for acetogenic bacteria to convert organic acids to acetate and hydrogen. Several syntrophic cocultures growing on propionate and butyrate have been described. These syntrophic fatty acid-degrading consortia are affected by the presence of sulfate. When sulfate is present sulfate-reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic archaea for hydrogen and acetate, and with acetogenic bacteria for propionate and butyrate. Sulfate-reducing bacteria easily outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, but the presence of acetate as carbon source may influence the outcome of the competition. By contrast, acetoclastic methanogens can compete reasonably well with acetate-degrading sulfate reducers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow much faster on propionate and butyrate than syntrophic consortia.

  3. In Vitro Dissolution of Fluconazole and Dipyridamole in Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS), Predicting in Vivo Dissolution and Drug-Drug Interaction Caused by Acid-Reducing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kazuki; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-07-06

    Weakly basic drugs typically exhibit pH-dependent solubility in the physiological pH range, displaying supersaturation or precipitation along the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, their oral bioavailabilities may be affected by coadministration of acid-reducing agents that elevate gastric pH. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a multicompartmental in vitro dissolution apparatus, Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS), in predicting in vivo dissolution of certain oral medications. In vitro dissolution studies of fluconazole, a BCS class I, and dipyridamole, a BCS class II weak bases (class IIb), were performed in the GIS as well as United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus II and compared with the results of clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. In both USP apparatus II and GIS, fluconazole completely dissolved within 60 min regardless of pH, reflecting no DDI between fluconazole and acid-reducing agents in a clinical study. On the other hand, seven-fold and 15-fold higher concentrations of dipyridamole than saturation solubility were observed in the intestinal compartments in GIS with gastric pH 2.0. Precipitation of dipyridamole was also observed in the GIS, and the percentage of dipyridamole in solution was 45.2 ± 7.0%. In GIS with gastric pH 6.0, mimicking the coadministration of acid-reducing agents, the concentration of dipyridamole was equal to its saturation solubility, and the percentage of drug in solution was 9.3 ± 2.7%. These results are consistent with the clinical DDI study of dipyridamole with famotidine, which significantly reduced the Cmax and area under the curve. An In situ mouse infusion study combined with GIS revealed that high concentration of dipyridamole in the GIS enhanced oral drug absorption, which confirmed the supersaturation of dipyridamole. In conclusion, GIS was shown to be a useful apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs.

  4. Effects of reduced dietary energy and amino acid density on Pectoralis major myopathies in broiler chickens at 36 and 49 days of age1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, K J; Fancher, B I; Emmerson, D A; Bilgili, S F; Dozier, W A

    2018-05-01

    Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to determine if reductions in the incidence and severity of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) may be obtained by reducing dietary nutrient density. In each Exp, Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 63 pens (22 birds/pen). All birds received an identical prestarter diet until 7 d of age, after which time each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for the starter (8 to 14 d), grower (15 to 24 d), finisher 1 (Exp 1: 26 to 35 d; Exp 2: 26 to 42 d), and withdrawal (Exp 2: 43 to 48 d) phases: 1) 100% of primary breeder recommendations for digestible amino acid and metabolizable energy density throughout Exp; 2) 95% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 3) 95% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 4) 95% of TRT 1 throughout Exp; 5) 90% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 6) 90% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 7) 90% of TRT 1 throughout Exp. At 36 d (Exp 1) and 49 d (Exp 2), 18 birds per pen were processed and evaluated for WS and WB. In Exp 1, reduced dietary density in the starter phase (TRT 2 and TRT 5) resulted in increased (P ≤ 0.05) incidences of severe WB (32.9% and 34.7%) relative to TRT 1 (18.2%). In Exp 2, broilers assigned to TRT 7 had reduced (P 36.5%; WS: 64.5%). In both Exp, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing scores for WB and WS. Reducing dietary nutrient density from 8 to 14 d may exacerbate fillet myopathies in broilers reared to 35 d of age. Although reducing dietary energy and amino acid density to 90% of recommendations from 1 to 48 d reduced the severity of myopathies, these reductions occurred with compromises in live performance. Altogether, these results indicated that concurrent manipulation of dietary amino acid and energy density is not a viable practical solution for breast myopathies.

  5. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Cathy; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2014-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. This review includes updated searches and new trials.Objectives To assess the effects of tranexamic acid versus......-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses and presented results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used I² as a measure of between-trial heterogeneity. We analysed tranexamic acid versus placebo or no intervention and tranexamic acid versus antiulcer drugs separately. To analyse...... sources of heterogeneity and robustness of the overall results, we performed subgroup, sensitivity and sequential analyses.Main results We included eight randomised controlled trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we identified one large ongoing pragmatic randomised...

  6. Thermal properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Lojka, Michal; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    We compared thermal behavior and other properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene. Graphite was oxidized according to the Hofmann method using potassium chlorate as oxidizing agent in strongly acidic environment. In the next step, the formed graphite oxide was chemically or thermally reduced yielding graphene. The mechanism of thermal reduction was studied using STA-MS. Graphite oxide and both thermally and chemically reduced graphenes were analysed by SEM, EDS, elemental combustion analysis, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. These findings will help for the large scale production of graphene with appropriate chemical composition.

  7. Nitro-fatty acids reduce atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolph, T.K.; Rudolph, V.; Edreira, M.M.; Cole, M.P.; Bonacci, G.; Schopfer, F.J.; Woodcock, S.R.; Franek, A.; Pekarová, Michaela; Khoo, N.K.H.; Hasty, A.H.; Baldus, S.; Freeman, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2010), s. 938-945 ISSN 1079-5642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nitro-fatty acids * atherosclerosis * foam cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 7.215, year: 2010

  8. Structured triglycerides containing caprylic (8:0) and oleic (18:1) fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Kritchevsky, David; Kotyla, Timothy; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of structured triglycerides containing one long chain fatty acid (oleic acid, C18:1) and one short chain saturated fatty acid (caprylic acid, 8:0) on lipidemia, liver and aortic cholesterol, and fecal neutral sterol excretion were investigated in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic regimen consisting of 89.9% commercial ration to which was added 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol (w/w). After 2 weeks on the HCD diet, the hamsters were bled, following an overnight fast (16 h) and placed into one of three dietary treatments of eight animals each based on similar plasma cholesterol levels. The hamsters either continued on the HCD diet or were placed on diets in which the coconut oil was replaced by one of two structured triglycerides, namely, 1(3),2-dicaproyl-3(1)-oleoylglycerol (OCC) or 1,3-dicaproyl-2-oleoylglycerol (COC) at 10% by weight. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hamsters fed the OCC and COC compared to the HCD were reduced 40% and 49%, respectively (Pstructured triglyceride oils had lower blood cholesterol levels and lower aortic accumulation of cholesterol compared to the control fed hamsters.

  9. Regulation of the Docosapentaenoic Acid/Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio (DPA/DHA Ratio) in Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Huidong; Chen, Wuxi; Zhao, Minli; Cui, Haiyang; Min, Qingsong; Wang, Haijun; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao

    2017-05-01

    Docosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio (DPA/DHA ratio) in Schizochytrium was relatively stable. But ideally the ratio of DPA/DHA will vary according to the desired end use. This study reports several ways of modulating the DPA/DHA ratio. Incubation times changed the DPA/DHA ratio, and changes in this ratio were associated with the variations in the saturated fatty acid (SFAs) content. Propionic acid sharply increased the SFAs content in lipids, dramatically decreased the even-chain SFAs content, and reduced the DPA/DHA ratio. Pentanoic acid (C5:0) and heptanoic acid (C7:0) had similar effects as propionic acid, whereas butyric acid (C4:0), hexanoic acid (C6:0), and octanoic acid (C8:0) did not change the fatty acid profile and the DPA/DHA ratio. Transcription analyses show that β-oxidation might be responsible for this phenomenon. Iodoacetamide upregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase genes, reduced the DHA content, and improved the DPA content, causing the DPA/DHA ratio to increase. These results present new insights into the regulation of the DPA/DHA ratio.

  10. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  11. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...... = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  13. Pre-harvest application of salicylic acid maintain the rind textural properties and reduce fruit rot and chilling injury of sweet orange during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.D.; Iqbal, Z.; Singh, Z.; Iqbal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Trees of citrus cvs Lane Late and Valencia Late oranges were sprayed ten days before anticipated harvest with salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 mM). Fruits were harvested and stored at 5 degree C for 93 days to investigate the effects of SA on fruit rot, chilling injury and quality relating parameters such as rind and fruit firmness as well as sugar and organic acid contents. Fruits were analyzed before storage and after 31, 62 and 93 days of storage and found that SA at 8 mM and 9 mM reduced fruit rot from 16.93% to 6.06% and 12.78% to 5.12% in Lane Late and Valencia Late, respectively. Chilling injury was significantly reduced at 8 mM and 9 mM treatments. Textural properties relating to rind puncture, rind tensile and fruit firmness forces showed that treated fruits were significantly firmer than those of control. Maintained contents of SSC, TA, individual sugars and organic acids in treated fruit with higher doses after 93 confirmed preliminary findings such as SA has anti-senescent effect. Our research suggests that pre-harvest spray of SA can be used effectively to minimize the post-harvest/storage losses of sweet oranges cultivars. (author)

  14. Mechanisms of acid, weakly acidic and gas reflux after anti-reflux surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Draaisma, W. A.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas it is well documented that fundoplication reduces acid reflux, the effects of the procedure on non-acid and gas reflux and the mechanisms through which this is achieved have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: In 14 patients, reflux was measured with impedance-pH monitoring

  15. The reversed feto-maternal bile acid gradient in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is corrected by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Geenes

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes. It is characterised by raised maternal serum bile acids, which are believed to cause the adverse outcomes. ICP is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA. This study aimed to determine the fetal and maternal bile acid profiles in normal and ICP pregnancies, and to examine the effect of UDCA treatment. Matched maternal and umbilical cord serum samples were collected from untreated ICP (n = 18, UDCA-treated ICP (n = 46 and uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 15 cases at the time of delivery. Nineteen individual bile acids were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Maternal and fetal serum bile acids are significantly raised in ICP compared with normal pregnancy (p = <0.0001 and <0.05, respectively, predominantly due to increased levels of conjugated cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid. There are no differences between the umbilical cord artery and cord vein levels of the major bile acid species. The feto-maternal gradient of bile acids is reversed in ICP. Treatment with UDCA significantly reduces serum bile acids in the maternal compartment (p = <0.0001, thereby reducing the feto-maternal transplacental gradient. UDCA-treatment does not cause a clinically important increase in lithocholic acid (LCA concentrations. ICP is associated with significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the maternal and fetal bile acid pools. Treatment with UDCA reduces the level of bile acids in both compartments and reverses the qualitative changes. We have not found evidence to support the suggestion that UDCA treatment increases fetal LCA concentrations to deleterious levels.

  16. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  17. Modulation of hepatic biotransformation and biliary excretion of bile acid by age and sinusoidal bile acid load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, U.; Miyai, K.; Hardison, W.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Pericentral hepatocytes excrete bile acids more slowly and biotransform them more than periportal cells. This may reflect adaptation to low pericentral bile acid concentration or may be intrinsic. The authors studied two models in which pericentral bile acid concentrations are high: the 72-h choledocho-caval shunt (CCS) rat and the 3- to 4-wk-old rat. Livers were perfused forward or backward to assess periportal or pericentral hepatocyte function. Taurodeoxycholate (TDC) was infused at 32 nmol x min -1 x g liver -1 , and a bolus of [ 3 H]TDC was given to assess metabolism and excretion of bile acids. In CCS livers perfused backward, pericentral cells resembled periportal cells of controls in that time to excrete 50% of administered [ 3 H]-TDC (t 50 ) was reduced by two-thirds and [ 3 H]TDC biotransformation was reduced by about half. In young livers t 50 was half that of adult livers when perfused backward. Biotransformation, however, was not reduced. Young livers biotransformed more than adult controls for any given residence time of bile acid in the liver. They conclude that the difference between pericentral and perioportal cells as regards bile acid processing is adaptive. Livers from young rats biotransform more bile acid than those from controls under similar conditions

  18. The Cardioprotective Effects of Citric Acid and L-Malic Acid on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xilan; Liu, Jianxun; Dong, Wei; Li, Peng; Li, Lei; Lin, Chengren; Zheng, Yongqiu; Hou, Jincai; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids in Chinese herbs, the long-neglected components, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet aggregation activities; thus they may have potentially protective effect on ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. In in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found that treatments with citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum levels of TNF-α, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that both citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced LDH release, decreased apoptotic rate, downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. These results suggest that both citric acid and L-malic acid have protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; the underlying mechanism may be related to their anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and direct cardiomyocyte protective effects. These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease. PMID:23737849

  19. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Soltani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3, a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01. Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01. A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning.

  20. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  1. Effect of azithromycin on acid reflux, hiatus hernia and proximal acid pocket in the postprandial period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O.; Bennink, R. J.; de Ruigh, A. A.; Hirsch, D. P.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The risk for acidic reflux is mainly determined by the position of the gastric acid pocket. It was hypothesised that compounds affecting proximal stomach tone might reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux by changing the acid pocket position. Objective To study the effect of azithromycin (Azi)

  2. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  3. Antioxidative phytochemicals from Rhododendron oldhamii Maxim. leaf extracts reduce serum uric acid levels in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Lei-Chen; Liu, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shang-Tse; Lin, Chi-Yang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2015-12-01

    Some of the genus Rhododendron was used in traditional medicine for arthritis, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pain, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension and metabolic diseases and many species of the genus Rhododendron contain a large number of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties that could be developed into pharmaceutical products. In this study, the antioxidative phytochemicals of Rhododendron oldhamii Maxim. leaves were detected by an online HPLC-DPPH method. In addition, the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the active phytochemicals from R. oldhamii leaf extracts was investigated using potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia. Six phytochemicals, including (2R, 3R)-epicatechin (1), (2R, 3R)-taxifolin (2), (2R, 3R)-astilbin (3), hyposide (4), guaijaverin (5), and quercitrin (6), were isolated using the developed screening method. Of these, compounds 3, 4, 5, and 6 were found to be major bioactive phytochemicals, and their contents were determined to be 130.8 ± 10.9, 105.5 ± 8.5, 104.1 ± 4.7, and 108.6 ± 4.0 mg per gram of EtOAc fraction, respectively. In addition, the four major bioactive phytochemicals at the same dosage (100 mmol/kg) were administered to the abdominal cavity of potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice, and the serum uric acid level was measured after 3 h of administration. H&E staining showed that PO-induced kidney injury caused renal tubular epithelium nuclear condensation in the cortex areas or the appearance of numerous hyaline casts in the medulla areas; treatment with 100 mmol/kg of EtOAc fraction, (2R, 3R)-astilbin, hyposide, guaijaverin, and quercitrin significantly reduced kidney injury. In addition, the serum uric acid level was significantly suppressed by 54.1, 35.1, 56.3, 56.3, and 53.2 %, respectively, by the administrations of 100 mmol/kg EtOAc fraction and the derived major phytochemicals, (2R, 3R)-astilbin, hyposide, guaijaverin, and quercitrin, compared to the PO group. The administration

  4. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces contractile function and fails to boost glucose utilization in normal hearts in the presence of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T Dung; Shingu, Yasushige; Amorim, Paulo A; Schwarzer, Michael; Doenst, Torsten

    2013-10-09

    GLP-1 and exendin-4, which are used as insulin sensitizers or weight reducing drugs, were shown to improve glucose uptake in the heart. However, the direct effects of GLP-1 or exendin-4 on normal hearts in the presence of fatty acids, the main cardiac substrates, have never been investigated. We therefore assessed the effects of GLP-1 or exendin-4 on myocardial glucose uptake (GU), glucose oxidation (GO) and cardiac performance (CP) under conditions of fatty acid utilization. Rat hearts were perfused with only glucose (5 mM) or glucose (5 mM) plus oleate (0.4 mM) as substrates for 60 min. After 30 min, GLP-1 or exendin-4 (0.5 nM or 5 nM) was added. In the absence of oleate, GLP-1 increased both GU and GO. Exendin-4 increased GO but showed no effect on GU. Neither GLP-1 nor exendin-4 affected CP. However, when oleate was present, GLP-1 failed to stimulate glucose utilization and exendin-4 even decreased GU. Furthermore, now GLP-1 reduced CP. In contrast to prior reports, this negative inotropic effect could not be blocked by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89. We then measured myocardial GO and CP in rats receiving a 4-week GLP-1 infusion. Interestingly, this chronic treatment resulted in a significant reduction in both GO and CP. Under the influence of oleate, GLP-1 reduces contractile function and fails to stimulate glucose utilization in normal hearts. Exendin-4 may acutely reduce cardiac glucose uptake but not contractility. We suggest advanced investigation of heart function and metabolism in patients treating with these peptides. © 2013.

  6. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, P.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum in which waste product gypsum is reacted with a dilute sulfuric acid containing barium sulfate to form an acid slurry at an elevated temperature, the slurry is preferably cooled, the acid component is separated from the solid, and the resulting solid is separated into a fine fraction and a coarse fraction. The fine fraction predominates in barium sulfate and radioactive contamination. The coarse fraction predominates in a purified gypsum product of reduced radioactive contamination

  7. Laccase-catalyzed modification of PES membranes with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nady, N.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Mohy Eldin, M.S.; Zuilhof, H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    We here report on the performance of poly(ethersulfone) membranes modified with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid as substrates, and using laccase as biocatalyst under several modification conditions. The average flux of the base membrane was never reduced more than 20% (mostly below 10%

  8. Formation of the reduced form of furaneol® (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one) during the Maillard reaction through catalysis of amino acid metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Wang, Xi; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-11-01

    Under pyrolytic conditions the acidity/basicity of Maillard reaction mixtures can be controlled through the use of hydrochloride or sodium salts of amino acids to generate a diversity of products. When the degradation of glucose was studied under pyrolytic conditions using excess sodium glycinate the reaction was found to generate a major unknown peak having a molecular ion at m/z 130. Subsequent in-depth isotope labelling studies indicated that acetol was an important precursor of this compound under pyrolytic and aqueous heating conditions. The dimerisation and cyclisation of acetol into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one was found to be catalysed by amino acid metal salts. Also, ESI/qTOF/MS studies indicated that the unknown peak has expected molecular formula of C6H10O3. Finally, a peak having the same retention time and mass spectrum was also generated pyrolytically when furaneol® was reduced with NaBH4 confirming the initial hypothesis regarding the unknown peak to be the reduced form of furaneol®. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid and the bile acid sequestrant colesevelam on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Scheltema, Matthijs J; Sonne, David P

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, rectal administration of bile acids increases glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and reduces plasma glucose. In addition, oral bile acid sequestrants (BASs) reduce blood glucose by an unknown mechanism. In this study we evaluated the effects...... of the primary human bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the BAS, colesevelam, instilled into the stomach, on plasma levels of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and gastrin as well as gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, appetite......, and delayed gastric emptying. We speculate that bile acid-induced activation of TGR5 on L cells increases GLP-1 secretion, which in turn may result in amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore our data suggest that colesevelam does not have an acute effect on GLP-1 secretion in humans....

