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Sample records for acid reduced bioprotein

  1. Immunotoxicity of nucleic acid reduced BioProtein - a bacterial derived single cell protein - in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-marie; Poulsen, Morten; Christensen, Hanne Risager;

    2002-01-01

    NABP induced a humoral immune response and proliferation of phagocytic cell lines, mainly macrophages. The humoral response involved induction of NABP specific IgM and IgG. The proliferation of phagocytic cells involved increase of the white blood cell count of all dosed female groups. Males showed......, hyperplasia of Kupffer cells in the liver, increased granulopoiesis in spleen and bone marrow, and infiltration of lamina propria of the large intestine with eosinophilic granulocytes. The most consistent and pronounced changes were observed in the highest dose group, but even at the lowest dose level some...

  2. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  3. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  4. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  5. Procedure for reducing hydrogen ion concentration in acidic anion eluate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is suggested for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in the acidic anionic eluate formed during the separation of uranium. The procedure involves anex elution, precipitation, filtration, precipitate rinsing, and anex rinsing. The procedure is included in the uranium elution process and requires at least one ion exchanger column and at least one tank in the continuous or discontinuous mode. Sparing the neutralizing agent by reducing the hydrogen ion concentration in the acidic anionic eluate is a major asset of this procedure. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  6. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X...

  7. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  8. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100oC. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300oC. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130oC, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  9. Reduced humic acid nanosheets and its uses as nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraia, El-shazly M.; Henderson, B.; Beall, Gary W.

    2015-10-01

    Leonardite is highly oxidized form of lignite coal and contains a number of carboxyl groups around the edges of a graphene-like core. A novel approach has been developed to synthesize graphene oxide-like nanosheets in large scale utilizing leonardite as a starting material. Humic acid extracted from leonardite has been reduced by performing a high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction was carried out inside a high pressure stirred reactor at 150 °C and 750 psi (~5.2×106 Pa). Morphology of the as-synthesized samples showed porous platy particles and EDAX analysis indicates the carbon and oxygen atomic ratios as 96:4-97:3%. The as-synthesized material has been used as nanofiller in polyurethane. The reduced humic acid-polyurethane nanocomposite showed over 250% increase of Young's modulus. This new approach provides a low cost and scalable source for graphene oxide-like nanosheets in nanocomposite applications.

  10. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs.

  11. Unilateral Ibotenic Acid Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex Reduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuriyama,Shigeki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-induced lesions of the substantia nigra are used as a model of Parkinson’s disease (PD, and these “lesioned” rats exhibit a rotational behavior when further injected with apomorphine (APO. We examined whether lesions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC could modify the rotational behavior in PD model rats. Rats initially received unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra by 6-OHDA injection, and then their rotational behavior was measured. Two PFC lesions were achieved by intracerebral infusions of ibotenic acid, followed by measurement of APOinduced rotation. Rotation was reduced by approximately 30オ after PFC injury. The PFC may have functional infl uences on the basal ganglia and may be involved in the pathophysiology of the rotational behavior of PD model rats.

  12. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  13. Use of organosmectites to reduce leaching losses of acidic herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa, M. J.; Hermosín, M. C.; Koskinen, W. C.; Cornejo, J.

    2003-01-01

    The modification of smectitic clays with organic cations via cation-exchange reactions produces sorbents with an increased sorption capacity for organic compounds such as acidic herbicides. These organoclays (OCIs) could be used as carriers in controlled release formulations of herbicides to decrease their contamination potential. Various OCIs and two acidic herbicides (bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4 (3H) one 2,2-dioxide] and dicamba [2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid]) we...

  14. Ghrelin reduces hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigault, C; Le Borgne, F; Georges, B; Demarquoy, J

    2007-04-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted during starvation by gastric cells. Ghrelin physiologically induces food intake and seems to alter lipid and glucid metabolism in several tissues such as adipose tissue and liver. Liver has a key position in lipid metabolism as it allows the metabolic orientation of fatty acids between oxidation and esterification. We investigated the effects of peripheral ghrelin administration on 2 crucial parameters of fatty acid oxidation: the levocarnitine (L-carnitine)-dependent entry of the fatty acids in the mitochondria and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Ghrelin was either given to rats prior to the hepatocyte preparation and culture or used to treat hepatocytes prepared from control animals. Direct incubation of ghrelin to raw hepatocytes did not induce any change in the studied parameters. In hepatocytes prepared from 3 nmol ghrelin-treated rats, a 44% reduction of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation while no alteration of the L-carnitine-related parameters were observed. These results suggested (a) that ghrelin has no direct effect on liver, and (b) that when administrated to a whole organism, ghrelin may alter the lipid metabolism and the energy balance through a marked decrease in liver fatty acid oxidation. PMID:17556859

  15. Dietary hyodeoxycholic acid exerts hypolipidemic effects by reducing farnesoid X receptor antagonist bile acids in mouse enterohepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shiro; Fujita, Kyosuke

    2014-10-01

    Mice were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with hyodeoxycholic acid, the most abundant bile acid contained in pig bile, for 4 weeks, after which their serum and livers were collected. The contents of total fatty acids of serum and liver cholesteryl esters, and of liver triglycerides, were reduced following the administration of the hyodeoxycholic acid-supplemented diet, which was mainly due to the reductions in the contents of monounsaturated fatty acids. Free cholesterol contents in the serum and liver were not changed by hyodeoxycholic acid administration. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration reduced the gene expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration markedly changes the ratio of FXR-antagonist/FXR-agonist bile acids in the enterohepatic tissues of the mice (1.13 and 7.60 in hyodeoxycholic acid and control diet groups, respectively). Our findings demonstrate that hyodeoxycholic acid administration exerts the hypolipidemic effect in mice, in which downregulations of de novo lipogenesis and desaturation of saturated fatty acids are suggested to play important roles. In addition, regulation of FXR activation through the selective modification of the enterohepatic bile acid pool may be involved in the hypolipidemic effect of hyodeoxycholic acid administration. PMID:25189147

  16. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric,; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally exp...

  17. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Undurti N

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, and arachidonic acid (AA and their products: prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins suppress inflammation, augment healing, and are of benefit in the prevention and management of these conditions. Hence, supplementation of EFAs could reduce burden of these disease(s.

  18. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Y; Gerrits, W J J; van den Bosch, M;

    2012-01-01

    weaned (21 d) piglets offered a diet with or without 60 mg CDCA/kg feed (n = 24/treatment). Upon weaning, piglets were fasted for 16 h and then intragastrically dosed with 20 g test feed in 40 g water. Subsequently, a jugular blood sample was taken on 45, 90, 135, or 180 min for analysis of GLP-2......Piglets are highly susceptible to gut health-related problems. Intravenously administered chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) affects gut health mediated through glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). To test whether CDCA is a suitable feed additive for improving gut health, a trial was performed with newly......, peptide YY (PYY), and glucose. Afterwards, piglets were offered the experimental diets ad libitum. On days 3.5, 7.5, and 10.5 after weaning, serum responses to an intragastric dose of lactulose and Co-EDTA were tested at 2 h after dosing in 8 piglets per treatment. Immediately thereafter, piglets were...

  19. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T S; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R

    2012-12-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions. PMID:22942074

  20. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (pquality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  1. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  2. Study of Ascorbic Acid as Iron(III Reducing Agent for Spectrophotometric Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesar Elmagirbi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for iron(III has been investigated in order to obtain an alternative carcinogenic reducing agent, hydroxylamine, used in spectrophotometric standard method based on the formation of a red-orange complex of Fe(II-o-phenanthroline. The study was optimised with regards to ascorbic acid concentration as well as pH solution. The results showed that ascorbic acid showed maximum capacity as reducing agent of iron(III under concentration of 4.46.10-4 M and pH solution of 1-4.Under these conditions, ascorbic acid reduced iron(III proportionally and performed similarly to that of hydroxylamine.  The method gave result to linear calibration over the range of 0.2-2 mg/L withhigh accuracy of 97 % and relative standard deviation of less than 2 %. This method was successfully applied to assay iron speciation in water samples.

  3. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims We have established that acute intraduodenal infusion of the fatty acid, lauric acid (“C12”), markedly reduces energy intake in healthy subjects in the absence of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that increasing doses of orally ingested C...

  4. Combination of amino acids reduces pigmentation in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masago; Kawase, Ichiro; Ishii, Fumio

    2007-04-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, play significant roles in numerous physiological events in mammals. As the effects of amino acids on melanogenesis have yet to be demonstrated, the present study was conducted to identify whether amino acids, in particular alanine, glycine, isoleucine and leucine, influence melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells. Glycine and L-isoleucine, but not D-isoleucine, reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. L-Alanine and L-leucine, but not D-alanine and D-leucine, also reduced melanogenesis without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. However these amino acids did not show a concentration-dependency. Combination of L-alanine and the other amino acids, particularly 4 amino acids combination, had an additive effect on the inhibition of melanogenesis compared with single treatment of L-alanine. None of the amino acids affected the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanogenesis. These results suggest that L-alanine, glycine, L-isoleucine and L-leucine, but not the D-form amino acids, have a hypopigmenting effect in B16F0 melanoma cells, and that these effects are not due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Combination of these 4 amino acids had the additive effect on hypopigmentation that was as similar as that of kojic acid. PMID:17409501

  5. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohito Sato

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  6. Leaching of Carbothermic Reduced Titanium-bearing Blast Furnace Slag by Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yulan; ZHANG Guohua; CHOU Kuochih

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company with acid system under atmosphere pressure was studied. The results show that the temperature and concentration have significant influence on leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag by ac-id. The experimental data of leaching indicate that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the acid leaching. The apparent activation energy can be estimated to be from 23 to 32 kJ/mol. Fur-thermore, the main products are TiC and SiO2 after leaching.

  7. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin;

    2009-01-01

    levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal....../retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism....

  8. A procedure for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate and equipment therefore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method is described of reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate produced in the separation of uranium or other metals, in which anion exchanger elution, precipitation, filtration and precipitate and anion exchanger washing are used. The technological line for such elution comprises at least one ion exchange column and at least one container. They together form the first and the second stages of preparation of the acid anion elution solution, the sorption-elution separation of hydrogen ions on an cation exchanger being inserted between them. The preparation of the solution is divide into two stages. In the first stage, the acid and part of the solution for the preparation of the acid anion elution solution are supplied. The resulting enriched acid elution solution is fe onto the cation exchanger where the hydrogen ion concentration i reduced. It is then carried into the second stage where it is mixed with the remaining part of the solution. (B.S.)

  9. Integrated assessment of acid deposition impacts using reduced-form modeling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R.; Small, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Emissions of sulfates and other acidic pollutants from anthropogenic sources result in the deposition of these acidic pollutants on the earth`s surface, downwind of the source. These pollutants reach surface waters, including streams and lakes, and acidify them, resulting in a change in the chemical composition of the surface water. Sometimes the water chemistry is sufficiently altered so that the lake can no longer support aquatic life. This document traces the efforts by many researchers to understand and quantify the effect of acid deposition on the water chemistry of populations of lakes, in particular the improvements to the MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) modeling effort, and describes its reduced-form representation in a decision and uncertainty analysis tool. Previous reduced-form approximations to the MAGIC model are discussed in detail, and their drawbacks are highlighted. An improved reduced-form model for acid neutralizing capacity is presented, which incorporates long-term depletion of the watershed acid neutralization fraction. In addition, improved fish biota models are incorporated in the integrated assessment model, which includes reduced-form models for other physical and chemical processes of acid deposition, as well as the resulting socio-economic and health related effects. The new reduced-form lake chemistry and fish biota models are applied to the Adirondacks region of New York.

  10. Comparison between liquid and solid acids catalysts on reducing sugars conversion from furfural residues via pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keying; Ma, Baojun; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Wanyi

    2014-09-01

    Liquid sulphuric acid is adopted and compared with carbon-based sulfonated solid acids (coal tar-based and active carbon-based) for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of liquid acid are at 4% of sulphuric acid, 25:1 of liquid and solid ratio, 175°C of reaction temperature and 120 min of reaction time. The reducing sugar yields are reached over 60% on liquid acid via NaOH/H2O2, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasonic pretreatments, whereas only over 30% on solid acids. The TOFs (turnover number frequency) via NaOH/H2O2 pretreatments are 0.093, 0.020 and 0.023 h(-1) for liquid sulphuric acid, coal tar-based and active carbon-based solid acids catalysts, respectively. Considering the efficiency, cost and environment factors, the liquid and solid acids have their own advantages of potential commercial application values.

  11. Synthesis of a tetrasaccharide fragment of hyaluronic acid having a glucuronic acid at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hyppönen, T.K.; Ogawa, T.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of a tetrasaccharide fragment of hyaluronic acid, beta-p-methoxyphenyl glycoside of beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨3)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨4)-D-GlcA, is presented.

  12. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    OpenAIRE

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci; Nitsche Saul; Pandey Ashok; Soccol Carlos Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls ...

  13. Ammonia Gas Detection by Tannic Acid Functionalized and Reduced Graphene Oxide at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sweejiang Yoo; Xin Li; Yuan Wu; Weihua Liu; Xiaoli Wang; Wenhui Yi

    2014-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based chemiresistor gas sensor has received much attention in gas sensing for high sensitivity, room temperature operation, and reversible. Here, for the first time, we present a promising chemiresistor for ammonia gas detection based on tannic acid (TA) functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (rGOTA functionalized). Green reductant of TA plays a major role in both reducing process and enhancing the gas sensing properties of rGOTA functionalized. Our results sho...

  14. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  15. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Röhrl

    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36. Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  16. Bile Acids Reduce Endocytosis of High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Röhrl; Karin Eigner; Stefanie Fruhwürth; Herbert Stangl

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence...

  17. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during lower segment caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Raghavendra Gobbur

    2014-04-01

    Results: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss during LSCS 289.4 +/- 71.4 ml in the study group versus 328 +/- 58.9 ml in the control group (P = 0.004. It also significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to 2 hours post-partum: 360.9 +/- 110.3 ml in the study group, versus 443 +/- 88.55 ml in the control group. (P = 0.0008. No complications or side effects were reported in either group. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly reduces the blood loss during and after the caesarean section. Side effects like nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and thrombosis are rare. Tranexamic acid can be used effectively in women undergoing LSCS to decrease the blood loss. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 414-417

  18. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate treatment of lamb breast to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A J; Acuff, G R; Lucia, L M; Savell, J W

    2001-09-01

    Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate (TSP) were evaluated for the ability to reduce Escherichia coli and aerobic plate counts (APCs) on lamb breasts that were inoculated with a lamb fecal paste. A 90-s water rinse was applied followed by either a 9-s (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, a 60-s (55 degrees C) 12% TSP dip, or a combined treatment of both lactic acid and TSP treatments. Lactic acid reduced E. coli and APCs by 1.6 log10/cm2, and TSP caused a 1.8-log10/cm2 reduction in E. coli and a 0.7-log10/cm2 reduction in APCs. Combined reductions by the lactic acid spray followed by the TSP dip were 1.8 and 1.5 log10/cm2 for E. coli and APCs, respectively. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate, used alone or in combination, were effective in reducing numbers of E. coli and could be useful as pathogen intervention steps in lamb slaughter processing. PMID:11563525

  19. Production of organic acids by probiotic lactobacilli can be used to reduce pathogen load in poultry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Neal-McKinney

    Full Text Available Probiotic Lactobacillus can be used to reduce the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in food animals, and therefore reduce the risk of foodborne illness to consumers. As a model system, we examined the mechanism of protection conferred by Lactobacillus species to inhibit C. jejuni growth in vitro and reduce colonization in broiler chickens. Possible mechanisms for the reduction of pathogens by lactobacilli include: 1 stimulation of adaptive immunity; 2 alteration of the cecal microbiome; and, 3 production of inhibitory metabolites, such as organic acids. The Lactobacillus species produced lactic acid at concentrations sufficient to kill C. jejuni in vitro. We determined that lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus disrupted the membrane of C. jejuni, as judged by biophotonics. The spectral features obtained using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used to accurately predict bacterial viability and differentiate C. jejuni samples according to lactic acid treatment. FT-IR spectral features of C. jejuni and Lactobacillus grown in co-culture revealed that the metabolism was dominated by Lactobacillus prior to the killing of C. jejuni. Based on our results, the development of future competitive exclusion strategies should include the evaluation of organic acid production.

  20. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  1. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  2. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-centre plac...

  3. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  4. Reducing Ammonia Loss from Urea by Mixing with Humic and Fulvic Acids Isolated from Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameera A. Reeza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ammonia volatilization is a major pathway for nitrogen loss from surface applied urea. While all top-dressed ammonia and ammonium based N fertilizers can volatilize, the potential loss is greatest with urea and fluids containing urea. As much as 20-50% of N applied to soils is lost through volatilization alone. Thus, the objective of this laboratory study was to reduce ammonia loss from urea via mixing with humic and fulvic acids isolated from coal. Approach: This study compared four different types of treatments which were urea without additives (T1, urea with humic acid-powdered form (T2, urea with fulvic acid-liquid form (T3 and urea with humic and fulvic acids-liquid form (T4. Comparisons were made based on ammonia loss, soil NH4 and NO3- contents as well as exchangeable cations in the treated soils. Soil samples from typic paleudults (Bekenu series were used. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Daily ammonia loss from soil was measured using a modified closed-dynamic air flow system method. Results: All of the treatments with humic substances significantly reduced ammonia loss ranging between 13 and 25% compared to urea alone. The treatment with both humic and fulvic acids (T4 showed pronounced ammonia loss reduction. All treatments with humic substances significantly increased NH4+ and NO3- content in soil samples compared to urea alone except for treatment having humic acid alone (T2. Treatments with fulvic acid (T3 and T4 also showed significant increase in exchangeable K+ and Na+ compared to urea alone. The increase in the formation of NH4+ over NH3, soil exchangeable cations and temporary reduction of soil pH may had retarded urea hydrolysis in the immediate vicinity of the fertilizer. Conclusion: Surface applied urea fertilizer efficiency could be increased if applied together with humic and fulvic acids.

  5. Production of reducing sugar from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB cellulose fibres via acid hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Xian Chin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic fibre of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB were used as a raw material for acid hydrolysis using mineral acids (H2SO4 and HCl to produce reducing sugar at moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the hydrolysis parameters, including acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time, on the total reducing sugar (TRS yield with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM. The preliminary hydrolysis studies of the EFB fibres showed that the presence of lignin in the fibres significantly affected the TRS yield. The maximum predicted TRS yield using H2SO4 was 30.61% under optimal conditions: acid concentration of 5 N, temperature of 139.65 oC, and reaction time of 4.16 h. For the hydrolysis using HCl, the maximum predicted TRS yield is 39.81% under optimal conditions: acid concentration of 4.63 N, temperature of 133.7 oC, reaction time of 2.05 h.

  6. Targeting acid sphingomyelinase reduces cardiac ceramide accumulation in the post-ischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevstig, Martina; Ståhlman, Marcus; Lundqvist, Annika; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Fogelstrand, Per; Adiels, Martin; Andersson, Linda; Kolesnick, Richard; Jeppsson, Anders; Borén, Jan; Levin, Malin C

    2016-04-01

    Ceramide accumulation is known to accompany acute myocardial ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease is unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine how ceramides accumulate in the ischemic heart and to determine if cardiac function following ischemia can be improved by reducing ceramide accumulation. To investigate the association between ceramide accumulation and heart function, we analyzed myocardial left ventricle biopsies from subjects with chronic ischemia and found that ceramide levels were higher in biopsies from subjects with reduced heart function. Ceramides are produced by either de novo synthesis or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin catalyzed by acid and/or neutral sphingomyelinase. We used cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes to investigate these pathways and showed that acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than neutral sphingomyelinase activity or de novo sphingolipid synthesis was important for hypoxia-induced ceramide accumulation. We also used mice with a partial deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (Smpd1(+/-) mice) to investigate if limiting ceramide accumulation under ischemic conditions would have a beneficial effect on heart function and survival. Although we showed that cardiac ceramide accumulation was reduced in Smpd1(+/-) mice 24h after an induced myocardial infarction, this reduction was not accompanied by an improvement in heart function or survival. Our findings show that accumulation of cardiac ceramides in the post-ischemic heart is mediated by acid sphingomyelinase. However, targeting ceramide accumulation in the ischemic heart may not be a beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:26930027

  7. Abolished synthesis of cholic acid reduces atherosclerotic development in apolipoprotein E knockout mice[S

    OpenAIRE

    Slätis, Katharina; Gåfvels, Mats; Kannisto, Kristina; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Paulsson-Berne, Gabrielle; Parini, Paolo; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of abolished cholic acid (CA) synthesis in the ApoE knockout model [apolipoprotein E (apoE) KO],a double-knockout (DKO) mouse model was created by crossbreeding Cyp8b1 knockout mice (Cyp8b1 KO), unable to synthesize the primary bile acid CA, with apoE KO mice. After 5 months of cholesterol feeding, the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the proximal aorta was 50% less in the DKO mice compared with the apoE KO mice. This effect was associated with reduced inte...

  8. A method for computing the inter-residue interaction potentials for reduced amino acid alphabet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhinav Luthra; Anupam Nath Jha; G K Ananthasuresh; Saraswathi Vishveswara

    2007-08-01

    Inter-residue potentials are extensively used in the design and evaluation of protein structures. However, dealing with all (20×20) interactions becomes computationally difficult in extensive investigations. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the alphabet of 20 amino acids to a smaller number. Currently, several methods of reducing the residue types exist; however a critical assessment of these methods is not available. Towards this goal, here we review and evaluate different methods by comparing with the complete (20×20) matrix of Miyazawa-Jernigan potential, including a method of grouping adopted by us, based on multi dimensional scaling (MDS). The second goal of this paper is the computation of inter-residue interaction energies for the reduced amino acid alphabet, which has not been explicitly addressed in the literature until now. By using a least squares technique, we present a systematic method of obtaining the interaction energy values for any type of grouping scheme that reduces the amino acid alphabet. This can be valuable in designing the protein structures.

  9. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehr-Aein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after protamin infusion, and 33 patients received only saline. Preoperative hematologic variables, postoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusions were considered. D-dimer plasma levels were also evaluated to monitor the activation of fibrinolysis. Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group compared with the control group (320 ± 38 mL vs. 480 ± 75 mL at 12 hour, P < 0.001. The tranexamic acid group had significantly lesser need for allogeneic blood products (0.46 units/patients vs. 0.94 units/patients, P < 0.001. They had also lower post-operative D-dimer plasma levels. No postoperative thrombotic complications were observed in either group. The defective hemostasis occurs even in the OPCABG. Tranexamic acid effectively reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products after OPCAB is decreased.

  10. Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-01-01

    Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

  11. Is there any role of acid reducing gastric surgery in peptic ulcer perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivatvongs, Supanit

    2005-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is known to be the prime factor of peptic ulcer disease as well as NSAID usage. Although medical treatment of the bacteria can eliminate the problem for more than 90% of the infected people but the cost of treatment is high then acid reducing gastric surgery still has a definite role. The prevalence of H. pylori in peptic ulcer perferation is still unknown also whether vagotomy and gastrectomy could eradicate H. pylori. Now laparoscopic surgery especially the simple repair of the perforation has became routinely used in many part of the world. So acid reducing gastric surgery is a good choice in chronic user of NSAID and also an option for people who have H. pylori infection.

  12. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice whi...

  14. Characterization of Streptococcus oligofermentans sucrose metabolism demonstrates reduced pyruvic and lactic acid production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xu-dong; YUE Lin; GAO Xue-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus (S.) oligofermentans is a newly identified bacteria with a yet to be defined mechanism of sucrose metabolism that results in acid production.This study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of S.oligoferm-entans glucose metaolism.Methods The S.oligofermentans LMG21532,Lactobacillus (L.) fermentum 38 and the S.S.mutans UA140 were used to characterize sucrose metabolism by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid production.Continuous dynamics and high performance capillary electrophoresis were used to determine LDH activity and lactic acid production,respectively,from bacteria collected at 0,10 and 30 minutes after cultured in 10% sucrose.Results These analyses demonstrated that LDH activity of the three bacterial strains examined remained stable but significantly different throughout the sucrose fermentation process.The S.o/igofermentans LDH activity ((0.61±0.05) U/mg) was significantly lower than that of L.fermentum ((52.91+8.97) U/mg).In addition,the S.oligofermentans total lactate production ((0.048±0.021) mmol/L) was also significantly lower than that of L.fermentum ((0.958±0.201) mmol/L).Although the S.oligofermentans LDH production was almost double of that produced by S.mutans ((0.32±0.07) U/mg),lactic acid production was approximately one sixth that of S.mutans ((0.296±0.058) mmol/L).Additional tests examining pyruvic acid production (the LDH substrate) demonstrated that lactic acid concentrations correlated with pyruvic acid production.That is,pyruvic acid production by S.oligofermentans was undetectable following sucrose incubation,however,(0.074±t0.024) and (0.175±0.098) mmol/L pyruvic acid were produced by S.mutans and L.fermentum,respectively.Conclusion S.oligofermentans is incapable of fermenting carbohydrates to produce enough pyruvic acid,which results in reduced lactic acid production.

  15. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaela Rodrigues; Juliana Soares; Hugo Garcia; Claudenice Nascimento; Maria Medeiros; Marco Bomfim; Maria Carmo Medeiros; Rita Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters ...

  16. Reduced Burst Release and Enhanced Oral Bioavailability in Shikimic Acid-Loaded Polylactic Acid Submicron Particles by Coaxial Electrospray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuanwen; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Wang, Shengli; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, using the coaxial electrospray method, we prepared submicron particles of the water-soluble drug shikimic acid (SA) with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymer, to reduce the burst release and enhance the oral bioavailability. In vitro release study performed in HCl solution (pH 1.2) showed that the coaxial electrospray submicron particles could reduce burst release effect and presented a sustained release profile, compared with free SA and the particles prepared by electrospray method. The absorption of SA in the intestinal tract, studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats, also revealed jejunum as the main absorptive segment followed by duodenum and ileum. Moreover, the SA-loaded particles greatly enhanced the absorption of SA in the tested intestinal segments. The intestinal absorption rate was not enhanced with increasing drug concentration (5-15 μg/mL) which suggested that active transport or facilitated diffusion could play vital role in SA absorption. In addition, the SA-loaded PLA coaxial electrospray particle exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation with enhanced bioavailability after oral administration. In all, the coaxial electrospray technique could provide notable advantages for the oral delivery of SA, thereby enhancing its clinical application.

  17. Trans fatty acids induce vascular inflammation and reduce vascular nitric oxide production in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi G Iwata

    Full Text Available Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA, which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from ruminant-derived-dairy products and meat on endothelial NF-κB activation and nitric oxide (NO production. Human endothelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Elaidic (trans-C18:1 (9 trans, Linoelaidic (trans-C18:2 (9 trans, 12 trans, and Transvaccenic (trans-C18:1 (11 trans for 3 h. Both Elaidic and Linoelaidic acids were associated with increasing NF-κB activation as measured by IL-6 levels and phosphorylation of IκBα, and impairment of endothelial insulin signaling and NO production, whereas Transvaccenic acid was not associated with these responses. We also measured superoxide production, which has been hypothesized to be necessary in fatty acid-dependent activation of NF-κB. Both Elaidic acid and Linoelaidic acid are associated with increased superoxide production, whereas Transvaccenic acid (which did not induce inflammatory responses did not increase superoxide production. We observed differential activation of endothelial superoxide production, NF-κB activation, and reduction in NO production by different C18 isomers suggesting that the location and number of trans double bonds effect endothelial NF-κB activation.

  18. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Niamh; Solanky, Bhavana S; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A E; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = -0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.792, -0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = -0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.667, -0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration in the

  19. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, nanoparticles of silver (NAg, and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1. RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05. Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization.

  20. Acute Lung Injury Is Reduced in fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing n-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Konstantin; Kiessling, Almuth; Ott, Juliane; Schaefer, Martina Barbara; Hecker, Matthias; Henneke, Ingrid; Schulz, Richard; Günther, Andreas; Wang, Jingdong; Wu, Lijun; Roth, Joachim; Seeger, Werner; Kang, Jing X.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators derived from EPA and DHA possess reduced inflammatory potency. Objectives: To determine whether the ability of fat-1 mice to endogenously convert n-6 to n-3 FA, and thus generate an increased ratio of n-3 to n-6 FA, impacts experimental ALI. Methods: We investigated ALI induced by intratracheal instillation of endotoxin in fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice, assessing leukocyte numbers, protein concentration, and prostaglandin and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as free FA in plasma, and lung ventilator compliance. Body temperature and motor activity of mice—markers of sickness behavior—were also recorded. Measurements and Main Results: In ALI, fat-1 mice exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte invasion, protein leakage, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and thromboxane B2 levels in lavage fluid compared with WT mice. Free AA levels were increased in the plasma of WT mice in response to endotoxin, whereas EPA and DHA were increased in the fat-1 group. Ventilator compliance was significantly improved in fat-1 mice. Body temperature and motor activity were decreased in ALI. fat-1 Mice recovered body temperature and motor activity faster. Conclusions: fat-1 Mice exhibited reduced features of ALI and sickness behavior. Increasing the availability of n-3 FA may thus be beneficial in critically ill patients with ALI. PMID:19136374

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsharan Singh Bhatia

    Full Text Available Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate (IRS. DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed.

  3. Baker's Yeast Deficient in Storage Lipid Synthesis Uses cis-Vaccenic Acid to Reduce Unsaturated Fatty Acid Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sec, Peter; Garaiova, Martina; Gajdos, Peter; Certik, Milan; Griac, Peter; Hapala, Ivan; Holic, Roman

    2015-07-01

    The role of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) in the reduction of unsaturated fatty acids toxicity was investigated in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quadruple mutant (QM, dga1Δ lro1Δ are1Δ are2Δ) deficient in enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol and steryl ester synthesis has been previously shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous unsaturated fatty acids. We have found that cis-vaccenic acid accumulated during cultivation in the QM cells but not in the corresponding wild type strain. This accumulation was accompanied by a reduction in palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) content in the QM cells that is consistent with the proposed formation of cis-vaccenic acid by elongation of palmitoleic acid. Fatty acid analysis of individual lipid classes from the QM strain revealed that cis-vaccenic acid was highly enriched in the free fatty acid pool. Furthermore, production of cis-vaccenic acid was arrested if the mechanism of fatty acids release to the medium was activated. We also showed that exogenous cis-vaccenic acid did not affect viability of the QM strain at concentrations toxic for palmitoleic or oleic acids. Moreover, addition of cis-vaccenic acid to the growth medium provided partial protection against the lipotoxic effects of exogenous oleic acid. Transformation of palmitoleic acid to cis-vaccenic acid is thus a rescue mechanism enabling S. cerevisiae cells to survive in the absence of triacylglycerol synthesis as the major mechanism for unsaturated fatty acid detoxification.

  4. Neuroprotection of lipoic acid treatment promotes angiogenesis and reduces the glial scar formation after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocamonde, B; Paradells, S; Barcia, J M; Barcia, C; García Verdugo, J M; Miranda, M; Romero Gómez, F J; Soria, J M

    2012-11-01

    After trauma brain injury, a large number of cells die, releasing neurotoxic chemicals into the extracellular medium, decreasing cellular glutathione levels and increasing reactive oxygen species that affect cell survival and provoke an enlargement of the initial lesion. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant commonly used as a treatment of many degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or diabetic neuropathy. Herein, the antioxidant effects of lipoic acid treatment after brain cryo-injury in rat have been studied, as well as cell survival, proliferation in the injured area, gliogenesis and angiogenesis. Thus, it is shown that newborn cells, mostly corresponded with blood vessels and glial cells, colonized the damaged area 15 days after the lesion. However, lipoic acid was able to stimulate the synthesis of glutathione, decrease cell death, promote angiogenesis and decrease the glial scar formation. All those facts allow the formation of new neural tissue. In view of the results herein, lipoic acid might be a plausible pharmacological treatment after brain injury, acting as a neuroprotective agent of the neural tissue, promoting angiogenesis and reducing the glial scar formation. These findings open new possibilities for restorative strategies after brain injury, stroke or related disorders.

  5. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were

  6. Friction reducing behavior of stearic acid film on a textured aluminum substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wan, Yong, E-mail: wanyong@qtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Li, Yang; Yang, Shuyan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Yao, Wenqing [Analysis Center of Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-09-01

    A simple two-step process was developed to render the aluminum hydrophobicity with lower friction. The textured aluminum substrate was firstly fabricated by immersed in a sodium hydroxide solution at 100 °C for 1 h. Stearic acid film was then deposited to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, chemical structure and hydrophobicity of prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction reducing behavior of the organic–inorganic composite film on aluminum sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the stearic acid film on the textured aluminum led to decreased friction with significantly extended life.

  7. Mechanisms of the rapid dissolution of plutonium dioxide in acidic media under oxidizing or reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently plutonium dioxide was known to be among the metallic oxides most difficult to dissolve. This property is understandable given the free energy of the dissolution reaction (ΔG0) in acidic noncomplexing media (ΔG0 = 32.04 kJ/mol). Thermodynamic calculations predict that PuO2 will dissolve under oxidizing or reducing conditions. The oxidizing dissolution, leading to Pu(VI) ion in solution, is easy to perform with a strong oxidant like Ag(II). The mechanism of the oxidizing dissolution of PuO2 was investigated by using carbon paste electrochemistry (CPE) and 18 O labeling. PuO2 can also be dissolved in acidic solution if the redox potential of the mixture is low (e.g., Cr2+, V2+, or U3+ as reducing agents). The kinetics of the heterogeneous reducing dissolution of PuO2 with Cr2+ were investigated and the reaction mechanism was determined by 18 O labeling. All the results will be presented and discussed in the context of minimizing the amount of plutonium-contaminated solid wastes in the nuclear fuel cycle. 9 figs., 17 refs

  8. Reducing Renal Uptake of 177Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of 177Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of 177Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects

  9. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  10. Mechanisms of the rapid dissolution of plutonium dioxide in acidic media under oxidizing or reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently plutonium dioxide was known to be among the metallic oxides most difficult to dissolve. This property is understandable given the free energy of the dissolution reaction (ΔG0) in acidic noncomplexing media (ΔG0 = 32.04 kJ/mol). Thermodynamic calculations predict that PuO2 will dissolve under oxidizing or reducing conditions. The oxidizing dissolution, leading to Pu(VI) ion in solution, is easy to perform with a strong oxidant like Ag(II). The mechanism of the oxidizing dissolution of PuO2 was investigated by using carbon paste electrochemistry (CPE) and 18O labeling. PuO2 can also be dissolved in acidic solution if the redox potential of the mixture is low (e.g., Cr2+, V2+, or U3+ as reducing agents). The kinetics of the heterogeneous reducing dissolution of PuO2 with Cr2+ were investigated and the reaction mechanism was determined by 18O labeling. In this paper all the results are presented and discussed in the context of minimizing the amount of plutonium-contaminated solid wastes in the nuclear fuel cycle

  11. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwon Moon

    Full Text Available This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2 and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2. We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR, a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein.

  12. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yunwon; Choi, Su Mi; Chang, Soojeong; Park, Bongju; Lee, Seongyeol; Lee, Mi-Ock; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Park, Hyunsung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2) and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA) reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP) are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein. PMID:26098428

  13. ELECTROLESS COPPER PLATING ON FRAXINUS MANDSHURICA VENEER USING GLYOXYLIC ACID AS REDUCING AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Wang; Lili Sun; Jian Li

    2011-01-01

    Copper coating was deposited on Fraxinus mandshurica veneers for preparing EMI shielding composite by electroless plating using glyoxylic acid as reducing agent in the solution. XPS and SEM were used to analyze the activation process. It was found that a continuous chitosan membrane was loaded on the wood surface. XPS results showed that Pd(II) ions were chemically adsorbed on a chitosan membrane on the wood surface through an N-Pd σ coordination bond. After reduction, part of Pd(II) absorbed...

  14. Reduced Capacity for Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats with Inherited Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hong; Friedman, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    High-fat, energy-dense diets promote weight gain and obesity in humans and other animals, but the mechanisms underlying such diet-induced obesity remain elusive. To determine whether a reduced capacity to oxidize fat is involved in the etiology of diet-induced obesity, we examined different measures of fatty acid oxidation in rats selectively bred for susceptibility (DIO) or resistance (DR) to dietary obesity before and after they were fed a high-fat diet and became obese. DIO rats eating a l...

  15. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Pasman, W.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verheij, E.R.; Rubingh, C.M.; Bochove, K. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Adiels, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic a

  16. Traumatic Acid Reduces Oxidative Stress and Enhances Collagen Biosynthesis in Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Pankiewicz, Walentyn; Czerpak, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic acid (TA) is a plant hormone (cytokinin) that in terms of chemical structure belongs to the group of fatty acids derivatives. It was isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris. TA activity and its influence on human cells and organism has not previously been the subject of research. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TA on collagen content and basic oxidative stress parameters, such as antioxidative enzyme activity, reduced glutathione, thiol group content, and lipid peroxidation in physiological conditions. The results show a stimulatory effect of TA on tested parameters. TA caused a decrease in membrane phospholipid peroxidation and exhibited protective properties against ROS production. It also increases protein and collagen biosynthesis and its secretion into the culture medium. The present findings reveal that TA exhibits multiple and complex activity in fibroblast cells in vitro. TA, with its activity similar to unsaturated fatty acids, shows antioxidant and stimulatory effects on collagen biosynthesis. It is a potentially powerful agent with applications in the treatment of many skin diseases connected with oxidative stress and collagen biosynthesis disorders. PMID:27423205

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces suppressive and migratory functions of CD4CD25 regulatory T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Plé, Aude; Moutairou, Kabirou; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2009-01-01

    Immunological tolerance is one of the fundamental aspects of the immune system. The CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells have emerged as key players in the development of tolerance to self and foreign antigens. However, little is known about the endogenous factors and mechanisms controlling their suppressive capacity on immune response. In this study, we observed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, diminished, in a dose-dependent manner, the capacity of Treg cells to inhibit the CD4+CD25− effector T-cell proliferation. DHA not only reduced the migration of Treg cells toward chemokines but also downregulated the mRNA expression of CCR-4 and CXCR-4 in Treg cells. DHA also curtailed ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and downregulated the Smad7 levels in these cells. Contradictorily, DHA upregulated the mRNA expression of Foxp3, CTLA-4, TGF-β, and IL-10; nonetheless, this fatty acid increased the expression of p27KIP1 mRNA, known to be involved in Treg cell unresponsiveness. In Foxp3-immunoprepitated nuclear proteins, DHA upregulated histone desacetylase 7 levels that would again participate in the unresposnsiveness of these cells. Finally, a DHA-enriched diet also diminished, ex vivo, the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Altogether, these results suggest that DHA, by diminishing Treg cell functions, may play a key role in health and disease. PMID:19561360

  18. In vivo treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with liposomal linolenic acid reduces colonization and ameliorates inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Obonyo, Marygorret; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a vast prevalence and strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Because of the rapid emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics, current treatment regimens show a rapid decline of their eradication rates. Clearly, novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The LipoLLA formulation with a size of ∼100 nm was prone to fusion with bacterial membrane, thereby directly releasing a high dose of linolenic acids into the bacterial membrane. LipoLLA penetrated the mucus layer of mouse stomach, and a significant portion of the administered LipoLLA was retained in the stomach lining up to 24 h after the oral administration. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated because of the H. pylori infection. Finally, a toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this study indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:25422427

  19. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation.

  20. Capric Acid Reduces Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.

  1. Total liquid ventilation reduces oleic acid-induced lung injury in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; LIU Dong-hai; ZHANG Yan-bo; LIU Ai-jun; FAN Xiang-ming; QIAO Chen-hui; WANG Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury that does not respond to traditional therapies.Total liquid ventilation has been developed as an alternative ventilatory strategy for severe lung injury.The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of total liquid ventilation on oleic acid (OA)-induced lung injury in piglets.Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.Twelve piglets were randomly treated with conventional gas ventilation (control group) or total liquid ventilation (study group) for 240 minutes.Samples for blood gas analysis were collected before,and at 60-minute intervals after OA-induced lung injury.The degree of lung injury was quantified by histologic examination.The inflammatory cells and the levels of IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10 and TNF-α in plasma,tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage were analyzed.Results Neutrophil and macrophage counts in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly decreased in the study group (P<0.05).The total lung injury score was also reduced in the study group (P<0.05).The cconcentrations of IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10and TNF-α in plasma,tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly reduced in the study group (P<0.05).Conclusions Total liquid ventilation reduces biochemical and histologic OA-induced lung injury in piglets.

  2. Ammonia Gas Detection by Tannic Acid Functionalized and Reduced Graphene Oxide at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweejiang Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (rGO based chemiresistor gas sensor has received much attention in gas sensing for high sensitivity, room temperature operation, and reversible. Here, for the first time, we present a promising chemiresistor for ammonia gas detection based on tannic acid (TA functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (rGOTA functionalized. Green reductant of TA plays a major role in both reducing process and enhancing the gas sensing properties of rGOTA functionalized. Our results show rGOTA functionalized only selective to ammonia with excellent respond, recovery, respond time, and recovery times. rGOTA functionalized electrical resistance decreases upon exposure to NH3 where we postulated that it is due to n-doping by TA and charge transfer between rGOTA functionalized and NH3 through hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, rGOTA functionalized hinders the needs for stimulus for both recovery and respond. The combination of greener sensing material and simplicity in overall sensor design provides a new sight for green reductant approach of rGO based chemiresistor gas sensor.

  3. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  4. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogue, Alexandra [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Umbdenstock, Thierry [Technologie Servier, Orléans (France); Claude, Nancy [Institut de Recherches Servier, Courbevoie (France); Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J. [Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Guillouzo, André, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.fr [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  5. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s)?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Undurti N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) and their products: prostaglandin E1, pr...

  6. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  7. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  8. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction.

  9. Humic acids reduce the genotoxicity of mitomycin C in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Loffredo, E; Senesi, N; Marcos, R

    2006-01-31

    The antimutagenic/desmutagenic activity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA) and a soil humic acid (SHA) was studied in the cultured human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 treated with mitomycin C (MMC) as reference mutagen by evaluating the induction of micronuclei (MN). Two different concentrations of HA were used, 2.5 and 10 microg/ml, in three different treatments: (1) HA alone (genotoxic test); (2) HA after 2-h pre-incubation with 0.3 microM of MMC (desmutagenic test) and (3) combinations of HA and MMC at 0.3 microM without pre-incubation (antimutagenic test). Neither of the HA used alone did produce genotoxic effects, but both HAs reduced significantly the frequencies of MN induced by MMC, especially in the desmutagenic test. A slight cell-protective effect against the cytotoxicity of MMC was also exhibited by the two HAs in the desmutagenic test. The LHA showed a desmutagenic/antimutagenic activity that was more pronounced than that of SHA, which is possibly related to the higher carboxylic group content and lower phenolic group content of LHA. These results confirm the antigenotoxic action exerted by HAs in human cells, similarly to what has been previously observed in various plant species. PMID:16386451

  10. Disrupting protein expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids reduces infection by obligate intracellular Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Rebecca S; McClure, Jennifer C; Kaur, Simran J; Sears, Khandra T; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria's ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria.

  11. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple. PMID:26007196

  12. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for determination of gallic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fereshteh Chekin; Samira Bagheri; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach for the preparation of gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (Gel-RGONS) by chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using gelatin as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent in an aqueous solution was developed. The morphology and structure of the Gel-RGONS were examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Gelatin acted as a functionalizing reagent to guarantee good dispersibility and stability of the r in distilled water. Moreover, a new electrochemical sensor was developed based on Gel-RGONS modified glassy carbon electrode (Gel-RGONS/GCE). Gel-r exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to gallic acid (GA) oxidation. The experimental conditions such as pH, adsorption time and scan rate were optimized for the determination of GA. Under optimum conditions, the sensor responded linearly to GA in the concentration of 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.1 × 10−4 M with detection limit of 4.7 × 10−7 M at 3 using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of GA in sample of black tea.

  13. Salicylic acid reduces napropamide toxicity by preventing its accumulation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Guo Lin; Zhu, Hong Mei; Yang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether SA regulates plant response to herbicides (or pesticides) was unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of SA on herbicide napropamide accumulation and biological processes in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Plants exposed to 8 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed growth stunt and oxidative damage. Treatment with 0.1 mM SA improved growth and reduced napropamide levels in plants. Treatment with SA also decreased the abundance of O (2) (-.) and H(2)O(2) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increased activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in napropamide-exposed plants. Analysis of SOD, CAT, and POD activities using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed the results. These results may help to understand how SA regulates plant response to organic contaminants and provide a basis to control herbicide/pesticide contamination in crop production. PMID:19967348

  14. Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, U; Laessle, R; Kittl, S; Dickhaut, B; Schweiger, M; Pirke, K M

    1986-01-01

    Influence of diet composition on mood during weight-reducing diets was studied in healthy young women of normal weight. A broad range of macronutrient intake was achieved by means of divergent dietary instructions for the composition of a 1,000 kcal per day diet adhered to for six weeks. Global mood during the last three weeks of the diet was significantly better in the "vegetarian" than in the "mixed" diet group. During this time a significant correlation was observed between relative carbohydrate intake and global mood (r = -0.74; p less than 0.01) and between the ratio of plasma tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (a predictor of tryptophan flow into brain) and global mood (r = -0.52; p less than 0.05). Results suggest that group differences are related to differences in carbohydrate intake. It is hypothesized that impairment of central serotonergic function due to reduced tryptophan availability can prompt mood deterioration in situations of relatively low carbohydrate intake. PMID:3783150

  15. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore

  16. A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstrand, Eva

    2006-02-01

    Several factors have been identified to cause peripheral fatigue during exercise, whereas the mechanisms behind central fatigue are less well known. Changes in the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level is one factor that has been suggested to cause fatigue. The rate-limiting step in the synthesis of 5-HT is the transport of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier. This transport is influenced by the fraction of tryptophan available for transport into the brain and the concentration of the other large neutral amino acids, including the BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), which are transported via the same carrier system. Studies in human subjects have shown that the plasma ratio of free tryptophan (unbound to albumin)/BCAAs increases and that tryptophan is taken up by the brain during endurance exercise, suggesting that this may increase the synthesis of 5-HT in the brain. Ingestion of BCAAs increases their concentration in plasma. This may reduce the uptake of tryptophan by the brain and also 5-HT synthesis and thereby delay fatigue. Accordingly, when BCAAs were supplied to human subjects during a standardized cycle ergometer exercise their ratings of perceived exertion and mental fatigue were reduced, and, during a competitive 30-km cross-country race, their performance on different cognitive tests was improved after the race. In some situations the intake of BCAAs also improves physical performance. The results also suggest that ingestion of carbohydrates during exercise delays a possible effect of BCAAs on fatigue since the brain's uptake of tryptophan is reduced. PMID:16424144

  17. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juaneda, Pierre; Durand, Denis; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA co...

  18. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  19. Arachidonic acid reduces the stress response of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, W.M.; Nixon, O.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the influence of the dietary level of the fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) was determined on the acute stress response and osmoregulation of adult gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Seabream were fed a diet containing either 0.9% or 2.4% of total fatty acids as ArA for 18 day

  20. Reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Pfelzer, N.; Zuijderwijk, R.; Brickwedde, A.; Zeijl, C. van; Punt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. Previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cadA) from Aspergillus terreus converted A. niger into an itaconic acid produ

  1. ELECTROLESS COPPER PLATING ON FRAXINUS MANDSHURICA VENEER USING GLYOXYLIC ACID AS REDUCING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper coating was deposited on Fraxinus mandshurica veneers for preparing EMI shielding composite by electroless plating using glyoxylic acid as reducing agent in the solution. XPS and SEM were used to analyze the activation process. It was found that a continuous chitosan membrane was loaded on the wood surface. XPS results showed that Pd(II ions were chemically adsorbed on a chitosan membrane on the wood surface through an N-Pd σ coordination bond. After reduction, part of Pd(II absorbed formed very little Pd(0 particles on the chitosan-treated wood surface. The activated wood veneers were immersed into a plating bath in which copper film was successfully initiated. The coatings were characterized by SEM-EDS, XPS, and XRD. The metal deposition, surface resistivity, and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness were measured. The morphology of the coating was uniform, compact, and continuous. The wood grains were preserved on the plated wood veneer, which had a copper-like color and sheen. EDS, XPS, and XRD results indicated that the coating consisted of Cu0 with crystalline structure. The surface resistivity and copper deposition reached 175.14 mΩ•cm-2 and 21.66 g/m2 when the veneer was pretreated with 0.8 % chitosan for 8 min and plated for 30 min at 55 oC. The plated veneers exhibited good electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of over 60 dB in frequency ranging from10 MHz to 1.5 GHz.

  2. Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation and apoptosis in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin on bacterial translocation and apoptosis in a rat ulcerative colitis model.METHODS:Rats were randomly assigned to three groups:group Ⅰ:control,group Ⅱ: experimental colitis,group Ⅲ:colitis plus melatonin treatment.On d 11 after colitis,plasma tumor necrosis factor-α,portal blood endotoxin levels,colon tissue myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activity were measured.Bacterial translocation was quantified by blood,lymph node,liver and spleen culture.RESULTS:We observed a significantly reduced incidence of bacterial translocation to the liver,spleen,mesenteric lymph nodes,portal and systemic blood in animals treated with melatonin.Treatment with melatonin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity in colonic tissues compared to that in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-treated rats (16.11 ± 2.46 vs 32.97 ± 3.91,P < 0.01).CONCLUSION:Melatonin has a protective effect on bacterial translocation and apoptosis.

  3. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

  4. Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perel Pablo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely administering TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients is cost effective by both averting deaths occurring from the shortage of blood, and by preventing infections from blood transfusions. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of providing TXA compared with no TXA in patients with surgical bleeding in four African countries with different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and blood donation rates (Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Botswana. The principal outcome measures were cost per life saved and cost per infection averted (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C averted in 2007 International dollars ($. The probability of receiving a blood transfusion with and without TXA and the risk of blood borne viral infection were estimated. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The incremental cost per life saved is $87 for Kenya and $93 for Tanzania. In Botswana and South Africa, TXA administration is not life saving but is highly cost saving since fewer units of blood are transfused. Further, in Botswana the administration of TXA averts one case of HIV and four cases of Hepatitis B (HBV per 1,000 surgical patients. In South Africa, one case of HBV is averted per 1,000 surgical patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Conclusion An economic

  5. Effect of Subsequent Dilute Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Reducing Sugar Production from Sugarcane Bagasse and Spent Citronella Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Timung, Robinson; Naik Deshavath, Narendra; Goud, Vaibhav V.; Dasu, Venkata V.

    2016-01-01

    This work was aimed at investigating the effect of process parameters on dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of spent citronella biomass (after citronella oil extraction) and sugarcane bagasse on total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. In acid pretreatment, the parameters studied were acid concentration, temperature, and time. At the optimized condition (0.1 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 120 min), maximum TRS obtained was 452.27 mg·g−1 and 487.50 mg·g−1 for bagasse and citronella, respectively....

  6. Reductive Leaching Kinetics of Low Grade Manganese Deposits in H2SO4 Solution Using Malonic Acid as Reducing Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Taysser Lasheen; S. A. Abu Elenein; Saleh, W A; A. H Orabi; D. A Ismaiel

    2014-01-01

    A leaching process was developed to extract manganese and metal values from Alloga manganese concentrate. The preferential leaching process was achieved through reductive leaching in dilute sulfuric acid medium with malonic acid as the reducing agent. Leaching parameters were optimized as 1.0 M H2SO4, 10% malonic acid in solid/liquid ratio 1:10 for 90 min at 80 C and using ore ground to – 74 µm. Under these conditions, the leaching efficiency of manganese reaches 97%, whilst iron dissolution ...

  7. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanzhe Wang, Zhiyi He, Shumin Deng Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. Methods: The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. Results: UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (P<0.01. Both the PPARγ protein level and the percentage of PPARγ-positive cells were increased in the UA-treated groups (P<0.01. Compared with the control group, the UA-treated groups exhibited reduced protein levels of MMP2, MMP9, and activated MAPKs (P<0.01 but an increased level of TIMP1 (P<0.01. UA exerted its protective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a

  8. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, D.A.; Suir, E.; Duong, G.H.; De Hulster, E.; Pronk, J. T.; van Maris, A J A

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2{Delta} reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of lactic acid, had a specific growth rate of 0.25 h–1 ...

  9. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws

  10. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles o...

  11. Combination of omega-3 Fatty acids, lithium, and aripiprazole reduces oxidative stress in brain of mice with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Pandiyan; Rajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Tamilselvan, Thangavel; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2014-09-01

    Manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD) was evaluated in the present study with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with aripiprazole and lithium on methylphenidate (MPD)-induced manic mice model. Administration of MPD 5 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally (i.p.) caused increase in oxidative stress in mice brain. To retract this effect, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 ml/kg (p.o.), aripiprazole 1.5 mg/kg bw (i.p.), and lithium 50 mg/kg bw (p.o) were given to mice. Omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with aripiprazole- and lithium-treated groups significantly reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the brain. MPD treatment significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and they were restored by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with aripiprazole and lithium. There is no remarkable difference in the effect of creatine kinase (CK) activity between MPD-induced manic model and the treatment groups. Therefore, our results demonstrate that oxidative stress imbalance and mild insignificant CK alterations induced by administration of MPD can be restored back to normal physiological levels through omega-3 fatty acids combined with lithium and aripiprazole that attributes to effective prevention against mania in adult male Swiss albino mice.

  12. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  13. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. Results: The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety. PMID:26894222

  14. Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thiosulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment via sulfate-reducing enrichment with Casamino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, Susumu; Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ibe, Akihiro; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2007-10-01

    A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2(T), was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2(T) were non-motile rods (0.6-0.8 microm x 2.2-4.8 microm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2(T) stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28-30 degrees C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20-30 g l(-1). Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2(T) fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2(T) on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2(T) was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2(T) formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2(T) (=JCM 13356(T)=NBRC 101112(T)=DSM 17477(T)) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter

  15. Higher Plasma Docosahexaenoic Acid is Associated with Reduced Progression of Coronary-Artery Atherosclerosis in Women with Established Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish intake, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and in some cases alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events and death. The association between n-3 fatty acids in plasma lipids and progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosi...

  16. Exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: substitution of glutamic acid 553 with aspartic acid drastically reduces toxicity and enzymatic activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, C M; Collier, R J

    1987-01-01

    Glutamic acid 553 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) has been identified by photoaffinity labeling as a residue within the NAD binding site (S.F. Carroll and R.J. Collier, J. Biol. Chem. 262:8707-8711, 1987). To explore the function of Glu-553 we used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to replace this residue with Asp in cloned ETA and expressed the mutant gene in Escherichia coli K-12. ADP-ribosylation activity of Asp-553 ETA in cell extracts was about 1,800-fold lower and toxicity...

  17. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mehr-Aein; M. Sadeghi M. Madani-Civi

    2006-01-01

    Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after pr...

  18. Acid fibroblast growth factor reduces rat intestinal mucosal damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion insult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chen; Xiao-Bing Fu; Shi-Li Ge; Tong-Zhu Sun; Wen-Juan Li; Zhi-Yong Sheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the effects of acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) on apoptosis and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in differentiation or proliferation status to explore the protective mechanisms of aFGF.METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control group (C, n = 6), intestinal ischemia group (I,n = 6), aFGF treatment group (A,n =48) and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion group (R, n = 48). Apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL)technique. Proliferating cell nuclear. antigen (PCNA)protein expression and distribution were detected with immunohistochemical method. Plasma levels of D-lactate were determined with modified Brandts method.RESULTS: In A group, administration of exogenous aFGF could improve intestinal histological structure and decrease plasma D-lactate levels at 2-12 h after the reperfusion compared with R group. The apoptotic rates and PCNA protein expressions were not increased until 2 h after reperfusion and were maximal at 12 h. After reperfusion for 2-12 h, the apoptotic rates were gradually augmented along the length of jejunal crypt-villus units.Administration of aFGF could significantly reduce the apoptotic response at 2-12 h after reperfusion (P<0.05).Apoptosis rates in villus and crypt epithelial cells in A group at 12 h after reperfusion were (62.5±5.5)% and (73.2±18.6)% of those in R group, respectively.Treatment of aFGF could apparently induce protein expression of PCNA in intestinal mucosal cells of A group compared with R group during 2-12 h after reperfusion (P<0.05). There were approximately 1.3- and 1.5-times increments of PCNA expression levels in villus and crypt cells in A group at 12 h after reperfusion compared with R group, respectively.CONCLUSION: Intestinal I/R insult could lead to histological structure change and apoptotic rate increment. The protective effects of aFGF against ischemia

  19. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  20. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions.However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned sequences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitution matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features,residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered.Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  1. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions. However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned se- quences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitu- tion matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features, residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered. Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  2. Efficacy of prophylactic tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana G.

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Injection tranexamic acid is the, antifibrinolytic agent that can be used for prophylactic administration before caesarean section for decreasing blood loss during surgery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2011-2016

  3. Formic acid as an alternative reducing agent for the catalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-kyoung Choi; Kuy-hyun Park; Ho-bin Lee; Misun Cho; Samyoung Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Formic acid was used for the nitrate reduction as a reductant in the presence of Pd∶Cu/γ-alumina catalysts.The surfatce characteristics of the bimetallic catalyst synthesized by wet impregnation were investigated by SEM,TEM-EDS.The metals were not distributed homogeneously on the surface of catalyst,although the total contents of both metals in particles agreed well with the theoretical values.Formic acid decomposition on the catalyst surface,its influence on solution pH and nitrate removal efficacy was investigated.The best removal of nitrate (50 ppm) was obtained under the condition of 0.75 g/L catalyst with Pd∶Cu ratio (4∶1) and two fold excess of formic acid.Formic acid decay patterns resembled those of nitrate removal,showing a linear relationship between kf (formic acid decay) and k (nitrate removal).Negligible amount of ammonia was detected,and no nitrite was detected,possibly due to buffering effect of bicarbonate that is in situ produced by the decomposition of formic acid,and due to the sustained release of H2 gas.

  4. Removal of hexenuronic acid by xylanase to reduce adsorbable organic halides formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuangxi; Wang, Shuangfei; Qin, Chengrong; Yao, Shuangquan; Ebonka, Johnbull Friday; Song, Xueping; Li, Kecheng

    2015-11-01

    Xylanase-aided chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp was investigated. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase and followed a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The ATR-FTIR and XPS were employed to determine the surface chemistry of the control pulp, xylanase treated and chlorine dioxide treated pulps. The hexenuronic acid (HexA) could obviously be reduced after xylanase pretreatment, and the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were reduced after chlorine dioxide bleaching. Compared to the control pulp, AOX could be reduced by 21.4-26.6% with xylanase treatment. Chlorine dioxide demand could be reduced by 12.5-22% to achieve the same brightness. The ATR-FTIR and XPS results showed that lignin and hemicellulose (mainly HexA) were the main source for AOX formation. Xylanase pretreatment could remove HexA and expose more lignin, which decreased the chlorine dioxide demand and thus reduced formation of AOX. PMID:26263004

  5. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  6. Atorvastatin Combining with Probucol: A New Way to Reduce Serum Uric Acid Level during Perioperative Period of Interventional Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid has ever been considered as one of contrast induced acute kidney injury’s risk factors. Atorvastatin and probucol can both improve contrast induced acute kidney injury separately. This prospective study is to assess their effect on reducing serum uric acid level and contrast induced acute kidney injury during perioperative period of interventional procedure. On the basis of different doses of atorvastatin and probucol, 208 cases admitted for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly classified into standard combined group (S-C group, intensive combined group (I-C group, and intensive atorvastatin group (I-A group. Patients’ blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate was evaluated 24 hours before and after the procedure. After procedure, blood urea nitrogen in all the three groups decreased; Scr of S-C group and I-A group increased significantly, while estimated glomerular filtration decreased in the S-C group (P<0.05; serum uric acid in S-C group and I-C group decreased significantly (P<0.05. Combination treatment of atorvastatin and probucol before intervention could reduce perioperative serum uric acid level; meanwhile, the intensive combined treatment can improve the contrast induced acute kidney injury. The result was the same for hypertensive patients.

  7. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. PMID:27255638

  8. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  9. Fortification of Reduced Fat Cheddar Cheese with n-3 Fatty Acids: Effect on Off-Flavor Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Silvana; Thurgood, J. E.; Brothersen, C.; Ward, R.; McMahon, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to fortify 50% reduced fat Cheddar cheese with n-3 fatty acids and evaluate whether this fortification generated specific off-flavors in the cheese. Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids were added to the cheese to obtain 3 final fortification levels [18, 35, and 71mg of DHA/EPA per serving size (28g) of cheese] representing 10, 20, and 40% of the suggested daily intake level for DHA/EPA. The presence of oxidized, rancid, and fishy flavor...