  10. Effects of alpha lipoic acid, ascorbic acid-6-palmitate, and fish oil on the glutathione, malonaldehyde, and fatty acids levels in erythrocytes of streptozotocin induced diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Okkeş; Ozkan, Yusuf; Yildirim, Mehmet; Oztürk, A Ihsan; Erşan, Yasemin

    2002-01-01

    In this research, it has been aimed to evaluate the improvement effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA), ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (AA6P), fish oil (FO), and their combination (COM) on some biochemical properties in erythrocytes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. According to experimental results, glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocytes decreased in diabetes (P cholesterol level was high in diabetes and D + ALA groups (P acid raised in diabetes group (P acid in D + FO, D + ALA, and diabetes groups was lower than control (P acid reduced in D + COM and D + FO groups, but its level raised in D + AA6P and D + ALA groups (P acid (LA) elevated in ALA + D, D + AA6P, and diabetes groups, linolenic acid level in diabetes, D + AA6P, and D + FO groups was lower than control (P acid (AA) decreased in D + ALA, D+ AA6P, and diabetes groups (P acid (DHA) increased in D + AA6P and D + COM (P acid level raised in diabetes group, its level reduced in D + ALA and D + FO groups (P acid level in D + ALA and D + FO groups was higher than control (P acid degree was raised by the effects of ALA and FO. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Placement of acid spoil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, H B; Rogowski, A S

    1982-06-01

    Potentially there are several chemical and hydrologic problems associated with placement of acid spoil materials. The rationale for a deep placement well below the soil surface, and preferably below a water table, is to prevent or minimize oxidation of pyrite to sulfuric acid and associated salts by reducing the supply of oxygen. If, however, substantial sulfuric acid or associated salts are already contained within the spoil because of present or previous mining, handling and reclamation operations (or if large supplies of indigenous salts exist, placement below a water table) may actually increase the rate of acid and salt leaching. Specific placement of acid- and salt-containing spoil should be aimed at preventing contact with percolating water or rising water tables. We recommend placement based on chemical and physical spoil properties that may affect water percolation O/sub 2/ diffusion rates in the profile. Both the deeper placement of acid spoil and coarser particle size can substantially reduce the amount of acid drainage. Placement above the water table with emphasis on percolate control may be better for high sulfate spoils, while placement below the non-fluctuating water table may be better for pyritic spoils.

  12. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  13. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki

    2018-04-01

    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  14. Differential pulse voltammetric simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid on a glassy carbon electrode modified with electro reduced graphene oxide and imidazolium groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Huang, Ting; Xie, Qingji; Hu, Yangjian; Yang, Xin; Ouyang, Yuejun

    2016-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was anodically oxidized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M sulfuric acid to introduce hydroxy groups on its surface (GCE ox ). Next, an imidazolium alkoxy silane (ImAS) is covalently tethered to the surface of the GCE ox via silane chemistry. This electrode is further modified with graphene oxide (GO) which, dispersed in water, spontaneously assembles on the electrode surface through electrostatic interaction and π-interaction to give an electrode of type GO/ImAS/GCE. Electroreduction of GO and GCE ox by CV yields electro reduced GO (erGO) and an electrode of the type erGO/ImAS/GCE. This electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Three fully resolved anodic peaks (at −50 mV, 150 mV and 280 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) are observed during differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimized conditions, the linear detection ranges are from 30 to 2000 μM for AA, from 20 to 490 μM for UA, and from 0.1 to 5 μM and from 5 μM to 200 μM (two linear ranges) for DA. The respective limits of detection (for an S/N of 3) are 10 μM, 5 μM and 0.03 μM. The GCE modified with erGO and ImAS performs better than a bare GCE or a GCE modified with ImAS only, and also outperforms many other reported electrodes for the three analytes. The method was successfully applied to simultaneous analysis of AA, DA and UA in spiked human urine. (author)

  15. Decontamination of acid mine water from Ronneburg/Thueringen which is high in sulfates and metals using sulfate-reducing bacteria. Final report of the preliminary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard, B.; Friedrich, S.

    1995-01-01

    The mining in Eastern Europe, particularly in East-Germany, is a major source of pollution to the surrounding areas of the mines. With the end of the cold war the demand for uranium has drastically declined. Many of the pits have therefore been closed down or are in the process of closure such as the uranium mine in Ronneburg in Thueringen. One major problem is the safe-making of the pits and dumps as they are highly radioactive through naturally occurring uranium and other radioactive elements. Because of the leaching process through bacteria, drainage water is very acidic, with pH-values between 1-2. The water is very rich in magnesium, iron and aluminium sulfate. Here the application of a microbial process to decontaminate acid mine drainage was investigated. Decontamination of the water includes: - Increase in pH - decrease in sulfate concentrations - minimization of the metal and radionuclide load. Sulfate-reducing bacteria seem suitable for this process. In order for such a microbial process to be economically viable a cheap and widely available electron donar has to be used eg. methanol. The work carried out reports on the isolation, characterization and physiology of sulfate-reducing methylotrophic bacteria and their suitability for a decontamination process of sulfuric acid uranium mine water. (orig.) [de

  16. Assessment of myocardial metabolism with iodine-123 heptadecanoic acid: effect of decreased fatty acid oxidation on deiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethy, P.C.; Chatelain, P.; Papageorgiou, I.; Schubiger, A.; Lerch, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogs are of potential use for the noninvasive delineation of regional alterations of fatty acid metabolism by gamma imaging. Since radioactivity from extracted iodine-123 heptadecanoic acid [( 123I]HDA) is released from the myocardium in form of free radioiodide (123I-) the present study was performed to determine whether deiodination of [123I]HDA is related to free fatty acid metabolism. Myocardial production of free radioiodide was measured in rat hearts in vitro and in vivo both under control conditions and after inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. In isolated rat hearts perfused at constant flow with a medium containing [123I]HDA, release of 123I- was markedly reduced during cardioplegia and pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid transfer with POCA by 67% (p less than 0.005) and 72% (p less than 0.005), respectively. In fasted rats in vivo, 1 min after i.v. injection of [123I]HDA, 51 +/- 5% of myocardial radioactivity was recovered in the aqueous phase, containing free iodide, of myocardial lipid extracts. Aqueous activity was significantly decreased in fed (20 +/- 2%; p less than 0.002) and POCA pretreated (30 +/- 3.7%; p less than 0.05) animals exhibiting reduced oxidation of [14C]palmitate. Thus, deiodination of [123I]HDA was consistently reduced during inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. The results apply to the interpretation of myocardial clearance curves of terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogs

  17. Ascorbic acid and melatonin reduce heat-induced performance inhibition and oxidative stress in Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Gursu, M F; Smith, M O

    2004-02-01

    1. The effects of ascorbic acid (L-ascorbic acid) and melatonin supplementation on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation indicator, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol and mineral status in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature were evaluated. 2. Two hundred and forty Japanese quails (10 d old) were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups consisting of 10 replicates of three birds each. The birds were kept in a temperature-controlled room at 22 degrees C (Thermoneutral, TN groups) or 34 degrees C (for 8 h/d; 09:00 to 17:00 h; Heat stress, HS groups). Birds in both TN and HS were fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet (Ascorbic acid group), 40 mg of melatonin/kg of diet (Melatonin group) or both (Ascorbic acid + Melatonin group). 3. Supplementing heat-stressed quails with ascorbic acid and melatonin improved performance compared with the control group. Effects generally were greatest in quails supplemented with both ascorbic acid and melatonin. 4. Although supplementation did not consistently restore the concentrations of serum ascorbic acid, retinol and tocopherol to those of TN groups, these concentrations increased significantly with supplementation. Furthermore, serum and liver MDA and serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations were lower in the supplemented groups than in the heat-stressed controls. 5. Within each environment, excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cr were lowest in the combination group and, in all cases, highest in the HS group. Interactions between diet and temperature were detected for live weight gain, cold carcase weight, MDA, ascorbic acid, tocopherol concentrations and excretion of zinc. 6. The results of the study indicate that ascorbic acid and melatonin supplementation attenuate the decline in performance and antioxidant and mineral status caused by heat stress and such

  18. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  19. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged layers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with ionic liquids (ILs) and the negatively charged plasma treated polylactic acid leads to homogeneous, stable, and highly durable coatings. Deposition of the LDH coatings increases the surface hydrophobicity of the neat PLA, which results to a decrease in water permeability by about 35%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  20. N-Glycosylation Improves the Pepsin Resistance of Histidine Acid Phosphatase Phytases by Enhancing Their Stability at Acidic pHs and Reducing Pepsin's Accessibility to Its Cleavage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Canfang; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycosylation can modulate enzyme structure and function. In this study, we identified two pepsin-resistant histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) phytases from Yersinia kristensenii (YkAPPA) and Yersinia rohdei (YrAPPA), each having an N-glycosylation motif, and one pepsin-sensitive HAP phytase from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeAPPA) that lacked an N-glycosylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to construct mutants by altering the N-glycosylation status of each enzyme, and the mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for biochemical characterization. Compared with those of the N-glycosylation site deletion mutants and N-deglycosylated enzymes, all N-glycosylated counterparts exhibited enhanced pepsin resistance. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site into YeAPPA as YkAPPA and YrAPPA conferred pepsin resistance, shifted the pH optimum (0.5 and 1.5 pH units downward, respectively) and improved stability at acidic pH (83.2 and 98.8% residual activities at pH 2.0 for 1 h). Replacing the pepsin cleavage sites L197 and L396 in the immediate vicinity of the N-glycosylation motifs of YkAPPA and YrAPPA with V promoted their resistance to pepsin digestion when produced in Escherichia coli but had no effect on the pepsin resistance of N-glycosylated enzymes produced in P. pastoris. Thus, N-glycosylation may improve pepsin resistance by enhancing the stability at acidic pH and reducing pepsin's accessibility to peptic cleavage sites. This study provides a strategy, namely, the manipulation of N-glycosylation, for improvement of phytase properties for use in animal feed. PMID:26637601

  1. Reducing Heavy Metal Element from Coal Bottom Ash by Using Citric Acid Leaching Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ahmad Asyari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is the residue that is produced during coal combustion for instance fly ash, bottom ash or boiler slag which was primarily produced from the combustion of coal. With growth in coal burning power station, huge amount of coal bottom ash (CBA considered as hazardous material which are normally disposed in an on-site disposal system without any commercialization purpose. Previous researchers have studied the extraction of silica from agricultural wastes such as palm ash and rice husk ash (RHA and CBA by using leaching treatment method. In this study, the weaker acid, citric acid solution was used to replace the strong acid in leaching treatment process. Result showed that the heavy metal content such as Copper (Cu, Zinc (Zn and Lead (Pb can be decrease. Meanwhile the silica can be extracted up to 44% from coal bottom ash using citric acid leaching treatment under the optimum reaction time of 60 minutes with solution temperature of 60°C and concentration of citric acid more than 2%.

  2. Levels of palmitic acid ester of hydroxystearic acid (PAHSA) are reduced in the breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinova, Marie; Kuda, Ondrej; Hansikova, Jana; Rombaldova, Martina; Balas, Laurence; Bardova, Kristina; Durand, Thierry; Rossmeisl, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Stranak, Zbynek; Kopecky, Jan

    2018-02-01

    To achieve optimal development of a newborn, breastfeeding is extensively recommended, but little is known about the role of non-nutritive bioactive milk components. We aimed to characterize the fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), namely palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs)-endogenous lipids with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, in human breast milk. Breast milk samples from 30 lean (BMI=19-23) and 23 obese (BMI>30) women were collected 72h postpartum. Adipose tissue and milk samples were harvested from C57BL/6J mice. FAHFA lipid profiles were measured using reverse phase and chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. PAHSA regioisomers as well as other FAHFAs were present in both human and murine milk. Unexpectedly, the levels of 5-PAHSA were higher relative to other regioisomers. The separation of both regioisomers and enantiomers of PAHSAs revealed that both R- and S-enantiomers were present in the biological samples, and that the majority of the 5-PAHSA signal is of R configuration. Total PAHSA levels were positively associated with weight gain during pregnancy, and 5-PAHSA as well as total PAHSA levels were significantly lower in the milk of the obese compared to the lean mothers. Our results document for the first time the presence of lipid mediators from the FAHFA family in breast milk, while giving an insight into the stereochemistry of PAHSAs. They also indicate the negative effect of obesity on 5-PAHSA levels. Future studies will be needed to explore the role and mechanism of action of FAHFAs in breast milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of chlorogenic acid on reducing the virulence factor production by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Qiao, Mingyu; Guo, Yan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Yunfeng; Xia, Xiaodong

    2014-09-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CA) has been reported to inhibit several pathogens, but the influence of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on virulence expression of pathogens has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of CA on the virulence factor production of Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CA against S. aureus was determined using a broth microdilution method. Hemolysin assays, coagulase titer assays, adherence to solid-phase fibrinogen assays, Western blot, and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on the virulence factors of S. aureus. MIC of CA against S. aureus ATCC29213 was found to be 2.56 mg/mL. At subinhibitory concentrations, CA significantly inhibited the hemolysis and dose-dependently decreased coagulase titer. Reduced binding to fibrinogen and decreased production of SEA were observed with treatment of CA at concentrations ranging from 1/16MIC to 1/2MIC. CA markedly inhibited the expression of hla, sea, and agr genes in S. aureus. These data demonstrate that the virulence expression of S. aureus could be reduced by CA and suggest that CA could be potentially developed as a supplemental strategy to control S. aureus infection and to prevent staphylococcal food poisoning.

  4. A Voltammetric Sensor Based on Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Analysis of Uric Acid, Ascorbic Acid and Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper Kanyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE modified with chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO (rGO-SPCE is described. The rGO-SPCE was characterized by UV-Vis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid (UA, ascorbic acid (AA and dopamine (DA. Three resolved voltammetric peaks (at 183 mV for UA, 273 mV for AA and 317 mV for DA, all vs. Ag/AgCl were found. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to simultaneously detect UA, AA and DA in their ternary mixtures. The linear working range extends from 10 to 3000 μM for UA; 0.1 to 2.5 μM, and 5.0 to 2 × 104 µM for AA; and 0.2 to 80.0 μM and 120.0 to 500 µM for DA, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3 are 0.1, 50.0, and 0.4 μM, respectively. The performance of the sensor was evaluated by analysing spiked human urine samples, and the recoveries were found to be well over 98.0% for the three compounds. These results indicate that the rGO-SPCE represents a sensitive analytical sensing tool for simultaneous analysis of UA, AA and DA.

  5. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ascorbic acid co-administered with rosuvastatin reduces reproductive impairment in the male offspring from male rats exposed to the statin at pre-puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Figueiredo, Thamiris Moreira; Guerra, Marina Trevizan; Borges, Cibele Dos Santos; Fernandes, Fábio Henrique; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2018-05-18

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is closely related to dysfunctions on lipid profile in children. Rosuvastatin is a statin that decreases serum total cholesterol. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant compound for male reproduction. Pre-pubertal male rats were distributed into six experimental groups that received saline solution 0.9% (vehicle), 3 or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin, 150 mg/day of ascorbic acid, or 3 or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin co-administered with 150 mg/day of ascorbic acid by gavage from post-natal day (PND)23 until PND53. Rats were maintained until adulthood and mated with nulliparous females to obtain the male offspring, whose animals were evaluated at adulthood in relation to reproductive parameters. This study is a follow up of a previous paper addressing potential effects on F0 generation only (Leite et al., 2017). Male offspring from rosuvastatin-exposed groups showed increased sperm DNA fragmentation, androgen depletion and impairment on the testicular and epididymal structure. Ascorbic acid coadministered to the fathers ameliorated the reproductive damage in the offspring. In summary, paternal exposure to rosuvastatin may affect the reproduction in the male offspring; however, paternal supplementation with ascorbic acid was able to reduce the reproductive impairment in the male offspring caused by statin treatment to the fathers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Dose Tranexamic Acid versus Placebo to Reduce Red Blood Cell Transfusion During Complex Multilevel Spine Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabini, Louanne M; Moreland, Natalie C; Vealey, Ryan J; Bebawy, John F; Koski, Tyler R; Koht, Antoun; Gupta, Dhanesh K; Avram, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Multilevel spine fusion surgery for adult deformity correction is associated with significant blood loss and coagulopathy. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in high-risk surgery, but the efficacy of a low-dose regimen is unknown. Sixty-one patients undergoing multilevel complex spinal fusion with and without osteotomies were randomly assigned to receive low-dose tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg loading dose, then 1 mg·kg -1 ·hr -1 throughout surgery) or placebo. The primary outcome was the total volume of red blood cells transfused intraoperatively. Thirty-one patients received tranexamic acid, and 30 patients received placebo. Patient demographics, risk of major transfusion, preoperative hemoglobin, and surgical risk of the 2 groups were similar. There was a significant decrease in total volume of red blood cells transfused (placebo group median 1460 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 1140 mL; median difference 463 mL, 95% confidence interval 15 to 914 mL, P = 0.034), with a decrease in cell saver transfusion (placebo group median 490 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 256 mL; median difference 166 mL, 95% confidence interval 0 to 368 mL, P = 0.042). The decrease in packed red blood cell transfusion did not reach statistical significance (placebo group median 1050 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 600 mL; median difference 300 mL, 95% confidence interval 0 to 600 mL, P = 0.097). Our results support the use of low-dose tranexamic acid during complex multilevel spine fusion surgery to decrease total red blood cell transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The reversed feto-maternal bile acid gradient in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is corrected by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenes, Victoria; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Benthin, Lisbet; Lawrance, Dominic; Chambers, Jenny; Gurung, Vinita; Thornton, Jim; Chappell, Lucy; Khan, Erum; Dixon, Peter; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Williamson, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes. It is characterised by raised maternal serum bile acids, which are believed to cause the adverse outcomes. ICP is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This study aimed to determine the fetal and maternal bile acid profiles in normal and ICP pregnancies, and to examine the effect of UDCA treatment. Matched maternal and umbilical cord serum samples were collected from untreated ICP (n = 18), UDCA-treated ICP (n = 46) and uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 15) cases at the time of delivery. Nineteen individual bile acids were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Maternal and fetal serum bile acids are significantly raised in ICP compared with normal pregnancy (p = acid. There are no differences between the umbilical cord artery and cord vein levels of the major bile acid species. The feto-maternal gradient of bile acids is reversed in ICP. Treatment with UDCA significantly reduces serum bile acids in the maternal compartment (p = acid (LCA) concentrations. ICP is associated with significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the maternal and fetal bile acid pools. Treatment with UDCA reduces the level of bile acids in both compartments and reverses the qualitative changes. We have not found evidence to support the suggestion that UDCA treatment increases fetal LCA concentrations to deleterious levels.

  9. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation: Parameter Optimization of Citric Acid Passivation for Stainless Steel Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters chartered the Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of NASA TEERM are to: Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. Avoid duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate hazardous materials through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The damaging effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. Consequently, it is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. NASA and ESA have numerous structures and equipment that are fabricated from stainless steel. The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. Passivation is defined by The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language as to treat or coat (a metal) in order to reduce the chemical reactivity of its surface. Passivation works by forming a shielding outer (metal oxide) layer that reduces the impact of destructive environmental factors such as air or water. Consequently, this process necessitates a final product that is very clean and free of iron and other contaminants. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. Citric acid is an alternative to nitric acid for the passivation of stainless steels. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits including increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eLing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of passive CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from ten depths ranging from 0-20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia. Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling.

  13. Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Bakker, M.K.; Nijenhuis, C.M.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    Purpose Women with child wish are advised to take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for spina bifida. However, there is less evidence for this protective effect in women using valproic acid (VPA). We investigated the effect of folic acid in women exposed to VPA in the first trimester of

  14. Barley β-glucan reduces blood cholesterol levels via interrupting bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Harding, Scott V; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter J H; Ames, Nancy P

    2017-11-01

    Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs

  15. Effect of impaired fatty acid oxidation on myocardial kinetics of 11C- and 123I-labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with palmitate 11 C and single photon imaging with terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogues (FFA 123 I) were evaluated for the noninvasive assessment of regional myocardial fatty acid metabolism during ischaemia. Decreased uptake of tracer and delayed clearance of activity in the ischaemic myocardium were reported for both 11 C- and 123 I-labelled compounds. However, since during ischaemia both myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism are reduced concomitantly, either factor can be responsible for the changes observed. Experimental preparations in which fatty acid metabolism can be modified independently of flow are helpful for the characterization of the relationship between metabolism and myocardial kinetics of labelled fatty acids. Results obtained during flow-independent inhibition of fatty acid oxidation include the following observations: - In dogs with controlled coronary perfusion the rate of clearance of palmitate 11 C-activity is decreased during diminished delivery of oxygen, regardless of whether myocardial perfusion is concomitantly reduced or not. - In isolated rabbit hearts perfused at normal flow, the extraction of FFA 123 I is decreased during hypoxia. - During pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid oxidation the deiodination of FFA 123 I is markedly reduced in rat hearts in vivo and in vitro. (orig.)

  16. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  17. Hormesis in Cholestatic Liver Disease; Preconditioning with Low Bile Acid Concentrations Protects against Bile Acid-Induced Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M Verhaag

    Full Text Available Cholestasis is characterized by accumulation of bile acids and inflammation, causing hepatocellular damage. Still, liver damage markers are highest in acute cholestasis and drop when this condition becomes chronic, indicating that hepatocytes adapt towards the hostile environment. This may be explained by a hormetic response in hepatocytes that limits cell death during cholestasis.To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the hormetic response that protect hepatocytes against experimental cholestatic conditions.HepG2.rNtcp cells were preconditioned (24 h with sub-apoptotic concentrations (0.1-50 μM of various bile acids, the superoxide donor menadione, TNF-α or the Farsenoid X Receptor agonist GW4064, followed by a challenge with the apoptosis-inducing bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA; 200 μM for 4 h, menadione (50 μM, 6 h or cytokine mixture (CM; 6 h. Levels of apoptotic and necrotic cell death, mRNA expression of the bile salt export pump (ABCB11 and bile acid sensors, as well as intracellular GCDCA levels were analyzed.Preconditioning with the pro-apoptotic bile acids GCDCA, taurocholic acid, or the protective bile acids (tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduced GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity in HepG2.rNtcp cells. Bile acid preconditioning did not induce significant levels of necrosis in GCDCA-challenged HepG2.rNtcp cells. In contrast, preconditioning with cholic acid, menadione or TNF-α potentiated GCDCA-induced apoptosis. GCDCA preconditioning specifically reduced GCDCA-induced cell death and not CM- or menadione-induced apoptosis. The hormetic effect of GCDCA preconditioning was concentration- and time-dependent. GCDCA-, CDCA- and GW4064- preconditioning enhanced ABCB11 mRNA levels, but in contrast to the bile acids, GW4064 did not significantly reduce GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity. The GCDCA challenge strongly increased intracellular levels of this bile acid, which was not lowered by GCDCA

  18. Catalyzed oxidation reactions. IV. Picolinic acid catalysis of chromic acid oxidations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocek, J.; Peng, T.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Picolinic acid and several closely related acids are effective catalysts in the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols; the oxidation of other substrates is accelerated only moderately. The reaction is first order in chromium-(VI), alcohol, and picolinic acid; it is second order in hydrogen ions at low acidity and approaches acidity independence at high perchloric acid concentrations. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is observed at high but not at low acidities. At low acidity the reaction has a considerably lower activation energy and more negative activation entropy than at higher acidities. The reactive intermediate in the proposed mechanism is a negatively charged termolecular complex formed from chromic acid, picolinic acid, and alcohol. The rate-limiting step of the reaction changes with the acidity of the solution. At higher acidities the intermediate termolecular complex is formed reversibly and the overall reaction rate is determined by the rate of its decomposition into reaction products; at low acidities the formation of the complex is irreversible and hence rate limiting. Picolinic acids with a substituent in the 6 position show a greatly reduced catalytic activity. This observation is interpreted as suggesting a square pyramidal or octahedral structure for the reactive chromium (VI) intermediate. The temperature dependence of the deuterium isotope effect has been determined and the significance of the observed large values for E/sub a//sup D/ - E/sub a//sup H/ and A/sup D//A/sup H/ is discussed

  19. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. ► GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. ► GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. ► Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. ► Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd 2+ , GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd 2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd 2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd 2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  20. Branched-chain amino acids reduce hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in hepatitis C virus polyprotein-expressing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Masaaki; Nishina, Sohji; Korenaga, Keiko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Naoko; Hara, Yuichi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Hino, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. However, the mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unknown. Previously, we reported that oxidative stress in male transgenic mice that expressed hepatitis C virus polyprotein (HCVTgM) caused hepatic iron accumulation by reducing hepcidin transcription, thereby leading to HCC development. This study investigated whether long-term treatment with BCAA reduced hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in iron-overloaded HCVTgM and in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. Methods Male HCVTgM were fed an excess-iron diet that comprised either casein or 3.0% BCAA, or a control diet, for 6 months. Results For HCVTgM, BCAA supplementation increased the serum hepcidin-25 levels and antioxidant status [ratio of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) relative to derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM)], decreased the hepatic iron contents, attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, and restored mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression and mitochondrial complex I activity in the liver compared with mice fed the control diet. After 48 weeks of BCAA supplementation in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis, BAP/dROM and serum hepcidin-25 increased and serum ferritin decreased compared with the pretreatment levels. Conclusions BCAA supplementation reduced oxidative stress by restoring mitochondrial function and improved iron metabolism by increasing hepcidin-25 in both iron-overloaded HCVTgM and patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. These activities of BCAA may partially account for their inhibitory effects on HCC development in cirrhosis patients. PMID:25156780

  1. Decontamination effectiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study of the decontamination effectiveness of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA mixtures was conducted to assess whether oxalic acid could be removed from decontamination solutions to minimize corrosion. In loop experiments, radioactive specimens from two boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor were suspended in solutions of single acids or in mixtures of reagents at total reagent concentrations of less than 0.1 wt% under conditions similar to those used to decontaminate reactor systems. Rate constants for dissolution of oxides and decontamination factors were measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that under certain conditions, oxalic acid was the most effective reagent for the dissolution of oxides. It was also found, however, that conditions under which effective dissolution occurred in solutions of oxalic acid and/or citric acid were difficult to define and control. EDTA was found to be an effective reagent for dissolution of oxides such that rates of dissolution in EDTA containing solutions at 117 degrees Celsius were comparable to rates in oxalic acid containing solutions. At 90 degrees Celsius, EDTA acted synergistically with oxalic acid such that the rate of dissolution of oxides in citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions was higher than in citric-acid/EDTA solutions. The rates of dissolution of oxides were significantly reduced when 60 mg/kg of ferric ion was added to the citric-acid/oxalic-acid, citric-acid/EDTA and citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions. It was concluded that effective decontaminations of BWR and PWR systems could be achieved with mixtures of citric acid and EDTA

  2. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced. The maximum yield was obtained at the pH of 2 with citric acid of 1.15 g/L and reducing sugar content of 0.541 mMol−1, 3% vegetative inoculum size with citric acid yield of 0.53 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.87 mMol−1, 2% of the substrate concentration with citric acid yield of 0.83 g/L and reducing sugar content of 9.36 mMol−1, incubation temperature of 55°C with citric acid yield of 0.62 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.37 mMol−1, and fermentation period of 5 days with citric acid yield of 0.61 g/L and reducing sugar content of 3.70 mMol−1. The results of this study are encouraging and suggest that Parkia biglobosa pulp can be harnessed at low concentration for large scale citric acid production. PMID:27433535

  3. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ascorbic acid reduced mutagenicity at the HPRT locus in CHO cells against thermal neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinashi, Yuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Nagata, Kenji; Ono, Koji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the biological effects of the long-lived radicals induced following neutron irradiation. It has been reported that radiation-induced long-lived radicals were scavenged by post-irradiation treatment of ascorbic acid (Koyama, 1998). We studied the effects of ascorbic acid acting as a long-lived radical scavenger on cell killing and mutagenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells against thermal neutrons produced at the Kyoto University Research reactor. Ascorbic acid was added to cells 30 min after neutron irradiation and removed 150 min after irradiation. The biological end point of cell survival was measured by colony formation assay. The mutagenicity was measured by the mutant frequency in the HPRT locus. The post-irradiation treatment of ascorbic acid did not alter the cell killing effect of neutron radiation. However, the mutagenicity was decreased, especially when the cells were irradiated with boron. Our results suggested that ascorbic acid scavenged long-lived radicals effectively and caused apparent protective effects against mutagenicity of boron neutron capture therapy

  5. Renal transport and metabolism of nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.; Rose, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Renal metabolism and brush-border transport of nicotinic acid were studied in renal cortical slices and brush-border membrane vesicles exposed to a physiological concentration of vitamin (2.2-3.5 microM). Vesicle transport of [ 3 H]nicotinic acid was found to be Na+ dependent and concentrative. The presence of a Na+ gradient resulted in a fivefold increase in the rate of nicotinic acid uptake over that observed with mannitol and caused a transient nicotinic acid accumulation two- to fourfold above the equilibrium value. The effects of membrane potential, pH, and elimination of Na+-H+ exchange were also studied. Cortical slices and isolated tubules exposed to 2.2 microM [ 14 C]nicotinic acid took up vitamin and rapidly metabolized most of it to intermediates in the Preiss-Handler pathway for NAD biosynthesis; little free nicotinic acid was detectable intracellularly. The replacement of Na+ with Li+ in the bathing medium reduced total accumulation of 14 C label primarily as a result of reduced nicotinic acid uptake. Cortical tissue concentrated free nicotinic acid only when the involved metabolic pathways were saturated by levels of nicotinic acid far in excess of what occurs in vivo

  6. Metabolism of Oxo-Bile Acids and Characterization of Recombinant 12α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases from Bile Acid 7α-Dehydroxylating Human Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doden, Heidi; Sallam, Lina A; Devendran, Saravanan; Ly, Lindsey; Doden, Greta; Daniel, Steven L; Alves, João M P; Ridlon, Jason M

    2018-05-15

    Bile acids are important cholesterol-derived nutrient signaling hormones, synthesized in the liver, that act as detergents to solubilize dietary lipids. Bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating gut bacteria generate the toxic bile acids deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid from host bile acids. The ability of these bacteria to remove the 7-hydroxyl group is partially dependent on 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) activity, which reduces 7-oxo-bile acids generated by other gut bacteria. 3α-HSDH has an important enzymatic activity in the bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation pathway. 12α-HSDH activity has been reported for the low-activity bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacterium Clostridium leptum ; however, this activity has not been reported for high-activity bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, such as Clostridium scindens , Clostridium hylemonae , and Clostridium hiranonis Here, we demonstrate that these strains express bile acid 12α-HSDH. The recombinant enzymes were characterized from each species and shown to preferentially reduce 12-oxolithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid, with low activity against 12-oxochenodeoxycholic acid and reduced activity when bile acids were conjugated to taurine or glycine. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that 12α-HSDH is widespread among Firmicutes , Actinobacteria in the Coriobacteriaceae family, and human gut Archaea IMPORTANCE 12α-HSDH activity has been established in the medically important bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria C. scindens , C. hiranonis , and C. hylemonae Experiments with recombinant 12α-HSDHs from these strains are consistent with culture-based experiments that show a robust preference for 12-oxolithocholic acid over 12-oxochenodeoxycholic acid. Phylogenetic analysis identified novel members of the gut microbiome encoding 12α-HSDH. Future reengineering of 12α-HSDH enzymes to preferentially oxidize cholic acid may provide a means to industrially produce the therapeutic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid. In

  7. Catalysis of the Oligomerization of O-Phospho-Serine, Aspartic Acid, or Glutamic Acid by Cationic Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Christof; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of relatively concentrated aqueous solutions of 0-phospho-serine (50 mM), aspartic acid (100 mM) or glutamic acid (100 mM) with carbonyldiimidazole leads to the formation of an activated intermediate that oligomerizes efficiently. When the concentration of amino acid is reduced tenfold, few long oligomers can be detected. Positively-charged cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles concentrate the negatively-charged activated intermediates of the amino acids at their surfaces and catalyze efficient oligomerization even from dilute solutions.

  8. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone

  9. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-04-30

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone.

  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and Azospirillum brasilense produces abscisic acid that reduces IRT1-mediated cadmium uptake of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianru; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Ranran; Lu, Qi; Xue, Wanlei; Wu, Cainan; Song, Bixiu; Du, Shaoting

    2018-05-08

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of agricultural soils represents a serious risk to crop safety. A new strategy using abscisic acid (ABA)-generating bacteria, Bacillus subtilis or Azospirillum brasilense, was developed to reduce the Cd accumulation in plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil. Inoculation with either bacterium resulted in a pronounced increase in the ABA level in wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 plants, accompanied by a decrease in Cd levels in plant tissues, which mitigated the Cd toxicity. As a consequence, the growth of plants exposed to Cd was improved. Nevertheless, B. subtilis and A. brasilense inoculation had little effect on Cd levels and toxicity in the ABA-insensitive mutant snrk 2.2/2.3, indicating that the action of ABA is required for these bacteria to reduce Cd accumulation in plants. Furthermore, inoculation with either B. subtilis or A. brasilense down-regulated the expression of IRT1 (IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1) in the roots of wild-type plants and had little effect on Cd levels in the IRT1-knockout mutants irt1-1 and irt1-2. In summary, we conclude that B. subtilis and A. brasilense can reduce Cd levels in plants via an IRT1-dependent ABA-mediated mechanism.

  12. Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharide 4-methoxyphenyl glycosides having a β-D-glucuronic acid residue at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Halkes, K.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hyppönen, T.K.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharides, the 4-methoxyphenyl beta-glycosides of beta-D-GlcpA-(1->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1->4)-D-GlcpA and beta-D-GlcpA-(1->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1->4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1->4)-D-GlcpA, is described. D-Glucopyranosyluronic acid residues were

  13. Mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with methionine metabolism and nuclear DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, Oswaldo A; Martinez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Wang, Tianyuan; Grenet, Dagoberto; Bushel, Pierre; Li, Jianying; Chandel, Navdeep; Woychik, Richard P; Santos, Janine H

    2018-04-18

    Mitochondrial function affects many aspects of cellular physiology, and, most recently, its role in epigenetics has been reported. Mechanistically, how mitochondrial function alters DNA methylation patterns in the nucleus remains ill defined. Using a cell culture model of induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, in this study we show that progressive mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an early transcriptional and metabolic program centered on the metabolism of various amino acids, including those involved in the methionine cycle. We find that this program also increases DNA methylation, which occurs primarily in the genes that are differentially expressed. Maintenance of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation in the context of mtDNA loss rescues methionine salvage and polyamine synthesis and prevents changes in DNA methylation and gene expression but does not affect serine/folate metabolism or transsulfuration. This work provides a novel mechanistic link between mitochondrial function and epigenetic regulation of gene expression that involves polyamine and methionine metabolism responding to changes in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Given the implications of these findings, future studies across different physiological contexts and in vivo are warranted.