  10. The Gane Roof Project: The Impact of Reduced N and S Deposition and Experimental Warming in an Acid Grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field-based system used to quantify the response of acid grassland to reduced atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur deposition, and to investigate the effects of elevated soil temperature on acid grassland development is described. The system is based on 12 retractable roofs, covering undisturbed experimental plots of acid grassland and three controls. Nine roofs are used to exclude natural precipitation and three roofs used to retain emitted IR radiation at night. An irrigation system has been developed to simulate natural precipitation, allowing for the application of specific treatment regimes of ambient, reduced nitrogen and reduced nitrogen/sulphur deposition beneath the nine rain exclusion plots. Plant, soil parameters, leachate chemistry and gaseous fluxes are being monitored and initial results on soil water chemistry are described. Warming appeared to enhance nitrate concentrations in soil water but this was not sustained beyond the first year of treatment. In contrast, the deposition reduction treatments decreased soil water nitrate concentrations within a few weeks of reducing deposition. This was not observed for other solutes such as sulphate or ammonium suggesting a more direct link between deposition of nitrate and leaching losses

  11. The GANE Roof Project: The impact of reduced N and S deposition and experimental warming in an acid grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field-based system used to quantify the response of acid grassland to reduced atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur deposition, and to investigate the effects of elevated soil temperature on acid grassland development is described. The system is based on 12 retractable roofs, covering undisturbed experimental plots of acid grassland and three controls. Nine roofs are used to exclude natural precipitation and three roofs used to retain emitted IR radiation at night. An irrigation system has been developed to simulate natural precipitation, allowing for the application of specific treatment regimes of ambient, reduced nitrogen and reduced nitrogen/sulphur deposition beneath the nine rain exclusion plots. Plant, soil parameters, leachate chemistry and gaseous fluxes are being monitored and initial results on soil water chemistry are described. Warming appeared to enhance nitrate concentrations in soil water but this was not sustained beyond the first year of treatment. In contrast, the deposition reduction treatments decreased soil water nitrate concentrations within a few weeks of reducing deposition. This was not observed for other solutes such as sulphate or ammonium suggesting a more direct link between deposition of nitrate and leaching losses

  12. Solid and liquid media for isolating and cultivating acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Rowe, Owen F; Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Growth media have been developed to facilitate the enrichment and isolation of acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria (aSRB) from environmental and industrial samples, and to allow their cultivation in vitro The main features of the 'standard' solid and liquid devised media are as follows: (i) use of glycerol rather than an aliphatic acid as electron donor; (ii) inclusion of stoichiometric concentrations of zinc ions to both buffer pH and to convert potentially harmful hydrogen sulphide produced by the aSRB to insoluble zinc sulphide; (iii) inclusion of Acidocella aromatica (an heterotrophic acidophile that does not metabolize glycerol or yeast extract) in the gel underlayer of double layered (overlay) solid media, to remove acetic acid produced by aSRB that incompletely oxidize glycerol and also aliphatic acids (mostly pyruvic) released by acid hydrolysis of the gelling agent used (agarose). Colonies of aSRB are readily distinguished from those of other anaerobes due to their deposition and accumulation of metal sulphide precipitates. Data presented illustrate the effectiveness of the overlay solid media described for isolating aSRB from acidic anaerobic sediments and low pH sulfidogenic bioreactors. PMID:27036143

  13. Production of Organic Acids by Probiotic Lactobacilli Can Be Used to Reduce Pathogen Load in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Lu, Xiaonan; Duong, Tri; Larson, Charles L.; Douglas R Call; Devendra H Shah; Konkel, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus can be used to reduce the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in food animals, and therefore reduce the risk of foodborne illness to consumers. As a model system, we examined the mechanism of protection conferred by Lactobacillus species to inhibit C. jejuni growth in vitro and reduce colonization in broiler chickens. Possible mechanisms for the reduction of pathogens by lactobacilli include: 1) stimulation of adaptive immunity; 2) alteration of the cecal microbiome; a...

  14. Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis. A series of our studies in pregnancy complications have well established the importance of omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA. DHA regulates levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, which are required for normal neurological development. We have recently described that in one carbon metabolic pathway, membrane phospholipids are major methyl group acceptors and reduced DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. In this review, we propose that altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children. PMID:21609203

  15. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged layers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with ionic liquids (ILs) and the negatively charged plasma treated polylactic acid leads to homogeneous, stable, and highly durable coatings. Deposition of the LDH coatings increases the surface hydrophobicity of the neat PLA, which results to a decrease in water permeability by about 35%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  17. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  18. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; G. M. Kim; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p

  19. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  20. Clostridium acetireducens sp nov, a novel amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing anaerobic bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlygsson, J; Krooneman, J; Collins, Matthew D.; Pascual, C; Gottschall, JC

    1996-01-01

    Strain 30A(T) (T = type strain), which was isolated from an anaerobic bioreactor fed on waste from a potato starch factory in De Krim, The Netherlands, is a nonmotile, gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped organism that is able to degrade various amino acids, including alanine, leucine, isoleucine, v

  1. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D.A.; Suir, E.; Duong, G.H.; De Hulster, E.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an i

  2. Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations by a Reduced Graphene Oxide-cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heli, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the redox properties of drugs and their determination are performed by electrochemical techniques. Data obtained from electrochemical techniques are often correlated with molecular structure and pharmacological activity of drugs. In this regard, different modified electrodes were applied as sensors for quantification of different drugs. A nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide-cobalt hexacyanoferrate was synthesized by a simple precipitation route. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposite comprised nanoparticles of cobalt hexacyanoferrate attached to the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. A nanocomposite-modified carbon paste electrode was then fabricated. It represented prominent activity toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid, and the kinetics of the electrooxidation process was evaluated. Finally, an amperometric method was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25901152

  3. Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezone, Matthew J; Wakim, Matthew G; Denton, Ryan J; Gamero, Lucas G; Roscigno, Robert F; Gilbert, Richard J; Lovich, Mark A

    2016-08-31

    Conventional inhaled NO systems deliver NO by synchronized injection or continuous NO flow in the ventilator circuitry. Such methods can lead to variable concentrations during inspiration that may differ from desired dosing. NO concentrations in these systems are generally monitored through electrochemical methods that are too slow to capture this nuance and potential dosing error. A novel technology that reduces NO2 into NO via low-resistance ascorbic-acid cartridges just prior to inhalation has recently been described. The gas volume of these cartridges may enhance gas mixing and reduce dosing inconsistency throughout inhalation. The impact of the ascorbic-acid cartridge technology on NO concentration during inspiration was characterized through rapid chemiluminescence detection during volume control ventilation, pressure control ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure using an in vitro lung model configured to simulate the complete uptake of NO. Two ascorbic acid cartridges in series provided uniform and consistent dosing during inspiration during all modes of ventilation. The use of one cartridge showed variable inspiratory concentration of NO at the largest tidal volumes, whereas the use of no ascorbic acid cartridge led to highly inconsistent NO inspiratory waveforms. The use of ascorbic acid cartridges also decreased breath-to-breath variation in SIMV and CPAP ventilation. The ascorbic-acid cartridges, which are designed to convert NO2 (either as substrate or resulting from NO oxidation during injection) into NO, also provide the benefit of minimizing the variation of inhaled NO concentration during inspiration. It is expected that the implementation of this method will lead to more consistent and predictable dosing. PMID:27264784

  4. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  5. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  6. Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfur-reducing carboxydotrophic bacterium from an acidic hot spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Kawaichi, Satoshi;

    2012-01-01

    growth on CO, H(2) and CO(2) were produced. Growth occurred on molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source. Growth was observed on various organic compounds under an N(2) atmosphere with the reduction of ferric iron. The temperature range for carboxydotrophic growth......A novel anaerobic, Fe(III)-reducing, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic bacterium, designated strain Ug1(T), was isolated from a volcanic acidic hot spring in southern Kyushu Island, Japan. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped (1.0-3.0 µm long) and motile due to peritrichous flagella. Strain Ug1(T...... oxidation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and unique physiological features, the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Carboxydothermus for which the name Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of the novel species is Ug1(T) (=DSM 23698(T)=NBRC 107576(T))....

  7. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed and...... culture mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  8. Trans-11 vaccenic acid reduces hepatic lipogenesis and chylomicron secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Wright, David C; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2009-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) is the predominant trans isomer in ruminant fat and a major precursor to the endogenous synthesis of cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animals. We have previously shown that 3-wk VA supplementation has a triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (JCR:LA-cp rats). The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effect (16 wk) of VA on lipid homeostasis in both the liver and intestine in obese JCR:LA-cp rats. Plasma TG (P JCR:LA-cp rats. The appreciable hypolipidemic benefits of VA may be attributed to a reduction in both intestinal CM and hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathways.

  9. R-roscovitine Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Lipoteichoic Acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Duitman, JanWillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H. P.; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, −2, −5 and −7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We ...

  10. Increased dietary intake of ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Kip M.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Lofqvist, Chatarina; Aderman, Christopher M.; Chen, Jing; Higuchi, Akiko; Hong, Song; Pravda, Elke A.; Majchrzak, Sharon; Carper, Deborah; Hellstrom, Ann; Jing X Kang; Chew, Emily Y.; Salem, Norman; Serhan, Charles N.

    2007-01-01

    Many sight-threatening diseases have two critical phases, vessel loss followed by hypoxia-driven destructive neovascularization. These diseases include retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy, leading causes of blindness in childhood and middle age affecting over 4 million people in the United States. We studied the influence of ω-3- and ω-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on vascular loss, vascular regrowth after injury, and hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization in ...

  11. α-Lipoic Acid Reduces Hypertension and Increases Baroreflex Sensitivity in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Thyago; Guimarães, Drielle; Mendes-Junior, Leônidas; Braga, Valdir

    2012-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension has robust effects on control of blood pressure, including an impairment in baroreflex mechanisms, which involves oxidative stress. Although α-lipoic acid (LA) has been described as a potent antioxidant, its effect on renovascular hypertension and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) has not been investigated. In the present study we analyzed the effects caused by chronic treatment with LA on blood pressure, heart rate and baroreflex sensitivity (sympathetic and parasympathe...

  12. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  13. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  14. Cardiomyocyte Triglyceride Accumulation and Reduced Ventricular Function in Mice with Obesity Reflect Increased Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonarteriosclerotic cardiomyopathy is increasingly seen in obese patients. Seeking a rodent model, we studied cardiac histology, function, cardiomyocyte fatty acid uptake, and transporter gene expression in male C57BL/6J control mice and three obesity groups: similar mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and db/db and ob/ob mice. At sacrifice, all obesity groups had increased body and heart weights and fatty livers. By echocardiography, ejection fraction (EF and fractional shortening (FS of left ventricular diameter during systole were significantly reduced. The Vmax for saturable fatty acid uptake was increased and significantly correlated with cardiac triglycerides and insulin concentrations. Vmax also correlated with expression of genes for the cardiac fatty acid transporters Cd36 and Slc27a1. Genes for de novo fatty acid synthesis (Fasn, Scd1 were also upregulated. Ten oxidative phosphorylation pathway genes were downregulated, suggesting that a decrease in cardiomyocyte ATP synthesis might explain the decreased contractile function in obese hearts.

  15. Stearidonic acid-enriched flax oil reduces the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, K; Yu, H-M; Newell, M; Weselake, R J; Meesapyodsuk, D; Qiu, X; Shah, S; Field, C J

    2015-01-01

    The 20 and 22 carbon n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit the growth of tumors in vitro and in animal models, but less is known about the 18 carbon n-3, stearidonic acid (SDA). This study aimed to establish and determine a mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of SDA-enriched oil (SO). SO (26 % of lipid) was produced by genetically engineering flax and used to treat human tumorigenic (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-12A) breast cells. Nu/nu mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor were fed SO (SDA, 4 % of fat). Cell/tumor growth, phospholipid (PL) composition, apoptosis, CD95, and pro-apoptotic molecules were determined in SO-treated cells/tumors. Compared to a control lipid mixture, SO reduced (p < 0.05) the number of tumorigenic, but not MCF-12A cells, and resulted in higher concentration of most of the n-3 fatty acids in PL of all cells (p < 0.05). However, docosapentaenoic acid increased only in tumorigenic cells (p < 0.05). SO diet decreased tumor growth and resulted in more n-3 LCPUFA, including DPA and less arachidonic acid (AA) levels in major tumor PL (p < 0.05). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells/tumors with SO resulted in more apoptotic cells (in tumors) and in vivo and in vitro, more CD95+ positive cells and a higher expression of apoptotic molecules caspase-10, Bad, or Bid (p < 0.05). Supplementing SO alters total PL and PL classes by increasing membrane content of n-3 LCPUFA and lowering AA (in vivo), which is associated with increased CD95-mediated apoptosis, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism for reduce tumor survival. PMID:25417173

  16. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  17. Lipin-2 reduces proinflammatory signaling induced by saturated fatty acids in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Valdearcos, Martín; Esquinas, Esperanza; Meana, Clara; Peña, Lucía; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Balsinde, Jesús; Balboa, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Lipin-2 is a member of the lipin family of enzymes, which are key effectors in the biosynthesis of lipids. Mutations in the humanlipin-2 gene are associated with inflammatory-based disorders; however, the role of lipin-2 in cells of the immune system remains obscure. In this study, we have investigated the role of lipin-2 in the proinflammatory action of saturated fatty acids in murine and human macrophages. Depletion of lipin-2 promotes the increased expression of the proinflammatory genes I...

  18. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M.; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50...

  19. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution (translated from German)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Swedish project for the final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister without the intervention of sulphate-reducing bacteria. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible. On the other hand, copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron is available. Because little specific information is available about this subject the problem was extended to the much more general question of the reducibility of sulphur in dilute aqueous solution. It is a part of the general knowledge of chemistry, and there is also unanimity about it in the geochemical literature, that purely chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 degrees C. This fact is, however, poorly documented and it was therefore necessary to substantiate it by drawing on numerous individual findings from different areas of pure and applied chemistry. The investigation confirms that sulphur in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be ruled out with a probability verging on certainty. (85 refs.)

  20. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Harry R.; Zhou, Peng; Jewell, Talia N.M.;

    2016-01-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H2S, while fixing CO2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus...

  1. The use of ultrasound and infrared radiation to reduce microbiological contamination of raw materials in the production of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microflora of the main raw materials for producing citric acid (beet molasses and grain) is capable of greatly reducing the yield of target metabolite or changing the focus of biosynthesis. Rye, oats and barley grain with humidity of 16% and its grinds (a particle size 1 mm) was treated ultrasound having a capacity of 1.5 kW, frequency 15 and 22 kHz. Infrared radiation treatment was carried out at t 120 to 180 degrees C for 2-30 min and the exposure power W/sq. cm. In molasses there were found spore-forming heat-resistant bacteria with Bacillus subtilis and B. mesentericus being predominated, gaseous, nitrite-forming, acid-forming bacteria, yeast of gen. Candida, Leuconostoc mesenteroides that consume sugar, nitric and mineral substances reducing the biosynthetic activity of Aspergillus niger producer. For molasses treated with ultrasound 1.5 kW and frequency 22 kHz, the total viable count reduces by the order compared to the control. Increasing the exposure time up to 30 min results in slightly reducing the achieved level. Under influence of ultrasound the contamination with bacteria and mold fungi of rye, oats and barley grain grinds reduces by 2-3 orders compared to the control and much more at frequency 22 kHz. The great increase in the parameter of the total viable count is achieved by IR-treatment of grain and grinds. The microflora practically entirely dies by increasing the temperature up to 160-180 degrees C even in case of 2 minute exposure. IR treatment providing t 120 degrees C for 2-6 min resulted in reducing the number of cells of microorganisms by 3-4 orders compared to the untreated control

  2. Gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets reduced degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Duarte Freire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are considered the first-line medication for preventing and treating tuberculosis. Rifampicin is degraded in the stomach acidic environment, especially when combined with isoniazid, factor contributing to treatment failure. In this study, gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets were obtained to physical contact of this drug with rifampicin and to bypass the stomach´s acidic environment. The pellets were fabricated using the extrusion-spheronization technique. The coating process was conducted in a fluid spray coater using Acrycoat L 100(r solution as the coating agent. The pellets obtained were submitted to a dissolution test in HCl 0.1 N and phosphate buffer media. The results indicated that optimum gastric-resistance was only attained with the highest amount of coating material, with isoniazid almost fully released in phosphate buffer. The amount of rifampicin released from its mixture with non-coated isoniazid pellets in HCl 0.1 N was less than that released from its mixture with the enteric-coated pellets. Acrycoat L 100(r was shown to be an effective enteric/gastric-resistant coating since the stability of rifampicin appeared to be enhanced when physical contact of this drug with isoniazid was prevented at low pH.

  3. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum. PMID:26808096

  4. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum.

  5. High-fat feeding reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats: differential mechanisms for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Yao; Gao, Yu; Di, Yu-Wei; Pan, Li-Li; Zhou, Yu; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2006-08-01

    1. Chronic feeding with a high-fat diet can cause metabolic syndrome in rodents similar to humans, but the role of saturated versus unsaturated fats in vascular tension remains unclear. 2. The present study shows that rats on a diet rich in either saturated or unsaturated fat had higher blood pressure compared with chow-fed rats (approximately 130 vs 100 mmHg, respectively), along with hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Compared with responses of phenylephrine-preconstricted artery segments from chow-fed rats, vasorelaxation of isolated renal arteries from high-fat fed rats was reduced substantially (> 50%) in response to acetylcholine (0.01-10 micromol/L) and moderately to nitroprusside (>or=1 micromol/L) at low concentrations. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of arteries from high-fat fed rats was also more sensitive to inhibition by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine and methylene blue. 3. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the production of NO and endothelin-1 was significantly inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids. In comparison, saturated fatty acids stimulated endothelin-1 production without altering NO production. 4. The data indicate that both saturated and unsaturated high-fat feeding may result in an increase in blood pressure owing to reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the arterial system. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may involve different mechanisms.

  6. Reflux of bile acids from the duodenum into the rumen of cows with a reduced intestinal passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Hausammann, K; Forrer, R

    1989-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether the concentration of bile acids in the rumen of healthy cows differs from that of cows with a reduced gastrointestinal passage. The investigations were performed on 277 heifers and cows of the Swiss Braunvieh, Simmental and Swiss Holstein breeds. Forty of these had traumatic reticuloperitonitis, 30 had right or left abomasal displacement, 14 had an ileus of the duodenum, 36 had an ileus of the jejunum and 54 had a caecal dilatation. The other 103 animals had disorders which did not affect the digestive system and were used as controls. The mean (+/- se) bile acid concentration in the rumen fluid of the control animals was 1.0 +/- 0.30 mumol/litre. The bile acid concentrations in the rumen fluid of the cows with a duodenal or jejunal ileus were significantly higher than those of the other groups, demonstrating that bile acids may reflux from the duodenum into the rumen of cows with an ileus in the small intestine.

  7. Does closure of acid-sensing ion channels reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat brain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yinghui Xu; Zhigang Lian; Jian Zhang; Tingzhun Zhu; Mengkao Li; Yi Wei; Bin Dong

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a common characteristic of brain damage. Because studies have shown that permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels can mediate the toxic effects of calcium ions, they have become new targets against pain and various intracranial diseases. However, the mechanism associated with expression of these channels remains unclear. This study sought to observe the expression characteristics of permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels during different reperfusion inflows in rats after cerebral ischemia. The rat models were randomly divided into three groups: adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group, one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, and severe cerebral ischemic injury group. Western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining results exhibited that when compared with the one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, acid-sensing ion channel 3 and Bcl-x/l expression decreased in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Calmodulin expression was lowest in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Following adaptive reperfusion, common carotid artery flow was close to normal, and the pH value improved. Results verified that adaptive reperfusion following cerebral ischemia can suppress acid-sensing ion channel 3 expression, significantly reduce Ca2+ influx, inhibit calcium overload, and diminish Ca2+ toxicity. The effects of adaptive ischemia/reperfusion on suppressing cell apoptosis and relieving brain damage were better than that of one-time ischemia/reperfusion.

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and blood transfusion requirements following peri-acetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, G I; Perka, C; Janz, V; Krämer, M; Renner, L

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of using tranexamic acid (TXA) during peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) on peri-operative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. In addition we analysed whether the use of TXA was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following this procedure. A consecutive series of 96 PAOs, performed by a single surgeon, were reviewed. A total of 48 patients received TXA and 48 did not. The TXA group received a continuous infusion of TXA at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. The primary outcome measure was the requirement for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss, the decrease in the level of haemoglobin in the blood, the length of hospital stay, and the complications of this treatment. The mean rate of transfusion was significantly lower in the TXA group (62.5% vs 12.5%, p transfusion after PAO significantly, without adverse effects such as an increased rate of VTE.

  9. The toc132toc120 heterozygote mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates reduced levels of hexadecatrienoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Duffield-Duncan, Kayla; Fry, Morgan; Workman, Samantha; Hum-Musser, Sue; Hildebrand, David

    2015-11-01

    A null and heterozygous mutant for the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC132 and TOC120 genes accumulates increased levels of 16:0 and decreased 16:3, suggesting altered homeostasis in fatty acid synthesis. The FAD5 gene encodes a plastid desaturase that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of 16:3 in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). In non-acclimated toc132toc120+/- mutant plants, the FAD5 gene was repressed and this correlated with decreased levels of 16:3. In cold-acclimated mutant however, the FAD5 gene was upregulated and there was a small increase in 16:3 levels relative to the non-acclimated mutant plants. The MGD1 gene was expressed at control levels and the mutant accumulated levels of MGDG that were similar to the wild type. In the mutant however, MGDG had decreased 16:3 levels, suggesting that the activity of FAD5 desaturase was compromised. In the mutant, the FAD2 and FAD3 genes were downregulated but levels of 18:3-PC were increased, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation for the ER-localized fatty acid desaturases. The Toc120 or Toc159 receptor is likely to compensate for a defective Toc132 receptor. In the cold-acclimated mutant, the TOC159 gene was repressed ca. 300-fold, whereas the TOC120 gene was repressed 7-fold relative to the non-acclimated wild type. Thus, the TOC159 gene is more sensitive to cold-stress and might not compensate for defect in the TOC132 gene under these conditions. Overall, these data show that a mutation in the TOC132 gene results in decreased 16:3 levels, indicating the need for an intact Toc132/Toc120 receptor, presumably to facilitate the import of the FAD5 preprotein into chloroplasts.

  10. Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems.

  11. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section:A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr H Yehia; Magdy H Koleib; Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Ahmed Atik

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reduction of blood loss during and after cesarean section.Methods:Women included in the current double blinded, randomized, controlled trial were recruited from women attending for elective cesarean section and randomized into two groups; study group: received tranexamic acid with induction of anesthesia plus10IU of oxytocin injection after delivery of the baby.Control group: received only oxytocin 10IU injection after delivery of the baby.Results:Twenty four hours post-operative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in study group(11.2±1.5 mg/dL) compared to control(9.6±1.2 mg/dL), also24 hours post-operative hematocrit was significantly higher in study group(30.2±6.6) compared to control(29.2±2.8).Calculated total blood loss from placental delivery till end of cesarean section was significantly less in study group compared to control(369.5±198.0 versus606.8±193.0 mL; respectively), also, calculated vaginal bleeding during first6 hours post-operative was significantly less in study group compared to control(85.0±30.7 mL versus130.8±49.3 mL, respectively).The incidence of post-partum hemorrhage was significantly less in study group compared to control(31.1% versus63.2%; respectively), also the need for iron replacement therapy was significantly less frequent in study group compared to control(0.9% versus6.6%, respectively). Conclusions:Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  12. Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems. PMID:27070119

  13. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Hwan; Mirabella, Rossana; Bronstein, Philip A; Preston, Gail M; Haring, Michel A; Lim, Chun Keun; Collmer, Alan; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. In complete minimal media supplemented with GABA, the mutant grew less well than wild-type DC3000 and showed strongly reduced expression of hrpL and avrPto, which encode an alternative sigma factor and effector, respectively, associated with the type III secretion system. The growth of the gabT triple mutant was weakly reduced in Arabidopsis ecotype Landberg erecta (Ler) and strongly reduced in the Ler pop2-1 GABA transaminase-deficient mutant that accumulates higher levels of GABA. Much of the ability to grow on GABA-amended minimal media or in Arabidopsis pop2-1 leaves could be restored to the gabT triple mutant by expression in trans of just gabT2. The ability of DC3000 to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves is dependent upon deployment of the type III secretion system, and the gabT triple mutant was less able than wild-type DC3000 to elicit this HR when bacteria were infiltrated along with GABA at levels of 1 mm or more. GABA may have multiple effects on P. syringae-plant interactions, with elevated levels increasing disease resistance.

  14. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  15. A Modified method for reducing renal injury in zoledronic acid treatment of hypercalcemia and adverse skeletal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this paper, we have reported a previously undescribed risk factor of deterioration of renal function in zoledronic acid treatment of skeletal metastasis - high serum calcium level. Based on this consideration, a modified method of treatment of hypercalcemia (HCM with zoledronic acid is suggested in this paper. Material and Methods: Bone scan findings of 1090 cancer patients were analyzed, of which 26 had intense renal parenchymal uptake as a result of HCM or bone metastases. Subsequently, a total of 56 bone metastases patients with zoledronic acid treatment were divided into three groups: HCM group who were pre-treated to normal serum calcium level (13 patients, HCM group (19 patients, and normal serum calcium group (24 patients. Results: More patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were hyperglycemic, statistically significantly (18/26 versus 19/1064, P = 2.1, E-78. No more patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were associated with bone metastases (14/26 versus 438/1064, P = 0.20. Subsequently, more HCM patients receiving zoledronic acid treatment showed renal injury compared to patients with normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 2/24, P < 0.05 and HCM patients with pre-treatment to normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 1/17, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Intense renal parenchymal uptake of bisphosphonates is closely related to HCM rather than to bone metastases in cancer patients. The serum calcium should be measured and reduced to normal level before zoledronic acid is used in managements of adverse skeletal events in order to decrease the risk of renal injury.

  16. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  17. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by amentoflavone reduces coxsackievirus B3 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsky, Steffi; Sobotta, Katharina; Wiesener, Nadine; Pilas, Johanna; Althof, Nadine; Munder, Thomas; Wutzler, Peter; Henke, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections, but an antiviral drug to treat these diseases has not yet been developed for clinical use. Several intracellular pathways are altered to assist viral transcription, RNA replication, and progeny release. Among these, fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression is increased. In order to test the potential of FAS inhibition as an anti-CVB3 strategy, several experiments were performed, including studies on the correlation of CVB3 replication and FAS expression in human Raji cells and an analysis of the time and dose dependence of the antiviral effect of FAS inhibition due to treatment with amentoflavone. The results demonstrate that CVB3 infection induces an up-regulation of FAS expression already at 1 h postinfection (p.i.). Incubation with increasing concentrations of amentoflavone inhibited CVB3 replication significantly up to 8 h p.i. In addition, suppression of p38 MAP kinase activity by treatment with SB239063 decreased FAS expression as well as viral replication. These data provide evidence that FAS inhibition via amentoflavone administration might present a target for anti-CVB3 therapy. PMID:22075919

  18. Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid to Reduce the Biofilms on Titanium Alloy Surfaces in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ju; Chen, Chun-Cheng; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been used as an adjunct to mechanical debridement for peri-implantitis treatment. The present in vitro study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and chlorhexidine (CHX) at eliminating Gram-negative (E. coli and P. gingivalis) and Gram-positive (E. faecalis and S. sanguinis) bacteria. The effect of irrigating volume and exposure time on the antimicrobial efficacy of HOCl was evaluated, and a durability analysis was completed. Live/dead staining, morphology observation, alamarBlue assay, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection were examined on grit-blasted and biofilm-contaminated titanium alloy discs after treatment with the three chemotherapeutic agents. The results indicated that HOCl exhibited better antibacterial efficacy with increasing irrigating volumes. HOCl achieved greater antibacterial efficacy as treatment time was increased. A decrease in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed when HOCl was unsealed and left in contact with the air. All the irrigants showed antibacterial activity and killed the majority of bacteria on the titanium alloy surfaces of biofilm-contaminated implants. Moreover, HOCl significantly lowered the LPS concentration of P. gingivalis when compared with NaOCl and CHX. Thus, a HOCl antiseptic may be effective for cleaning biofilm-contaminated implant surfaces. PMID:27447617

  19. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  20. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  1. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan.

  2. Echinocystic acid reduces reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Bin; Deng, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xin-Shang; Yang, Qi; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain has consistently been correlated with depression. Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs and used for medicinal purpose in many Asian countries, exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, little is known the effects of EA on the depression. In present study, we investigated the anti-depression activities in the mouse model of reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad. Reserpine (1 mg/kg subcutaneously daily for 3 days) caused significant depression-like behaviors and pain sensation. Subsequent treatment of EA (5 mg/kg intragastrically daily for 5 days) attenuated the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad as shown by the increase of pain threshold and the behaviors in forced swimming test, tail suspension test, and open field test. Furthermore, treatment of EA reversed the decrease of biogenic amines (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) in the brain region of hippocampus, a structure involved in the formation of emotional disorders. Levels of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A were decreased and levels of 5-HT2A were increased in the reserpine-injected mice. Treatment of EA could restore the alterations of serotonin receptors. At the same time, the increase in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, p-GluA1-Ser831, PSD-95 and CaMKII were integrated with the increase in caspase-3 and iNOS levels in the hippocampus of the reserpine-injected mice. EA significantly reversed the changes of above proteins. However, EA did not affect the levels of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors and the total levels of GluA1 and p-GluA1-Ser845. Our study provides strong evidence that EA attenuates reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad partially through regulating the biogenic amines levels and GluN2B receptors in the hippocampus. PMID:26729203

  3. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Restores Estrogen Reduced-cTnI Expression in Neonatal Hearts of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chang; Luo, Xiaomei; Xing, Qianlu; Sun, Huichao; Huang, Xupei

    2016-10-01

    Diastolic cardiac dysfunction can be caused by abnormality in cTnI expression during cardiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen on the abnormal expression of cTnI in the hearts of neonatal mice and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. We then evaluated suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a HDAC inhibitor, as a new target treatment of diastolic cardiac dysfunction. Postnatal day 0.5 C57BL/6 mice were injected with estrogen for 1 week, then the hearts of 7-day-old neonatal mice were retrieved for examination. The activities of HDAC and HAT were assayed by colorimetry, and the interaction of cTnI with HDAC5 in mice hearts were examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The expression of cTnI was tested by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Estrogen treated groups displayed a significantly increased HDAC activity in the hearts of neonatal mice while HAT activity remained unchanged. Additionally, HDAC5 was higher at the cTnI promoter, as compared to the saline treated control groups. The acetylation of histone H3K9ac on cTnI promoter significantly decreased in the hearts of neonatal mice treated with estrogen, and the expression of cTnI at transcriptional and protein levels also decreased. SAHA was shown to increase the acetylation of histone H3K9ac and upregulate the expression of cTnI. The data demonstrated that SAHA can correct cTnI expression abnormality caused by estrogen through inhibiting the binding of HDAC5 to the promoter of cTnI. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2377-2384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27379430

  4. Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

    2009-01-01

    Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of

  5. Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

    2013-06-01

    Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:ΣCAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:ΣCAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat.

  6. Antagonizing Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids Reduces Inflammatory Th17 and Th1 Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Colitis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA- derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23, decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P≤0.05. Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  7. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latter David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA group (19 patients received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each (P = 0.82. Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit than in placebo group (median 2 units (P = 0.03. Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient.