  14. A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.; Dashek, W.; Galson, E.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for abscisic acid (ABA) in the 0.1 ng to 2.5 ng range. Antibodies were obtained from rabbits immunized with ABA bound via its carboxyl group to bovine serum albumin. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that ABA esters are completely cross-reactive with ABA, while trans, trans abscisic acid (t-ABA) phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) have much lower but significant cross-reactivities. Purification methods which reduce the levels of cross-reacting substances are described. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  15. Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perel Pablo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely administering TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients is cost effective by both averting deaths occurring from the shortage of blood, and by preventing infections from blood transfusions. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of providing TXA compared with no TXA in patients with surgical bleeding in four African countries with different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and blood donation rates (Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Botswana. The principal outcome measures were cost per life saved and cost per infection averted (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C averted in 2007 International dollars ($. The probability of receiving a blood transfusion with and without TXA and the risk of blood borne viral infection were estimated. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The incremental cost per life saved is $87 for Kenya and $93 for Tanzania. In Botswana and South Africa, TXA administration is not life saving but is highly cost saving since fewer units of blood are transfused. Further, in Botswana the administration of TXA averts one case of HIV and four cases of Hepatitis B (HBV per 1,000 surgical patients. In South Africa, one case of HBV is averted per 1,000 surgical patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Conclusion An economic

  16. Comparative Study of Folic Acid and α-Naphthoflavone on Reducing TCDD-Induced Cleft Palate in Fetal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingang; He, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Cuiping; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Lin; Pu, Wei; Fu, Yuexian

    2017-03-01

      Tocompare the effect of folic acid (FA) and α-naphthoflavone on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced cleft palate in fetal mice.   Pregnant mice were randomly divided into seven groups. The mice treated with corn oil were used as a negative control. The mice in the other six groups were given a single dose of 28 μg/kg TCDD on GD 10 by gavage. For FA treatment, TCDD-treated mice were also dosed with 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg FA on GD 10, while for α-naphthoflavone treatment, the mice received a single dose of 50 μg/kg or 5 mg/kg α-naphthoflavone on GD 10.   Fetal mice palates were imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy on GD 13.5, GD 14.5, and GD 15.5, and cleft palate were recorded on GD 17.5. The expression of guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in fetal mice palate on GD 15.5 was examined by immunohistochemistry.   TCDD successfully induced cleft palate. Ten mg/ml FA and 5 mg/ml α-naphthoflavone significantly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate. FA and α-naphthoflavone partly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate but did not affect the expression of Rho GDI.   FA and α-naphthoflavone may reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species, inhibit MEE apoptosis through anti-oxidation, and increase filopodia and MEE movement. This may result in restoration of the ultrastructure of the palatal surface to a normal state, leading to the fusion and formation of complete palate in TCDD-treated fetal mice.

  17. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  18. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari, E-mail: yanti_tkunlam@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Lee, Cheng-Kang, E-mail: cklee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Rd. Sec.4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  19. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO 3 H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO 3 H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use

  20. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  1. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. In situ generation of silver nanoparticles in poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) polymer membranes in the absence of reducing agent and their effect on pervaporation of a water/acetic acid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhard, Shvshankar; Kwon, Yong Sung; Moon, MyungJun; Shon, Min Young; Park, You In; Nam, Seung Eun

    2016-01-01

    The in situ generation of silver nanoparticles in a poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) polymer matrix in the absence of any additional reducing agent is reported and tends to the membrane fabrication using solution-casting. Its effect on the separation of a water/acetic acid mixture by pervaporation is described. The results of UV spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses showed that the silver nanoparticles were successfully prepared and well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The increased hydrophilicity of the PVA/PAA membrane due to the presence of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and membrane absorption studies. Pervaporation data for composite membranes showed a three-fold increase in the flux value, while the initially decreased separation factor subsequently showed a constant value. Overall, the pervaporation data suggested that the presence of silver nanoparticles benefited the dehydration process

  3. In situ generation of silver nanoparticles in poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) polymer membranes in the absence of reducing agent and their effect on pervaporation of a water/acetic acid mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhard, Shvshankar; Kwon, Yong Sung; Moon, MyungJun; Shon, Min Young [Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, You In; Nam, Seung Eun [Center for membranes, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The in situ generation of silver nanoparticles in a poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) polymer matrix in the absence of any additional reducing agent is reported and tends to the membrane fabrication using solution-casting. Its effect on the separation of a water/acetic acid mixture by pervaporation is described. The results of UV spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses showed that the silver nanoparticles were successfully prepared and well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The increased hydrophilicity of the PVA/PAA membrane due to the presence of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and membrane absorption studies. Pervaporation data for composite membranes showed a three-fold increase in the flux value, while the initially decreased separation factor subsequently showed a constant value. Overall, the pervaporation data suggested that the presence of silver nanoparticles benefited the dehydration process.

  4. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  5. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  6. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F; Macintosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Mann, J Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2014-05-01

    Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. PHAGE RESISTANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL MUTANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Method of obtaining mutated lactic acid bacteria having a reduced susceptibility towards attack by bacteriophages, the method comprising mutating a gene involved in the pyrimidine metabolism, including pyrG encoding CTP synthetase. Such lactic acid bacteria are useful in starter cultures...

  8. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  9. Controlled-potential coulometric determination of plutonium with a hydrochloric acid-sulfamic acid electrolyte and phosphate complexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.; Roensch, F.R.; Rein, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Total plutonium is selectively determined by a controlled-potential coulometric method in which plutonium is reduced to Pu(III) at 0.25 V (vs. SCE) in a 5.5 M hydrochloric acid-0.015 M sulfamic acid electrolyte, diverse ions are oxidized at 0.57 V, phosphate is added to reduce the Pu(III)-Pu(IV) potential, and Pu(III) is oxidized to Pu(IV) at 0.68 V. None of more than 50 metal ions present in nuclear fuel-cycle material interferes. Many anions are without effect and most interfering ones are removed by preliminary fuming with perchloric acid. The apparatus described consists mainly of commercial components. The relative standard deviation is < 0.1% at the 5-mg plutonium level

  10. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria; Livi, Sebastien; Hayrapetyan, Suren; Wang, Yue; Estevez, Luis; Vittoria, Vittoria; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged

  11. Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA in Muscle Damage and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Ochi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3. It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength.

  12. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2013-01-01

    The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. This procedure results in the formation of a metal oxide layer to prevent corrosion. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid which exhibits excellent corrosion performance; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. The longtime military specification for the passivation of stainless steel was cancelled in favor of newer specifications which allow for the use of citric acid in place of nitric acid. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits that include increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational costs. There have been few studies, however, to determine whether citric acid is an acceptable alternative for NASA and DoD. This paper details activities to date including development of the joint test plan, on-going and planned testing, and preliminary results.

  13. Green reduction of graphene oxide by ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Zahra; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Allafchian, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    Graphene, a single layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms in a hexagonal (two-dimensional honey-comb) lattice, has attracted strong scientific and technological interest due to its novel and excellent optical, chemical, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. The solution-processable chemical reduction of Graphene oxide (GO is considered as the most favorable method regarding mass production of graphene. Generally, the reduction of GO is carried out by chemical approaches using different reductants such as hydrazine and sodium borohydride. These components are corrosive, combustible and highly toxic which may be dangerous for personnel health and the environment. Hence, these reducing agents are not promising choice for reducing of graphene oxide (GO). As a consequence, it is necessary for further development and optimization of eco-friendly, natural reducing agent for clean and effective reduction of GO. Ascorbic acid, an eco-friendly and natural reducing agents, having a mild reductive ability and nontoxic property. So, the aim of this research was to green synthesis of GO with ascorbic acid. For this purpose, the required amount of NaOH and ascorbic acid were added to GO solution (0.5 mg/ml) and were heated at 95 °C for 1 hour. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical results, GO were reduced with ascorbic acid like hydrazine with better electrochemical properties and ascorbic acid is an ideal substitute for hydrazine in the reduction of graphene oxide process.

  14. Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magala, Michal; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana

    2013-01-01

    Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefits like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability). Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt) led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid). Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that standard tarhana fermented for 144 h had the highest overall acceptability.

  15. Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharide 4-methoxyphenyl glycosides having a beta-D-glucuronic acid residue at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, K.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hypponen, T.K.; Kamerling, J.P.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharides, the 4-methoxyphenyl β-glycosides of β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-D-GlcpA and β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)- β-D-GJcpNAc-(1→4)-D-GlcpA, is described. D-Glucopyranosyluronic acid residues were obtained by selective

  16. Reduction of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-chol-6-en-24-oic acid to lithocholic acid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, K.; Ogura, M.

    1988-01-01

    After [24- 14 C]delta 6-lithocholic acid was injected into the cecum of rats, [ 14 C]lithocholic acid was identified as a metabolite in feces. When the labeled delta 6-bile acid was injected intraperitoneally into bile-fistula rats, radioactivity excreted in bile was contained most abundantly in the taurine-conjugated fraction of bile acids. In the fraction, taurine conjugate of [ 14 C]delta 6-lithocholic acid but of neither [ 14 C]lithocholic acid nor other bile acids was found. The results showed that [24- 14 C]delta 6-lithocholic acid was reduced to [ 14 C]lithocholic acid by the intestinal flora but not by the liver, which, however, was capable of conjugating delta 6-lithocholic acid with taurine

  17. Active Sites of Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence1 (REF1) Isoforms Contain Amino Acid Substitutions That Are Different between Monocots and Dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missihoun, Tagnon D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Plant aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play important roles in cell wall biosynthesis, growth, development, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence1 is encoded by the subfamily 2C of ALDHs and was shown to oxidise coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde to ferulic acid and sinapic acid in the phenylpropanoid pathway, respectively. This knowledge has been gained from works in the dicotyledon model species Arabidopsis thaliana then used to functionally annotate ALDH2C isoforms in other species, based on the orthology principle. However, the extent to which the ALDH isoforms differ between monocotyledons and dicotyledons has rarely been accessed side-by-side. In this study, we used a phylogenetic approach to address this question. We have analysed the ALDH genes in Brachypodium distachyon, alongside those of other sequenced monocotyledon and dicotyledon species to examine traits supporting either a convergent or divergent evolution of the ALDH2C/REF1-type proteins. We found that B. distachyon, like other grasses, contains more ALDH2C/REF1 isoforms than A. thaliana and other dicotyledon species. Some amino acid residues in ALDH2C/REF1 isoforms were found as being conserved in dicotyledons but substituted by non-equivalent residues in monocotyledons. One example of those substitutions concerns a conserved phenylalanine and a conserved tyrosine in monocotyledons and dicotyledons, respectively. Protein structure modelling suggests that the presence of tyrosine would widen the substrate-binding pocket in the dicotyledons, and thereby influence substrate specificity. We discussed the importance of these findings as new hints to investigate why ferulic acid contents and cell wall digestibility differ between the dicotyledon and monocotyledon species.

  18. Active Sites of Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence1 (REF1 Isoforms Contain Amino Acid Substitutions That Are Different between Monocots and Dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagnon D Missihoun

    Full Text Available Plant aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs play important roles in cell wall biosynthesis, growth, development, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence1 is encoded by the subfamily 2C of ALDHs and was shown to oxidise coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde to ferulic acid and sinapic acid in the phenylpropanoid pathway, respectively. This knowledge has been gained from works in the dicotyledon model species Arabidopsis thaliana then used to functionally annotate ALDH2C isoforms in other species, based on the orthology principle. However, the extent to which the ALDH isoforms differ between monocotyledons and dicotyledons has rarely been accessed side-by-side. In this study, we used a phylogenetic approach to address this question. We have analysed the ALDH genes in Brachypodium distachyon, alongside those of other sequenced monocotyledon and dicotyledon species to examine traits supporting either a convergent or divergent evolution of the ALDH2C/REF1-type proteins. We found that B. distachyon, like other grasses, contains more ALDH2C/REF1 isoforms than A. thaliana and other dicotyledon species. Some amino acid residues in ALDH2C/REF1 isoforms were found as being conserved in dicotyledons but substituted by non-equivalent residues in monocotyledons. One example of those substitutions concerns a conserved phenylalanine and a conserved tyrosine in monocotyledons and dicotyledons, respectively. Protein structure modelling suggests that the presence of tyrosine would widen the substrate-binding pocket in the dicotyledons, and thereby influence substrate specificity. We discussed the importance of these findings as new hints to investigate why ferulic acid contents and cell wall digestibility differ between the dicotyledon and monocotyledon species.

  19. Uptake of neutral alpha- and beta-amino acids by human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Røigaard, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1996-01-01

    experiments revealed that all the neutral amino acids tested reduced the uptake of AIB, whereas there was no effect of taurine, L-aspartic acid, and L-arginine. By contrast, the influx of beta-alanine was only drastically reduced by beta-amino acids, whereas the inhibition by neutral alpha-amino acids...

  20. Microbial production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Cao, Mingfeng; Kongklom, Nuttawut; Chuensangjun, Chaniga; Shi, Zhongping; Chisti, Yusuf

    2017-09-05

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a natural, biodegradable and water-soluble biopolymer of glutamic acid. This review is focused on nonrecombinant microbial production of γ-PGA via fermentation processes. In view of its commercial importance, the emphasis is on L-glutamic acid independent producers (i.e. microorganisms that do not require feeding with the relatively expensive amino acid L-glutamic acid to produce γ-PGA), but glutamic acid dependent production is discussed for comparison. Strategies for improving production, reducing costs and using renewable feedstocks are discussed.

  1. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes of children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, H.; Hornstra, G.; Koning, T.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Bakker, H.D.; Klerk, H. de; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFAs), and their longer-chain more-unsaturated derivatives (LCPUFAs) in particular, are essential for normal growth and cognitive development during childhood. Children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism represent a risk population for a reduced LCPUFA status because

  2. MoS2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for sensitive sensing of cysteamine in presence of uric acid in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite of MoS 2 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was fabricated by a facile and effective method. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposite (MoS 2 -rGO) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The MoS 2 nanosheets were uniformly anchored on the rGO framework with strong adhesion. A glassy carbon electrode modified by drop-casting with MoS 2 -rGO was used for the electrochemical oxidation of cysteamine (CA) in the presence of uric acid (UA). Under optimum conditions, the anodic peak current of CA shows a linear relation with the CA concentration between 0.01 and 20 μM with a detection limit of 7 nM. The proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determination of CA in human plasma. - Highlights: • The hybrid nanocomposite composed of MoS 2 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide was fabricated by a facile and effective method. • The MoS 2 nanosheets were uniformly anchored on the rGO framework with strong adhesion. • Glassy carbon electrodes modified with MoS 2 -rGO was used for electro-oxidation of cysteamine (CA) in presence of uric acid (UA). • The anodic peak current of CA at the surface of modified electrode is linear to its concentration ranges at 0.01 to 20 μM with a detection limit of 7 nM. • The proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determination of CA in human plasma. • The accuracy of the method was as excellent comparing with the obtained results using reference method.

  3. Acid hydrolysis of Biomass lignocellulose Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs

  4. Radioprotective effects of ascorbic acid in barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B V

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the radioprotective effects of a naturally occurring reducing agent, ascorbic acid, on seeds (caryopses) of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. emend Lam. Seeds were soaked either before or after ..gamma.. or fission neutron irradiation in distilled water or ascorbic acid solutions ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 1.00 M. Results are reported as percentage germination, seedling height, seedling growth reduction, and (in one experiment) percent of cells with chromosome aberrations. As evidenced by both reduced germination and seedling growth, ascorbic acid was toxic when seeds were soaked for 1 hr at ambient temperature prior to irradiation and then planted immediately. When seeds were soaked in ascorbic acid before irradiation and soaked after irradiation in air-bubbled water at 0/sup 0/C for 18 hr, the toxicity disappeared, and a protective effect (which increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration) was observed for ..gamma.. and, to a lesser extent, for neutron irradiation. Additional studies suggested that the protective effect was related to reduced hydration of the embryos of seeds soaked in ascorbic acid. Also, no radioprotective effect was observed when seeds were presoaked for 2 or 16 hr in 0.01 M ascorbic acid solutions buffered at pH 3 or pH 7. A protective effect was observed for seeds of 1.5 percent water content soaked after irradiation in an oxygen-bubbled ascorbic acid solution of 0.5 M but was not observed for seeds soaked in nitrogen-bubbled ascorbic acid. The protective effect against oxygen-dependent damage may be a result of interaction of ascorbic acid with radiation-induced free radicals.

  5. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Yun Hsueh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA. After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05 compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05 expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05 gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05 mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05 oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  6. Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid Reduces Postoperative Bleeding in Open-Heart Surgery: Myth or Fact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M. U. A.; Asghar, M. I.; Cahaudhri, M. S.; Janjua, A. M.; Iqbal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical application of Tranexamic acid in controlling postoperative bleeding in open-heart surgery. Study Design: Double blind randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Cardiac Surgery and Intensive Care of Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD), Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from May to October 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive adult patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgeries were randomly divided in groups A and B. A study solution that contained 2.5 g of Tranexamic acid in 250 ml normal saline in group-A and equal amount of normal saline (placebo) in group-B was poured in the pericardial cavity over the mediastinal tissues before sternal closure. Postoperative bleeding was measured in both groups for 24 hours in the cardiac surgical ICU. Efficacy of Topical Tranexamic Acid / Placebo was measured in terms of mean postoperative bleeding in ml. Kindly again include these lines which seem to have been omitted in the final proof. Results: There was significant difference in the mean postoperative bleeding within 24 hours among the two groups 340.1 ± 112.4 ml in Tranexamic acid group vs. 665 ± 187.28 ml in placebo group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients who did not have topical Tranexamic acid before chest closure had a significantly higher postoperative bleeding. Topical Tranexamic acid application is an effective and economical way for controlling non-surgical bleeding in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (author)

  7. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Petri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS, and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group. In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation.

  8. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  9. ANTIOXIDANT AND PRO-OXIDANT EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rankovic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals attack proteins, lipids, enzymes and DNA causing pathological changes in organism. There are many mechanisms that organism uses to fight against free radicals. Ascorbic acid is one of the strongest reducers and eliminators of free radicals. It reduces stable oxygenic, azoth and thyol radicals and acts as a primary defense against water radicals in blood. When radicals are dissolved in water suspensions of erythrocytes and low density lipoproteins (LDL, ascorbic acid catches and eliminates free radicals before they arrive to the membrane and LDL molecules. Even though ascorbic acid is not capable of eliminating free radicals out of fluid medium, it acts as synergist to alpha-tocopherol in lipid section, contributes to the lessening of lipid tocoperoxil radicals, and above all, regenerates alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbic acid may act as pro-oxidant under in vitro conditions in the presence of metals; however, this effect is probably not important under in vivo conditions where metal ions, being sequestered, become second reducers.

  10. A pulse radiolysis study of salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, Kamal; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Reactions of H, OH, e aq - and some one-electron oxidants have been studied with salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions. Rate constants for the reaction of e aq - with these compounds were of the order of 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and this reaction led to the formation of reducing radicals which could transfer electron to methyl viologen. Other one-electron reductants were not able to reduce these compounds. OH radicals reacted with these compounds by addition pathway with very high rate constants (>10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ) while O - radical anions could oxidize these molecules to give phenoxyl type of radicals. Amongst the one-electron oxidants, only N 3 radicals and SO 4 - radicals could oxidize salicylic acid while 5-sulpho-salicylic acid could be oxidized only by SO 4 - radicals indicating that while one-electron reduction potential for semi-oxidized SA may be o1 for N 3 ? radical), it is more than 1.33V vs. NHE for semi-oxidized SSA species

  11. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig

  12. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  13. Reduced pulmonary blood flow in regions of injury 2 hours after acid aspiration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Torsten; Bergmann, Ralf; Musch, Guido; Pietzsch, Jens; Koch, Thea

    2015-01-01

    Aspiration-induced lung injury can decrease gas exchange and increase mortality. Acute lung injury following acid aspiration is characterized by elevated pulmonary blood flow (PBF) in damaged lung areas in the early inflammation stage. Knowledge of PBF patterns after acid aspiration is important for targeting intravenous treatments. We examined PBF in an experimental model at a later stage (2 hours after injury). Anesthetized Wistar-Unilever rats (n = 5) underwent unilateral endobronchial instillation of hydrochloric acid. The PBF distribution was compared between injured and uninjured sides and with that of untreated control animals (n = 6). Changes in lung density after injury were measured using computed tomography (CT). Regional PBF distribution was determined quantitatively in vivo 2 hours after acid instillation by measuring the concentration of [(68)Ga]-radiolabeled microspheres using positron emission tomography. CT scans revealed increased lung density in areas of acid aspiration. Lung injury was accompanied by impaired gas exchange. Acid aspiration decreased the arterial pressure of oxygen from 157 mmHg [139;165] to 74 mmHg [67;86] at 20 minutes and tended toward restoration to 109 mmHg [69;114] at 110 minutes (P < 0.001). The PBF ratio of the middle region of the injured versus uninjured lungs of the aspiration group (0.86 [0.7;0.9], median [25%;75%]) was significantly lower than the PBF ratio in the left versus right lung of the control group (1.02 [1.0;1.05]; P = 0.016). The PBF pattern 2 hours after aspiration-induced lung injury showed a redistribution of PBF away from injured regions that was likely responsible for the partial recovery from hypoxemia over time. Treatments given intravenously 2 hours after acid-induced lung injury may not preferentially reach the injured lung regions, contrary to what occurs during the first hour of inflammation. Please see related article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-015-0014-z.

  14. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked wheat starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Beparva, Paniz

    2014-03-15

    The effects of two common organic acids; lactic and acetic acids (150 mg/kg) on physicochemical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches were investigated prior and after gelatinization. These acids caused formation of some cracks and spots on the granules. The intrinsic viscosity of both starches decreased in the presence of the acids particularly after gelatinization. Water solubility increased while water absorption reduced after addition of the acids. The acids caused reduction in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization of both starches. The starch gels became softer, less cohesive, elastic and gummy when acids were added. These changes may indicate the degradation of the starch molecules by the acids. Cross-linked wheat starch was more resistant to the acids. However, both starches became more susceptible to the acids after gelatinization. The effect of lactic acid on physicochemical properties of both starches before and after gelatinization was greater than acetic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Desulfobacteraceae Member from a Sulfate-Reducing Bioreactor Metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Almstrand, Robert; Pinto, Ameet J.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Sharp, Jonathan O.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulfur cycle and of considerable commercial interest. The draft genome sequence of a sulfate-reducing bacterium of the family Desulfobacteraceae, assembled from a sulfate-reducing bioreactor metagenome, indicates that heavy-metal? and acid-resistance traits of this organism may be of importance for its application in acid mine drainage mitigation.

  16. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  17. Queensland Mines plant trials with Caro's acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.C.; Fulton, E.J.; Vautier, F.E.; Waters, D.J.; Ring, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory leach tests have been carried out to compare the effectiveness of Caro's acid (permonosulphuric acid) as an alternative oxidant to pyrolusite in the leaching of uranium ores. Results demonstrated that Caro's acid reduced acid consumption in leaching and the time required for neutralisation of tailings liquor. The uranium extraction was unaffected by choice of oxidant. A plant trial confirmed that significant savings in acid and lime usage can be achieved under plant conditions. Plant operations also demonstrated that Caro's acid has a number of significant operating advantages over pyrolusite. Queensland Mines Ltd. have recently decided to convert their leaching process from pyrolusite to Caro's acid

  18. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  19. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  20. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in posterior lumbar spine surgery for degenerative spinal stenosis with instability: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Stefan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative spinal stenosis and instability requiring multilevel spine surgery has been associated with large blood losses. Factors that affect perioperative blood loss include time of surgery, surgical procedure, patient height, combined anterior/posterior approaches, number of levels fused, blood salvage techniques, and the use of anti-fibrinolytic medications. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in spine surgery. Methods This retrospective case control study includes 97 patients who had to undergo surgery because of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and instability. All operations included spinal decompression, interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation (4-5 segments. Forty-six patients received 1 g tranexamic acid intravenous, preoperative and six hours and twelve hours postoperative; 51 patients without tranexamic acid administration were evaluated as a control group. Based on the records, the intra- and postoperative blood losses were measured by evaluating the drainage and cell saver systems 6, 12 and 24 hours post operation. Additionally, hemoglobin concentration and platelet concentration were reviewed. Furthermore, the number of red cell transfusions given and complications associated with tranexamic acid were assessed. Results The postoperative hemoglobin concentration demonstrated a statistically significant difference with a p value of 0.0130 showing superiority for tranexamic acid use (tranexamic acid group: 11.08 g/dl, SD: 1.68; control group: 10.29 g/dl, SD: 1.39. The intraoperative cell saver volume and drainage volume after 24 h demonstrated a significant difference as well, which indicates a less blood loss in the tranexamic acid group than the control group. The postoperative drainage volume at12 hours showed no significant differences; nor did the platelet concentration Allogenic blood transfusion (two red cell units was needed for eight patients

  1. Obeticholic Acid Improves Adipose Morphometry and Inflammation and Reduces Steatosis in Dietary but not Metabolic Obesity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haczeyni, Fahrettin; Poekes, Laurence; Wang, Hans; Mridha, Auvro R.; Barn, Vanessa; Haigh, W. Geoffrey; Ioannou, George N.; Yeh, Matthew M; Leclercq, Isabelle A.; Teoh, Narcissus C.; Farrell, Geoffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the outcome of interactions between overnutrition, energy metabolism, and adipose function. Obeticholic acid (OCA) improves steatosis in patients, but for unknown reason does not resolve NASH pathology. We therefore investigated OCA effects in Wt mice which develop obesity with atherogenic dietary feeding, and appetite-dysregulated, Alms1 mutant foz/foz mice fed the same diet which develop metabolic obesity and diabetes. Methods OCA (1mg/kg) was administered orally to female foz/foz mice and Wt littermates from weaning until 28 weeks. We studied adipose indices, glucose tolerance and fatty liver pathology. Experiments were repeated with OCA 10mg/kg. Results OCA reduced body weight and hepatic lipids and improved glucose disposal only in Wt mice. OCA limited Wt adipose expansion, altered morphometry in favour of small adipocytes, enhanced expression of genes indicating adipose browning, and reduced crown-like structure (CLS) number in visceral adipose. foz/foz mice showed more CLSs in all compartments; OCA failed to alter adipose morphometry, browning, inflammation, or improve NASH severity, even at 10mg/kg. Conclusion OCA improves adipose indices, glucose tolerance and steatosis in milder metabolic phenotype, but fails to improve these factors in morbidly obese diabetic mice. These results help explain OCA’s limited efficacy to reverse human NASH. PMID:27804232

  2. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentration is Reduced in Visual Cortex in Schizophrenia and Correlates with Orientation-Specific Surround Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H.; Maddock, Richard J.; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A.; Minzenberg, Michael J.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Carter, Cameron S.

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypothesis proposes that reduced neuronal GABA concentration and neurotransmission results in cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, few in vivo studies have directly examined this hypothesis. We employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at high field to measure visual cortical GABA levels in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 13 demographically matched healthy control subjects. We found that the schizophrenia group had an approximately 10% reduction in GABA concentration. We further tested the GABA hypothesis by examining the relationship between visual cortical GABA levels and orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS), a behavioral measure of visual inhibition thought to be dependent on GABAergic synaptic transmission. Previous work has shown that subjects with schizophrenia exhibit reduced OSSS of contrast discrimination (Yoon et al., 2009). For subjects with both MRS and OSSS data (n=16), we found a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.76) between these variables. GABA concentration was not correlated with overall contrast discrimination performance for stimuli without a surround (r=-0.10). These results suggest that a neocortical GABA deficit in subjects with schizophrenia leads to impaired cortical inhibition and that GABAergic synaptic transmission in visual cortex plays a critical role in OSSS. PMID:20220012

  3. Obeticholic acid, a selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, regulates bile acid homeostasis in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jackson, Jonathan P; St Claire, Robert L; Freeman, Kimberly; Brouwer, Kenneth R; Edwards, Jeffrey E

    2017-08-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a master regulator of bile acid homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and cellular membrane transport. Impairment of bile acid efflux due to cholangiopathies results in chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal elevation of intrahepatic and systemic bile acid levels. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent and selective FXR agonist that is 100-fold more potent than the endogenous ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The effects of OCA on genes involved in bile acid homeostasis were investigated using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. Gene expression was determined by measuring mRNA levels. OCA dose-dependently increased fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) which, in turn, suppress mRNA levels of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo synthesis of bile acids. Consistent with CYP7A1 suppression, total bile acid content was decreased by OCA (1 μmol/L) to 42.7 ± 20.5% relative to control. In addition to suppressing de novo bile acids synthesis, OCA significantly increased the mRNA levels of transporters involved in bile acid homeostasis. The bile salt excretory pump (BSEP), a canalicular efflux transporter, increased by 6.4 ± 0.8-fold, and the basolateral efflux heterodimer transporters, organic solute transporter α (OST α ) and OST β increased by 6.4 ± 0.2-fold and 42.9 ± 7.9-fold, respectively. The upregulation of BSEP and OST α and OST β, by OCA reduced the intracellular concentrations of d 8 -TCA, a model bile acid, to 39.6 ± 8.9% relative to control. These data demonstrate that OCA does suppress bile acid synthesis and reduce hepatocellular bile acid levels, supporting the use of OCA to treat bile acid-induced toxicity observed in cholestatic diseases. © 2017 Intercept Pharmaceuticals. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and

  4. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  5. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanzhe Wang, Zhiyi He, Shumin Deng Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. Methods: The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. Results: UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (P<0.01. Both the PPARγ protein level and the percentage of PPARγ-positive cells were increased in the UA-treated groups (P<0.01. Compared with the control group, the UA-treated groups exhibited reduced protein levels of MMP2, MMP9, and activated MAPKs (P<0.01 but an increased level of TIMP1 (P<0.01. UA exerted its protective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a

  6. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  7. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  8. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  9. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-12-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addition to plasmenylethanolamine, five other lipids which contain an alkenyl ether residue supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403 in a lecithin-cholesterol base medium. Of six steroids tested, cholesterol, cholest-4-en-3-one, cholest-4-en-3 beta-ol (allocholesterol), and androst-5-en-3 beta-ol-17-one supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403. All four steroids were reduced to the 3 beta-ol, 5 beta-H products. The delta 5 steroids cholest-5-en-3 alpha-ol (epicholesterol) and 22,23-bisnor-5-cholenic acid-3-beta-ol were not reduced and did not support growth of the Eubacterium strain.

  10. Recovery of nitric acid from simulated acidic high level radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, Vivek; Agarwal, Chhavi; Pandey, A.K.; Goswami, A.

    2014-01-01

    Acidic waste is generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle. The waste contains minor amounts of actinides ( 241 Am, Pu, Np) along with large number of long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 106 Ru etc. Before disposal or storage, the overall activity of the waste needs to be reduced. Along with this, the high amount of acid present in the waste needs to be removed. In this study, DD has been used to recover nitric acid from acidic solutions with compositions similar to radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

  11. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo sa...

  12. Reduced triacylglycerol mobilization during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis containing nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesise and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG. The utilization of such TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain an elevated level of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilised engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  13. Arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid-supplemented diet in early life reduces body weight gain, plasma lipids, and adiposity in later life in ApoE*3 Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.Y.; Harthoorn, L.F.; Verschuren, L.; Schoemaker, M.H.; Jouni, Z.E.; Tol, E.A.F. van; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.

    2012-01-01

    Scope: This study addresses whether early life arachidonic acid (ARA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/DHA (Omacor) supplementation affects body weight gain, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue quantity and quality in later life in ApoE*3Leiden-transgenic

  14. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  15. The selective conversion of glutamic acid in amino acid mixtures using glutamate decarboxylase--a means of separating amino acids for synthesizing biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yinglai; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids (AAs) derived from hydrolysis of protein rest streams are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry due to their functionality. However, separation of AAs is required before they can be used for further applications. Electrodialysis may be applied to separate AAs, but its efficiency is limited when separating AAs with similar isoelectric points. To aid the separation, specific conversion of an AA to a useful product with different charge behavior to the remaining compounds is desired. Here the separation of L-aspartic acid (Asp) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) was studied. L-Glutamate α-decarboxylase (GAD, Type I, EC 4.1.1.15) was applied to specifically convert Glu into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA has a different charge behavior from Asp therefore allowing a potential separation by electrodialysis. Competitive inhibition and reduced operational stability caused by Asp could be eliminated by maintaining a sufficiently high concentration of Glu. Immobilization of GAD does not reduce the enzyme's initial activity. However, the operational stability was slightly reduced. An initial study on the reaction operating in a continuous mode was performed using a column reactor packed with immobilized GAD. As the reaction mixture was only passed once through the reactor, the conversion of Glu was lower than expected. To complete the conversion of Glu, the stream containing Asp and unreacted Glu might be recirculated back to the reactor after GABA has been removed. Overall, the reaction by GAD is specific to Glu and can be applied to aid the electrodialysis separation of Asp and Glu. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Stress and Prolongs Survival in Rats with Advanced Liver Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Hara, Nagisa; Miyachi, Hirohide; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hideaki; Fujita, Naoki; Gabazza, Esteban C.; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (PBCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:23936183

  17. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  18. Inhibition of rotavirus replication by downregulation of fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Eleanor R; Cheung, Winsome; Richards, James E; Lever, Andrew; Desselberger, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Recently the recruitment of lipid droplets (LDs) to sites of rotavirus (RV) replication was reported. LDs are polymorphic organelles that store triacylglycerols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters. The neutral fats are derived from palmitoyl-CoA, synthesized via the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. RV-infected cells were treated with chemical inhibitors of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, and the effects on viral replication kinetics were assessed. Treatment with compound C75, an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase enzyme complex (FASN), reduced RV infectivity 3.2-fold (P = 0.07) and modestly reduced viral RNA synthesis (1.2-fold). Acting earlier in the fatty acid synthesis pathway, TOFA [5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] inhibits the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1). TOFA reduced the infectivity of progeny RV 31-fold and viral RNA production 6-fold. The effect of TOFA on RV infectivity and RNA replication was dose-dependent, and infectivity was reduced by administering TOFA up to 4 h post-infection. Co-treatment of RV-infected cells with C75 and TOFA synergistically reduced viral infectivity. Knockdown by siRNA of FASN and ACC1 produced findings similar to those observed by inhibiting these proteins with the chemical compounds. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis using a range of approaches uniformly had a more marked impact on viral infectivity than on viral RNA yield, inferring a role for LDs in virus assembly and/or egress. Specific inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism may help pinpoint the critical structural and biochemical features of LDs that are essential for RV replication, and facilitate the development of antiviral therapies.

  19. Gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets reduced degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Duarte Freire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are considered the first-line medication for preventing and treating tuberculosis. Rifampicin is degraded in the stomach acidic environment, especially when combined with isoniazid, factor contributing to treatment failure. In this study, gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets were obtained to physical contact of this drug with rifampicin and to bypass the stomach´s acidic environment. The pellets were fabricated using the extrusion-spheronization technique. The coating process was conducted in a fluid spray coater using Acrycoat L 100(r solution as the coating agent. The pellets obtained were submitted to a dissolution test in HCl 0.1 N and phosphate buffer media. The results indicated that optimum gastric-resistance was only attained with the highest amount of coating material, with isoniazid almost fully released in phosphate buffer. The amount of rifampicin released from its mixture with non-coated isoniazid pellets in HCl 0.1 N was less than that released from its mixture with the enteric-coated pellets. Acrycoat L 100(r was shown to be an effective enteric/gastric-resistant coating since the stability of rifampicin appeared to be enhanced when physical contact of this drug with isoniazid was prevented at low pH.