  8. USE OF QUINOLONES IN BULL SEMEN EXTENDERS TO REDUCE SPERM DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gonzalez-Marin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreserved sperm samples from Holstein bulls (n = 20 were examined for bacterial presence and Sperm DNA Fragmentation (SDF dynamics. SDF was assessed after thawing (T0 and at 4, 24 and 48 h of incubation (37°C and the rate of SDF (r-SDF, as an estimator of the DNA degradation over time, was calculated. Two groups of bulls were identified based on the presence or absence of bacteria: One group (n = 10 had a readily detectable bacterial presence, while the other group (n = 10 had an undetectable bacterial presence. Differences in the SDF at T0 were not observed between these two groups. However, statistically different results were found after 24 h of incubation at 37°C (Kaplan-Meier estimator; Log-Rank Matel-Cox, p-1 of ciprofloxacin at T0. Differences in the r-SDF (p>0.05 were not detected between the control and the quinolone treated sample for those samples without bacteria. However, differences (p<0.000 in SDF were observed for quinolone treated samples that previously presented bacteria. Incubation of sealed straws showed that bacterial contamination occurred prior to cryopreservation. These results call attention to three points: (1 sperm samples were in contact with bacteria before cryopreservation; (2 the r-SDF can be directly correlated with bacterial presence but this effect remains cryptic after thawing and (3 the r-SDF can be reduced by treating the semen samples with an adequate antibiotic such as quinolones, a finding not previously reported in the scientific literature, but important in terms of reproduction.

  9. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis by reduced overconsumption of amino acids and increased catalytic activities of enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol(-1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h(-1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h(-1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus. Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times. Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism by varying the growth conditions.

  10. Citric acid reduces the decline in P300 amplitude induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xing CHEN; Chuan-qin XU; Shao-hua CHEN; Gen-yun XU; Huai-zhuang YE

    2012-01-01

    .05),while there were no significant differences between the latter two treatments.The results of this study suggest that citric acid could reduce the decline in ERP P300 amplitude and cognitive ability induced by acute alcohol consumption.It may also affect some blood biochemical indicators,but the specific mechanisms need further research.

  11. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  12. Phenolic acids inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products in food simulation systems depending on their reducing powers and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hengye; Virk, Muhammad Safiullah; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    The concentration of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foods, which are formed by Maillard reaction, has demonstrated as risk factors associated with many chronic diseases. The AGEs inhibitory activities of five common phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, dihydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and salicylic acid) with different chemical properties had been investigated in two food simulation systems (glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oleic acid-BSA). The results substantiated that the AGEs inhibitory abilities of phenolic acids in the oleic acid BSA system were much better than the glucose-BSA system for their strong reducing powers and structures. Among them, dihydrogenferulic acid showed strong inhibition of AGEs formation in oleic acid-BSA system at 0.01 mg/mL compared to nonsignificant AGEs inhibitory effect in oleic acid-BSA system at 10-fold higher concentration (0.1 mg/mL). This study suggests that edible plants rich in phenolic acids may be used as AGEs inhibitor during high-fat cooking. PMID:27102241

  13. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells

  14. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of 3- and 6-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollanoor-Johny, A.; Mattson, T.; Baskaran, S.A.; Amalaradjou, M.A.; Hoagland, T.A.; Darre, M.J.; Khan, M.I.; Schreiber, D.T.; Donoghue, A.M.; Donoghue, D.J.; Venkitanarayanan, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In separate 3- and 6-wk trials, 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 70 birds/trial) were as

  15. The omega-3 fatty acid DHA dose-dependently reduces atherosclerosis: a putative role for F4-neuroprostanes a specific class of peroxidized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...

  16. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  17. Calculations of reduced partition function ratios of hydrated boric acid molecule by the ab initio molecular orbital theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the ab initio molecular orbital theory at the HF/6-31G(d) level, the effect of hydration on the reduced partition function ratio (RPFR) of the boric acid molecule (B(OH)3) was evaluated in order to better understand boron isotope fractionation observed in aqueous systems. The B(OH)3(H2O)n species with n up to 12 were considered and their geometry optimization and RPFR calculations were carried out. It was induced that hydration decreased the RPFR of B(OH)3 and the degree of decrease in ln(RPFR) was ca. 1.5%, which was nearly equivalent to that of B(OH)4-. (author)

  18. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation as a possible mechanism for fat-reducing effect of betaine in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Zhixian; Fu, Qin; Yang, Xue; Ding, Liren; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P < 0.05, quadratic P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (linear P < 0.05), and increased concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) (linear P = 0.038, quadratic P = 0.003) in serum of broilers. Moreover, incremental levels of betaine increased linearly (P < 0.05) the proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGR) mRNA expression in liver of broilers. In conclusion, this study indicated that betaine supplementation did not affect growth performance of broilers, but was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition in a dose-dependent manner, which was probably caused by combinations of a decrease in fatty acid synthesis and an increase in β-oxidation. PMID:27071487

  19. Exogenous malic and acetic acids reduce cadmium phytotoxicity and enhance cadmium accumulation in roots of sunflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Dresler, Sławomir; Matraszek, Renata

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) are involved in heavy metal resistance mechanisms in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous malic (MA) or acetic (AA) acids on the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Single Cd stress (5 μM Cd for 14 days) induced strong phytotoxic effects, as indicated by a decrease in all growth parameters, concentration of photosynthetic pigments, and root activity, as well as a high level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Exogenous MA or AA (250 or 500 μM) applied to the Cd-containing medium enhanced the accumulation of Cd by the roots and limited Cd translocation to the shoots. Moreover, the MA or AA applied more or less reduced Cd phytotoxicity by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, decreasing accumulation of H2O2, and improving the root activity. Of the studied organic acids, MA was much more efficient in mitigation of Cd toxicity than AA, probably by its antioxidant effects, which were stronger than those of AA. Plant response to Cd involved decreased production of endogenous LMWOA, probably as a consequence of severe Cd toxicity. The addition of MA or AA to the medium increased endogenous accumulation of LMWOA, especially in the roots, which could be beneficial for plant metabolism. These results imply that especially MA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation, and tolerance in plants. PMID:26115548

  20. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  1. Voltammetry of nitrobenzene with cysteine and other acids in DMSO. Implications for the biological reactivity of reduced nitroaromatics with thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cyclic voltammetric investigation of nitrobenzene in DMSO in the presence of various acids including boc- and methylester-protected cysteine is reported. It has been hypothesized that the reaction of thiols with reduced nitroaromatics is at the root of the biological activity for a variety of nitroaromatics, including a number of medicinally important nitroheterocycles used to treat infections by anaerobic microorganisms. This study shows that the only reaction occurring between cysteine and the 1e− reduction product, the nitro radical anion, is proton transfer. However, by comparing the voltammetry observed in the presence of cysteine to that observed in the presence of a range of different acids in DMSO we found that further reaction occurs between cysteine and the 2e− reduction products, either the nitrogen diol or the nitroso, greatly enhancing the overall rate of the reduction. This solution reaction proceeds through a rapidly formed, oxidizably-detectable intermediate, which, by analogy to known chemistry in aqueous solution, is likely the semi-mercaptal. Thus this study shows that cyclic voltammetry in aprotic solvents is a very useful technique for studying the reactivity of nitroaromatics with thiols and confirms that the substantive reaction occurs at the 2e− stage of the reduction

  2. Increased hepatic fatty acids uptake and oxidation by LRPPRC-driven oxidative phosphorylation reduces blood lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc. Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Increased oxidative phosphorylation in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phosphorylation could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival.

  4. Poly(DL:lactic acid-castor oil) 3:7-bupivacaine formulation: reducing burst effect prolongs efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2010-06-01

    Prolonged analgesia may be achieved using a single injection of slow-release local anesthetic formulation. The study objective was to improve the efficacy of a previously reported formulation comprising 10% bupivacaine in poly(DL:lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7. The polymer was loaded with 15% bupivacaine and injected through a 22G needle close to the sciatic nerve of ICR mice. Sensory and motor nerve blockade were measured. The efficacy and toxicity of the polymer-drug combination were determined. Sixty percent of the incorporated bupivacaine was released during 1 week in vitro. During in vitro release no burst effect was seen, suggesting low toxicity of the formulation. Single injection of 0.1 mL of 15% polymer-bupivacaine formulation caused motor block that lasted 64 h and sensory block that lasted 96 h. The MTD of the polymer-drug formulation was established as 0.175 mL. Microscopic examination of the injection sites revealed reversible nerve inflammation and normal internal organs. The polymer poly(DL:lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 is a safe carrier for prolonged activity of bupivacaine up to 96 h. The increase of drug load in the formulation reduces the drug release rates due to stronger polymer-drug interactions and higher overall hydrophobicity of the formulation.

  5. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-Zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-Zhen; Su, Xiang-Ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using (14)C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  6. Sensitive electrochemical sensors for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid based on Au@Pd-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xuezhong

    2014-09-01

    Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 μM with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the concentrations of AA, DA, and UA, the linear response ranges were 1-800, 0.1-100, and 0.1-350 μM with detection limits of 0.28, 0.024, and 0.02 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The fabricated sensors were further applied to the detection of AA, DA, and UA in urine samples. The Au@Pd-RGO nanocomposites have promising applications in highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing.Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 μM with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the

  7. High serum levels of proinflammatory markers during epileptogenesis. Can omega-3 fatty acid administration reduce this process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Telma Luciana Furtado; Vieira de Sousa, Paula Viviane; de Almeida, Sandro Soares; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Vieira de Brito, Joíse Marques; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Salu, Bruno Ramos; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Scorza, Fúlvio Alexandre; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2015-10-01

    During the epileptogenic process, several events may occur, such as an important activation of the immune system in the central nervous system. The response to seizure activity results in an inflammation in the brain as well as in the periphery. Moreover, CRP and cytokines may be able to interact with numerous ligands in response to cardiac injury caused by sympathetic stimulation in ictal and postictal states. Based on this, we measured the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines during acute, silent, and chronic phases of rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. We have also analyzed the effect of a chronic treatment of these rats with omega-3 fatty acid in CRP and cytokine levels, during an epileptic focus generation. C-reactive protein and cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α presented high concentration in the blood of rats, even well after the occurrence of SE. We found reduced levels of CRP and all proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of animals with chronic seizures, treated with omega-3, when compared with those treated with vehicle solution. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the omega-3 is an effective treatment to prevent SUDEP occurrence due to its capability to act as an anti-inflammatory compound, reducing the systemic inflammatory parameters altered by seizures. PMID:26318793

  8. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. PMID:27188898

  9. Lactic Acid Reduces LPS-Induced TNF- and IL-6 mRNA Levels Through Decreasing IB Phosphorylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-yong; JIANG Jin-qi; WANG Ming; LI Jie; SU Jing-liang; REN Xiao-ming

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects over time of lactic acid (LA) on IBαphosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-B) p65 protein expression, and on tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in rat intestinal mucosa microvascular endothelial cells (RIMMVECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IB , phosphorylated IB (p-IB ) and p65 protein levels were monitored by Western blot analysis, and TNF- and IL-6 mRNA levels were analyzed using real-time PCR. LA treatment reduced TNF- and IL-6 mRNA levels in LPS-stimulated RIMMVECs, with the greatest effect being after 3 h. The highest inhibitory effect of LA on IB phosphorylation to prevent activation of NF-B was after 6 h. These results suggest that LA reduces TNF- and IL-6 mRNA levels through decreasing IB phosphorylation and blocking the dissociation of IKK complex, which prevents activation of NF-B.

  10. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  11. Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets and Reduced Graphene Oxide on Poly(lactic acid and Plasticized Poly(lactic acid: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The superlative mechanical properties of graphene-based materials make them the ideal filler materials for polymer composites reinforcement. Two types of graphene-based materials, graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP and reduced graphene oxide (rGO, were used as nanofiller in poly(lactic acid (PLA polymer matrix, as well as plasticized PLA. The addition of rGO into PLA or plasticized PLA substantially enhanced the tensile strength without deteriorating elasticity, compared to xGnP nanocomposites. In addition, the investigation of the thermal properties has found that the presence of rGO in the system is very beneficial for improving thermal stability of the PLA or plasticized PLA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the rGO nanocomposites display homogenous and good uniformity morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images revealed that the rGO remained intact as graphene sheet layers and were dispersed well into the polymer matrix, and it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD results, which shows no graphitic peak in the XRD pattern.

  12. ROLE OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN REDUCING POSTOPERATIVE BLOOD LOSS AND TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENT IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwant

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to assess the effects of tranexamic acid (TA in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgeries. OBJECTIVE: Assess the effects of tranexamic acid on prevention of bleeding and requirement of blood transfusion after major lower limb orthopedic surgeries. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 90 patients ASA grade I & II undergoing elective surgery for femoral fracture like open reduction internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, total hip replacement (THR under anaesthesia were taken. Patients were classified randomly into 2 groups (forty five patients in each group. Group T: Patients received inj. TA 10 mg/kg body weight. Group P: Patients received normal saline 1 ml/kg body weight 15 min before surgery. Postoperative hemoglobin concentration (on day 0 and day 2 and volume of blood in the drain were measured. The number of units of packed red cells transfused during the hospital stay was recorded and any thromboembolic and other complications were documented. RESULT: Analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the patients with respect to age, sex, duration and type of surgery and preoperative mean hemoglobin concentration. Neither heart rate nor MABP has statistically significant difference or results (P>0.05. The drains were removed in the evening of the first postoperative day. Mean volume of blood in the drain compared to placebo group showing a highly significant reduction in postoperative blood loss (P=0.01. Mean fall in hemoglobin at day 0 and day 2 was 2 less in the study group as compared to the placebo that has P value 0.01 making it significant finding. CONCLUSION: the present paired study demonstrated that the administration of TA given preoperatively reduces the blood loss in the first 24 h by a highly significant degree as well it causes a significant reduction in postoperative anemia and need for transfusion among these patients.

  13. Alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein reduce the sensitivity of human dermal fibroblast to endotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that acute phase reactants, such as alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, could protect mammalian cells from further damage.Methods: Human dermal fibroblasts (5 × 104) were cultured with DMEM plus 10% FBS at 37℃ in a 5% CO2incubator. Different doses of LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and/or acute phase reactants were added. After 24 hours, the cultured supernatant was aspirated, the cells were washed, fixed and stained by methylene blue. The unbound stain was washed off. The stained cells were solubilized in 0.1 mi of 1% Triton X-100. The absorbance of each well was measured using an ELISA spectrophotometer. The concentration of LPS which decreased the absorbance to 70% of the control LPS-free ) cultures was defined as LD30.Results: In order to achieve LD30 in the presence of acute phase proteins, it was necessary to alter the LPS concentrations. The LD30 of LPS treated with 0, 0.5, 2, 10mg/ml antitrypsin and 0, 0.5, 2, 10 mg/ml glycoprotein was 5.4, 6.5, 7.6, 14.2 mg/ml and 5.2, 5.9, 6.9, 10.5mg/ml, respectively. Statistically, with the treatment of more than 2 mg/ml antitrypsin or glycoprotein, LD30increased significantly.Conclusions: Our data show that fibroblasts are susceptible to the direct toxicity of LPS. Alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein can reduce the toxicity and/or increase the tolerance of mammalian cells to LPS., LD

  14. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pal Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA is an important signalling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth and oxidative stress caused byAsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of arsenic in the form of arsenite (AsIII. Salicylic acid also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. Arsenic treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe,OsNRAMP5 and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity.

  15. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content inhibits hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but does not reduce the glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Cassolla, Priscila; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Constantin, Jorgete; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2015-06-01

    Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in the human diet, and it contains several chlorogenic acid isomers, of which the 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the predominant isomer. Because there are no available data about the action of chlorogenic acids from instant coffee on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity and blood glucose levels, these effects were investigated in rats. The changes on G-6-Pase activity and liver glucose output induced by 5-CQA were also investigated. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content (37.8%) inhibited (p  0.05). Similarly, 5-CQA (1 mM) reduced (p  0.05) on glucose output arising from glycogenolysis in liver perfusion. It was concluded that instant coffee extract with high content of chlorogenic acids inhibited hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but failed to reduce the glycaemia probably because the coffee chlorogenic acids did not reach enough levels within the hepatocytes to inhibit the G-6-Pase and reduce the liver glucose output.

  16. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  17. Novel long chain fatty acid derivatives of quercetin-3-O-glucoside reduce cytotoxicity induced by cigarette smoke toxicants in human fetal lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-06-15

    Smoking has become a global health concern due to its association with many disease conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Flavonoids are plant polyphenolic compounds, studied extensively for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) is a flavonoid which is widely found in plants. Six novel long chain fatty acid [stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] derivatives of Q3G were evaluated for their potential in protecting human lung fibroblasts against cytotoxicity induced by selected cigarette smoke toxicants: 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo-α-pyrene (BaP), nicotine and chromium (Cr[VI]). Nicotine and Cr[VI] induced toxicity in fibroblasts and reduced the percentage of viable cells, while BaP and NNK did not affect cell viability. The fatty acid derivatives of Q3G provided protection against nicotine- and Cr[VI]-induced cell death and membrane lipid peroxidation. Based on the evaluation of inflammatory markers of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the fatty acid derivatives of Q3G were found to be effective in lowering the inflammatory response. Overall, these novel fatty acid esters of Q3G warrant further investigation as potential cytoprotective agents. PMID:27071958

  18. The chloride-channel blocker 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid reduces the nonlinear capacitance of prestin-associated charge movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Gummer, Anthony W

    2016-04-01

    The basis of the extraordinary sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the cochlea is a chloride-sensitive protein called prestin which can produce an electromechanical response and which resides in the basolateral plasma membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs). The compound 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid (9-AC), an inhibitor of chloride channels, has been found to reduce the electromechanical response of the cochlea and the OHC mechanical impedance. To elucidate these 9-AC effects, the functional electromechanical status of prestin was assayed by measuring the nonlinear capacitance of OHCs from the guinea-pig cochlea and of prestin-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells. Extracellular application of 9-AC caused reversible, dose-dependent and chloride-sensitive reduction in OHC nonlinear charge transfer, Qmax . Prestin-transfected cells also showed reversible reduction in Qmax . For OHCs, intracellular 9-AC application as well as reduced intracellular pH had no detectable effect on the reduction in Qmax by extracellularly applied 9-AC. In the prestin-transfected cells, cytosolic application of 9-AC approximately halved the blocking efficacy of extracellularly applied 9-AC. OHC inside-out patches presented the whole-cell blocking characteristics. Disruption of the cytoskeleton by preventing actin polymerization with latrunculin A or by decoupling of spectrin from actin with diamide did not affect the 9-AC-evoked reduction in Qmax . We conclude that 9-AC acts on the electromechanical transducer principally by interaction with prestin rather than acting via the cytoskeleton, chloride channels or pH. The 9-AC block presents characteristics in common with salicylate, but is almost an order of magnitude faster. 9-AC provides a new tool for elucidating the molecular dynamics of prestin function. PMID:26869218

  19. Photoresponsive fluorescent reduced graphene oxide by spiropyran conjugated hyaluronic acid for in vivo imaging and target delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahain, Abdullah-Al; Lee, Jung-Eun; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung Young

    2013-11-11

    This present article demonstrates the strategy to prepare photoresponsive reduced graphene oxide with mussel inspired adhesive material dopamine (DN) and photochromic dye spiropyran (SP) conjugated to the backbone of the targeting ligand hyaluronic acid (HA; HA-SP). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by prepared HA-SP accepting the advantages of catechol chemistry under mildly alkaline condition enabling to achieve functionalized graphene (rGO/HA-SP) as fluorescent nanoparticles. Due to containing HA, rGO/HA-SP can bind to the CD44 cell receptors. The prepared rGO/HA-SP is able to retain its photochromic features and can be converted to merocyanine (MC) form upon irradiation with UV light (wavelength: 365 nm) displaying purple color. Photochromic behavior of rGO/HA-SP was monitored by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In vitro fluorescence behavior, examined by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), of rGO/HA-SP in cancerous A549 cell lines assured that efficient delivery of rGO/HA-SP was gained due to HA as targeting ligand. In this work, we have shown that in vivo fluorescence image of spiropyran is possible by administrating MC form solution of rGO/HA-SP using Balb/C mice as in vivo modal. Accumulation of rGO/HA-SP in tumor tissue from biodistribution analysis strongly supports the specific delivery of prepared graphene to the target destination. The well tuned drug release manner from the surface of rGO/HA-SP strongly recommends the developed material not only as fluorescent probe for diagnosis but also as a drug carrier in drug delivery system. PMID:24106989

  20. Acute treatment with docosahexaenoic acid complexed to albumin reduces injury after a permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany N Eady

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid complexed to albumin (DHA-Alb is highly neuroprotective after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, but whether a similar effect occurs in permanent MCAo is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (270-330 g underwent permanent MCAo. Neurological function was evaluated on days 1, 2 and 3 after MCAo. We studied six groups: DHA (5 mg/kg, Alb (0.63 or 1.25 g/kg, DHA-Alb (5 mg/kg+0.63 g/kg or 5 mg/kg+1.25 g/kg or saline. Treatment was administered i.v. at 3 h after onset of stroke (n = 7-10 per group. Ex vivo imaging of brains and histopathology were conducted on day 3. Saline- and Alb-treated rats developed severe neurological deficits but were not significantly different from one another. In contrast, rats treated with low and moderate doses of DHA-Alb showed improved neurological score compared to corresponding Alb groups on days 2 and 3. Total, cortical and subcortical lesion volumes computed from T2 weighted images were reduced following a moderate dose of DHA-Alb (1.25 g/kg by 25%, 22%, 34%, respectively, compared to the Alb group. The total corrected, cortical and subcortical infarct volumes were reduced by low (by 36-40% and moderate doses (by 34-42% of DHA-Alb treatment compared to the Alb groups. In conclusion, DHA-Alb therapy is highly neuroprotective in permanent MCAo in rats. This treatment can provide the basis for future therapeutics for patients suffering from ischemic stroke.

  1. Reduced Triacylglycerol Mobilization during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis Containing Nutritionally Important Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pushkar; Callahan, Damien L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.; Zhou, Xue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesize and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG). The utilization of TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain elevated levels of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilized engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  2. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H. Park; R. Mirabella; P.A. Bronstein; G.M. Preston; M.A. Haring; C.K. Lim; A. Collmer; R.C. Schuurink

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h

  3. Melatonin promotes Bax sequestration to mitochondria reducing cell susceptibility to apoptosis via the lipoxygenase metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Radogna, Flavia

    2015-03-01

    Extra-neurological functions of melatonin include control of the immune system and modulation of apoptosis. We previously showed that melatonin inhibits the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in leukocytes via stimulation of high affinity MT1/MT2 receptors, thereby promoting re-localization of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein to mitochondria. Here we show that Bcl-2 sequesters pro-apoptotic Bax into mitochondria in an inactive form after melatonin treatment, thus reducing cell propensity to apoptosis. Bax translocation and the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin are strictly dependent on the presence of Bcl-2, and on the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), which we have previously shown to be produced as a consequence of melatonin binding to its low affinity target calmodulin. Therefore, the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin requires the simultaneous, independent interaction with high (MT1/MT2) and low (calmodulin) affinity targets, eliciting two independent signal transduction pathways converging into Bax sequestration and inactivation. MT1/MT2 vs. lipoxygenase pathways are activated by 10-9 vs. 10-5M melatonin, respectively; the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin is achieved at 10-5M, but drops to 10-9M upon addition of exogenous 5-HETE, revealing that lipoxygenase activation is the rate-limiting pathway. Therefore, in areas of inflammation with increased 5-HETE levels, physiological nanomolar concentrations of melatonin may suffice to maintain leukocyte viability.

  4. Efficient Catalytic Ozonation over Reduced Graphene Oxide for p-Hydroxylbenzoic Acid (PHBA) Destruction: Active Site and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxian; Xie, Yongbing; Sun, Hongqi; Xiao, Jiadong; Cao, Hongbin; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-04-20

    Nanocarbons have been demonstrated as promising environmentally benign catalysts for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) upgrading metal-based materials. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with a low level of structural defects was synthesized via a scalable method for catalytic ozonation of p-hydroxylbenzoic acid (PHBA). Metal-free rGO materials were found to exhibit a superior activity in activating ozone for catalytic oxidation of organic phenolics. The electron-rich carbonyl groups were identified as the active sites for the catalytic reaction. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and radical competition tests revealed that superoxide radical ((•)O2(-)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) were the reactive oxygen species (ROS) for PHBA degradation. The intermediates and the degradation pathways were illustrated from mass spectroscopy. It was interesting to observe that addition of NaCl could enhance both ozonation and catalytic ozonation efficiencies and make ·O2(-) as the dominant ROS. Stability of the catalysts was also evaluated by the successive tests. Loss of specific surface area and changes in the surface chemistry were suggested to be responsible for catalyst deactivation. PMID:27007603

  5. Chlorine-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as an efficient and stable electrode for supercapacitor in acidic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaei, Karim; Hamidi, Milad; Husseindoost, Somayeh

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the efficient doping of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by Chlorine and its capacitive performance was calculated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling in 1M H2SO4 solution. In this regard, we are prepared RGO nanosheets through a simple, eco-friendly and efficient electrochemical method, with selectively functionalized edges by chlorine which involves added the RGO to the halogen-containing acid solution and dispersed by ultrasonic. After synthesis, Cl-RGO is characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and tunneling electron microscopy. FTIR spectra show the chlorine-containing functional groups. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of doped chlorine in RGO. Raman spectroscopy shows a high density of defects in the RGO layer. Electrochemical characteristics of Cl-RGO are characterized by cyclic voltammetery, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. According to the galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis, Cl-RGO represents specific capacitance (Cs) of 178.4Fg(-1) at current density of 1Ag(-1), which is higher than that of RGO (100.5Fg(-1)) in H2SO4 solution. PMID:27388125

  6. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  7. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, I.; Alshryda, S.; Somanchi, B.; Morakis, E.; Foster, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA) was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.). More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized. PMID:26664830

  8. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.. More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized.

  9. Reduced Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acid Levels and the Advent of an Acute Lung Injury in Mice after Intravenous or Enteral Oleic Acid Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although exerting valuable functions in living organisms, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs can be toxic to cells. Increased blood concentration of oleic acid (OLA and other fatty acids is detected in many pathological conditions. In sepsis and leptospirosis, high plasma levels of NEFA and low albumin concentrations are correlated to the disease severity. Surprisingly, 24 h after intravenous or intragastric administration of OLA, main NEFA levels (OLA inclusive were dose dependently decreased. However, lung injury was detected in intravenously treated mice, and highest dose killed all mice. When administered by the enteral route, OLA was not toxic in any tested conditions. Results indicate that OLA has important regulatory properties on fatty acid metabolism, possibly lowering circulating fatty acid through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The significant reduction in blood NEFA levels detected after OLA enteral administration can contribute to the already known health benefits brought about by unsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched diets.

  10. The Refsum disease marker phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid, affects Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondria, and reduces cell viability in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Stefan; Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2005-02-01

    The saturated branched chain fatty acid, phytanic acid, a degradation product of chlorophyll, accumulates in Refsum disease, an inherited peroxisomal disorder with neurological clinical features. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism, we investigated the influence of phytanic acid on cellular physiology of rat hippocampal astrocytes. Phytanic acid (100 microM) induced an immediate transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, followed by a plateau. The peak of this biphasic Ca2+ response was largely independent of extracellular Ca2+, indicating activation of cellular Ca2+ stores by phytanic acid. Phytanic acid depolarized mitochondria without causing in situ swelling of mitochondria. The slow decrease of mitochondrial potential is not consistent with fast and simultaneous opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, phytanic acid induced substantial generation of reactive oxygen species. Phytanic acid caused astroglia cell death after a few hours of exposure. We suggest that the cytotoxic effect of phytanic acid seems to be due to a combined action on Ca2+ regulation, mitochondrial depolarization, and increased ROS generation in brain cells.

  11. The effect of reduced amino acid level and increasing levels of lupin on growth performance and meat content in organic reared pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suitable protein sources for organic pig production are scarce. This project was aimed at studying the effect of a reduced amino acid level and thus crude protein level, and the inclusion of lupin in diets for grower-finisher pigs fed under organic conditions. Two hundred pigs (females......:male castrates, 1:1) were fed either 100% or 85% of amino acid recommendations and lupin inclusions levels of 0%, 12.5% or 25% from 30 to 105 kg....

  12. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors;

    2013-01-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters......, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat...... a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages....

  13. LIVER TYPE FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN (L-FABP) GENE ABLATION REDUCES NUCLEAR LIGAND DISTRIBUTION AND PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-α ACTIVITY IN CULTURED PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES1

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Hostetler, Heather A.; Huang, Huan; Davis, Jason; Lyuksyutova, Olga I.; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    The effect of liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene ablation on the uptake and distribution of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) to the nucleus by real-time laser scanning confocal imaging and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) activity was examined in cultured primary hepatocytes from livers wild-type L-FABP+/+ and gene ablated L-FABP−/− mice. Cultured primary hepatocytes from livers of L-FABP−/− mice exhibited: (i) reduced oxidation of palmitic acid, a common die...

  14. Investigation of the Prebiotic Synthesis of Amino Acids and RNA Bases from CO2 using FeS/H2S as a Reducing Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.; McDonald, Gene; Bada, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    An autotrophic theory of the origin of metabolism and life has been proposed in which carbon dioxide is reduced by ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide by means of a reversed citric acid cycle, leading to the production of amino acids. Similar processes have been proposed for purine synthesis. Ferrous sulfide is a strong reducing agent in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and can produce hydrogen as well as reduce alkenes, alkynes, and thiols to saturated hydrocarbons and reduce ketones to thiols. However, the reduction of carbon dioxide has not been demonstrated. We show here that no amino acids, purines, or pyrimidines are produced from carbon dioxide with the ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide system. Furthermore, this system does not produce amino acids from carboxylic acids by reductive amination and carboxylation. Thus, the proposed autotrophic theory, using carbon dioxide, ferrous sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide, lacks the robustness needed to be a geological process and is, therefore, unlikely to have played a role in the origin of metabolism or the origin of life.

  15. Urinary loss of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as revealed by metabolomics studies: an underlying mechanism to reduce lipid accretion by whey protein ingestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillefosse, Haldis H; Clausen, Morten R; Yde, Christian C; Ditlev, Ditte B; Zhang, Xumin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Bertram, Hanne C; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by (1)H NMR and LC-MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC-MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC-MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice.