  20. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence...... these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  1. Influência de desproteinizantes ácidos na quantificação da glutationa reduzida eritrocitária por CLAE-UV Influence of deproteinizing acids in erythrocytic reduced glutathione quantification by HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Schott

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Large differences in reduced glutathione (GSH levels have been found in different investigations, also in healthy people. GSH oxidation in vitro has been associated with sample acidification in the presence of oxihemoglobin. In this work, the influence of different acids on GSH determination utilizing HPLC with UV detection was evaluated. The results showed that metaphosphoric acid and sulfosalicylic acid were inadequate for analysis, because metaphosphoric acid showed to be inefficient for deproteinization and with sulfosalicylic acid loss of GSH was observed. Trichloroacetic acid did not effect GSH quantification, since the deproteinized form was immediately derivatized with 5, 5´-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid. Methods with TCA deproteinization presented linear results from 0.5 to 3.0 mM. The correlation coefficient between aqueous curves and GSH spiked RBC exceeded 0.99. Precision calculations showed CV lower than 10% and bias within ± 10% for concentrations of 0.5; 1.5 and 3.0 mM GSH. The recovery was higher than 94%. Moreover, GSH blood concentrations were independent of hemoglobin concentrations.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with [3H]inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers

  3. Gallic acid attenuates calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II-induced apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Piao, Zhe Hao; Liu, Chun Ping; Sun, Simei; Liu, Bin; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Ryu, Yuhee; Kee, Hae Jin; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-03-01

    Hypertension causes cardiac hypertrophy and leads to heart failure. Apoptotic cells are common in hypertensive hearts. Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is associated with apoptosis. We recently demonstrated that gallic acid reduces nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid and has been shown to have beneficial effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-calcification and anti-oxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gallic acid regulates cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in essential hypertension. Gallic acid significantly lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and H&E staining revealed that gallic acid reduced cardiac enlargement in SHRs. Gallic acid treatment decreased cardiac hypertrophy marker genes, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), in SHRs. The four isoforms, α, β, δ and γ, of CaMKII were increased in SHRs and were significantly reduced by gallic acid administration. Gallic acid reduced cleaved caspase-3 protein as well as bax, p53 and p300 mRNA levels in SHRs. CaMKII δ overexpression induced bax and p53 expression, which was attenuated by gallic acid treatment in H9c2 cells. Gallic acid treatment reduced DNA fragmentation and the TUNEL positive cells induced by angiotensin II. Taken together, gallic acid could be a novel therapeutic for the treatment of hypertension through suppression of CaMKII δ-induced apoptosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Pre-sowing application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid to seed of pumpkin and seedling response to salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, N.; Raza, S.H.; Qasim, M.; Iqbal, N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of seed soaking with salicylic acid or ascorbic acid on pumpkin seedlings growth under saline (10 dS m/sup -1/) conditions were investigated. Seedlings fresh weight, protein contents, protease and nitrate reductase activities were significantly affected by 15 and 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid and 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid priming treatments, under both normal and saline conditions. Priming reduced the severity of the salt stress, the amelioration was better due to 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid or 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid treatments as these treatments showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry matter production under non-saline and saline environments. Application of seed priming with ascorbic acid and salicylic acid in pumpkin ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress. (author)

  5. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, J.F.; Phillips, J.F. Jr.; Tate, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    A method of recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is claimed where the acid is treated with a mixture of an ammonium salt or ammonia, a reducing agent, and then a miscible solvent. Solids are separated from the phosphoric acid liquid phase. The solid consists of a mixture of metal phosphates and uranium. It is washed free of adhering phosphoric acid with fresh miscible solvent. The solid is dried and dissolved in acid whereupon uranium is recovered from the solution. Miscible solvent and water are distilled away from the phosphoric acid. The distillate is rectified and water discarded. All miscible solvent is recovered for recycle. 5 claims

  6. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  7. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  8. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  9. Tranexamic Acid: From Trauma to Routine Perioperative Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jeff; Sikorski, Robert A.; Pittet, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Of Review Optimizing hemostasis with antifibrinolytics is becoming a common surgical practice. Large clinical studies have demonstrated efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in the trauma population to reduce blood loss and transfusions. Its use in patients without preexisting coagulopathies is debated, as thromboembolic events are a concern. In this review, perioperative administration of TXA is examined in non-trauma surgical populations. Additionally, risk of thromboembolism, dosing regimens, and timing of dosing are assessed. Recent Findings Perioperative use of tranexamic acid is associated with reduced blood loss and transfusions. Thromboembolic effects do not appear to be increased. However, optimal dosing and timing of TXA administration is still under investigation for non-trauma surgical populations. Summary As part of a perioperative blood management program, tranexamic acid can be used to help reduce blood loss and mitigate exposure to blood transfusion. PMID:25635366

  10. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  11. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  12. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated i...

  13. Effects of water on the esterification of free fatty acids by acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Deog-Keun; Lee, Jin-Suk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Wang, Zhong-Ming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, No. 2 Nengyuan Rd, Wushan, Tianhe, Guangzhou 510-640 (China)

    2010-03-15

    To maximize the production of biodiesel from soybean soapstock, the effects of water on the esterification of high-FFA (free fatty acid) oils were investigated. Oleic acid and high acid acid oil (HAAO) were esterified by reaction with methanol in the presence of Amberlyst-15 as a heterogeneous catalyst or sulfuric acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was studied at oil to methanol molar ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 and reaction temperatures of 60 and 80 C. The rate of esterification of oleic acid significantly decreased as the initial water content increased to 20% of the oil. The activity of Amberlyst-15 decreased more rapidly than that of sulfuric acid, due to the direct poisoning of acid sites by water. Esterification using sulfuric acid was not affected by water until there was a 5% water addition at a 1:6 molar ratio of oil to methanol. FAME content of HAAO prepared from soapstock rapidly increased for the first 30 min of esterification. Following the 30-min mark, the rate of FAME production decreased significantly due to the accumulation of water. When methanol and Amberlyst-15 were removed from the HAAO after 30 min of esterification and fresh methanol and a catalyst were added, the time required to reach 85% FAME content was reduced from 6 h to 1.8 h. (author)

  14. Effect of citric acid on noncovalent interactions in biopolymer jellies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuanyzhbek Musabekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of citric acid on the formation of gels based on gelatine, melon pulp and sugar has been studied. It is found that the structuring of gelatin the presence of melon pulp is due to hydrogen bonds between the amino acids of gelatin and pectin melon by hydrogen bonds. It is shown that the structuring of gelatin and gelatin – melon pulp depends on the concentration of sugar. The addition of acid in the pectin-gelatin composition reduces the pH, the solubility of pectin and accelerates the formation of jelly. This is due to the fact that in the presence of citric acid reduced the degree of dissociation of galacturonic acid. The intensity of the effect of citric acid on the structure in the presence of melon pulp could be explained by the formation of hydrogen bonds between pectin and citric acid.

  15. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight and regulates triglycerides in obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Azra; Prnjavorac, Besim; Jusufović, Edin; Sejdinović, Rifat

    2015-08-01

    To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day). Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  16. Can ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E reduce symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpricht, Eric; Rockway, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, and apraxia, are increasing worldwide and have a profound effect on the behaviors, cognitive skills, mood, and self-esteem of these children. Although the etiologies of these disorders are unclear, they often accompany genetic and biochemical abnormalities resulting in cognitive and communication difficulties. Because cognitive and neural development require essential fatty acids (particularly long-chain ω-3 fatty acids often lacking in mother's and children's diets) during critical growth periods, the potential behavior-modifying effects of these fatty acids as "brain nutrients" has attracted considerable attention. Additionally, there is compelling evidence for increased oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defenses, and neuroinflammation in these children. The purpose of this review is to provide a scientific rationale based on cellular, experimental animal model, observational, and clinical intervention studies for incorporating the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E as complementary nutritional therapies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Should this nutritional combination correct key clinical or biochemical outcomes and/or improve behavioral patterns, it would provide a safe, complementary option for these children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reducing the acidity of Arabica coffee beans by ohmic fermentation technology

    OpenAIRE

    Reta; Mursalim; Salengke; Junaedi, M.; Mariati; Sopade, P.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polygons, and it stimulates brain performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. Arabica coffee has...

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  19. Physiological effects of γ-linolenic acid and sesamin on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takashi; Iwase, Haruka; Amano, Saaya; Sunahara, Saki; Tachihara, Ayuka; Yagi, Minako; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Interrelated effects of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and sesamin, a sesame lignan, on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation were examined. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) and containing 100 g/kg of palm oil (saturated fat), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, or oil of evening primrose origin containing 43% GLA (GLA oil) for 18 days. In rats fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, increased the activity and mRNA levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, except for some instances. Sesamin greatly increased these parameters, and the enhancing effects of sesamin on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate and acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities were more exaggerated in rats fed GLA oil than in the animals fed other oils. The combination of sesamin and GLA oil also synergistically increased the mRNA levels of some peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes and of several enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism located in other cell organelles. In the groups fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, markedly reduced the activity and mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes. Sesamin reduced all these parameters, except for malic enzyme, in rats fed palm and safflower oils, but the effects were attenuated in the animals fed GLA oil. These changes by sesamin and fat type accompanied profound alterations in serum lipid levels. This may be ascribable to the changes in apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  1. Long term determination of dopamine and uric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid using ytterbia/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite prepared through a sonochemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Hossein; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Faridbod, Farnoush

    2018-01-01

    Decoration of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with nano-size inorganic particles creates a class of composites with considerably improved characteristics. Improvements in the function of electrochemical energy-storage devices, catalysts and sensors using such particles, have hence attracted a great deal of interest to the area. This manuscript tends to report the results of the research on the application of a sonochemical route for anchoring nano-sized Yb2O3 (Ytterbia) particles, on sheets of RGO. The anchoring phenomenon is based on the self-assembly of the Yb2O3 nano-particles under sonochemical treatments in an ultrasonic bath. To evaluate the method, the produced Yb2O3-RGO nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), which proved the uniform distribution of the nano-particles on the RGO sheets. Additionally, the Yb2O3-RGO nano-composites were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), to assess the potentials of their application in electrochemical devices. The high activity of the produced Yb2O3-RGO nanocomposites can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Yb2O3 and RGO as well as the porous structure of the nanocomposite. Due to their stability, electrocatalytic properties and large accessible surface area, the low detection limit sensor is usable for long term usages in blood serum and wide linear dynamic range. There are linear relationships between current intensities and concentrations in the region 0.3-800 μM dopamine (DA), and 0.2-210 μM uric acid (UA), and the limits of detection (LOD) (S/N = 3) are down to 0.02 μM and 0.01 μM for DA and UA, respectively in 0.5 mM solution of ascorbic acid.

  2. Incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis in the health outcomes and reduced incidence with zoledronic acid once yearly pivotal fracture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, John T; Landesberg, Regina; Lin, Shou-Qing; Mesenbrink, Peter; Reid, Ian R; Leung, Ping-Chung; Casas, Noemi; Recknor, Christopher P; Hua, Ye; Delmas, Pierre D; Eriksen, Erik F

    2008-01-01

    The authors determined incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in a large, prospective three-year clinical trial of zoledronic acid in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). A total of 7,714 women with PMO received intravenous zoledronic acid 5 mg or a placebo. No spontaneous reports of ONJ were received. An independent, blinded adjudication committee searched the trial's adverse event database by using 60 terms. On an ongoing basis, the committee reviewed the identified events, and it defined ONJ as exposed bone in the maxillofacial area with delayed healing for more than six weeks despite appropriate care. One participant who received a placebo and one participant who received zoledronic acid experienced delayed healing associated with infection. Both conditions resolved after antibiotic therapy, débridement or both. The occurrence of ONJ is rare in a PMO population, and delayed healing of lesions can occur with and without bisphosphonate use over three years. The low incidence of ONJ must be assessed in the context of the clinical benefit of zoledronic acid therapy in reducing hip, vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in this at-risk population. There is no evidence to suggest that healthy patients with osteoporosis who are receiving bisphosphonates require any special treatment beyond routine dental care or to support altering standard treatment practices.

  3. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller...

  4. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  5. Antiarrhythmic effects of n-3 fatty acids: evidence from human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review N-3 fatty acids from fish reduce cardiovascular mortality including sudden cardiac death. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of human studies with regard to the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of fatal coronary heart disease through antiarrhythmic

  6. Assessing the Impact of Current National Policies to Reduce Salt ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assessing the Impact of Current National Policies to Reduce Salt and Trans Fatty Acids in Argentina ... The Codex Alimentarius, or international food safety standards, will also decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) ... Researchers will develop a strategy to share results with policymakers and other stakeholders. ... Journal articles.

  7. Enhanced detection of amino acids in hydrophilic interaction chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with carboxylic acids as mobile phase additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dengyang; Hu, Xunxiu; Liu, Dantong; Du, Wencheng; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Mengzhe; Tang, Daoquan

    2017-06-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technique has been widely used in the analysis of biological targets such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In this work, eight common single carboxylic acids or diacids, which contain different pKa have been investigated as the additives to the analysis of amino acids. As the results, carboxylic acid additive can improve the signal intensity of acidity amino acids such as Asp and Glu and the chromatographic separation of basic amino acids such as Arg, His, and Lys. In particular, the diacids have better performance than single acids. The proposed mechanism is that the diacid has hydrogen bond interaction with amino acids to reduce their polarity/amphiprotic characteristics. Besides, oxalic acid has been found having better enhancement than phthalic acid by overall consideration. Therefore, we successfully quantified the 15 amino acids in Sepia bulk pharmaceutical chemical by using oxalic acid as the additive.

  8. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  10. Folic acid and pantothenic acid protection against valproic acid-induced neural tube defects in CD-1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jennifer E [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Raymond, Angela M [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Winn, Louise M [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2006-03-01

    In utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). Although the mechanism by which VPA mediates these effects is unknown, VPA-initiated changes in embryonic protein levels have been implicated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of in utero VPA exposure on embryonic protein levels of p53, NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, c-Myb, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the CD-1 mouse. We also evaluated the protective effects of folic acid and pantothenic acid on VPA-induced NTDs and VPA-induced embryonic protein changes in this model. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered a teratogenic dose of VPA prior to neural tube closure and embryonic protein levels were analyzed. In our study, VPA (400 mg/kg)-induced NTDs (24%) and VPA-exposed embryos with an NTD showed a 2-fold increase in p53, and 4-fold decreases in NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, and c-Myb protein levels compared to their phenotypically normal littermates (P < 0.05). Additionally, VPA increased the ratio of embryonic Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels (P < 0.05). Pretreatment of pregnant dams with either folic acid or pantothenic acid prior to VPA significantly protected against VPA-induced NTDs (P < 0.05). Folic acid also reduced VPA-induced alterations in p53, NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, c-Myb, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels, while pantothenic acid prevented VPA-induced alterations in NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, and c-Myb. We hypothesize that folic acid and pantothenic acid protect CD-1 embryos from VPA-induced NTDs by independent, but not mutually exclusive mechanisms, both of which may be mediated by the prevention of VPA-induced alterations in proteins involved in neurulation.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  12. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE L )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NE L /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NE L /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Reduces Bile Acid/Farnesoid X Receptor Expression through Fxr gene CpG Methylation in Mouse Colon Tumors and Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmin, Ornella I; Fang, Changming; Lyon, Adam M; Doetschman, Tom C; Thompson, Patricia A; Martinez, Jesse D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Lance, Peter M; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2016-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism and possesses tumor suppressor functions. FXR expression is reduced in colorectal tumors of subjects carrying inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this reduction may offer new molecular targets for colon cancer prevention. We investigated how APC inactivation influences the regulation of FXR expression in colonic mucosal cells. We hypothesized that APC inactivation would epigenetically repress nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (FXR gene name) expression through increased CpG methylation. Normal proximal colonic mucosa and normal-appearing adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors were collected from wild-type C57BL/6J and Apc-deficient (Apc(Min) (/+)) male mice, respectively. The expression of Fxr, ileal bile acid-binding protein (Ibabp), small heterodimer partner (Shp), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In both normal and adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors, we measured CpG methylation of Fxr in bisulfonated genomic DNA. In vitro, we measured the impact of APC inactivation and deoxycholic acid (DCA) treatment on FXR expression in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells transfected with silencing RNA for APC and HT-29 cells carrying inactivated APC. In Apc(Min) (/+) mice, constitutive CpG methylation of the Fxrα3/4 promoter was linked to reduced (60-90%) baseline Fxr, Ibabp, and Shp and increased Cox-2 expression in apparently normal adjacent mucosa and colon tumors. Apc knockdown in HCT-116 cells increased cellular myelocytomatosis (c-MYC) and lowered (∼50%) FXR expression, which was further reduced (∼80%) by DCA. In human HCT-116 but not HT-29 colon cancer cells, DCA induced FXR expression and lowered CpG methylation of FXR. We conclude that the loss of APC function favors the silencing of FXR expression through CpG hypermethylation in mouse colonic mucosa and human colon cells

  14. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J. A., E-mail: jjaen@ancon.up.ac.p [Universidad de Panama, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama); Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G. [Universidad de Panama, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama)

    2003-06-15

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  15. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J. A.; Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-01-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  16. The preparation of solid acid and acid water reducing agent for slag is prepared by adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Su; Wang, Jinpeng; Zhu, Xitong

    2018-03-01

    Solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer can not only solve the problems caused by water reducing agent in storage and transportation, but also meet the needs of some special projects. We can choose to use the mineral slag, which is larger than surface area and has stronger adsorption, as adsorbent to absorb liquid polycarboxylate superplasticizer and absorb its moisture, and then makes solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer after drying. It determines the solid-liquid ratio to prepare the solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer to be 3:1. The temperature change within 100°C will not cause changes in the functional group and structure of the water reducing agent molecule. The application of the solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer was basically unchanged compared with its liquid water reducing agent.