  16. Attenuation of myocardial apoptosis by alpha-lipoic acid through suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress to reduce diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-jun; ZHANG Qiu-mei; LI Ming-zhen; ZHANG Jing-yun; YU Pei; YU De-min

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac failure is a leading cause of the mortality of diabetic patients.In part this is due to a specific cardiomyopathy,referred to as diabetic cardiomyopathy.Oxidative stress is widely considered to be one of the major factors underlying the pathogenesis of the disease.This study aimed to test whether the antioxidant α-lipoic acid(α-LA)could attenuate mitochondrion-dependent myocardial apoptosis through suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress to reduce diabetic cardiomyopathy.Methods A rat model of diabetes was induced by a single tail intravenous injection of streptozotocin(STZ)45 mg/kg.Experimental animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups:normal control(NC),diabetes(DM)and DM treated with α-LA (α-LA).The latter group was administered with α-LA(100 mg/kg ip per day),the remainder received the same volume vehicle.At weeks 4,8,and 12 after the onset of diabetes,cardiac apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay.Cardiomyopathy was evaluated by assessment of cardiac structure and function.Oxidative damage was evaluated by the content of malondialdehyde(MDA),reduced glutathione(GSH)and the activity of manganese superoxide diamutase (Mn-SOD)in the myocardial mitochondria.Expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial cytochrome c release was detected by Western blottingResults At 4,8,and 12 weeks after the onset of diabetes,significant reductions in TUNEL-positive cells,caspase-9,-3 expression,and mitochondrial cytochrome c release were observed in the α-LA group compared to the DM group.In the DM group,the content of MDA in the myocardial mitochondria was significantly increased,and there was a decrease in both the mitochondrial GSH content and the activities of Mn-SOD.They were significantly improved by α-LA treatment.HE staining displayed structural abnormalities in diabetic hearts,while α-LA reversed this structural derangement.The index of cardiac function(±dp/dtmax)in the diabetes

  17. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  18. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo sa...

  19. Reducing N2O Emission from a Domestic-Strength Nitrifying Culture by Free Nitrous Acid-Based Sludge Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Laloo, Andrew Elohim; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-19

    An increase of nitrite in the domestic-strength range is generally recognized to stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). It was found in this study, however, that N2O emission from a mainstream nitritation system (cyclic nitrite = 25-45 mg of N/L) that was established by free nitrous acid (FNA)-based sludge treatment was not higher but much lower than that from the initial nitrifying system with full conversion of NH4(+)-N to NO3(-)-N. Under dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 2.5-3.0 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was 76% lower than that from the initial stage. Even when the DO level was reduced to 0.3-0.8 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was still 40% lower. An investigation of the mechanism showed that FNA treatment caused a shift of the stimulation threshold of nitrite on N2O emission. At the nitritation stage, the maximal N2O emission factor occurred at ∼16 mg of N/(L of nitrite). However, it increased with increasing nitrite in the range of 0-56 mg of N/L at the initial stage. FNA treatment decreased the biomass-specific N2O production rate, suggesting that the enzymes relevant to nitrifier denitrification were inhibited. Microbial analysis revealed that FNA treatment decreased the microbial community diversity but increased the abundances of AOB and denitrifiers. PMID:27294698

  20. Continuous taurocholic acid exposure promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression due to reduced cell loss resulting from enhanced vascular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression. METHODS: A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration. CONCLUSION: Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells.

  1. Effectiveness of chlorine, organic acids and UV treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M E; Velázquez, L; Favier, G; de Guzmán, A M

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of 200 and 500 ppm of chlorine and organic acids (0.5% lactic acid and 0.5% citric acid) in wash solutions, and UV radiation for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples contaminated by two different methods. Residual levels of these pathogens after different treatments were compared. On dip inoculated apples, Y. enterocolitica reductions of 2.66 and 2.77 logs were obtained with 200 and 500 ppm chlorine combined with 0.5% lactic acid, respectively. The E. coli O157:H7 population decreased 3.35 log with 0.5% lactic acid wash solution, and 2.72 and 2.62 logs after 500 ppm chlorine and 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid treatments, respectively. Similar reductions were obtained with UV radiation. On spot inoculated apples, significant (p lactic acid treatment as compared with the control. In sectioned apples, microorganisms infiltrated in inner core region and pulp were not significantly (p lactic acid solution were very proximal to the 5-log score required by FDA for apple disinfection. PMID:12884547

  2. Folic Acid supplementary reduce the incidence of adenocarcinoma in a mouse model of colorectal cancer: microarray gene expression profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yan-Wei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether Folic acid is a potential drug that may prevent the progression of colorectal carcinoma and when to use are important healthy issues we focus on. Our study is to examine the effect of folic acid on the development of the CRC and the optimal time folic acid should be provided in a mouse-ICR model induced by 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine. Also, we investigated the gene expression profile of this model related to folic acid. Method Female ICR mouse (n = 130 were divided into 7 groups either with the treatment of 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg bodyweight weekly or folic acid (8 mg/kg bodyweight twice a week for 12 or 24 weeks. Using a 4 × 44 K Agilent whole genome oligo microarray assay, different gene expression among groups (NS, DMH, FA2, FA3 were identified and selected genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Animals with a supplementary of folic acid showed a significant decrease in the incidence, the maximum diameter and multiplicity of adenocarcinomas (P Conclusion Our study demonstrated that folic acid supplementary was significantly associated with the decrease risk of CRC. And the subgroup of providing folic acid without precancerous lesions was more effective than that with precancerous lesions.

  3. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J;

    2001-01-01

    The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mi...

  4. Altered fatty acid profile in the liver and serum of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats: reduced proportion of cis-vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shizuyo; Kojiguchi, Chiho; Yamazaki, Tohru; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are utilized as models for study of the pathogenesis of not only stroke and cardiovascular disorders but also atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Basic information on the profiles of fatty acids and lipid classes in the liver is indispensable to use SHRSP as a model of disorder of lipid metabolism; nevertheless, detailed information on the metabolism of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP is lacking. This study aimed to characterize profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids and to explore the mechanism underlying the characteristic alterations in metabolism of TAGs and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP, in comparison with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The characteristic changes observed in SHRSP were (1) markedly lower hepatic TAG contents; (2) altered expressions of genes encoding three enzymes responsible for the control of TAG level, namely, adipose triglyceride lipase (for TAG degradation; up-regulated), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (for fatty acid β-oxidation; up-regulated) and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (for glycerolipid synthesis; down-regulated); (3) evidently lower contents and proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), in the liver and serum; and (4) down-regulation of palmitoleoyl-CoA chain elongase, which is necessary for the biosynthesis of 18:1n-7, in the liver. From the above observations, we concluded that there are significant differences in profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids between SHRSP and SHR, and that altered characteristics in SHRSP are likely responsible for increases in TAG hydrolysis and β-oxidation, and decreases in TAG synthesis and 18:1n-7 synthesis.

  5. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2003-01-01

    = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  6. Research Methods of Acid-reducing Techniques for Fruit Wines%果酒降酸方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪浩; 颜雪辉; 张家庆; 徐国俊; 陈茂彬

    2013-01-01

    Flavor compounds of organic acids in fruit wine are very important for the taste and stability. Physical, chemical and biological methods for reducing acid in wine brewing would be systematically elaborated in this paper, and the new development trends in acid-reducing process of fruit wine were also prospected.%有机酸是果酒中重要的风味物质,对果酒的口味、稳定性等都有很大影响。对现阶段果酒酿造过程中常用的物理、化学及生物降酸法进行系统的阐述,并对果酒降酸方法新的发展趋势进行展望。

  7. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.;

    2009-01-01

    -derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...... that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican...

  8. [Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects: awareness and folate intake among pregnant women in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Shimosuga, Yoichi; Oguchi, Hidenori; Shibata, Kanemitsu; Kurauchi, Osamu; Ichiko, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiromi; Tada, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Manshou; Kaseki, Nariaki; Narita, Osamu; Kusanishi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Ooura, Kuniaki; Takemura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Takanori; Ishihara, Osamu; Takeda, Akihiro; Watanabe, Junichiro; Wakita, Katsuji; Itoh, Kunihiko; Katoh, Sentoyo; Koyama, Masayasu; Oota, Shunji; Ninomiya, Keiu; Matsuzawa, Katsuji; Hujishima, Yoshiko; Ishida, Shoutarou; Okai, Ikuyo; Hayakawa, Chisa; Gotoh, Tohru

    2008-08-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in proliferating cells and tissues of the fetus. A randomized control trial demonstrated in 1991 that 4 mg of folic acid supplements successfully prevented 72% of recurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in women who had had afflicted pregnancy. In 2000, the Japanese Government recommended women of childbearing age to take 400 microgram of folate supplements per day from 4 weeks prior to and 12 weeks after conception. A questionnaire study was performed in pregnant women by post on their awareness of the role folic acid plays, their life style, and folate intake by dietary consumption. Thirty-five percent of 1,251 pregnant women were aware of the important role of folic acid in the critical stage of fetal development and 31% actually took the supplement. Information on folic acid was obtained through mass media in 47% of the women, through the internet in 17%, through healthcare providers in 13% and so forth. The food record analysis revealed that the dietary intake of folic acid averaged 341 microg/day that was 60 microg less than what was recommended by the Government and that 33 of 86 women took the supplement. Overall, a half of pregnant women are required to take 400 microg folate supplement per day. It is to be stressed that primary prevention of NTDs by periconceptional intake of folic acid is a major public health opportunity and that prevention is more important than cure in the management of NTDs.

  9. Retinoic acid inhibits calmodulin binding to human erythrocyte membranes and reduces membrane Ca2(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, F B; Smith, T. J.; Deziel, M R; Davis, P J; Blas, S D

    1990-01-01

    Ca2(+)-ATPase activity in human red cell membranes is dependent on the presence of calmodulin. All trans-retinoic acid inhibited human red cell membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase activity in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-8) to 10(-4) M). In contrast, retinol, retinal, 13-cis-retinoic acid and the benzene ring analogue of retinoic acid did not alter enzyme activity. Purified calmodulin (up to 500 ng/ml, 3 X 10(-8) M) added to red cell membranes, in the presence of inhibitory concentration...

  10. Can a standard dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation reduce the symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies have been attempted with no significant effect on DOMS-associated cytokines surge. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a 2 × 180 mg per day dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on interleukin-6 (IL-6 mediated inflammatory response and symptoms associated with DOMS. Methods Seventeen healthy non-smoking females (age 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height 161.2 ± 8.3 cm and mass 61.48 ± 7.4 kg were randomly assigned to either placebo (N = 10 or EPA (N = 7. Serum IL-6, isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric strength, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded on four occasions: i-prior to supplementation, ii-immediately after three weeks of supplementation (basal effects, iii-48 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise (acute training response effects, and iv-48 hours following the last of a series of three bouts of resistance exercise (chronic training response effects. Results There was only a group difference in the degree of change in circulating IL-6 levels. In fact, relative to the first baseline, by the third bout of eccentric workout, the EPA group had 103 ± 60% increment in IL-6 levels whereas the placebo group only had 80 ± 26% incremented IL-6 levels (P = 0.020. We also describe a stable multiple linear regression model which included measures of strength and not IL-6 as predictors of RPE scale. Conclusion The present study suggests that in doubling the standard recommended dose of EPA, whilst this may still not be beneficial at ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS, it counter intuitively appears to enhance the cytokine response to

  11. Characterization of specific membrane fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvert, M.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.;

    2003-01-01

    and aggregate number in combination with pore water sulfate data provide further evidence of this finding. Using mass balance calculations we present a cell-specific fatty acid pattern most likely displaying a very close resemblance to the still uncultured Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus species involved in AOM.......Membrane fatty acids were extracted from a sediment core above marine gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific. Anaerobic sediments from this environment are characterized by high sulfate reduction rates driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The assimilation of methane carbon...... into bacterial biomass is indicated by carbon isotope values of specific fatty acids as low as -103parts per thousand. Specific fatty acids released from bacterial membranes include C(16:1omega5c) , C(17:1omega6c) , and cyC(17:0omega5,6) , all of which have been fully characterized by mass spectrometry...

  12. Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharide 4-methoxyphenyl glycosides having a beta-D-glucuronic acid residue at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, K.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hypponen, T.K.; Kamerling, J.P.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharides, the 4-methoxyphenyl β-glycosides of β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-D-GlcpA and β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)- β-D-GJcpNAc-(1→4)-D-GlcpA, is described. D-Glucopyranosyluronic acid residues were obtained by selective oxi

  13. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Zhong Cheng Yang; Ao Li; De Chang Cheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS A rat model with 30% TBSA fullthickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production, together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge ( EC ) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury. At the 3rd h postburn, the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P<0.01), and reached the lowest point,0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ±2.58mmol/L and 2.23 mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24 h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore,taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment.

  14. ABA biosynthesis defective mutants reduce some free amino acids accumulation under drought stress in tomato leaves in comparison with Arabidopsis plants tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ali Al.Asbahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plants to tolerate drought conditions is crucial for plant survival and crop production worldwide. The present data confirm previous findings reported existence of a strong relation between abscisic acid (ABA content and amino acid accumulation as response water stress which is one of the most important defense mechanism activated during water stress in many plant species. Therefore, free amino acids were measured to determine any changes in the metabolite pool in relation to ABA content. The ABA defective mutants of Arabidopsis plants were subjected to leaf dehydration for Arabidopsis on Whatman 3 mm filter paper at room temperature while, tomato mutant plants were subjected to drought stresses for tomato plants by withholding water. To understand the signal transduction mechanisms underlying osmotic stress-regulating gene induction and activation of osmoprotectant free amino acid synthesizing genes, we carried out a genetic screen to isolate Arabidopsis mutants defective in ABA biosynthesis under drought stress conditions. The present results revealed an accumulation of specific free amino acid in water stressed tissues in which majority of free amino acids are increased especially those playing an osmoprotectant role such as proline and glycine. Drought stress related Amino acids contents are significantly reduced in the mutants under water stress condition while they are increased significantly in the wild types plants. The exhibited higher accumulation of other amino acids under stressed condition in the mutant plants suggest that, their expressions are regulated in an ABA independent pathways. In addition, free amino acids content changes during water stress condition suggest their contribution in drought toleration as common compatible osmolytes.

  15. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  16. Responses of streams in central Appalachian Mountain region to reduced acidic deposition--comparisons with other regions in North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-03-15

    Data from 5 wet deposition stations and 21 streams during 1980-2006 were analyzed to investigate chemical responses of streams to reduced acidic deposition in the central Appalachian Mountain region of West Virginia, USA. Wet deposition of acidic anions (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and chloride) and hydrogen ions decreased significantly during the studied time period. Stream sulfate showed a delayed response to the reduced acidic deposition, and showed a decrease in the 2000s (-5.54 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (-0.49 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). No significant trend of stream nitrate+nitrite and chloride was observed. Stream alkalinity increased in the 1990s (+23.33 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (+7.26 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Stream hydrogen ions decreased in the 1990s (-0.002 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)), 2000s (-0.001 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)), and the whole period (-0.001 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Compared with most acidic streams and lakes in the United States and Europe, a lower decreasing rate of hydrogen ions and higher increasing rate of alkalinity were observed in the alkaline West Virginian streams in the 1990s. However, due to their initial negative or zero alkalinity values, those acidic streams showed a higher percent increase in alkalinity than that in the alkaline West Virginian streams (from 800 microeq L(-1) yr(-1) to 1200 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Total aluminum in the West Virginian streams decreased in the 1990s (-0.67 micromol L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (-0.22 micromol L(-1) yr(-1)). The current study advanced our understanding of streams' responses to the reduced acidic deposition in the Mid-Appalachians since the passage of the 1970 and 1990 Amendments to the United States Clean Air Act (US CAAA).

  17. Reduced Dietary Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio and 12/15-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Are Protective against Chronic High Fat Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Milos Lazic; Maria Eugenia Inzaugarat; Davide Povero; Iris C Zhao; Mark Chen; Madlena Nalbandian; Yury I Miller; Cherñavsky, Alejandra C.; Ariel E Feldstein; Sears, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6) promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3) reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF) diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO ...

  18. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  19. Validation comparing the effectiveness of a lactic acid dip with a lactic acid spray for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on beef trim and ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M J; Miller, M F; Parks, A R; Loneragan, G H; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two application methods (dip versus spray) of 4.4% lactic acid for reducing pathogens on inoculated beef trim and in ground beef. Beef trim inoculated with cocktail mixtures of E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC), or Salmonella (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g) at separate times was subjected to five treatments: lactic acid spray (LS), lactic acid dip (LD), water spray (WS), water dip (WD), and untreated control (CTL). Intervention effectiveness for pathogen reduction was measured at 1 and 20 h after treatment on beef trim. Trim was then ground and intervention effectiveness was measured 1 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after grinding. The LD treatment reduced all pathogens significantly (P 0.05) both E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC populations compared with the CTL. The LS treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by up to 0.5 log CFU/g on beef trim, but these reduced counts did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the CTL counts. Overall, the LD treatment was most effective for reducing all pathogens and is the best of these options for improving the safety of beef trim and subsequently produced ground beef. PMID:23127705

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce hepatic steatosis and consequently attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury following partial hepatectomy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Marsman; M. Heger; J.J. Kloek; S.L. Nienhuis; F.J.W. ten Kate; T.M. van Gulik

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) treatment of experimental steatosis and the consequent effect on ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Background: Fatty livers are more susceptible to IR injury and display decreased regenerative capacity. Consequently, restriction

  1. Reduced PCR sensitivity due to impaired DNA recovery with the MagNA pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T; van Breda, A; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; Beld, M; Savelkoul, P; Boom, R; de Boer, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratories necessitates automated sample processing. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the MagNA Pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit (M extraction) in comparison with the manual method (Si extraction)

  2. Reduced absorption of long-chain fatty acids during methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijlstra, Margot; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Stellaard, Frans; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Patients with chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis suffer from weight loss and possibly malabsorption. Since long-chain fatty acids serve important functions in the body, we aimed to determine the intestinal capacity of fat absorption in rats with and without methotrexa

  3. Tranexamic acid, an inhibitor of plasminogen activation, reduces urinary collagen cross-link excretion in both experimental and rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Moak, S.A.; Roos, J.A.D.M. de; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Breedveld, F.C.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The plasminogen activation system is one of the enzyme systems held responsible for bone and cartilage degradation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the effect of tranexamic acid (TEA), an inhibitor of plasminogen activation, on urinary collagen cross-link excretion and radio

  4. Overexpression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in skeletal muscle in vivo increases fatty acid oxidation and reduces triacylglycerol esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruce, Clinton R.; Brolin, Camilla; Turner, Nigel; Cleasby, Mark E.; van der Leij, Feike R.; Cooney, Gregory J.; Kraegen, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    A key regulatory point in the control of fatty acid ( FA) oxidation is thought to be transport of FAs across the mitochondrial membrane by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I). To investigate the role of CPT I in FA metabolism, we used in vivo electrotransfer (IVE) to locally overexpress CPT I i

  5. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  6. Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite as a new sensing layer for electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Fariba; Vahed, Saba; Bagheri, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    An Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite was employed as a novel electrode material for the sensitive and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine. The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward the analytes were investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The responses of the electrochemical sensor for the target analytes were found to be improved significantly in comparison with those obtained using a conventional carbon paste electrode (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide/CPE. The experimental conditions for simultaneous determination of these species have been established. Ternary mixtures of analytes can be determined in the ranges of 0.03-9.50μM. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection were 15.7, 7.6 and 11.1nM for ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and tyrosine, respectively. The method was applied successfully to determine the analytes in urine, serum and pharmaceutical samples simultaneously. PMID:27524083

  7. Effect of Initial Population Density of Criconemella xenoplax on Reducing Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Survival of Peach Seedlings over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Reilly, C C; Okie, W R

    1987-07-01

    Percentage of mortality, growth suppression, and changes in free amino acid and reducing sugar content in root and (or) stem tissue of Nemaguard peach seedlings were studied in the greenhouse in relation to time and eight different initial population densities (Pi) of Criconemella xenoplax. After 90 and 180 days, free amino acid content in root tissue significantly increased with increasing nematode numbers. Suppression of root volume, dry root and stem weight, height increase, plant survival, and content of reducing sugars in root tissue were detected at 180 and 270 days and following pruning. All criteria were negatively correlated with nematode Pi. Changes in growth, metabolic parameters, and survival percentage were attributed to Pi density of C. xenoplax, duration of the experiment, and nematode reproduction rate.

  8. Deactivation mechanism of potassium on the V₂O₅/CeO₂ catalysts for SCR reaction: acidity, reducibility and adsorbed-NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Huang, Xu; Li, Xiang; Su, Wenkang; Sun, Xiaoxu; Wang, Dezhi; Hao, Jiming

    2014-04-15

    A series of V2O5/CeO2 catalysts with different potassium loadings were prepared to investigate alkali deactivations for selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3. An alkali poisoning mechanism could be attributed to surface acidity, reducibility, and NOx adsorption/desorption behaviors. The detailed factors are as follows: (1) decrease of surface acidity suppresses NH3 adsorption by strong bonding of alkali to vanadia (major factor); (2) low reducibility prohibits NH3 activation and NO oxidation by formation bonding of alkali to vanadia and ceria (important factor); (3) active NOx(-) species at low temperature diminish because of coverage of alkali on the surfaces (minor factor); and (4) stable, inactive nitrate species at high temperature increase by generating new basic sites (important factor).

  9. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.

  10. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals. PMID:27488889

  11. A method for measuring disease-specific iduronic acid from the non-reducing end of glycosaminoglycan in mucopolysaccharidosis type II mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yohta; Wakabayashi, Taichi; Akiyama, Kazumasa; Hoshina, Hiroo; Higuchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder arising from deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in multiple tissues. Accumulated GAGs are generally measured as the amount of total GAGs. However, we recently demonstrated that GAG accumulation in the brain of MPS II model mice cannot be reliably detected by conventional dye-binding assay measuring total GAGs. Here we developed a novel quantitative method for measurement of disease-specific GAGs based on the analysis of 2-sulfoiduronic acid levels derived from the non-reducing terminal end of the polysaccharides by using recombinant human IDS (rhIDS) and recombinant human iduronidase (rhIDUA). This method was evaluated on GAGs obtained from the liver and brain of MPS II mice. The GAGs were purified from tissue homogenates and then digested with rhIDS and rhIDUA to generate a desulfated iduronic acid from their non-reducing terminal end. HPLC analysis revealed that the generated iduronic acid levels were markedly increased in the liver and cerebrum of the MPS II mice, whereas the uronic acid was not detected in wild-type mice. These results indicate that this assay clearly detects the disease-specific GAGs in tissues from MPS II mice. PMID:26051019

  12. The R467K Amino Acid Substitution in Candida albicans Sterol 14α-Demethylase Causes Drug Resistance through Reduced Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, David C.; Kelly, Diane E.; White, Theodore C.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) of Candida albicans is involved in an essential step of ergosterol biosynthesis and is the target for azole antifungal compounds. We have undertaken site-directed mutation of C. albicans CYP51 to produce a recombinant mutant protein with the amino acid substitution R467K corresponding to a mutation observed clinically. This alteration perturbed the heme environment causing an altered reduced-carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a maximum ...

  13. Study of Lewis Acid Promoting KBH_4 Reduce Carboxylic Acid Ester%Lewis酸促进KBH_4还原某些羧酸酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪一波; 金召磊; 唐守万; 孙佰申; 潘富友; 高建荣

    2011-01-01

    Potassium borohydride reduction of some carboxylic esters into the corresponding alcohols by the Lewis acid was introduced.The structures were confirmed by 1HNMR,MS and IR,consistent with its structure and the target,and the yield of 37.5~68.5.%在Lewis酸的作用下,研究硼氢化钾将某些羧酸酯还原成相应的醇。其产物经1HNMR、MS和IR表征,其结构与目标物一致,收率在37.5~68.5之间。

  14. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Miklos, Rikke; Lametsch, René; Arnau, Jacint

    2013-03-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

  15. Topical application of docosanol- or stearic acid-containing creams reduces severity of phenol burn wounds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M H; Marcelletti, J F; Katz, L R; Katz, D H; Pope, L E

    2000-08-01

    Because of their reported antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, cream formulations containing n-docosanol (docosanol) or stearic acid were tested for effects on chemically-induced burns in mice. In this model, injury was induced by painting the abdomens of mice with a chloroform solution of phenol. This was followed by the topical application of test substances 0.5, 3, and 6 h later. Progression of the wounds was assessed by a single evaluator after 8 h, using a numerical score of gross morphology. Docosanol- and stearic acid-containing creams substantially and reproducibly lessened the severity and progression of skin lesions compared to untreated sites with a 76% and 57% reduction in mean lesion scores, respectively. Untreated wounds appeared red and ulcerated; docosanol cream-treated wounds showed only slight erythema.

  16. An Approach to Reduce Load on the Acid Leaching Circuit of the Commercial Uranium Recovery Plant at Jaduguda, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, G. V.; Prakash, S.

    1998-01-01

    The commercial uranium recovery plant at Jaduguda, Bihar, India, currently treats around 900 tonnes of ore per day from the Jaduguda mine, containing around 0.05% U3O8. Subsequent to removal of the sulphide minerals present in the ore by flotation, nearly 95% of the tailings are being treated in the acid leaching circuit to recover the uranium values. Laboratory investigations on the bulk flotation tailings revealed that around 63% of the uranium values are associated with feebly magnetic mat...

  17. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypic...

  18. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in posterior lumbar spine surgery for degenerative spinal stenosis with instability: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Stefan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative spinal stenosis and instability requiring multilevel spine surgery has been associated with large blood losses. Factors that affect perioperative blood loss include time of surgery, surgical procedure, patient height, combined anterior/posterior approaches, number of levels fused, blood salvage techniques, and the use of anti-fibrinolytic medications. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in spine surgery. Methods This retrospective case control study includes 97 patients who had to undergo surgery because of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and instability. All operations included spinal decompression, interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation (4-5 segments. Forty-six patients received 1 g tranexamic acid intravenous, preoperative and six hours and twelve hours postoperative; 51 patients without tranexamic acid administration were evaluated as a control group. Based on the records, the intra- and postoperative blood losses were measured by evaluating the drainage and cell saver systems 6, 12 and 24 hours post operation. Additionally, hemoglobin concentration and platelet concentration were reviewed. Furthermore, the number of red cell transfusions given and complications associated with tranexamic acid were assessed. Results The postoperative hemoglobin concentration demonstrated a statistically significant difference with a p value of 0.0130 showing superiority for tranexamic acid use (tranexamic acid group: 11.08 g/dl, SD: 1.68; control group: 10.29 g/dl, SD: 1.39. The intraoperative cell saver volume and drainage volume after 24 h demonstrated a significant difference as well, which indicates a less blood loss in the tranexamic acid group than the control group. The postoperative drainage volume at12 hours showed no significant differences; nor did the platelet concentration Allogenic blood transfusion (two red cell units was needed for eight patients

  19. Metabolic Control in Mammalian Fed-Batch Cell Cultures for Reduced Lactic Acid Accumulation and Improved Process Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Konakovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and cell-specific metabolic rates usually change dynamically over time, making the “feed according to need” strategy difficult to realize in a commercial fed-batch process. We here demonstrate a novel feeding strategy which is designed to hold a particular metabolic state in a fed-batch process by adaptive feeding in real time. The feed rate is calculated with a transferable biomass model based on capacitance, which changes the nutrient flow stoichiometrically in real time. A limited glucose environment was used to confine the cell in a particular metabolic state. In order to cope with uncertainty, two strategies were tested to change the adaptive feed rate and prevent starvation while in limitation: (i inline pH and online glucose concentration measurement or (ii inline pH alone, which was shown to be sufficient for the problem statement. In this contribution, we achieved metabolic control within a defined target range. The direct benefit was two-fold: the lactic acid profile was improved and pH could be kept stable. Multivariate Data Analysis (MVDA has shown that pH influenced lactic acid production or consumption in historical data sets. We demonstrate that a low pH (around 6.8 is not required for our strategy, as glucose availability is already limiting the flux. On the contrary, we boosted glycolytic flux in glucose limitation by setting the pH to 7.4. This new approach led to a yield of lactic acid/glucose (Y L/G around zero for the whole process time and high titers in our labs. We hypothesize that a higher carbon flux, resulting from a higher pH, may lead to more cells which produce more product. The relevance of this work aims at feeding mammalian cell cultures safely in limitation with a desired metabolic flux range. This resulted in extremely stable, low glucose levels, very robust pH profiles without acid/base interventions and a metabolic state in which lactic acid was consumed instead of being produced from day 1. With

  20. Combination of 5-aminolevulinic acid and ferrous ion reduces plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Koda, Aya; Nozawa, Naoko; Ota, Urara; Kondo, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Kamiya, Atsuko; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural amino acid produced only in the mitochondria, is a precursor of heme. Cytochromes that contain heme play an important role in aerobic energy metabolism. Thus, ALA may help reduce T2DM-associated hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA combined with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) on hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We found that the gavage administration of ALA combined with SFC (ALA/SFC) for 6 weeks reduced plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in rats without affecting plasma insulin levels. The glucose-lowering effect depended on the amount of ALA/SFC administered per day. Furthermore, the glucose tolerance was also significantly improved by ALA/SFC administration. Although food intake was slightly reduced in the rats administered ALA/SFC, there was no effect on their body weight. Importantly, ALA/SFC administration induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in white adipose tissue and liver, and the induced expression levels of HO-1 correlated with the glucose-lowering effects of ALA/SFC. Taken together, these results suggest that ALA combined with ferrous ion is effective in reducing hyperglycemia of T2DM without affecting plasma insulin levels. HO-1 induction may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the glucose-lowering effect of ALA/SFC. PMID:27239432

  1. Long-term sustained release of salicylic acid from cross-linked biodegradable polyester induces a reduced foreign body response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandorkar, Yashoda; Bhaskar, Nitu; Madras, Giridhar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-01

    There has been a continuous surge toward developing new biopolymers that exhibit better in vivo biocompatibility properties in terms of demonstrating a reduced foreign body response (FBR). One approach to mitigate the undesired FBR is to develop an implant capable of releasing anti-inflammatory molecules in a sustained manner over a long time period. Implants causing inflammation are also more susceptible to infection. In this article, the in vivo biocompatibility of a novel, biodegradable salicylic acid releasing polyester (SAP) has been investigated by subcutaneous implantation in a mouse model. The tissue response to SAP was compared with that of a widely used biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), as a control over three time points: 2, 4, and 16 weeks postimplantation. A long-term in vitro study illustrates a continuous, linear (zero order) release of salicylic acid with a cumulative mass percent release rate of 7.34 × 10(-4) h(-1) over ∼1.5-17 months. On the basis of physicochemical analysis, surface erosion for SAP and bulk erosion for PLGA have been confirmed as their dominant degradation modes in vivo. On the basis of the histomorphometrical analysis of inflammatory cell densities and collagen distribution as well as quantification of proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-1β), a reduced foreign body response toward SAP with respect to that generated by PLGA has been unambiguously established. The favorable in vivo tissue response to SAP, as manifest from the uniform and well-vascularized encapsulation around the implant, is consistent with the decrease in inflammatory cell density and increase in angiogenesis with time. The above observations, together with the demonstration of long-term and sustained release of salicylic acid, establish the potential use of SAP for applications in improved matrices for tissue engineering and chronic wound healing.

  2. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  3. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.;

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  4. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an Acid mine drainage-contaminated natural wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, John W; Fournelle, John H; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  5. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acid mine drainage-contaminated wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Moreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  6. Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2005-01-01

    , such as oxidative stress (formation of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxoguanine), neurodegeneration (neuronal accumulation of abnormal proteins), and apoptotic cell death (judged by TUNEL and activated caspase-3). This reduced bystander damage in TgMT mice could be due to antiinflammatory and antioxidant...

  7. In Vitro Dissolution of Fluconazole and Dipyridamole in Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS), Predicting in Vivo Dissolution and Drug-Drug Interaction Caused by Acid-Reducing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kazuki; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-07-01

    Weakly basic drugs typically exhibit pH-dependent solubility in the physiological pH range, displaying supersaturation or precipitation along the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, their oral bioavailabilities may be affected by coadministration of acid-reducing agents that elevate gastric pH. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a multicompartmental in vitro dissolution apparatus, Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS), in predicting in vivo dissolution of certain oral medications. In vitro dissolution studies of fluconazole, a BCS class I, and dipyridamole, a BCS class II weak bases (class IIb), were performed in the GIS as well as United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus II and compared with the results of clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. In both USP apparatus II and GIS, fluconazole completely dissolved within 60 min regardless of pH, reflecting no DDI between fluconazole and acid-reducing agents in a clinical study. On the other hand, seven-fold and 15-fold higher concentrations of dipyridamole than saturation solubility were observed in the intestinal compartments in GIS with gastric pH 2.0. Precipitation of dipyridamole was also observed in the GIS, and the percentage of dipyridamole in solution was 45.2 ± 7.0%. In GIS with gastric pH 6.0, mimicking the coadministration of acid-reducing agents, the concentration of dipyridamole was equal to its saturation solubility, and the percentage of drug in solution was 9.3 ± 2.7%. These results are consistent with the clinical DDI study of dipyridamole with famotidine, which significantly reduced the Cmax and area under the curve. An In situ mouse infusion study combined with GIS revealed that high concentration of dipyridamole in the GIS enhanced oral drug absorption, which confirmed the supersaturation of dipyridamole. In conclusion, GIS was shown to be a useful apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs.

  8. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 μM), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (∙-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (∙-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants.

  9. Elevated blood pressure in cytochrome P4501A1 knockout mice is associated with reduced vasodilation to omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbor, Larry N.; Walsh, Mary T.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walker, Mary K., E-mail: mwalker@salud.unm.edu

    2012-11-01

    In vitro cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n − 3 PUFAs); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), primarily to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP), respectively. These metabolites have been shown to mediate vasodilation via increases in nitric oxide (NO) and activation of potassium channels. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of CYP1A1 would reduce vasodilatory responses to n − 3 PUFAs, but not the metabolites, and increase blood pressure (BP) due to decreases in NO. We assessed BP by radiotelemetry in CYP1A1 wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice ± NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. We also assessed vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh), EPA, DHA, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP in aorta and mesenteric arterioles. Further, we assessed vasodilation to an NO donor and to DHA ± inhibitors of potassium channels. CYP1A1 KO mice were hypertensive, compared to WT, (mean BP in mm Hg, WT 103 ± 1, KO 116 ± 1, n = 5/genotype, p < 0.05), and exhibited a reduced heart rate (beats per minute, WT 575 ± 5; KO 530 ± 7; p < 0.05). However, BP responses to NOS inhibition and vasorelaxation responses to ACh and an NO donor were normal in CYP1A1 KO mice, suggesting that NO bioavailability was not reduced. In contrast, CYP1A1 KO mice exhibited significantly attenuated vasorelaxation responses to EPA and DHA in both the aorta and mesenteric arterioles, but normal vasorelaxation responses to the CYP1A1 metabolites, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP, and normal responses to potassium channel inhibition. Taken together these data suggest that CYP1A1 metabolizes n − 3 PUFAs to vasodilators in vivo and the loss of these vasodilators may lead to increases in BP. -- Highlights: ► CYP1A1 KO mice are hypertensive. ► CYP1A1 KO mice exhibit reduced vasodilation responses to n-3 PUFAs. ► Constitutive CYP1A1 expression regulates blood pressure and vascular function.

  10. Pre-harvest application of salicylic acid maintain the rind textural properties and reduce fruit rot and chilling injury of sweet orange during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trees of citrus cvs Lane Late and Valencia Late oranges were sprayed ten days before anticipated harvest with salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 mM). Fruits were harvested and stored at 5 degree C for 93 days to investigate the effects of SA on fruit rot, chilling injury and quality relating parameters such as rind and fruit firmness as well as sugar and organic acid contents. Fruits were analyzed before storage and after 31, 62 and 93 days of storage and found that SA at 8 mM and 9 mM reduced fruit rot from 16.93% to 6.06% and 12.78% to 5.12% in Lane Late and Valencia Late, respectively. Chilling injury was significantly reduced at 8 mM and 9 mM treatments. Textural properties relating to rind puncture, rind tensile and fruit firmness forces showed that treated fruits were significantly firmer than those of control. Maintained contents of SSC, TA, individual sugars and organic acids in treated fruit with higher doses after 93 confirmed preliminary findings such as SA has anti-senescent effect. Our research suggests that pre-harvest spray of SA can be used effectively to minimize the post-harvest/storage losses of sweet oranges cultivars. (author)

  11. Crystal Structures of the Reduced, Sulfenic Acid, and Mixed Disulfide Forms of SarZ, a Redox Active Global Regulator in Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poor, Catherine B.; Chen, Peng R.; Duguid, Erica; Rice, Phoebe A.; He, Chuan; (UC)

    2010-01-20

    SarZ is a global transcriptional regulator that uses a single cysteine residue, Cys{sup 13}, to sense peroxide stress and control metabolic switching and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. SarZ belongs to the single-cysteine class of OhrR-MgrA proteins that play key roles in oxidative resistance and virulence regulation in various bacteria. We present the crystal structures of the reduced form, sulfenic acid form, and mixed disulfide form of SarZ. Both the sulfenic acid and mixed disulfide forms are structurally characterized for the first time for this class of proteins. The Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid modification is stabilized through two hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues, and the overall DNA-binding conformation is retained. A further reaction of the Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid with an external thiol leads to formation of a mixed disulfide bond, which results in an allosteric change in the DNA-binding domains, disrupting DNA binding. Thus, the crystal structures of SarZ in three different states provide molecular level pictures delineating the mechanism by which this class of redox active regulators undergoes activation. These structures help to understand redox-mediated virulence regulation in S. aureus and activation of the MarR family proteins in general.

  12. MicroRNA-10a is reduced in breast cancer and regulated in part through retinoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that play a critical role in mRNA cleavage and translational repression, and are known to be altered in many diseases including breast cancer. MicroRNA-10a (miR-10a) has been shown to be deregulated in various cancer types. The aim of this study was to investigate miR-10a expression in breast cancer and to further delineate the role of retinoids and thyroxine in regulation of miR-10a. Following informed patient consent and ethical approval, tissue samples were obtained during surgery. miR-10a was quantified in malignant (n = 103), normal (n = 30) and fibroadenoma (n = 35) tissues by RQ-PCR. Gene expression of Retinoic Acid Receptor beta (RARβ) and Thyroid Hormone receptor alpha (THRα) was also quantified in the same patient samples (n = 168). The in vitro effects of all-trans Retinoic acid (ATRA) and L-Thyroxine (T4) both individually and in combination, on miR-10a expression was investigated in breast cancer cell lines, T47D and SK-BR-3. The level of miR-10a expression was significantly decreased in tissues harvested from breast cancer patients (Mean (SEM) 2.1(0.07)) Log10 Relative Quantity (RQ)) compared to both normal (3.0(0.16) Log10 RQ, p < 0.001) and benign tissues (2.6(0.17) Log10 RQ, p < 0.05). The levels of both RARβ and THRα gene expression were also found to be decreased in breast cancer patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was determined between miR-10a and RARβ (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and also with THRα (r = 0.32, p < 0.001). In vitro stimulation assays revealed miR-10a expression was increased in both T47D and SK-BR-3 cells following addition of ATRA (2 fold (0.7)). While T4 alone did not stimulate miR-10a expression, the combination of T4 and ATRA was found to have a positive synergistic effect. The data presented supports a potential tumour suppressor role for miR-10a in breast cancer, and highlights retinoic acid as a positive regulator of the micro

  13. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25 Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH, taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue. Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid.

  14. MoS2/reduced graphene oxide as active hybrid material for the electrochemical detection of folic acid in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Teodorescu, Florina; Coffinier, Yannick; Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-11-15

    In this study, a new matrix based on a molybdenum disulfide-reduced graphene oxide hybrid (MoS2-rGO) was prepared and characterized. Modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with MoS2-rGO (MG) using drop casting allowed for the selective analysis of folic acid in the presence of a variety of interference species with a limit of detection of 10nM, a linear range between 0.01μM and 100μM with a sensitivity of 14µAµM(-1). In addition, the analytical performance of the proposed sensor was successfully conducted for the determination of folic acid in human serum samples, making MG-GC electrodes promising interfaces for bio-electrochemical applications. PMID:27288713

  15. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  16. MoS2/reduced graphene oxide as active hybrid material for the electrochemical detection of folic acid in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Teodorescu, Florina; Coffinier, Yannick; Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-11-15

    In this study, a new matrix based on a molybdenum disulfide-reduced graphene oxide hybrid (MoS2-rGO) was prepared and characterized. Modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with MoS2-rGO (MG) using drop casting allowed for the selective analysis of folic acid in the presence of a variety of interference species with a limit of detection of 10nM, a linear range between 0.01μM and 100μM with a sensitivity of 14µAµM(-1). In addition, the analytical performance of the proposed sensor was successfully conducted for the determination of folic acid in human serum samples, making MG-GC electrodes promising interfaces for bio-electrochemical applications.

  17. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2 Techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and

  18. Preparation of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid composite coating with superhydrophobicity on copper substrate and evaluation of its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peipei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen, Xinhua [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-01-15

    A simple two-step solution immersion process was combined with surface-modification by stearic acid to prepare superhydrophobic coatings on copper substrates so as to reduce friction coefficient, increase wear resistance and improve the anticorrosion ability of copper. Briefly, cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) crystal coating with uniform and compact tetrahedron structure was firstly created by immersing copper substrate in 2 mol L{sup −1} NaOH solution. As-obtained Cu{sub 2}O coating was then immersed in 0.33 mmol L{sup −1} AgNO{sub 3} solution to incorporate silver nanoparticles, followed by modification with stearic acid (denoted as SA) coating to achieve hydrophobicity. The surface morphology and chemical composition of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid (denoted as Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA) composite coating were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS); and its phase structure was examined with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Moreover, the contact angle of water on as-prepared Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA composite coating was measured, and its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities were evaluated. It was found that as-prepared Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA composite coating has a water contact angle of as high as 152.4{sup o} and can provide effective friction-reducing, wear protection and anticorrosion protection for copper substrate, showing great potential for surface-modification of copper.

  19. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  20. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  1. Point mutation of the xylose reductase (XR) gene reduces xylitol accumulation and increases citric acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius

    OpenAIRE

    Weyda, István; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K; Peter S. Lübeck

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius accumulates xylitol when it grows on d-xylose. In fungi, d-xylose is reduced to xylitol by the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR). Xylitol is then further oxidized by the NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). The cofactor impairment between the XR and XDH can lead to the accumulation of xylitol under oxygen-limiting conditions. Most of the XRs are NADPH dependent and contain a conserved Ile-Pro-Lys-Ser motif. The only known naturally occurring NADH-dependent...

  2. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eLing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of passive CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from ten depths ranging from 0-20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia. Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling.

  3. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

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    Milos Lazic

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet

  4. Parvovirus B19 Genotype Specific Amino Acid Substitution in NS1 Reduces the Protein's Cytotoxicity in Culture

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    Violetta Kivovich, Leona Gilbert, Matti Vuento, Stanley J. Naides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical association between idiopathic liver disease and parvovirus B19 infection has been observed. Fulminant liver failure, not associated with other liver-tropic viruses, has been attributed to B19 in numerous reports, suggesting a possible role for B19 components in the extensive hepatocyte cytotoxicity observed in this condition. A recent report by Abe and colleagues (Int J Med Sci. 2007;4:105-9 demonstrated a link between persistent parvovirus B19 genotype I and III infection and fulminant liver failure. The genetic analysis of isolates obtained from these patients demonstrated a conservation of key amino acids in the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of the disease-associated genotypes. In this report we examine a conserved residue identified by Abe and colleagues and show that substitution of isoleucine 181 for methionine, as occurs in B19 genotype II, results in the reduction of B19 NS1-induced cytotoxicity of liver cells. Our results support the hypothesis that in the setting of persistent B19 infection, direct B19 NS1-induced cytotoxicity may play a role in idiopathic fulminant liver failure.

  5. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age children age supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  6. Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

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    Teo Peik-See

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA and ascorbic acid (AA is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 µM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3 was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 µM for AA and DA, respectively.

  7. Food additives reduce lactic acid bacterial growth in culture medium and in meat products, increasing product shelf life

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    Cleonice Mendes Pereira Sarmento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in meat and meat products leads to product spoilage, and thus shortens product shelf life. Although food additives are known to decrease LAB growth, this effect has not been analyzed in detail. Here, a detailed analysis was performed of the effects of sodium chloride, sodium polyphosphate, sodium lactate, sodium nitrite/nitrate, and garlic on the growth of the Lactobacillus plantarum in culture medium. The results were used to design and test experimental formulations of meat products. Initially, the effect of food additives on L. plantarum was evaluated using a Fractional Factorial Design (FFD, followed by a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. The Modified Gompertz Model was adjusted to the growth curves to determine the Kinetic parameters of bacterial growth (logarithmic increase in the population, specific growth rate, and lag phase extension. Higher sodium lactate and sodium chloride levels had a negative impact on L. plantarum growth parameters (p?0.05. Therefore, we designed experimental formulations of mortadella and smoked pork sausages containing 4% sodium lactate (w w-1 and 2.4-3.5% sodium chloride (w w-1, and determined LAB growth from samples of stored products produced according to these formulations, in order to determine product shelf life. There was an increased lag phase of LAB growth for most experimental formulations. Also, the experimental smoked pork sausages had a longer shelf life, which was increased by at least 22 days, suggesting that the proposed formulation, with higher than standard lactate concentration, increased the product’s shelf life.

  8. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer.

  9. Dietary supplementation of β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) reduces whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in young CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarner, Bradley L; Nagle, Alison M; Quinn, Meagan R; Farmer, A Elaine; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity leads to enhanced fatty acid utilization, while also promoting increased ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis (UDP) in mammalian skeletal muscle. β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) is a commercially available dietary supplement that has been shown to promote an AMPK-dependent increase in fatty acid utilization and aerobic capacity in mammals by compromising creatine kinase function. However, it remains unknown if continuous βGPA supplementation can negatively impact skeletal muscle growth in a rapidly growing juvenile. The current study was conducted to examine the effect of βGPA supplementation on whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in juvenile and young adult mice. Three-week old, post weanling CD-1 mice were fed a standard rodent chow that was supplemented with either 2% (w/w) α-cellulose (control) or βGPA. Control and βGPA-fed mice (n = 6) were sampled after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Whole-body and hindlimb muscle masses were significantly (P muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 protein and total protein ubiquitination in the gastrocnemius of βGPA versus control mice at the 8-week time point. Our data indicate that feeding juvenile mice a βGPA-supplemented diet significantly reduced whole-body and skeletal muscle growth that was due, at least in part, to an AMPK-independent increase in UDP.

  10. Medium-chain fatty acid reduces lipid accumulation by regulating expression of lipid-sensing genes in human liver cells with steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baogui; Fu, Jing; Li, Lumin; Gong, Deming; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Zeng, Zheling

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of lipids in the liver can lead to cell dysfunction and steatosis, an important factor in pathogenesis causing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The mechanisms related to lipid deposition in the liver, however, remain poorly understood. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) on the lipolysis and expression of lipid-sensing genes in human liver cells with steatosis. A cellular steatosis model, which is suitable to experimentally investigate the impact of fat accumulation in the liver, was established in human normal liver cells (LO2 cells) with a mixture of free fatty acids (oleate/palmitate, 2:1) at 200 μm for 24 h incubation. MCFA was found to down-regulate expression of liver X receptor-α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, CD 36 and lipoprotein lipase in this cellular model, and have positive effects on adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. These results suggest that MCFA may reduce lipid accumulation by regulating key lipid-sensing genes in human liver cells with steatosis. PMID:26932533

  11. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

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    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  12. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

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    Kozlowski Petri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS, and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group. In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation.

  13. Selenate mitigates arsenite toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by reducing arsenic uptake and ameliorates amino acid content and thiol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Kumkum; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element with the potential to cause health effects in humans. Besides rice is a source of both amino acids (AAs) and mineral nutrients, it is undesired source of As for billions of people consuming rice as the staple food. Selenium (Se) is an essential metalloid, which can regulate As toxicity by strengthening antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to investigate As(III) stress mitigating effect of Se(VI) in rice. The level of As, thiolic ligands and AAs was analyzed in rice seedlings after exposure to As(III)/Se(VI) alone and As(III)+Se(VI) treatments. Selenate supplementation (As(III) 25μM+Se(VI) 25μM) decreased total As accumulation in both root and shoot (179 & 144%) as compared to As(III) alone treatment. The As(III)+Se(VI) treatment also induced the levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) as compared to As(III) alone treatment and also modulated the activity of enzymes of thiol metabolism. The content of amino acids (AAs) was significantly altered with Se(VI) supplementation. Importantly, essential amino acids (EAAs) were enhanced in As(III)+Se(VI) treatment as compared to As(III) alone treatment. In contrast, stress related non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) like GABA, Glu, Gly, Pro and Cys showed enhanced levels in As(III) alone treatment. In conclusion, rice supplemented with Se(VI) tolerated As toxicity with reduced As accumulation and increased the nutrition quality by increasing EAAs.

  14. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1 Experimental

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    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, acid pretreatment technology for the production of bio-ethanol from corn stover has required severe conditions to overcome biomass recalcitrance. However, the high usage of acid and steam at severe pretreatment conditions hinders the economic feasibility of the ethanol production from biomass. In addition, the amount of acetate and furfural produced during harsh pretreatment is in the range that strongly inhibits cell growth and impedes ethanol fermentation. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. Results The results showed that deacetylation with 0.1 M NaOH before acid pretreatment improved the monomeric xylose yield in pretreatment by up to 20% while keeping the furfural yield under 2%. Deacetylation also improved the glucose yield by 10% and the xylose yield by 20% during low solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining using a PFI mill further improved sugar yields during both low- and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining also allowed enzyme loadings to be reduced while maintaining high yields. Deacetylation and mechanical refining are shown to assist in achieving 90% cellulose yield in high-solids (20% enzymatic hydrolysis. When fermentations were performed under pH control to evaluate the effect of deacetylation and mechanical refining on the ethanol yields, glucose and xylose utilizations over 90% and ethanol yields over 90% were achieved. Overall ethanol yields were calculated based on experimental results for the base case and modified cases. One modified case that integrated deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing was estimated to produce 88 gallons of ethanol per ton of biomass. Conclusion The current work developed a novel bio-ethanol process that features pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation

  15. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere.

  16. Quantification of Tinto River sediment microbial communities: importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their role in attenuating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2012-07-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (important differences were detected at the class and genus levels, reflecting differences in pH, redox potential, and heavy metal concentrations. At SN, where the pH and redox potential are similar to that of the water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (-210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides.

  17. Enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding in elderly subjects with COPD is associated with a reduced splanchnic extraction of multiple amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, MPKJ; De Castro, CLN; Rutten, EPA; Wouters, EFM; Schols, AMWJ; Deutz, NEP

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims We previously observed in elderly subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) an enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding, associated with reduced splanchnic extraction (SPE) of phenylalanine. Milk proteins are known for their high Branched-chain Amino Acids (BCAA) content, but no information is present about splanchnic extraction and metabolism of the individual BCAA in COPD. Objective To investigate whether BCAA metabolism and SPE of the individual BCAA are altered in COPD during milk protein sip feeding. Design In elderly subjects with COPD and in healthy age-matched elderly SPE, endogenous rate of appearance (Raendo) of the leucine (LEU), isoleucine (ILE) and valine (VAL) were measured before and during sip feeding of a Whey protein meal. To study the effect of aging, the healthy elderly were compared to a group of healthy young subjects. Stable isotopes of L-[2H3]-LEU, L-[1-13C]-ILE and L-[1-13C]-VAL were given on two separate test days orally or intravenously. Simultaneously, L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine (PHE) and L-[ring-2H2]-tyrosine (TYR) were given to determine the whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS) and NetPS. Results SPE of all BCAA, TYR, and PHE (p<0.01) were lower in the COPD group, and the increase in netPS during feeding was higher in the COPD group (P<0.01) due to higher values for PS (P<0.001). Raendo of all BCAA, PHE and TYR were higher in the COPD than the healthy elderly group (P<0.05) before and during feeding (P<0.001). Sip feeding resulted in a reduction of Raendo of PHE, ILE and VAL (P<0.05). Postabsorptive Raendo was not different for any of the measured amino acids between the healthy elderly and young group, while sip feeding resulted in a reduction of Raendo of PHE. Only SPE of TYR was higher in the elderly (P<0.05) and the increase in netPS during sip feeding was independent of aging. Conclusion The enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding in normal

  18. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-09-01

    Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. PMID:22846334

  19. Metabolism of fatty acid in yeast: addition of reducing agents to the reaction medium influences beta-oxidation activities, gamma-decalactone production, and cell ultrastructure in Sporidiobolus ruinenii cultivated on ricinoleic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Mauvais, Geneviève; Lherminier, Jeanine; Michel, Joël; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Viel, Christophe; Cachon, Rémy

    2007-06-01

    The sensitivity of Sporidiobolus ruinenii yeast to the use of reducing agents, reflected in changes in the oxidoreduction potential at pH 7 (Eh7) environment, ricinoleic acid methyl ester catabolism, gamma-decalactone synthesis, cofactor level, beta-oxidation activity, and ultrastructure of the cell, was studied. Three environmental conditions (corresponding to oxidative, neutral, and reducing conditions) were fixed with the use of air or air and reducing agents (hydrogen and dithiothreitol). Lowering Eh7 to neutral conditions (Eh7 = +30 mV and +2.5 mV) favoured the production of lactone more than the more oxidative condition (Eh7 = +350 mV). In contrast, when a reducing condition was used (Eh7 = -130 mV), the production of gamma-decalactone was very low. These results were linked to changes in the cofactor ratio during lactone production, to the beta-oxidation activity involved in decanolide synthesis, and to ultrastructural modification of the cell. PMID:17668034

  20. Citrate-reduced silver hydrosol modified with omega-mercaptoalkanoic acids self-assembled monolayers as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering. A study with cytochrome c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifacio, A.; Sneppen, van der L.; Gooijer, C.; Zwan, van der G.

    2004-01-01

    A new citrate-reduced silver hydrosol coated with omega-mercaptoalkanoic acids (mercaptopropionic and mercaptoundecanoic acids) self-assembled monolayers was prepared and characterized with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The structure and the quality of the coating monolayers are discussed and

  1. Permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, a thermoacidophilic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from acidic hot springs of Hveravellir, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Reddy, T B K; Pilay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon that was isolated from acidic hot springs in Hveravellir, Iceland. D. mobilis utilizes peptides as carbon and energy sources and reduces elemental sulfur to H2S. A metabolic construction derived from the draft genome identified putative pathways for peptide degradation and sulfur respiration in this archaeon. Existence of several hydrogenase genes in the genome supported previous findings that H2 is produced during the growth of D. mobilis in the absence of sulfur. Interestingly, genes encoding glucose transport and utilization systems also exist in the D. mobilis genome though this archaeon does not utilize carbohydrate for growth. The draft genome of D. mobilis provides an additional mean for comparative genomic analysis of desulfurococci. In addition, our analysis on the Average Nucleotide Identity between D. mobilis and Desulfurococcus mucosus suggested that these two desulfurococci are two different strains of the same species.

  2. pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles induces apoptosis via reduced fatty acid synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Hari, Natarajan; Pavankumar, Padarthi; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2016-06-01

    The development of formulations with therapeutic peptides has been restricted to poor cell penetration and in this attempt; we developed pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the suitable formulation was evaluated for hemocompatibility, plasma stability and embryo toxicity using Danio rerio embryo model. The results showed that pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were compatible with plasma. They possess sustained release pattern and also found to be safe up to 300 mg/L in embryo toxicity tests. Cytotoxicity assays with MDA-MB-231 cell lines suggested that, pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were capable of enhanced cellular penetration and reduced palmitic acid content, which was confirmed by H1 NMR. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed as excellent adjuvant therapeutics while treating solid tumors with multi-drug resistance.

  3. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5- to 11-mo old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Pollitt, Ernesto; Kariger, Patricia K; Khalfan, Sabra S; Ali, Nadra S; Tielsch, James M; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Robert; Allen, Lindsay H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2006-09-01

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 mug folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Zn) supplements or a placebo were given daily for 1 y to nutritionally at-risk children in Pemba, Zanzibar. The effects of these treatments on attaining unassisted walking were evaluated using survival analysis for 354 children aged 5-11 mo at the start of supplementation. Treatment effects on changes in hemoglobin (Hb) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) Z scores were evaluated using linear regression. Attained motor milestone was recorded every 2 wk for 1 y. Hb, ZPP, HAZ, and WAZ were measured at baseline and after 6 mo of treatment. FeFA with or without Zn reduced the time it took for children to walk assisted. Children who received any iron walked unassisted sooner than those who received no iron [median difference approximately 15 d, P = 0.035, risk ratio (RR) = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.61] and this effect was stronger in those who had iron deficiency anemia (IDA) at baseline (median difference was approximately 30 d; P = 0.002; RR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.21, 2.32). FeFA alone and Zn alone improved Hb and ZPP compared with placebo. There were no significant treatment effects on changes in HAZ or WAZ. The effects of treatment on time to walking may have been mediated by improvements in iron status or hemoglobin, but were not mediated through improvements in growth.

  4. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe2O3/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe2O3–ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe2O3–ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe2O3–ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10−6 M to 1.0 × 10−4 M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10−7 M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe2O3, graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor

  5. Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Harold M; Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-07-14

    We have previously shown nutritional intervention with fish oil (n-3 PUFA) to reduce numerous complications associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the JCR:LA-corpulent (cp) rat. In the present study, we sought to explore the potential role of fish oil to prevent glomerulosclerosis in JCR:LA-cp rats via renal eicosanoid metabolism and lipidomic analysis. Male lean and MetS JCR:LA-cp rats were fed a lipid-balanced diet supplemented with fish oil (5 or 10 % of total fat). After 16 weeks of feeding, albuminuria was significantly reduced in MetS rats supplemented with 5 or 10 % fish oil ( - 53 and - 70 %, respectively, compared with the untreated MetS rats). The 5 % fish oil diet resulted in markedly lower glomerulosclerosis ( - 43 %) in MetS rats and to a lesser extent in those supplemented with 10 % fish oil. Interestingly, untreated MetS rats had higher levels of 11- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) v. lean rats. Dietary fish oil reduced these levels, as well as other (5-, 9- and 15-) HETE. Whilst genotype did not alter prostanoid levels, fish oil reduced endogenous renal levels of 6-keto PGF1α (PGI2 metabolite), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), PGF2α and PGD2 by approximately 60 % in rats fed 10 % fish oil, and TxB2 ( - 50 %) and PGF2α ( - 41 %) in rats fed 5 % fish oil. In conclusion, dietary fish oil prevented glomerular damage in MetS rats and mitigated the elevation in renal HETE levels. These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS.

  6. Folic Acid Supplementation to Reduce Neural Tube Defects During Pregnancy%围孕期补充叶酸降低神经管畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维侠

    2014-01-01

    神经管畸形是由遗传因素与环境因素共同作用而导致的复杂的多基因遗传病,大量的流行病学研究发现叶酸缺乏和 NTDs 密切相关。NTDs 是较为常见的先天畸形,主要表现为脊柱裂和无脑畸形两种类型。经过研究表明,其所显示的围孕期补充叶酸可以对 NTDs的发病率有所降低。研究结果对最佳的叶酸补充提出参考性意见。%Neural tube defects are caused by both genetic factors and environmental factors of complex polygenic hereditary disease, a large number of epidemiological studies have found that folate deficiency and NTDs are closely related. NTDs is one of the most common birth defects. Main types with spina bifida and anencephaly. Various studies have shown around pregnancy folic acid supplementation can significantly reduce the incidence of NTDs. There are many study puts forward guidance on how to make the best of folic acid.

  7. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-09-01

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUFA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet challenge. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were subjected to a control diet (CTRL; 3.16 En% linoleic acid [LA]) or a low n-6 PUFA diet (low LA; 1.36 En% LA) from postnatal days (PNs) 2 to 42. Subsequently, all animals were switched to a Western-style diet (2.54 En% LA) until PN98. We monitored body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and glucose homeostasis by an intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance test in rats and by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mice. At PN98, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured and adipocyte number and size were analyzed. In mice, the postnatal low-LA diet decreased fat accumulation during the adult Western-style diet challenge (-27% compared with CTRL, P rats, the low-LA diet did not affect adult body composition, but decreased the number of retroperitoneal adipocytes and increased the number of large adipocytes. In conclusion, lowering dietary n-6 PUFA intake in early life protected against detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood on metabolic homeostasis and fat mass accumulation. PMID:26239950

  8. Folic Acid Supplementation to Reduce Neural Tube Defects During Pregnancy%围孕期补充叶酸降低神经管畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维侠

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects are caused by both genetic factors and environmental factors of complex polygenic hereditary disease, a large number of epidemiological studies have found that folate deficiency and NTDs are closely related. NTDs is one of the most common birth defects. Main types with spina bifida and anencephaly. Various studies have shown around pregnancy folic acid supplementation can significantly reduce the incidence of NTDs. There are many study puts forward guidance on how to make the best of folic acid.%神经管畸形是由遗传因素与环境因素共同作用而导致的复杂的多基因遗传病,大量的流行病学研究发现叶酸缺乏和 NTDs 密切相关。NTDs 是较为常见的先天畸形,主要表现为脊柱裂和无脑畸形两种类型。经过研究表明,其所显示的围孕期补充叶酸可以对 NTDs的发病率有所降低。研究结果对最佳的叶酸补充提出参考性意见。

  9. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Vilchis-Nestor, A.R. [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM—UNAM, Carretera Toluca—Atlacomulco km 14.5, San Cayetano, CP 50200 Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Majumdar, S. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, J.R. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The citric acid capping significantly reduced the ζ potential values. • As the amount of CA increased, thicker the layer surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs had better distribution and small particle size than bare CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs decrease the Ce uptake by radish seedlings. -- Abstract: Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO{sub 2} NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO{sub 2}:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO{sub 2} NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs suspensions at 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200 mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100 mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and −56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200 mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO{sub 2} NPs toxicity to plants.