  17. Ibuprofen-conjugated hyaluronate/polygalacturonic acid hydrogel for the prevention of epidural fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yi; Peng, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Chang, Chih-Ju; Liu, Tse-Ying; Chen, Ming-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The formation of fibrous tissue is part of the natural healing response following a laminectomy. Severe scar tissue adhesion, known as epidural fibrosis, is a common cause of failed back surgery syndrome. In this study, by combining the advantages of drug treatment with a physical barrier, an ibuprofen-conjugated crosslinkable polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed for epidural fibrosis prevention. Conjugation was confirmed and measured by 1D(1)H NMR spectroscopy.In vitroanalysis showed that the ibuprofen-conjugated polygalacturonic acid-hyaluronic acid hydrogel showed low cytotoxicity. In addition, the conjugated ibuprofen decreased prostaglandin E2production of the lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. Histological data inin vivostudies indicated that the scar tissue adhesion of laminectomized male adult rats was reduced by the application of our ibuprofen-conjugated polygalacturonic acid-hyaluronic acid hydrogel. Its use also reduced the population of giant cells and collagen deposition of scar tissue without inducing extensive cell recruitment. The results of this study therefore suggest that the local delivery of ibuprofenviaa polygalacturonic acid-hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel reduces the possibility of epidural fibrosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshio; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells

  19. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1 Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, acid pretreatment technology for the production of bio-ethanol from corn stover has required severe conditions to overcome biomass recalcitrance. However, the high usage of acid and steam at severe pretreatment conditions hinders the economic feasibility of the ethanol production from biomass. In addition, the amount of acetate and furfural produced during harsh pretreatment is in the range that strongly inhibits cell growth and impedes ethanol fermentation. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. Results The results showed that deacetylation with 0.1 M NaOH before acid pretreatment improved the monomeric xylose yield in pretreatment by up to 20% while keeping the furfural yield under 2%. Deacetylation also improved the glucose yield by 10% and the xylose yield by 20% during low solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining using a PFI mill further improved sugar yields during both low- and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining also allowed enzyme loadings to be reduced while maintaining high yields. Deacetylation and mechanical refining are shown to assist in achieving 90% cellulose yield in high-solids (20% enzymatic hydrolysis. When fermentations were performed under pH control to evaluate the effect of deacetylation and mechanical refining on the ethanol yields, glucose and xylose utilizations over 90% and ethanol yields over 90% were achieved. Overall ethanol yields were calculated based on experimental results for the base case and modified cases. One modified case that integrated deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing was estimated to produce 88 gallons of ethanol per ton of biomass. Conclusion The current work developed a novel bio-ethanol process that features pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation

  20. MoS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for sensitive sensing of cysteamine in presence of uric acid in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekin, Fereshteh, E-mail: fchekin@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ISEN, Univ. Valenciennes, UMR 8520 - IEMN, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2017-04-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was fabricated by a facile and effective method. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposite (MoS{sub 2}-rGO) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The MoS{sub 2} nanosheets were uniformly anchored on the rGO framework with strong adhesion. A glassy carbon electrode modified by drop-casting with MoS{sub 2}-rGO was used for the electrochemical oxidation of cysteamine (CA) in the presence of uric acid (UA). Under optimum conditions, the anodic peak current of CA shows a linear relation with the CA concentration between 0.01 and 20 μM with a detection limit of 7 nM. The proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determination of CA in human plasma. - Highlights: • The hybrid nanocomposite composed of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide was fabricated by a facile and effective method. • The MoS{sub 2} nanosheets were uniformly anchored on the rGO framework with strong adhesion. • Glassy carbon electrodes modified with MoS{sub 2}-rGO was used for electro-oxidation of cysteamine (CA) in presence of uric acid (UA). • The anodic peak current of CA at the surface of modified electrode is linear to its concentration ranges at 0.01 to 20 μM with a detection limit of 7 nM. • The proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determination of CA in human plasma. • The accuracy of the method was as excellent comparing with the obtained results using reference method.

  1. Reduction of trace quantities of chromium(VI by strong acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzin Sérgio H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical behavior of Cr(VI at low concentrations (10-4 to 10-7 mol L-1 in several strong acids was studied using high specific activity 51Cr(VI as a tracer. The speciation of the products from these systems was carried out by ion exchange chromatography with stepwise elution. The results show that trace quantities of Cr(VI, monitored by means of radiochromium (51Cr, are reduced in the presence of mineral acids such as perchloric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, nitric and trifluoromethanesulfonic acids, even in the absence of conventional reducing agents, producing different measureable Cr(III species, depending on the acid anion. Detailed studies of the reduction of low concentrations of Cr(VI with nitric acid have shown that the relative rate of reduction increases as the concentration of the acid increases or as the concentration of the Cr(VI decreases.

  2. Pretreatment of liver grafts in vivo by γ-aminobutyric acid receptor regulation reduces cold ischemia/warm reperfusion injury in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tomohide; Gardner, Lindsay B.; Hata, Toshiyuki; Chen, Feng; Baine, Ann-Marie T.; Uemoto, Shinji; Nguyen, Justin H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is found throughout the body. The regulation of GABA receptor (GABAR) reduces oxidative stress (OS). Ischemia/reperfusion injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) causes OS-induced graft damage. The effects of GABAR regulation in donors in vivo were investigated. Material/Methods: Donor rats received saline, a GABAR agonist or GABAR antagonist 4 h before surgery. Recipient rats were divided into four groups according to the donor treatments: laparotomy, OLT with saline, OLT with GABAR agonist and OLT with GABAR antagonist. Histopathological, biochemical and immunohistological examinations were performed at 6, 12 and 24 h after OLT. Protein assays were performed at 6 h after OLT. The 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed by western blot analysis. Results: In the univariate analysis, histopathological and biochemical profiles verified that the GABAR agonist reduced graft damage. Immunohistology revealed that the GABAR agonist prevented the induction of apoptosis. Measurement of 4-4-HNE levels confirmed OS-induced damage after OLT, and the GABAR agonist improved this damage. In the γH2AX, PI3K, Akt and antioxidant enzymes (SODs), ATM and H2AX were greatly increased after OLT, and were reduced by the GABAR agonist. In the multivariate analyses between multiple groups, histopathological assessment, aspartate aminotransferase level, immunohistological examinations for apoptotic induction and γH2AX showed statistical differences. Conclusions: A specific agonist demonstrated regulation of GABAR in vivo in the liver. This activation in vivo reduced OS after OLT via the ATM/H2AX pathway. PMID:23792534

  3. Amino acid amides of piperic acid (PA) and 4-ethylpiperic acid (EPA) as NorA efflux pump inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Singh, Samsher; Farooq, Saleem; Shankar, Sudha; Koul, Surrinder; Khan, Inshad Ali; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-09-01

    A total of eighteen piperic acid (PA) and 4-ethylpiperic acid (EPA) amides (C1-C18) with α-, β- and γ-amino acids were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their efflux pump inhibitory activity against ciprofloxacin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The amides were screened against NorA overexpressing S. aureus SA-1199B and wild type S. aureus SA-1199 using ethidium bromide as NorA efflux pump substrate. EPI C6 was found to be most potent and reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin by 16 fold followed by C18 which showed 4 fold reduction of MIC. Ethidium bromide efflux inhibition and accumulation assay proved these compounds as NorA inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study on the way of formation of amino acids on primitive earth under non-reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huaibin; Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    2001-01-01

    Low energy ions were produced by N 2 glow discharge. The positive ions were accelerated into three kinds of carboxylate solution to induce chemical reactions. HPLC analysis showed that N was deposited into the solution, ammonia and amino acids were produced by such kind of implantation. The time-response of amounts of amino acids was given. The results presented a new way for the production of ammonia and amino acids under primitive earth conditions

  5. Quantification of the xylem-to-phloem transfer of amino acids by use of inulin (14C)carboxylic acid as xylem transfer marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bel, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inulin ( 14 C)carboxylic acid and 14 C-labelled amino acid (α-aminoisobutyric acid (aib) and valine) solutions were introduced into the transpiration stream through the cut stem bases of young (4-12 leaves) tomato plants. Inulin carboxylic acid (inu) was translocated exclusively by the xylem, whereas the amino acid distribution resulted from both xylem and phloem import. Comparison of the distribution of inu and aib permitted a quantitative assessment of the xylem-to-phloem transfer in the stem. Of aib, 20.6% traversed from xylem to phloem in a plant with 12 leaves. The phloem import was not evenly distributed over the leaves and varied from 0% (first five leaves) to 95% (top leaf) of the aib import per leaf. Doubling the flow rates in the xylem reduced the aib supply to 25% in the top leaf and 55% in the next leaf, which reflects a reduced xylem-to-phloem transfer. (author)

  6. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  7. Development of Acid Resistance Velocity Sensor for Analyzing Acidic Fluid Flow Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gyujin; Yoon, Jinwon; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This study presents the development of an acid resistance velocity sensor that is used for measuring velocity inside a copper sulfate plating bath. First, researchers investigated the acid resistance coating to confirm the suitability of the anti-acid sensor in a very corrosive environment. Then, researchers applied signal processing methods to reduce noise and amplify the signal. Next, researchers applied a pressure-resistive sensor with an operation amplifier (Op Amp) and low-pass filter with high impedance to match the output voltage of a commercial flowmeter. Lastly, this study compared three low-pass filters (Bessel, Butterworth and Chebyshev) to select the appropriate signal process circuit. The results show 0.0128, 0.0023, and 5.06% of the mean square error, respectively. The Butterworth filter yielded more precise results when compared to a commercial flowmeter. The acid resistive sensor is capable of measuring velocities ranging from 2 to 6 m/s with a 2.7% margin of error.

  8. Ursodeoxycholic acid reduces protein levels and nucleation-promoting activity in human gallbladder bile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erpecum, K. J.; Portincasa, P.; Eckhardt, E.; Go, P. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Groen, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    Background & Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents gallstone formation in selected patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether decreased concentration and nucleation-promoting activity of various proteins contribute to this beneficial effect. Methods: Gallbladder bile of 13 patients with

  9. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 μM SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: ► Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions ► Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia ► Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia ► Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia

  10. Waste cleaning using CO2-acid microemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Sung, Jinhyun; Koh, Moonsung; Ju, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Frequently we need to decontaminate radioactive wastes for volume reduction purposes. Metallic contaminants in wastes can be removed by dissolution to acid; however, this process produces a large amount of liquid acid waste. To reduce this 2ndary liquid waste, we suggest CO 2 -acid emulsion in removing metallic contaminants. Micro- and macro-emulsion of acid in liquid/supercritical CO 2 were successfully made. The formation region of microemulsion (water or acid in CO 2 ) was measured, and stability of the microemulsion was analyzed with respect to surfactant types. We applied micro- and macro-emulsion containing acid to the decontamination of radioactive metallic parts contaminated on the surface. The cleaning methods of micro- and macro-emulsion seemed better compared to the conventional acid cleaning. Moreover, these methods produce very small amount of secondary wastes. (author)

  11. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  12. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and prolongs survival in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoh Iwasa

    Full Text Available Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05. The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver.

  13. Piper sarmentosum is comparable to glycyrrhizic acid in reducing visceral fat deposition in adrenalectomised rats given dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairus, A; Ima Nirwana, S; Elvy Suhana, M R; Tan, M H; Santhana, R; Farihah, H S

    2013-01-01

    Visceral obesity may be due to the dysregulation of cortisol production or metabolism that lead to metabolic disease. In adipose tissue, the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates cortisol metabolism (11beta-HSD1). A previous study showed an increase in the visceral fat deposition in adrenalectomised rats given intramuscular dexamethasone. Glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) has been shown to reduce fat deposition because it is a known potent inhibitor of the 11beta-HSD1 enzyme. Piper sarmentosum (PS) is an edible medicinal plant commonly used in Asia as traditional medicine for treating diabetes, hypertension and joint pains. In this study, we determined the effects of PS extract on the disposition and morphology of perirenal adipocytes of adrenalectomised rats given intramuscular dexamethasone. A total of 21 male Spraque Dawley rats were adrenalectomised and given intramuscular dexamethasone, 120 μg/kg/day. These rats were further divided into three groups: adrenalectomised control (ADR+Dexa; n=7), GCA-treated (ADR+Dexa+GCA; dose=240 mg/kg/day; n=7) and PS-treated (ADR+Dexa+PS; dose=125 mg/kg/day; n=7) groups. The various treatments were given via gastric gavage following 2 weeks of adrenalectomy. Treatment with PS extract for 8 weeks showed decreased deposition of perirenal adipocytes which was similar to the GCA-treated group. However, PS-treated rats had thinner adipocyte membrane compared with that of the GCA-treated group. In conclusion, PS extract decreased perirenal fat deposition and reduced the diameter of the adipocyte membrane. However, the mechanisms of action needed further study.

  14. Electrochemistry of actinide on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide: Electrocatalysis of Np(VI)O22+/Np(V)O2+ in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambolikar, Arvind S.; Guin, Saurav K.; Kasar, U.M.; Kamat, J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of neptunium on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGNO). • First report on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + . • The electrochemical reversibility of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + redox couple improves on ERGNO compared to GC. • ERGNO shows higher sensitivity for the determination of Np compared to bare GC electrode. • The efficiency of detection of Np by ERGNO is improved by virtue of the electrocatalysis. - Abstract: Driven by the academic interest, we have studied the aqueous electrochemistry of neptunium (Np) in 1 M nitric acid solution on the electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGNO) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Similar to our previous experiences on the electrocatalytic action of ERGNO on the electrochemistry of uranium(VI)/uranium(IV) and plutonium(IV)/plutonium(III) redox couples, the present study confirms the robust electrocatalytic ability of ERGNO for the redox reaction of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + in acidic solution even at high anodic working potentials. The extent of the electrochemical reversibility of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + redox couple increases on ERGNO compared to the bare GC electrode. For the first time, the electron transfer reaction of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + redox couple is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The improved sensitivity as well as the lower limit of detection of Np by anodic square wave voltammetry on ERGNO compared to bare GC opens up the application of ERGNO in the nuclear science and technology.

  15. Effect of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral bone mineral density loss following total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis from randomized controlled trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Gao, Chong; Li, Hui; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Chang; Ran, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficiency of intravenous administration of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density loss in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966-2017.07.31), PubMed (1966-2017.07.31), Embase (1980-2017.07.31), ScienceDirect (1985-2017.07.31) and the Cochrane Library (1966-2017.07.31). Fixed/random effect model was used according to the heterogeneity tested by I 2 statistic. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and publication bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Four studies including 185 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of periprosthetic bone mineral density in Gruen zone 1 (SMD = 0.752, 95% CI: 0.454 to 1.051, P = 0.000), 2 (SMD = 0.524, 95% CI: 0.230 to 0.819, P = 0.000), 4 (SMD = 0.400, 95% CI: 0.107 to 0.693, P = 0.008), 6 (SMD = 0.893, 95% CI: 0.588 to 1.198, P = 0.000) and 7 (SMD = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.677 to 1.300, P = 0.000). Intravenous administration of zoledronic acid could significantly reduce periprosthetic bone mineral density loss (Gruen zone 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7) after THA. In addition, no severe adverse events were identified. High-quality RCTs with large sample size were still required. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dodecanoic -Acid in Extra Virgin Coconut Oil, May Reduce the Incidence of Heart Disease and Cancer in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Somayeh Zaminpira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Lauric-acid is a 12-carbon, medium-length, long-chain fatty acid that makes up around 50 percent of the fatty acids within coconut oil. It is a powerful compound that is sometimes extracted from the coconut for use in developing monolaurin. Monolaurin is an anti-microbial agent that is able to fight bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and other pathogens. Since one cannot ingest lauric-acid alone because it is irritating and not found alone in nature, one is most likely to consume it in the ...

  17. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M., E-mail: dr_Hanan_el_gowali@hotmail.com; Saad, Evan I.; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A.; Ibrahim, Einas R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of α-lipoic acid (35 mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5 mg/kg sc) for 6 days starting 2 days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of α-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-α. Unexpectedly, co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using α-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients. - Highlights: • Lipoic acid is more effective than

  19. Comparison of Lactic Acid, Peracetic Acid and Sodium Hypochlorite in Disinfection of Bovine Carcasses at a Meat Processing Plant in Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Montero, Verónica; Acero Plazas, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection systems play an important role in reducing microbiological hazards in cattle carcasses. Disinfection is used in processing plants to decrease the number of pathogenic microorganisms present in the surface of the product. This study evaluated the efficacy of three disinfectants: lactic acid (0.9 ± 2%), peroxyacetic acid (100 ± 20 ppm) and sodium hypochlorite (100 ± 20 ppm) in reducing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in the surface of bovine carcasses within the premises of a ...

  20. Lactobacillus casei combats acid stress by maintaining cell membrane functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains have traditionally been recognized as probiotics and frequently used as adjunct culture in fermented dairy products where lactic acid stress is a frequently encountered environmental condition. We have investigated the effect of lactic acid stress on the cell membrane of L. casei Zhang [wild type (WT)] and its acid-resistant mutant Lbz-2. Both strains were grown under glucose-limiting conditions in chemostats; following challenge by low pH, the cell membrane stress responses were investigated. In response to acid stress, cell membrane fluidity decreased and its fatty acid composition changed to reduce the damage caused by lactic acid. Compared with the WT, the acid-resistant mutant exhibited numerous survival advantages, such as higher membrane fluidity, higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and higher mean chain length. In addition, cell integrity analysis showed that the mutant maintained a more intact cellular structure and lower membrane permeability after environmental acidification. These results indicate that alteration in membrane fluidity, fatty acid distribution, and cell integrity are common mechanisms utilized by L. casei to withstand severe acidification and to reduce the deleterious effect of lactic acid on the cell membrane. This detailed comparison of cell membrane responses between the WT and mutant add to our knowledge of the acid stress adaptation and thus enable new strategies to be developed aimed at improving the industrial performance of this species under acid stress.

  1. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...... that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile...