  10. Rosiglitazone reduces fatty acid translocase and increases AMPK in skeletal muscle in aged rats: a possible mechanism to prevent high-fat-induced insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Guang-yao; GAO Yu; WANG Chao; HU Shu-guo; WANG Jing; QU Dong-ming; MA Hui-juan

    2010-01-01

    Background As an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARy), rosiglitazone can prevent acute fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in rats, however, the precise mechanisms by which rosiglitazone alleviates insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet need to be further investigated.Methods Wistar rats aged 23-24 weeks were divided into three groups: (1) aged control group (OC), (2) high-fat diet (HF) group and (3) high-fat diet plus rosiglitazone maleate tablets (HF+Rosi) treatment group (n=20 in each group). Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by conscious hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. mRNA levels of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), AMPKα2 and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) of rat skeletal muscle were determined using real-time PCR, while muscle camitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1β) was determined using semi-quantitative PCR. Protein expression levels of FAT/CD36, AMPK phosphorylation (reflecting AMPK activity), P-ACC (inversely related with ACC activity) and muscle CPT-1M in rat skeletal muscles were measured using Western blotting.Results Aged rats fed by diet rich in fat for more than 8 weeks led to significant increases of plasma lipids, skeletal muscle intramuscular triglyceride and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCACoA) compared to aged rats fed by normal chow diet (OC) (P <0.05), which might correlate with the lower (reduced by 42.4%) whole body insulin sensitivity in HF rats. FAT/CD36 protein concentrations and mRNA levels increased in untreated HF aged rats (P <0.01) and high-fat diet induced a significant decrease in P-AMPK, P-ACC, CPT-1M protein concentrations and AMPKα2 and CPT-1β mRNA levels in rat skeletal muscles (P <0.05). No change in AMPKα1 mRNA levels was observed in the HF group.Conclusion High-fat diet in aged rats results in a lipid accumulation and subsequent insulin resistance, while rosiglitazone can alleviate the insulin resistance by reducing fatty

  11. Promoting endothelial recovery and reducing neointimal hyperplasia using sequential-like release of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded biodegradable stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Chia-Ying Yu,2 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Chao-Jan Wang,3 Ming-Yi Hsu,3 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Wei-Jan Chen,1 Yu-Shien Ko,1 Ming-Shien Wen1 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Introduction: This work reports on the development of a biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stent with sequential-like and sustainable drug-release of anti-platelet acetylsalicylic acid and anti-smooth muscle cell (SMC proliferative paclitaxel.Methods: To fabricate the biodegradable stents, poly-L-lactide strips are first cut from a solvent-casted film. They are rolled onto the surface of a metal pin to form spiral stents. The stents are then consecutively covered by acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded polylactide-polyglycolide nanofibers via electrospinning.Results: Biodegradable stents exhibit mechanical properties that are superior to those of metallic stents. Biodegradable stents sequentially release high concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel for more than 30 and 60 days, respectively. In vitro, the eluted drugs promote endothelial cell numbers on days 3 and 7, and reduce the proliferation of SMCs in weeks 2, 4, and 8. The stents markedly inhibit the adhesion of platelets on days 3, 7, and 14 relative to a non-drug-eluting stent. In vivo, the implanted stent is intact, and no stent thrombosis is observed in the stent-implanted vessels without the administration of daily oral acetylsalicylic acid. Promotion of endothelial recovery and inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia are also observed on the stented vessels.Conclusion: The work demonstrates the efficiency and safety of the biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stents with sequential and sustainable drug release

  12. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-05-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method.

  13. DOES TRANEXEMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENTS PERIOPERATIVELY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SPINE STABILIZATION SURGERIES? A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLINDED CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spine surgeries may involve uncontrolled bleeding, resulting primarily from large vein and persists even after the wound is closed. Proper patient positioning, use of hypotensive anaesthesia regimen and normothermia reduces blood loss, additional measures to reduce bleeding & transfusion requirement must be considered in spine surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients of both sexes between the age group 21 to 60 years belonging to ASA I to III who were scheduled for spine stabilization surgeries was enrolled for the study were randomized into two groups with 20 in each. Anaesthetic technique was standardized. Group T received Tranexamic acid bolus of 10 mg/kg i.v. over 15 min. after patient positioning followed maintenance infusion of 1mg/kg/hr. And Group N Equivalent volume of Normal saline. Intra-operative blood losses was measured by weighing sponges, measuring suction drainage and estimates of blood loss on the surgical drapes and gowns by the attending anesthesiologist. Post-operative blood losses were assessed by measuring wound drainage until drains withdrawal. Investigations like Hb, Platelet, PT and APTT were done pre and post-operatively. Patients were assessed postoperatively daily for any clinical evidence of deep venous thrombosis.

  14. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  15. Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids from hops improve glucose homeostasis and reduce body weight gain and metabolic endotoxemia in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Everard

    Full Text Available Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060 to high-fat diet (HFD-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.

  16. High-quality reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum hybrid materials prepared by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide and chloroplatinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yinjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum (RGO-Pt hybrid materials were synthesized by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO and chloroplatinic acid with sodium citrate in water at 80°C, of pH 7 and 10. The resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Platinum (Pt nanoparticles were anchored randomly onto the reduced GO (RGO sheets with average mean diameters of 1.76 (pH 7 and 1.93 nm (pH 10. The significant Pt diffraction peaks and the decreased intensity of (002 peak in the XRD patterns of RGO-Pt hybrid materials confirmed that the Pt nanoparticles were anchored onto the RGO sheets and intercalated into the stacked RGO layers at these two pH values. The Pt loadings for the hybrid materials were determined as 36.83 (pH 7 and 49.18% (pH 10 by mass using XPS analysis. With the assistance of oleylamine, the resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were soluble in the nonpolar organic solvents, and the dispersion could remain stable for several months.

  17. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  18. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-05-20

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method.

  19. Reducing Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Acid-Base Balance, Plasma Minerals Level and Anti-Oxidative Stress of Female Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-xuan; YANG Yi; ZHANG Ji-kun; LI Sheng-li

    2013-01-01

    Reducing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been proved an effective way to prevent milk fever in dairy cows. Based on the similar physiological gastro-intestinal tract anatomy and metabolic process between female goats and dairy cows, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying DCAD on fluid acid-base status, plasma minerals concentration and anti-oxidative stress capacity of female goats. Urinary pH, plasma Ca, P and Mg;and anti-oxidative stress indices of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to evaluate the effect. Forty-eight Guizhou black female goats ((15±1.9) mon of old, (22.3±3.75) kg of BW) were randomly allocated to 4 blocks of 12 goats each and were fed 1 of 4 diets differed in DCAD level (calculated as Na+K-Cl-S, mEq kg-1 DM). Levels of DCAD were preliminarily designed to be control (+150 mEq kg-1 DM, CON), high DCAD (+300 mEq kg-1 DM, HD), low DCAD (0 mEq kg-1 DM, LD) and negative DCAD (-150 mEq kg-1 DM, ND), respectively. A commercial anionic salts (Animate) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were supplemented to reduce and increase DCAD level, respectively. There was no difference in dry matter intake for 4 groups of goats. Urine pH was aggressively decreased (P0.05) plasma Mg level. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in plasma GSH-Px activity and H2O2, but anionic salts supplementation in LD and ND significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma T-SOD activity and tended to reduce MDA (P<0.1) over HD and CON. Results from this study indicated that reducing DCAD could decrease urine pH and increase plasma Ca concentration of female goats. Additionally, reducing DCAD was helpful to enhance anti-oxidative stress capability of female goats.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

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    Nina Vinot

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus, a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group. Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05, while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001, a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty

  1. Influenza A virus drift variants reduced the detection sensitivity of a commercial multiplex nucleic acid amplification assay in the season 2014/15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzly, Daniela; Korn, Klaus; Bierbaum, Sibylle; Eberle, Björn; Falcone, Valeria; Knöll, Antje; Steininger, Philipp; Panning, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    The influenza season 2014/15 was dominated by drift variants of influenza A(H3N2), which resulted in a reduced vaccine effectiveness. It was not clear if the performance of commercial nucleic-acid-based amplification (NAT) assays for the detection of influenza was affected. The purpose of this study was to perform a real-life evaluation of two commercial NAT assays. During January-April 2015, we tested a total of 665 samples from patients with influenza-like illness using the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21, a commercial multiplex kit, (cohorts 1 and 2, n = 563 patients) and the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay (cohort 3, n = 102 patients), a single-use cartridge system. An in-house influenza real-time RT-PCR (cohort 1) and the RealStar Influenza RT-PCR 1.0 Kit (cohort 2 and 3) served as reference tests. Compared to the reference assay, an overall agreement of 95.9 % (cohort 1), 95 % (cohort 2), and 98 % (cohort 3) was achieved. A total of 24 false-negative results were observed using the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit. No false-negative results occurred using the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay. The Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit and the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay had sensitivities of 90.7 % and 100 % and specificities of 100 % and 94.1 %, respectively, compared to the RealStar 1.0 kit. Upon modification of the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit, the sensitivity increased to 97.3 %. Influenza virus strains circulating during the 2014/15 season reduced the detection sensitivity of a commercial NAT assay, and continuous monitoring of test performance is therefore necessary. PMID:27316440

  2. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka A Pozdzik

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target.In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ inhibition in a rat model of AAN.Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11 and its control isotype (13C4 were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p. at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc was injected daily.At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro.The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation.

  3. A facile one-pot synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for simultaneous enhanced detecting of dopamine and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziyin; Zheng, Xiaohui; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we described the facile synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (CNDs-rGO) and their application for the enhanced electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). CNDs-rGO were synthesized for the first time through a green and facile one-step approach, carried out by hydrothermal heat-treatment of an aqueous solution containing GO and chitosan without introduction of other reducing agents or surface modifier. Then, the morphology and composition of CNDs-rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM observations revealed that CNDs with a size of about 5.0 nm were homogeneously and densely distributed on the surface of rGO. Electrochemical investigations indicated that CNDs-rGO nanocomposites exhibited an excellent performance toward DA and UA. The linear range for DA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 227 μM with a sensitivity of 154.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.03 μM. Meanwhile, the linear range for UA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 328 μM with a high sensitivity of 178.1 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.05 μM. Therefore, CNDs-rGO nanocomposites showed great application potential for constructing electrochemical sensors for the detection of DA and UA. PMID:27284588

  4. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Brestoff

    Full Text Available The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD. The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression.

  5. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  6. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka A.; Giordano, Laetitia; Li, Gang; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Arlt, Volker M.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Brochériou-Spelle, Isabelle; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Caron, Nathalie; Nortier, Joëlle L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ)+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target. Aims In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibition in a rat model of AAN. Materials and Methods Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11) and its control isotype (13C4) were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc) was injected daily. Results At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema) in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation. PMID:27379382

  7. A high oleic sunflower oil fatty acid esters of plant sterols mixed with dietary diacylglycerol reduces plasma insulin and body fat accumulation in Psammomys obesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelled Dori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by reduced response to insulin, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. Intake of plant sterols (PS has been shown to confer a healthier lipid profile and ameliorate cardiovascular disease risk factors in experimental animals and humans. In this study we used an animal model of type 2 diabetes to assess the effects of a preparation of PS esterified to high oleic sunflower oil fatty acids mixed with dietary diacylglycerol (PS-HOSO on diabetic related metabolic parameters. Psammomys obesus (P. obesus were fed high energy (HE diet supplemented by either PS-HOSO or control oil. Following 4.5 weeks of intervention, animals were divided into fasting and non-fasting modes prior to outcome measurements. Glucose and insulin levels as well as blood lipid profile, body weight, and fat accumulation were evaluated in fasting and non-fasting modes. Results P. obesus fed with a HE diet displayed a characteristic heterogeneity in their blood glucose and insulin levels with a subset group displaying type 2 diabetes symptoms. PS-HOSO treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (24%, P P P P Conclusion PS-HOSO supplementation to diabetes-prone gerbils counteracts the increase in body weight and epididymal fat accumulation, and also results in a drop in circulating insulin levels. These effects are pointing out that PS-HOSO may serve as a functional ingredient for metabolic syndrome or diabetic sufferers, which not only influences body weight, but also prevents or reverses insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  8. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5-11 months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 'g folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Z...

  9. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wencai [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu Normal University, Jinan 250013 (China); Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1–65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N = 3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. - Highlights: • The 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. • Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was investigated. • The electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit and good selectivity. • This sensor was applied to the detection of acetaminophen in commercial tablets.

  10. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl and sour (citric acid tastants.

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    Yu-Kyong Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid and salty (sodium chloride tastants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  11. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites. PMID:27080881

  12. Fast removal of tetracycline from wastewater by reduced graphene oxide prepared via microwave-assisted ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid induction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Wu, Zhibin; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Leng, Lijian; Jiang, Longbo; Xiao, Zhihua; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-09-01

    A green reagent of ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) was reported herein for reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with microwave assistance. The characteristics of EDDS reduced graphene oxide (ERG), and the tetracycline (TC) adsorption behavior of ERG was investigated. The results showed that the deoxygenation efficiency of GO strongly depended on the EDDS amount and the ERG can be successively obtained by recycled EDDS. The ERG obtained at EDDS/GO ratio of 5 (ERG5) exhibited a maximum capacity of 558.66 mg/g for TC adsorption, which is superior to GO and ERGs obtained at other EDDS/GO ratio. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 10 min, and the driving forces are likely the van der Waals forces, π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction and cation-π bonding between TC and the ERG surface. The adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, initial TC concentration, and ionic strength significantly affect the TC adsorption. The pseudo-second-order kinetics describes TC adsorption process very well, with correlation coefficients (R (2) ) greater than 0.99. The adsorption isotherm was best fitted by Freundlich equation, followed by Langmuir, Temkin, and Hill model equations. Analysis on adsorption thermodynamics shows that the adsorption is a spontaneous endothermic process. The ERG could be a cost-effective and promising sorbent for TC wastewater treatment due to its high-efficiency performance in real river water, medical wastewater, and municipal wastewater. PMID:27306211

  13. Combining Nitrilotriacetic Acid and Permeable Barriers for Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Municipal Solid Waste Compost by and Reduced Metal Leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction has the potential to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, and chelants can be used to improve the capabilities of phytoextraction. However, environmentally persistent chelants can cause metal leaching and groundwater pollution. A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the viability of biodegradable nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to increase the uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) by L. in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and to evaluate the effect of two permeable barrier materials, bone meal and crab shell, on metal leaching. The application of NTA significantly increased the concentrations and uptake of heavy metals in . The enhancement was more pronounced at higher dosages of NTA. In the 15 mmol kg NTA treatment using a crab shell barrier, the Cr and Ni concentrations in the plant shoots increased by approximately 8- and 10-fold, respectively, relative to the control. However, the addition of NTA also caused significant heavy metal leaching from the MSW compost. Bone meal and crab shell barriers positioned between the compost and the subsoil were effective in preventing metal leaching down through the soil profile by the retention of metals in the barrier. The application of a biodegradable chelant and the use of permeable barriers is a viable form of enhanced phytoextraction to increase the removal of metals and to reduce possible leaching.

  14. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, a Novel Naturally Derived Agent, Suppresses Prolactin Hyperactivity and Reduces Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yongfeng; Wang, Chunyue; Jia, Dongxu; Cai, Guangsheng; Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Di; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a novel naturally derived agent, in suppressing prolactin (PRL) hyperactivity and reducing antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) and the underlying mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo models. GA treatment for 24 h inhibited PRL synthesis and secretion in MMQ cells and cultured pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion; but this effect was not reproduced in GH3 cells that lack the expression of functional dopamine D2 receptors. GA suppressed elevated PRL level and growth hormone, and normalized several sex hormones in a rat model of hyperPRL, produced by repeated injection of the dopamine blocker metoclopramide. GA also modulated the expression 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in both in vivo and in vitro models. These results indicate that GA is effective in suppressing PRL hyperactivity caused by the blockade of dopamine D2 receptors. This suppressive effect of GA may be related to its modulation of the serotonergic system. This study provides additional evidence in support of GA as an adjunct for the treatment of hyperPRL.

  15. Low Dietary c9t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake from Dairy Fat or Supplements Reduces Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Dietary cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fed at 0.5 % w/w was previously shown to attenuate inflammation in the murine collagen-induced (CA) arthritis model, and growing evidence implicates c9t11-CLA as a major anti-inflammatory component of dairy fat. To understand c9t11-CLA's contribution to dairy fat's anti-inflammatory action, the minimum amount of dietary c9t11-CLA needed to reduce inflammation must be determined. This study had two objectives: (1) determine the minimum dietary anti-inflammatory c9t11-CLA intake level in the CA model, and (2) compare this to anti-inflammatory effects of dairy fat (non-enriched, naturally c9t11-CLA-enriched, or c9t11-CLA-supplemented). Mice received the following dietary fat treatments (w/w) post arthritis onset: corn oil (6 % CO), 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 % c9t11-CLA, control butter (6 % CB), c9t11-enriched butter (6 % EB), or c9t11-CLA-supplemented butter (6 % SB, containing 0.2 % c9t11-CLA). Paw arthritic severity and pad swelling were scored and measured, respectively, over an 84-day study period. All c9t11-CLA and butter diets decreased the arthritic score (25-51 %, P CLA- and EB-fed mice. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 were increased in arthritic CO-fed mice compared to NA mice but were reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice through day 42. In conclusion, 0.125 % c9t11-CLA reduced clinical arthritis as effectively as higher doses, and decreased arthritis in CB-fed mice suggested that the minimal anti-inflammatory levels of c9t11-CLA might be below 0.125 %. PMID:27270404

  16. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J R Heerwagen

    Full Text Available Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02, and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05, while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02, as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02, which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02. The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05, body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05, these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results

  17. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Massaroto, Bruna Gabriele; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of th...

  18. Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on the oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin in rats with chronic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Katsukawa, Misaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yasushi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether continuous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6, a downstream effector of mammalian target of rapamycin, and improves hypoalbuminemia of rats with chronic liver disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a casein diet (control group) or a branched-chain amino acid-supplemented casein diet (branched-chain amino acid group) for 11 weeks with repeated injections of carbon tetrachloride. Throughout this experimental period, no signific...

  19. Exogenous modification of platelet membranes with the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA reduces platelet procoagulant activity and thrombus formation

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Mark K.; Tormoen, Garth W.; Weaver, Lucinda J.; Luepke, Kristen J.; Patel, Ishan A.; Hjelmen, Carl E.; Ensz, Nicole M.; McComas, Leah S.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have implicated the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in inhibition of normal platelet function, suggesting a role for platelets in EPA- and DHA-mediated cardioprotection. However, it is unclear whether the cardioprotective mechanisms arise from alterations to platelet-platelet, platelet-matrix, or platelet-coagulation factor interactions. Our previous results led us to hypothesize that EPA and DHA alter the ability of platelets to ...

  20. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  1. Metformin blocks the stimulative effect of a high-energy diet on colon carcinoma growth in vivo and is associated with reduced expression of fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algire, Carolyn; Amrein, Lilian; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Panasci, Lawrence; Pollak, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the association of obesity with adverse colon cancer outcomes are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of a high-energy diet on growth of an in vivo colon cancer model. Seventeen days following the injection of 5x10(5) MC38 colon carcinoma cells, tumors from mice on the high-energy diet were approximately twice the volume of those of mice on the control diet. These findings were correlated with the observation that the high-energy diet led to elevated insulin levels, phosphorylated AKT, and increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) by the tumor cells. Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, leads to the activation of AMPK and is currently under investigation for its antineoplastic activity. We observed that metformin blocked the effect of the high-energy diet on tumor growth, reduced insulin levels, and attenuated the effect of diet on phosphorylation of AKT and expression of FASN. Furthermore, the administration of metformin led to the activation of AMPK, the inhibitory phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the upregulation of BNIP3 and increased apoptosis as estimated by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Prior work showed that activating mutations of PI3K are associated with increased AKT activation and adverse outcome in colon cancer; our results demonstrate that the aggressive tumor behavior associated with a high-energy diet has similar effects on this signaling pathway. Furthermore, metformin is demonstrated to reverse the effects of the high-energy diet, thus suggesting a potential role for this agent in the management of a metabolically defined subset of colon cancers. PMID:20228137

  2. Reduced mucosal side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid after conjugation with tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new anti-inflammatory compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gabriella; Lajkó, Norbert; Ugocsai, Melinda; Érces, Dániel; Horváth, Gyöngyi; Tóth, Gábor; Boros, Mihály; Ghyczy, Miklós

    2016-06-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) causes adverse haemorrhagic reactions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and previous results have suggested that combination therapy with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris) could provide protection in this scenario. Based on this hypothesis, our aim was to develop a new compound from ASA and Tris precursors and to characterize the biological effects of ASA-Tris and the derivatives ASA-bis- and mono-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane (ASA-Bis, ASA-Mono, respectively) using in vivo and in vitro test systems. ASA or ASA conjugates (0.55mmol/kg, each) were administered intragastrically to Sprague-Dawley rats. Changes in the mucosal structure and in the serosal microcirculation were detected by in vivo imaging techniques, the plasma TNF-alpha, tissue xanthine oxidoreductase and myeloperoxidase activities, and liver cytochrome c changes were also determined. In two separate series, platelet aggregation and carrageenan arthritis-induced inflammatory pain were measured in control, ASA and ASA-Tris-treated groups. Severe mucosal injury and a significant decrease in serosal red blood cell velocity developed in the ASA-treated group and an ~2-fold elevation in proinflammatory mediator levels evolved. ASA-Tris did not cause bleeding, microcirculatory dysfunction, mucosal injury or an elevation in proinflammatory markers. The ASA-Mono and ASA-Bis conjugates did not cause macroscopic bleeding, but the inflammatory activation was apparent. ASA-Tris did not influence the cyclooxygenase-induced platelet aggregation significantly, but the inflammatory pain was reduced as effectively as in the case of equimolar ASA doses. ASA-Tris conjugation is an effective approach through which the GI side-effects of ASA are controlled by decreasing the cytokine-mediated progression of pro-inflammatory events.

  3. In situ electrochemical synthesis of highly loaded zirconium nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide for the selective determination of dopamine and paracetamol in presence of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhil Vilian, A T; Rajkumar, Muniyandi; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-03-01

    Highly loaded zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were supported on graphene oxide (ERGO/ZrO2) via an in situ, simple and clean strategy on the basis of the electrochemical redox reaction between zirconyl chloride and graphene oxide (ZrOCl2 and GO). The electrochemical measurements and surface morphology of the as prepared nanocomposite were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This ZrO2 decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite modified GCE (ERGO/ZrO2) exhibits a prominent electrocatalytic activity toward the selective detection and determination of dopamine (DA) and paracetamol (PA) in presence of ascorbic acid (AA). The peaks of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) for DA and PA oxidation at ERGO/ZrO2 modified electrode surface were clearly separated from each other when they co-existed in the physiological pH (pH 7.0) with a potential value of 140 mV (between AA and DA) and 330 mV (between AA and PA). It was, therefore, possible to simultaneously determine DA and PA in the samples at ERGO/ZrO2 nanocomposite modified GCE. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 9-237 μM of PA and DA. The ERGO/ZrO2 nanocomposite electrode has been satisfactorily used for the determination of DA and PA in the presence of AA at pharmaceutical formulations in human urine samples with a linear range of 3-174 μM. The proposed biosensor shows a wide linear range, low detection limit, good reproducibility and acceptable stability, providing a biocompatible platform for bio sensing and bio catalysis.

  4. Synthesis of hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharides and analogues, as their 4-methoxyphenyl glycosides, having N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Halkes, K.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hyppönen, T.K.; Kruiskamp, P.H.; Ogawa, T.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    To contribute to the possibilities to study the ability of oligosaccharide fragments of hyaluronic acid to induce angiogenesis, several hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharides and their 6-O-sulfated analogues were synthesised as their 4-methoxyphenyl glycosides having 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyr

  5. Changes in stream chemistry and biology in response to reduced levels of acid deposition during 1987-2003 in the Neversink River Basin, Catskill Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Bode, R.W.; Passy, S.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition has decreased in the northeastern United States since the 1970s, resulting in modest increases in pH, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), and decreases in inorganic monomeric aluminum (AlIM) concentrations since stream chemistry monitoring began in the 1980s in the acid-sensitive upper Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Stream pH has increased by 0.01 units/year during 1987-2003 at three sites in the Neversink basin as determined by Seasonal Kendall trend analysis. In light of this observed decrease in stream acidity, we sampled 12 stream sites within the Neversink River watershed for water chemistry, macroinvertebrates, fish, and periphytic diatoms in 2003 to compare with a similar data set collected in 1987. Metrics and indices that reflect sensitivity to stream acidity were developed with these biological data to determine whether changes in stream biota over the intervening 16 years parallel those of stream chemistry. Statistical comparisons of data on stream chemistry and an acid biological assessment profile (Acid BAP) derived from invertebrate data showed no significant differences between the two years. For pH and ANC, however, values in 2003 were generally lower than those in 1987; this difference likely resulted from higher streamflow in summer 2003. Despite these likely flow-induced changes in summer 2003, an ordination and cluster analysis of macroinvertebrate taxa based on the Acid BAP indicated that the most acidic sites in the upstream half of the East Branch Neversink River form a statistically significant separate cluster consistent with less acidic stream conditions. This analysis is consistent with limited recovery of invertebrate species in the most acidic reaches of the river, but will require additional improvement in stream chemistry before a stronger conclusion can be drawn. Data on the fish and periphytic diatom communities in 2003 indicate that slimy sculpin had not extended their habitat

  6. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  7. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  8. Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Köhnke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  9. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    following high sea-salt inputs as the deposited base cations exchange with the acidity stored in the soil. Future recovery of soils and runoff at acidified catchments will thus depend on the amount and rate of reduction of acid deposition, and in the case of systems near the coast, the frequency...... and base saturation increases less than 5% over the next 30 years. A climate-induced increase in storm severity will increase the sea-salt input to the ecosystems. This will provide additional base cations to the soils and more than double the rate of the recovery, but also lead to strong acid pulses...... and intensity of sea-salt episodes as well....

  10. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 patients were randomized to tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg given as a bolus intravenous injection, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour for 10 hours) or placebo (20 mL saline given intravenously) 15 minutes before the incision. We recorded the peroperative and postoperative...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...

  11. Humulus lupus Beta-acids Administered Through Water Reduce Clostridium perfringens Challenge Strains in the Chicken Intestinal Tract Midgut and Ceca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity activity of extracts of the hop plant Humulus lupus was studied in chickens fed diets without antibiotic growth promotants. Beta-acid resins of the hop plant were administered by water to 13 day old chickens subsequently challenged per so with necrotic enteritis-associate...

  12. Experimental drought reduced acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and increased organic extractable P in soil in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardans, J.; Penuelas, J.; Ogaya, R.

    2008-01-01

    A six-year (1999-2005) experiment of drought manipulation was conducted in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest (Southern Catalonia) to simulate predicted climatic conditions projected for the decades to come. The aim was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of drought conditions on acid an

  13. Zoledronic acid improves bone mineral density, reduces bone turnover and improves skeletal architecture over 2 years of treatment in children with secondary osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simm, Peter J; Johannesen, Jesper; Briody, Julie;

    2011-01-01

    There are limited data on the use of bisphosphonate therapy for secondary osteoporoses in childhood, and no previous reports of the use of zoledronic acid in this group. We report 20 children with a variety of underlying primary diagnoses with associated secondary osteoporosis, who were treated...

  14. Auto-cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel does not reduce intra-abdominal adhesions or abscess formation in a rat model of peritonitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkink, C.J.J.M.; Man, B.M. de; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Goor, H. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention of adhesion and abscess formation would decrease mortality and morbidity after peritonitis. In this study the effect of a new anti-adhesive, auto-cross-linked hyaluronic acid polysaccharide (ACP) gel, on adhesion and abscess formation was studied in a rat peritonitis model. MA

  15. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  16. Oral chemoprevention with acetyl salicylic Acid, vitamin d and calcium reduces the risk of tobacco carcinogen-induced bladder tumors in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    , and diet with chemoprevention (acetyl salicylic acid, 1-alpha 25(0H)2-vitamin D3 and calcium). There were significantly fewer tumors (0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-2), p = .045) and fewer animals with tumors (0/20 vs. 5/20, p = .045) in the chemoprevention group compared with controls. Thus, chemoprevention diet...

  17. Protolichesterinic acid, isolated from the lichen Cetraria islandica, reduces LRRC8A expression and volume-sensitive release of organic osmolytes in human lung epithelial cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Thorsteinsdottir, Margret; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    cancer cells (A549) to PA (20 μg/mL, 24 h) reduces LRRC8A protein expression by 25% and taurine release following osmotic cell swelling (320 → 200 mOsm) by 60%. C75 (20 μg/mL, 24 h), a γ-lactone with a C8 carbon fatty acid chain, reduces VSOAC activity by 30%, i.e. less than PA. Stearic acid (20 μg......We have tested the effect of protolichesterinic acid (PA) on the activity of the volume-sensitive release pathway for the organic osmolyte taurine (VSOAC) and the expression of the leucine-rich-repeat-channel 8A (LRRC8A) protein, which constitutes an essential VSOAC component. Exposing human lung....../mL, 24 h) has no effect on VSOAC. Hence, length of PA's fatty acid chain adds to γ-lactone's inhibitory action. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) activity is essential for swelling-induced activation of VSOAC. PA has no effect on cellular concentration of leukotrienes (5-HETE/LTB4) under hypotonic conditions...

  18. 含山嵛酸低热量油脂的理化特性与功能性质表征%Physicochemical properties and functional characterizations of reduced- calorie fats containing behenic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘如灿; 单良; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2011-01-01

    对含山嵛酸低热量油脂的脂肪酸组成、甘油三酯组成、固体脂肪含量(SFC)、熔点、结晶速率、晶型及晶体形态进行研究,结果表明含山嵛酸低热量油脂具有较好的功能特性,不含反式脂肪酸,可作为人造奶油/起酥油的基料油,也可作为烹调油、糖果脂及煎炸油等使用.%The fatty acid composition, triglyceride composition, solid fat content, melting point, crystallization rate, crystal form and crystal habit of reduced - calorie fats containing behenic acid were studied.The results showed that reduced - calorie fats containing behenic acid had better functional characteristic,and it did not contain trans - fatty acid, and could be used as based oil of margarine/shortening, cooking oil, frying oil and so on.

  19. Valine, a Branched-Chain Amino Acid, Reduced HCV Viral Load and Led to Eradication of HCV by Interferon Therapy in a Decompensated Cirrhotic Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Torimura, Takuji; Takata, Akio; Satomi, Susumu; Sata, Michio

    2012-01-01

    A decreased serum level of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is a distinctive metabolic disorder in patients with liver cirrhosis. Recently, BCAA has been reported to exert various pharmacological activities, and valine, which is a BCAA, has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and the immune system in in vivo experiments. However, the clinical impact of valine supplementation on viral hepatitis C virus (HCV) load has never been reported. Here, we first describe a case of HCV-related advanced...