  2. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  3. Chemically reducing decontamination method for radioactive metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Onuma, Tsutomu; Sato, Hitoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a decontamination method of electrolytically reducing radioactive metal wastes, then chemically dissolving the surface thereof with a strong acid decontaminating solution. This method utilizes dissolving characteristics of stainless steels in the strong acid solution. That is, in the electrolytic reduction operation, a portion of the metal wastes is brought into contact with a strong acid decontaminating solution, and voltage and current are applied to the portion and keep it for a long period of time so as to make the potential of the immersed portion of the metal wastes to an active soluble region. Then, the electrolytic reduction operation is stopped, and the metal wastes are entirely immersed in the decontaminating solution to decontaminate by chemical dissolution. As the decontaminating solution, strong acid such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid is used. Since DC current power source capacity required for causing reaction in the active soluble region can be decreased, the decontamination facility can be minimized and simplified, and necessary electric power can be saved even upon decontamination of radioactive metal wastes made of stainless steels and having a great area. Further, chemical dissolution can be conducted without adding an expensive oxidizing agent. (N.H.)

  4. Alternative to Nitric Acid for Passivation of Stainless Steel Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. Consequently, it is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The DoD and NASA have numerous structures and equipment that are fabricated from stainless steel. The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits including increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational cost. DoD and NASA agreed to collaborate to validate citric acid as an acceptable passivating agent for stainless steel. This paper details our investigation of prior work developing the citric acid passivation process, development of the test plan, optimization of the process for specific stainless steel alloys, ongoing and planned testing to elucidate the process' resistance to corrosion in comparison to nitric acid, and preliminary results.

  5. Tissue Fatty Acid Profile is Differently Modulated from Olive Oil and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in ApcMin/+ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutino, Valeria; Caruso, Maria G; De Leonardis, Giampiero; De Nunzio, Valentina; Notarnicola, Maria

    2017-11-16

    Fatty acid profile can be considered an appropriate biomarker for investigating the relations between the patterns of fatty acid metabolism and specific diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to test the effects of diets enriched with olive oil and omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid profile in intestinal tissue of ApcMin/+ mice. Three groups of animals were considered: control group, receiving a standard diet; olive oilgroup, receiving a standard diet enriched with olive oil; omega-3 group, receiving a standard diet enriched with salmon fish. Tissue fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography method. Olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs in the diet differently affect the tissue fatty acid profile. Compared to control group, the levels of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) were lower in olive oil group, while an increase of SFAs was found in omega-3 group. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) levels were enhanced after olive oil treatment, and in particular, a significant increase of oleic acid levels was detected; MUFAs levels were instead reduced in omega-3 group in line with the decrease of oleic acid levels. The total PUFAs levels were lower in olive oil respect to control group. Moreover, a significant induction of Saturation Index (SI) levels was observed after omega-3 PUFAs treatment, while its levels were reduced in mice fed with olive oil. Our data demonstrated a different effect of olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs on tissue lipid profile in APCMin/+ mice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP p...... production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate...

  7. Acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa residue for ethanol and lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Park, Youn-Je; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa waste, to obtain the hydrolysate containing lactic acid and ethanol fermentative sugars. A central composite design for describing regression equations of variables was used. The selected optimum condition was 4.91% sulphuric acid, 122.68°C and 50 min using the desirability function under the following conditions: the maximum reducing sugar (RS) yield is within the limited range of the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural concentrations. Under the condition, the obtained solution contained 144 g RS/L, 0.79 g furfural/L and 2.59 g HMF/L and was directly fermented without a detoxification step. The maximum product concentration, average productivity, RS conversion and product yield were 115.36 g/L, 2.88 g/L/h, 89.43% and 64% for L-lactic acid; 113.92 g/L, 2.59 g/L/h, 88.31% and 63.29% for D-lactic acid; and 55.03 g/L, 1.38 g/L/h, 42.66 and 30.57%, respectively, for ethanol using a 7-L jar fermenter. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Dutch 'Folic Acid Campaign'-have the goals been achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, KM; de Walle, HEK; Jeeninga, W; de Rover, C; Cornel, MC; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Schouten, J; Brand, R; Buitendijk, SE

    Periconceptional folic acid use considerably reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the national and the local 'Folic Acid Campaign' on periconceptional folic acid use. Before (1995 survey) and 1 year after the campaign (1996 survey), the

  9. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  11. PAMP-induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Vincentius A; Altmann, Simone; Ellinger, Dorothea; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Miersch, Otto; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep-13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA-deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans.

  12. The Defense-Related Isoleucic Acid Differentially Accumulates in Arabidopsis Among Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related 2-Hydroxy Carboxylic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał P. Maksym

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA related 2-hydroxy carboxylic acid isoleucic acid (ILA enhances salicylic acid-mediated pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. ILA has been identified in A. thaliana as its glucose conjugate correlated with the activity of the small-molecule glucosyltransferase UGT76B1, which can glucosylate both salicylic acid and ILA in vitro. However, endogenous levels of the ILA aglycon have not yet been determined in planta. To quantify ILA as well as the related leucic acid (LA and valic acid (VA in plant extracts, a sensitive method based on the derivatization of small carboxylic acids by silylation and gas chromatography–mass spectrometric analysis was developed. ILA was present in all species tested including several monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants as well as broadleaf and coniferous trees, whereas LA and VA were only detectable in a few species. In A. thaliana both ILA and LA were found. However, their levels varied during plant growth and in root vs. leaves. ILA levels were higher in 2-week-old leaves and decreased in older plants, whereas LA exhibited a reverted accumulation pattern. Roots displayed higher ILA and LA levels compared to leaves. ILA was inversely related to UGT76B1 expression level indicating that UGT76B1 glucosylates ILA in planta. In contrast, LA was not affected by the expression of UGT76B1. To address the relation of both 2-hydroxy acids to plant defense, we studied ILA and LA levels upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae. LA abundance remained unaffected, whereas ILA was reduced. This change suggests an ILA-related attenuation of the salicylic acid response. Collectively, the BCAA-related ILA and LA differentially accumulated in Arabidopsis, supporting a specific role and regulation of the defense-modulating small-molecule ILA among these 2-hydroxy acids. The new sensitive method will pave the way to further unravel their role in plants.

  13. Radiolytic degradation of sorbic acid in isolated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, B.R.; Trehan, I.R.; Arya, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of Co(60) gamma-irradiation on stability of sorbic acid (SA) in solutions, dough and chapaties has been investigated. SA was highly susceptible to radiolytic degradation in aqueous systems. Rate of degradation decreased with rise in pH. Sugars, hydrocolloids except pectin, citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, arginine and threonine, catalyzed degradation while oxalic acid, maleic acid, Cu2+, nitrite, nitrate and phthalate had protective effects. SA was more stable in alcohols and vegetable oils than in aqueous solutions. In wheat flour radiolytic degradation of SA was less at lower moisture. Relatively SA was more stable in chapaties than in dough. Gelatinization and addition of oil in dough reduced degradation of SA

  14. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-01-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0....

  15. Effects of simple rain-shelter cultivation on fatty acid and amino acid accumulation in 'Chardonnay' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Nan; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation. Fifteen fatty acids and 21 amino acids were detected in total. The rain-shelter cultivation led to an increase in the total concentration of fatty acids, and a decrease in the total concentration of amino acids compared with the open-field cultivation in 2012, while no significant difference was observed between two cultivation modes in 2013 vintage. Concentrations of palmitoleic acid, isoleucine and cysteine were significantly promoted in the rain-shelter grape berries, whereas those of tyrosine and ornithine were markedly reduced in both vintages. The rain-shelter cultivation of wine grapes in the rainy region is beneficial for improving grape quality and fermentation activity by influence on the concentration of fatty acids and amino acids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Altered sensitivity to ellagic acid in neuroblastoma cells undergoing differentiation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and all-trans retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Christina Fjæraa; Rendel, Filip; Liang, Qui-Li; Sundström, Birgitta E; Nånberg, Eewa

    2015-12-01

    Ellagic acid has previously been reported to induce reduced proliferation and activation of apoptosis in several tumor cell lines including our own previous data from non-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The aim of this study was now to investigate if in vitro differentiation with the phorbol ester 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or the vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid altered the sensitivity to ellagic acid in SH-SY5Y cells. The methods used were cell counting and LDH-assay for evaluation of cell number and cell death, flow cytometric analysis of SubG1- and TUNEL-analysis for apoptosis and western blot for expression of apoptosis-associated proteins. In vitro differentiation was shown to reduce the sensitivity to ellagic acid with respect to cell detachment, loss of viability and activation of apoptosis. The protective effect was phenotype-specific and most prominent in all-trans retinoic acid-differentiated cultures. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of Bcl-2 and integrin expression is introduced as possible protective mechanisms. The presented data also point to a positive correlation between proliferative activity and sensitivity to ellagic-acid-induced cell detachment. In conclusion, the presented data emphasize the need to consider degree of neuronal differentiation and phenotype of neuroblastoma cells when discussing a potential pharmaceutical application of ellagic acid in tumor treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J

    2001-01-01

    and were killed six days later. Morphological damage to the hippocampal field CA1-CA3 was seen after kainic acid treatment. Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were prominent in kainic acid-injected normal mice hippocampus, and clear signs of increased oxidative stress were evident. Thus......The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mice......, and caused a significant mortality (62%) only in the latter mice, indicating that interleukin-6 deficiency increased the susceptibility to kainic acid-induced brain damage. To compare the histopathological damage caused to the brain, control and interleukin-6 null mice were administered 8.75mg/kg kainic acid...

  18. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  19. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2018-03-15

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  1. Effect of Cooking Method on the Proximate, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolara Olusola Oluwaniyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The proximate, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the fillet and oil from Clarias gariepinus (Catfish and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia were determined. The moisture content ranged from 76.27 % for catfish to 79.97 % for tilapia while the oil content ranged from 7.80 % for tilapia and 11.00 % for catfish. Ash content was in the range 8.03 – 9.16 % and the protein content was 15.83 - 18.48 %. Cooking – boiling, roasting or frying – resulted in a variation in the nutrient composition but with no significant effect on the amino acid composition except for the samples fried with palm oil which resulted in significantly reduced essential amino acids contents. All the fish samples – both fresh and processed – have amino acid scores less than 100, with lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids being among the limiting amino acids. Both fish samples contain more unsaturated than saturated fatty acids.

  2. Acid decomposition processing system for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomine, Toshimitsu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To perform plutonium recovery at a low energy consumption irrespective of the plutonium density within the wastes. Method: In a decomposing and volume-reducing device for combustible or less combustible wastes containing transuranic elements using an acid, the wastes are in contact with nitric acid before feeding to a reactor. Then, the transuranic elements are transferred into the nitric acid, which is then in contact with ion exchange resins. After adsorbing the transuranic elements to the ion exchange resins, the nitric acid removed with the transuranic elements is caused to flow into a reaction vessel or heating vessel and used as a decomposing and oxidizing agent. (Seki, T.)

  3. Combinatorial treatment of tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids reduces cognitive impairments and inflammation in the mu-p75 saporin-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchynski, Jessica J; Lowrance, Steven A; Pappas, Colleen; Rossignol, Julien; Puckett, Nicole; Sandstrom, Michael; Dunbar, Gary L

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than five million Americans and is characterized by a progressive loss of memory, loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and an increase in oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplements of antioxidants and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may reduce the cognitive deficits in AD patients. The current study tested a combinatorial treatment of antioxidants from tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids from Nordic fish and emu oils for reducing cognitive deficits in the mu-p75 saporin (SAP)-induced mouse model of AD. Mice were given daily gavage treatments of Cerise(®) Total-Body-Rhythm™ (TBR; containing tart cherry extract, Nordic fish oil, and refined emu oil) or vehicle (methylcellulose) for 2 weeks before intracerebroventricular injections of the cholinergic toxin, mu-p75 SAP, or phosphate-buffered saline. The TBR treatments continued for an additional 17 days, when the mice were tested on a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Results indicate that TBR decreased the SAP-induced cognitive deficits assessed by the object-recognition, place-recognition, and Morris-water-maze tasks. Histological examination of the brain tissue indicated that TBR protected against SAP-induced inflammatory response and loss of cholinergic neurons in the area around the medial septum. These findings indicate that TBR has the potential to serve as an adjunctive treatment which may help reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in disorders involving cholinergic deficits, such as AD.

  4. Unusual binding of ursodeoxycholic acid to ileal bile acid binding protein: role in activation of FXRα[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changming; Filipp, Fabian V.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, ursodiol) is used to prevent damage to the liver in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The drug also prevents the progression of colorectal cancer and the recurrence of high-grade colonic dysplasia. However, the molecular mechanism by which UDCA elicits its beneficial effects is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) has a role in mediating the effects of UDCA. We find that UDCA binds to a single site on IBABP and increases the affinity for major human bile acids at a second binding site. As UDCA occupies one of the bile acid binding sites on IBABP, it reduces the cooperative binding that is often observed for the major human bile acids. Furthermore, IBABP is necessary for the full activation of farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) by bile acids, including UDCA. These observations suggest that IBABP may have a role in mediating some of the intestinal effects of UDCA. PMID:22223860

  5. Optimisation of Dilute Sulphuric Acid Hydrolysis of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of waste paper was investigated in this study. The effects of acid concentration, time, temperature and liquid to solid ratio on the total reducing sugar concentration were studied over three levels using a four variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). A statistical model was developed for the ...

  6. Combination Therapy of All-Trans Retinoic Acid With Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Human Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, David N; Abdelghany, Osama; Cai, Shi-Ying; Gossard, Andrea A; Eaton, John E; Keach, Jill C; Deng, Yanhong; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Ciarleglio, Maria; Lindor, Keith D; Boyer, James L

    2017-02-01

    To perform an exploratory pilot study of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). PSC is a progressive disorder for which there is no accepted therapy. Studies in human hepatocyte cultures and in animal models of cholestasis indicate that ATRA might have beneficial effects in cholestatic disorders. ATRA (45 mg/m/d, divided and given twice daily) was combined with moderate-dose UDCA in patients with PSC who had incomplete response to UDCA monotherapy. The combination was administered for 12 weeks, followed by a 12-week washout in which patients returned to UDCA monotherapy. We measured alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acids, and the bile acid intermediate 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) at baseline, week 12, and after washout. Fifteen patients completed 12 weeks of therapy. The addition of ATRA to UDCA reduced the median serum ALP levels (277±211 to 243±225 U/L, P=0.09) although this, the primary endpoint, did not reach significance. In contrast, median serum ALT (76±55 to 46±32 U/L, P=0.001) and C4 (9.8±19 to 7.9±11 ng/mL, P=0.03) levels significantly decreased. After washout, ALP and C4 levels nonsignificantly increased, whereas ALT levels significantly increased (46±32 to 74±74, P=0.0006), returning to baseline. In this human pilot study, the combination of ATRA and UDCA did not achieve the primary endpoint (ALP); however, it significantly reduced ALT and the bile acid intermediate C4. ATRA appears to inhibit bile acid synthesis and reduce markers of inflammation, making it a potential candidate for further study in PSC (NCT 01456468).

  7. Physiology and application of sulfur-reducing microorganisms from acidic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino, Anna Patrícya

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur cycle is one of the main geochemical cycles on Earth. Oxidation and reduction reactions of sulfur are mostly biotic and performed by microorganisms. In anaerobic conditions – marine and some freshwater systems, dissimilatory sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea are key players

  8. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan.

  9. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  10. Effects of simulated acid rain on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on Chenopodium quinoa, Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris. Because of differential species' susceptibility, detailed experiments were conducted only on Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain was simulated by spraying the plants with a hand-held atomizer. Sulfuric acid solutions covering a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5 in one half pH unit increments were used. Gross morphological effects noted at lower pH values included failure to attain normal height, necrosis and wrinkling of leaves, excessive and adventitious budding, and premature abscission of primary leaves. Histological effects included smaller cell size, a decreased amount of intercellular space, hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli, and a reduction in the size of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Dry weight remained an approximately constant percentage of fresh weight, and chlorophyll analyses showed that both chlorophyll concentration and ratio of chlorophyll 'a' to chlorophyll 'b' also remained constant. Respirometer studies showed that, while respiration rate increased only slightly at low pH values, photosynthetic rate increased dramatically. Quantitative analyses indicated that carbohydrate content was reduced at low pH values, with starch content reduced much more than sugar content. Root biomass was also reduced at low pH values. Application of Congo red indicator solution to the acid treated tissue showed that it was being acidified to a pH of below 4. 114 references, 23 figures, 12 tables.

  11. Disruption of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue to the murine fatty acid transport protein impairs uptake and growth on long-chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; DiRusso, C C; Elberger, A

    1997-01-01

    decrease in the uptake of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue boron dipyrromethene difluoride dodecanoic acid (BODIPY-3823); 3) a reduced rate of exogenous oleate incorporation into phospholipids; and 4) a 2-3-fold decrease in the rates of oleate uptake. These data support the hypothesis...

  12. Use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent bleeding after major surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipema, Heather J; Tanzi, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the literature describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid for prevention of postoperative bleeding after major surgical procedures. Literature was retrieved through MEDLINE (1946-September 2011) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-September 2011) using the terms tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid, antifibrinolytic, topical, and surgical. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All identified articles in English were evaluated. Clinical trials, case reports, and meta-analyses describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent postoperative bleeding were included. A total of 16 publications in the setting of major surgical procedures were included; the majority of data were for tranexamic acid. For cardiac surgery, 4 trials used solutions containing tranexamic acid (1-2.5 g in 100-250 mL of 0.9% NaCl), and 1 trial assessed a solution containing aminocaproic acid (24 g in 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl). These solutions were poured into the chest cavity before sternotomy closure. For orthopedic procedures, all of the data were for topical irrigation solutions containing tranexamic acid (500 mg-3 g in 50-100 mL of 0.9% NaCl) or for intraarticular injections of tranexamic acid (250 mg to 2 g in 20-50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride, with or without carbazochrome sodium sulfate). Overall, use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid reduced postoperative blood loss; however, few studies reported a significant reduction in the number of packed red blood cell transfusions or units given, intensive care unit stay, or length of hospitalization. Topical application of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid to decrease postsurgical bleeding after major surgical procedures is a promising strategy. Further data are needed regarding the safety