  20. Lowering Bile Acid Pool Size with a Synthetic Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Agonist Induces Obesity and Diabetes through Reduced Energy Expenditure*

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Horai, Yasushi; Houten, Sander M; Morimoto, Kohkichi; Sugizaki, Taichi; Arita, Eri; Mataki, Chikage; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Schoonjans, Kristina; Itoh, Hiroshi; Auwerx, Johan

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the metabolic impact of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation by administering a synthetic FXR agonist (GW4064) to mice in which obesity was induced by a high fat diet. Administration of GW4064 accentuated body weight gain and glucose intolerance induced by the high fat diet and led to a pronounced worsening of the changes in liver and adipose tissue. Mechanistically, treatment with GW4064 decreased bile acid (BA) biosynthesis, BA pool size, and energy expenditure, whereas recons...

  1. Blocking TGF-β signaling pathway preserves mitochondrial proteostasis and reduces early activation of PDGFRβ+ pericytes in aristolochic acid induced acute kidney injury in Wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka A.; Giordano, Laetitia; Li, Gang; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Arlt, Volker M.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Brochériou-Spelle, Isabelle; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Caron, Nathalie; Nortier, Joëlle L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ)+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target.AIMS: In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibitio...

  2. Poly(anhydride-ester) and Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) Blends: Salicylic acid-releasing blends with hydrogel-like properties that reduce inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouimet, Michelle A.; Fogaça, Renata; Snyder, Sabrina S; Sathaye, Sameer; Luiz H. Catalani; Pochan, Darrin J.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Polymers such as poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) have been used to prepare hydrogels for wound dressing applications but are not inherently bioactive. For enhanced healing, the release of physically admixed therapeutics from hydrogels has been evaluated, but with limited control over drug release profiles. To overcome these limitations, PVP was blended with salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-esters) (SAPAE) and shown to exhibit hydrogel properties upon swelling. In vitro release studies de...

  3. Infants fed formula with added long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and diarrhea during the first year of life

    OpenAIRE

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; Pastor, Nitida; Zhuang, Weihong; Scalabrin, Deolinda MF

    2014-01-01

    Background Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may influence the immune system. Our objective was to compare the frequency of common illnesses in infants who received formula with or without added LCPUFAs. Methods In this observational, multi-center, prospective study, infants consumed formula with 17 mg DHA and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (n = 233) or with no added DHA or ARA (n = 92). Pediatricians recorded respiratory illnesses, otitis media, eczema, and diarrhea through 1 year of age....

  4. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking.

  5. Aqueous Extract of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and Ferulic Acid Reduce the Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-Activated Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Navarrete

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute inflammation is essential for defending the body against pathogens; however, when inflammation becomes chronic, it is harmful to the body and is part of the pathophysiology of various diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2 and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD among others. In chronic inflammation macrophages play an important role, mainly through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and Interleukin (IL-1β, explained in part by activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, a signaling pathway which culminates in the activation of Nuclear factor (NF-κB, an important transcription factor in the expression of these proinflammatory genes. On the other hand, the benefits on health of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables are well described. In this work, the effects of aqueous extract of tomato and ferulic acid on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS activated monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were investigated. In addition, using Western blot, we investigated whether the inhibition was due to the interference on activation of NF-κB. We found that both the tomato extract and ferulic acid presented inhibitory activity on the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokine by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. The current results suggest that tomatoes and ferulic acid may contribute to prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  6. Aqueous Extract of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Ferulic Acid Reduce the Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-Activated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Simón; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Acute inflammation is essential for defending the body against pathogens; however, when inflammation becomes chronic, it is harmful to the body and is part of the pathophysiology of various diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) among others. In chronic inflammation macrophages play an important role, mainly through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukin (IL)-1β, explained in part by activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling pathway which culminates in the activation of Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, an important transcription factor in the expression of these proinflammatory genes. On the other hand, the benefits on health of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables are well described. In this work, the effects of aqueous extract of tomato and ferulic acid on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS activated monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were investigated. In addition, using Western blot, we investigated whether the inhibition was due to the interference on activation of NF-κB. We found that both the tomato extract and ferulic acid presented inhibitory activity on the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokine by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. The current results suggest that tomatoes and ferulic acid may contribute to prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26307961

  7. Dissolved organic carbon reduces uranium bioavailability and toxicity. 1. Characterization of an aquatic fulvic acid and its complexation with uranium[VI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, Melanie A; McDonald, Suzanne; Kovacs, Krisztina; Lesher, Emily K; Pringle, Jennifer M; Markich, Scott J; Ng, Jack C; Noller, Barry; Brown, Paul L; van Dam, Rick A

    2011-04-01

    Fulvic acid (FA) from a tropical Australian billabong (lagoon) was isolated with XAD-8 resin and characterized using size exclusion chromatography, solid state cross-polarization magic angle spinning, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and potentiometric acid-base titration. Physicochemical characteristics of the billabong FA were comparable with those of the Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) standard. The greater negative charge density of the billabong FA suggested it contained protons that were more weakly bound than those of SRFA, with the potential for billabong water to complex less metal contaminants, such as uranium (U). This may subsequently influence the toxicity of metal contaminants to resident freshwater organisms. The complexation of U with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (10 mg L(-1)) in billabong water was calculated using the HARPHRQ geochemical speciation model and also measured using flow field-flow fractionation combined with inductively coupled plasma mass-spectroscopy. Agreement between both methods was very good (within 4% as U-DOC). The results suggest that in billabong water at pH 6.0, containing an average DOC of 10 mg L(-1) and a U concentration of 90 μg L(-1), around 10% of U is complexed with DOC. PMID:21351802

  8. 如何减少酸雨pH计的测量误差浅析%How to reduce measurement errors of acid rain meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀勋

    2012-01-01

    According to the practical experience of Tongren National Acid Rain Observation Station, this paper focuses on the working principle, operation method, daily maintenance and common troubleshooting points of Leici PHS-3B acid rain meter made in Shanghai. Being familiar with design principle of the instrument can help observers to correct operate and maintain the instrument, accurate diagnose measurement errors and master troubleshooting skills, which can improve acid rain observation and quality of services.%根据铜仁国家酸雨观测站的实践经验,详细介绍了上海雷磁牌PHS-3B型酸雨pH计的工作原理、操作方法、日常维护以及常见故障排除要点。熟悉和了解设备的工作和设计原理,有助于观测员正确使用和维护仪器,帮助准确诊断分析测量误差和掌握排除故障技能,以利于提高酸雨观测水平和业务质量。

  9. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. PMID:27262203

  10. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Brestoff, Jonathan R.; Tim Brodsky; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z.; Ryan McLoughlin; Elena Stansky; Leila Fussell; Aaron Sheppard; Maria DiSanto-Rose; Kershaw, Erin E.; Reynolds, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regi...

  11. Variegatic acid from Serpula lacyrmans reduces FeIII and interacts with other fungal metabolites for location-specific generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuan; MAHANEY, JAMES; Jellison, Jody; Cao, Jinzhen; Gressler, Julia; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Goodell, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the role of variegatic acid (VA) secreted from Serpula lacyrmans in a chelator-mediated Fenton (CMF) system, including FeIII reduction and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of H2O2 and oxalate. As the principle component of the fungal extracellular matrix (ECM), β-glucan isolated from Basidiomycota species was also assessed in scavenging ROS with regard to its potential as a protective barrier for fungal hyphae. Our results demonstrate ...

  12. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  13. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O...

  14. Reducing the Genetic Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration With Dietary Antioxidants, Zinc, and omega-3 Fatty Acids The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ho; R. van Leeuwen; J.C.M. Witteman; C.M. van Duijn; A.G. Uitterlinden; A. Hofman; P.T.V.M. de Jong; J.R. Vingerling; C.C.W. Klaver

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether dietary nutrients can reduce the genetic risk of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) conferred by the genetic variants CFH Y402H and LOC387715 A69S in a nested case-control study. Methods: For 2167 individuals (>= 55 years) from the population-based Rotterd

  15. Reduced levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer disease patients are not related to apolipoprotein E4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Ravid, R.; Kloet, J.E.R. de; Haasdijk, E.D.; Julk, J.; Boom, J. van der; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) has been identified as a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Previously it has been reported that levels of apoE are reduced in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients. Because it is known that apoE4 affectss plasma lipid metabolism we examined whether the presen

  16. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on Maillard reaction of reducing sugars with glutamic acid-Na%脉冲电场对还原糖-谷氨酸钠体系美拉德反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 于淑娟

    2011-01-01

    主要研究了脉冲电场对于不同还原糖-谷氨酸钠溶液的pH、中间产物、褐变、还原糖含量以及抗氧化活性的影响.结果显示:脉冲电场处理条件为场强4kV/cm,时间1.88ms,得到果糖-甘氨酸钠体系在294nm和420nm的吸光值从0分别增加到1.71和0.07,同时,抗氧化活性增加10.96%,果糖含量减少55%.气质分析表明,经脉冲电场处理可以引发葡萄糖、蔗糖、麦芽糖和乳糖分别与谷氨酸钠体系的美拉德反应,产物包括苯的衍生物、酰胺及醛,但是在果糖-谷氨酸钠反应液中发现了丙烷、醋酸和丁内酯.研究证明,脉冲电场是一种提高还原糖-谷氨酸钠体系美拉德反应的有效方法.%Effects of pulsed electric field on pH, intermediate products, browning, reducing sugar content, and antioxidant activity of different reducing sugar-glutamic acid-Na solutions were examined.Results showed that the pulsed electric field treatment at the intensity of 4kV/cm for 1.88ms resulted in the pronounced increases of the fructose- glutamic acid - Na solution' s absorbance at 294nm and 420nm and the antioxidant activity from approximately 0 to 1.71,0.07 and 10.96%,respectively.At the same time,55% reduction in fructose was observed. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrum analysis showed that the pulsed electric field treatment induced a Maillard reaction in the glucose-,sucrose-,maltose-and lactose-glutamic acid-Na model systems producing substances including benzene derivatives, acylamide or aldehydes, while, propane, acetic acid, butyrolactone were found in fructose-glutamic acid-Na reacted solution.This study indicated that pulsed electric field could potentially be employed as a means to promote the Maillard reaction in the reducing sugars-glutamic acid-Na solutions.

  17. Sensitive electrochemical determination of trace cadmium on a stannum film/poly(p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene composite modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a novel stannum film/poly(p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid)/graphene composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was prepared by using electrodeposition of exfoliated graphene oxide, electropolymerization of p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid (p-ABSA) and in situ plating stannum fim methods, successively. This sensor was further used for sensitive determination of trace cadmium ions by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The morphologies and electrochemistry properties of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry. It was found that the formed graphene layer on the top of GCE could remarkably facilitate the electron transfer and enlarge the specific surface area of the electrode. While the poly(p-ABSA) film could effectively increase the adhesion and stability of graphene layer, enhance ion-exchange capacity and prevent the macromolecule in real samples absorbing on the surface of electrode. By combining co-deposits ability with heavy metals of stannum film, the obtained electrode exhibited a good stripping performance for the analysis of Cd(II). Under the optimum conditions, a linear response was observed in the range from 1.0 to 70.0 μgL−1 with a detection limit of 0.05 μgL−1 (S/N = 3). The sensor was further applied to the determination of cadmium ions in real water samples with satisfactory results

  18. SOLVENT EFFECT ON EXTRACTION OF GALLIC ACID FROM AMALAKI CHURNA (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. TO REDUCE MATRIX EFFECT USING HPTLC AND UV-SPECTROSCOPY WITH 12 DIFFERENT NATURE SOLVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukla V.J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of Ayurvedic formulations is an important aspect for research in Indian medicine. In this era every Pharma company prefer to use pure extract of component for production of best product in short period of time. The literature survey reveals that no work has been reported for solvent selection of extraction of Ayurvedic drugs. Amalaki is one of the most useable ayurveda drug. So, the present study was selected with an aim to select solvent for extraction of component of interest. Standard for evaluating quality of Amalaki churna by employing various physico-chemical parameters. For solvent selection 12 different nature solvents are selected for extraction. Polar solvent selected are Water, Di methylsulfoxide (DMSO, Ethylene glycol, Acetonitrile, Di methyl formeamide (DMF and Methanol. Non polar solvents are Acetone, Acetic acid, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform, Di ethylether and Toluene. Extraction was done by maceration method. Results are taken by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. In observation component was easily extracted with less interfering component in non polar solvent. Gallic acid is component of interest for Amalaki and it is well extracted in Di ethyl ether as per result of chromatography and spectroscopy. Conclusion is that selection of solvent for extraction as per their component of interest from material.

  19. Tolerance and efficacy of a product containing ellagic and salicylic acids in reducing hyperpigmentation and dark spots in comparison with 4% hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is the benchmark prescription agent for skin lightening. However, HQ use is recently banned in Europe and in parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. This has resulted in development of alternative skin-lightening agents with comparable efficacy to HQ, but better safety profiles. This study examined the skin-lightening ability of a topical product containing 0.5% ellagic acid and 0.1% salicylic acid and compared its efficacy with that of a prescription generic 4% HQ product. Fifty-four multiethnic subjects were randomly assigned to use the topical test formulation or generic 4% HQ twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product tolerability and efficacy. Under the conditions of this double-blinded clinical study, the test product demonstrated comparable tolerance and efficacy to that of a benchmark product 4% HQ, as assessed by clinical grading, physical measurement of spot size using image analysis, and questionnaire response analysis. This study suggests that this new product provided comparable skin depigmentation benefit to the benchmark product. In addition, the product appears to have better esthetics (texture, pleasantness to use, skin feel) than the 4% HQ product.

  20. Formation of the reduced form of furaneol® (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one) during the Maillard reaction through catalysis of amino acid metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Wang, Xi; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-11-01

    Under pyrolytic conditions the acidity/basicity of Maillard reaction mixtures can be controlled through the use of hydrochloride or sodium salts of amino acids to generate a diversity of products. When the degradation of glucose was studied under pyrolytic conditions using excess sodium glycinate the reaction was found to generate a major unknown peak having a molecular ion at m/z 130. Subsequent in-depth isotope labelling studies indicated that acetol was an important precursor of this compound under pyrolytic and aqueous heating conditions. The dimerisation and cyclisation of acetol into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one was found to be catalysed by amino acid metal salts. Also, ESI/qTOF/MS studies indicated that the unknown peak has expected molecular formula of C6H10O3. Finally, a peak having the same retention time and mass spectrum was also generated pyrolytically when furaneol® was reduced with NaBH4 confirming the initial hypothesis regarding the unknown peak to be the reduced form of furaneol®. PMID:27211618

  1. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (pfat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition.

  2. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Wook Lee; Min-Ho Jin; Young-Joo Lee; Ju-Hyoung Park; Chun-Boo Lee; Jong-Soo Park

    2016-01-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, whi...

  3. Lowering homocysteine levels with folic acid and B-vitamins do not reduce early atherosclerosis, but could interfere with cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapuoti, Federico

    2013-10-01

    Inheired or acquired hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with several impairments, as certain tumors, deep venous thrombosis, tube neural defects, osteoporosis, early atherosclerosis and vascular acute events (IMA, stroke, PVD), mild cognitive impairments till Alzheimer's disease (AD). But, vascular and neuronal derangements are the most frequent HHcy-manifestations. As far as early atherosclerosis, some clinical trials demonstrated that folates and B6-12 vitamins supplementation is unable to reduce atherosclerotic lesions and cardiovascular events, even if it lowers HHcy levels. Thus, for atherosclerosis and its acute events (IMA, stroke, PVD) HHcy acts as a powerful biomarker rather than a risk factor. For that, the supplementation with folates and B vitamins to lower atherosclerotic lesions-events in hyperhomocysteinemic patients is not recommended. On the contrary, several clinical investigations demonstrated that folates and vitamins administration is able to reduce Hcy serum levels and antagonize some mechanisms favouring neurodegenerative impairments, as mild cognitive impairment, AD and dementia. Thus, contrarily to the atherosclerotic manifestations in hyperhomocysteinemic patients, preventive treatment with folates and B6-12 vitamins reduces Hcy concentration and could prevent or delay cognitive decline and AD. PMID:23224755

  4. Short locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides potently reduce apolipoprotein B mRNA and serum cholesterol in mice and non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Fisker, Niels; Hedtjärn, Maj;

    2010-01-01

    -life as longer oligonucleotides. Pharmacology studies in both mice and non-human primates were conducted with a 13-mer LNA oligonucleotide against apoB, and the data showed that repeated dosing of the 13-mer at 1-2 mg/kg/week was sufficient to provide a significant and long lasting lowering of non-high-density......The potency and specificity of locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotides was investigated as a function of length and affinity. The oligonucleotides were designed to target apolipoprotein B (apoB) and were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The high affinity of LNA enabled...... the design of short antisense oligonucleotides (12- to 13-mers) that possessed high affinity and increased potency both in vitro and in vivo compared to longer oligonucleotides. The short LNA oligonucleotides were more target specific, and they exhibited the same biodistribution and tissue half...

  5. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation reduces the convulsive expression and amino acid release in the hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Gómez, César E; Alcántara-González, David; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Besio, Walter; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release in the hippocampus under basal conditions and during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Animals were previously implanted with a guide cannula attached to a bipolar electrode into the right ventral hippocampus and a concentric ring electrode placed on the skull surface. The first microdialysis experiment was designed to determine, under basal conditions, the effects of TFS (300 Hz, 200 μs biphasic square pulses, for 30 min) on afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and the release of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus. The results obtained indicate that at low current intensities (Status Epilepticus".

  6. Prophylactic use of tranexamic acid combined with thrombelastogram guided coagulation management may reduce blood loss and allogeneic transfusion in pediatric hemispherectomy: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Fu, Wenya; Wang, Tianlong; Zhao, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Hemispherectomy is an established surgical procedure to treat medically refractory epilepsy caused by diffuse hemispheric diseases. The most common complication of hemispherectomy is intraoperative bleeding. Perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. Etiologies of massive blood loss during hemispherectomy include intraoperative diffuse vascular damage, antileptic drugs induced coagulation dysfunction, hyperfibrinolysis and dilutional coagulopathy. Great efforts should be made to minimize the need of blood transfusion. We present a series of three cases undergoing pediatric hemispherectomy, where a new algorithm was employed to manage coagulation. This new algorithm was mainly based on timely thrombelastogram analyses guided clotting factors supplement and continuous administration of tranexamic acid. In our cases, the amount of blood loss and subsequent allogeneic blood transfusion seemed to be less than literature reported. PMID:27555151

  7. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of liposomes containing phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin reduce amyloid-β levels in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Re, Francesca; Bereczki, Erika;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are two major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought that an equilibrium exists between Aβ in the brain and in the peripheral blood and thus...... or cardiolipin over 3weeks. This treatment reduced significantly the amount of Aβ in the plasma and the brain levels of Aβ were lighter affected. Nevertheless, this dosing regimen did modulate tau phosphorylation and glycogen synthase kinase 3 activities in the brain, suggesting that the targeting of circulating...... - although to a lesser extent - suggesting that targeting of circulating Aß may be therapeutically relevant of Alzheimer's disease....

  8. Maternal obesity reduces milk lipid production in lactating mice by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase and impairing fatty acid synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Saben

    Full Text Available Maternal metabolic and nutrient trafficking adaptations to lactation differ among lean and obese mice fed a high fat (HF diet. Obesity is thought to impair milk lipid production, in part, by decreasing trafficking of dietary and de novo synthesized lipids to the mammary gland. Here, we report that de novo lipogenesis regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in mammary glands of lactating HF-fed obese (HF-Ob mice. HF feeding decreased the total levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC, and this effect was exacerbated in obese mice. The relative levels of phosphorylated (inactive ACC, were elevated in the epithelium, and decreased in the adipose stroma, of mammary tissue from HF-Ob mice compared to those of HF-fed lean (HF-Ln mice. Mammary gland levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which catalyzes formation of inactive ACC, were also selectively elevated in mammary glands of HF-Ob relative to HF-Ln dams or to low fat fed dams. These responses correlated with evidence of increased lipid retention in mammary adipose, and decreased lipid levels in mammary epithelial cells, of HF-Ob dams. Collectively, our data suggests that maternal obesity impairs milk lipid production, in part, by disrupting the balance of de novo lipid synthesis in the epithelial and adipose stromal compartments of mammary tissue through processes that appear to be related to increased mammary gland AMPK activity, ACC inhibition, and decreased fatty acid synthesis.

  9. Single-Step Assembly of Multifunctional Poly(tannic acid)-Graphene Oxide Coating To Reduce Biofouling of Forward Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Hanaa M; ElMekawy, Ahmed; Barclay, Thomas G; Michelmore, Andrew; Zou, Linda; Saint, Christopher P; Ginic-Markovic, Milena

    2016-07-13

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have antibacterial properties that have been exploited as a biocidal agent used on desalination membrane surfaces in recent research. Nonetheless, improved strategies for efficient and stable attachment of GO nanosheets onto the membrane surface are still required for this idea to be commercially viable. To address this challenge, we adopted a novel, single-step surface modification approach using tannic acid cross-linked with polyethylene imine as a versatile platform to immobilize GO nanosheets to the surface of polyamide thin film composite forward osmosis (FO) membranes. An experimental design based on Taguchi's statistical method was applied to optimize the FO processing conditions in terms of water and reverse solute fluxes. Modified membranes were analyzed using water contact angle, adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence, total organic carbon, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ζ potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. These results show that membranes were modified with a nanoscale (biofouling by 33% due to its extraordinary, synergistic antibacterial properties (99.9%).

  10. Single-Step Assembly of Multifunctional Poly(tannic acid)-Graphene Oxide Coating To Reduce Biofouling of Forward Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Hanaa M; ElMekawy, Ahmed; Barclay, Thomas G; Michelmore, Andrew; Zou, Linda; Saint, Christopher P; Ginic-Markovic, Milena

    2016-07-13

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have antibacterial properties that have been exploited as a biocidal agent used on desalination membrane surfaces in recent research. Nonetheless, improved strategies for efficient and stable attachment of GO nanosheets onto the membrane surface are still required for this idea to be commercially viable. To address this challenge, we adopted a novel, single-step surface modification approach using tannic acid cross-linked with polyethylene imine as a versatile platform to immobilize GO nanosheets to the surface of polyamide thin film composite forward osmosis (FO) membranes. An experimental design based on Taguchi's statistical method was applied to optimize the FO processing conditions in terms of water and reverse solute fluxes. Modified membranes were analyzed using water contact angle, adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence, total organic carbon, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ζ potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. These results show that membranes were modified with a nanoscale (<10 nm), smooth, hydrophilic coating that, compared to pristine membranes, improved filtration and significantly mitigated biofouling by 33% due to its extraordinary, synergistic antibacterial properties (99.9%). PMID:27294568

  11. Screening and identification of cholesterol- reducing Lactic acid bacteria%降胆固醇乳酸菌的筛选及其鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建军; 张开屏; 张保军; 靳烨

    2011-01-01

    tuditudy on 19 Lactobacillus were studied in the experiments. The quantity of the Cholesterol-degrading in MRS-CHOL medium was used to analyze their cholesterol-reducing ability. The results showed that all strains could remove cholesterol from media, and the percentage of Cholesterol-degrading rate ranged from 3.84% to 42.28%. Among them, there were 2 strains exhibited the percentage of Cholesterol-degrading above 40%. Meanwhile, these 2 strains had high removal effectiveness. As a result, these 2 strains were screened for their excellent cholesterol-reducing ability.WE43-1-2 and WE57-1, according to their morphological, physiological and biochetnical properties, including chemical characteristics, were identified to Lactobacillus agilis and Lactobacillus casei subsp casei.%对19株乳杆菌进行体外实验,研究它们在MRS-CHOL培养基中对胆固醇的降解量,进而分析各菌株降胆固醇的能力.结果表明,所有试验菌株均有降解培养物中胆固醇的能力,去除率在3.84%~42.28%之间.其中有2株试验菌对培养物中胆固醇的降解率大于40%,这2株菌对胆固醇的脱除效力也较高.这2株菌WE43-1-2和WE57-1经形态学、生理生化反应以及糖类发酵试验被鉴定为敏捷乳杆菌(Lactobacillus agilis)和干酪乳杆菌干酪亚种(Lactobacillus casei subsp casei).

  12. Adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy is associated with reduced occurrence of symptoms suggestive of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia in Indian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Agrawal

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women.Cross-sectional data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06 was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother.In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456 of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87 to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88 among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms.Having a adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid

  13. Rho iso-alpha acids from hops inhibit the GSK-3/NF-κB pathway and reduce inflammatory markers associated with bone and cartilage degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Jeffrey S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rho iso-alpha acids (RIAA from hops have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. To understand the mechanisms, we evaluated the effect of RIAA in cell signaling pathways and inflammatory markers using various in vitro models. We also investigated their therapeutic effect in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Methods The LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were used to evaluate the effect of RIAA on the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways; phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK was assessed by western blotting and NF-κB binding by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Effect on the NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter assays in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. GSK-3α/β kinase activity was measured in cell-free assays. The inhibitory effect of RIAA on inflammatory markers was assessed by measuring nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, RANKL-mediated TRAP activity in transformed osteoclasts, and TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated MMP-13 expression in SW1353 cells. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis were fed with RIAA for 2 weeks. Symptoms of joint swelling, arthritic index and joint damage were assessed. Results RIAA selectively inhibited the NF-κB pathway while having no effect on ERK1/2, p38 and JNK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. RIAA also inhibited GSK-3α/β kinase activity and GSK-3β dependent phosphorylation of β-catenin in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, RIAA inhibited NF-κB-mediated inflammatory markers in various cell models, including nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, RANKL-mediated TRAP activity in transformed osteoclasts, and TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated MMP-13 expression in SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells. Finally, in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis, RIAA ameliorated joint damage as evidenced by significant reduction of the arthritis index and histology score; at 250 mg/kg-body weight, RIAA had efficacy similar to that of 20 mg

  14. 林下参片中总糖、还原糖及糖醛酸的含量测定%Determination of Total Sugar,Reducing Sugar and Uronic Acids in Linxiashen Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠竹; 李平亚; 张楠淇; 王振洲; 朱海林; 祁增; 郑炳真; 张浩; 孟研; 刘金平

    2016-01-01

    采用紫外分光光度法测定林下参片中总糖、还原糖及糖醛酸的含量,结果显示,其含量分别为66.35%、12.58%及1.19%。本研究为首次通过紫外分光光度法对林下参片中的糖类成分进行含量测定,为林下参片的科学评价提供了科学依据。%To determine the contents of carbohydrates in Linxiashen tablets .The total sugar ,reducing sugar and uronic acids in Linxiashen tablets were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry .The content of total sugar ,reducing sugar and uronic acids were 66.35% ,12.58% and 1.19% respectively .It is the first time to determine the contents of carbohydrates by ultraviolet spectrophotometry ,which provides a scientific basis for the development of Linxiashen tablets .

  15. Fumaric Acid Esters Do Not Reduce Inflammatory NF-κB/p65 Nuclear Translocation, ICAM-1 Expression and T-Cell Adhesiveness of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Haarmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl fumarate (DMF is approved for disease-modifying treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Animal experiments suggested that part of its therapeutic effect is due to a reduction of T-cell infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS by uncertain mechanisms. Here we evaluated whether DMF and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF modulate pro-inflammatory intracellular signaling and T-cell adhesiveness of nonimmortalized single donor human brain microvascular endothelial cells at low passages. Neither DMF nor MMF at concentrations of 10 or 50 µM blocked the IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65, whereas the higher concentration of DMF inhibited the nuclear entry of p65 in human umbilical vein endothelium cultured in parallel. DMF and MMF also did not alter the IL-1β-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK in brain endothelium. Furthermore, neither DMF nor MMF reduced the basal or IL-1β-inducible expression of ICAM-1. In accordance, both fumaric acid esters did not reduce the adhesion of activated Jurkat T cells to brain endothelium under basal or inflammatory conditions. Therefore, brain endothelial cells probably do not directly mediate a potential blocking effect of fumaric acid esters on the inflammatory infiltration of the CNS by T cells.

  16. Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, L N; Gajewski, B J; Colombo, J; Gibson, R A; Makrides, M; Carlson, S E

    2016-09-01

    The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups. In both trials, the model predicted DHA would significantly reduce the expected proportion of deliveries in the high risk group under the trial conditions of the parent studies. Among the next 300,000 births in Australia we estimated that 1112 ePTB (95% credible interval 51-2189) could be avoided by providing DHA. And in the USA we estimated that 106,030 ePTB (95% credible interval 6400 to 175,700) could be avoided with DHA.

  17. Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, L N; Gajewski, B J; Colombo, J; Gibson, R A; Makrides, M; Carlson, S E

    2016-09-01

    The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups. In both trials, the model predicted DHA would significantly reduce the expected proportion of deliveries in the high risk group under the trial conditions of the parent studies. Among the next 300,000 births in Australia we estimated that 1112 ePTB (95% credible interval 51-2189) could be avoided by providing DHA. And in the USA we estimated that 106,030 ePTB (95% credible interval 6400 to 175,700) could be avoided with DHA. PMID:27637340

  18. Activation of PPARδ up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a β-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPARδ), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPARδ mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPARδ up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPARδ plays an important role in protecting pancreatic β-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  19. Activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jun; Jiang, Li; Lue, Qingguo; Ke, Linqiu [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tong, Nanwei, E-mail: buddyjun@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a {beta}-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPAR{delta}), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPAR{delta} mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPAR{delta} plays an important role in protecting pancreatic {beta}-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  20. iDPF-PseRAAAC: A Web-Server for Identifying the Defensin Peptide Family and Subfamily Using Pseudo Reduced Amino Acid Alphabet Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yongchun; Lv, Yang; Wei, Zhuying; Yang, Lei; Li, Guangpeng; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    Defensins as one of the most abundant classes of antimicrobial peptides are an essential part of the innate immunity that has evolved in most living organisms from lower organisms to humans. To identify specific defensins as interesting antifungal leads, in this study, we constructed a more rigorous benchmark dataset and the iDPF-PseRAAAC server was developed to predict the defensin family and subfamily. Using reduced dipeptide compositions were used, the overall accuracy of proposed method increased to 95.10% for the defensin family, and 98.39% for the vertebrate subfamily, which is higher than the accuracy from other methods. The jackknife test shows that more than 4% improvement was obtained comparing with the previous method. A free online server was further established for the convenience of most experimental scientists at http://wlxy.imu.edu.cn/college/biostation/fuwu/iDPF-PseRAAAC/index.asp. A friendly guide is provided to describe how to use the web server. We anticipate that iDPF-PseRAAAC may become a useful high-throughput tool for both basic research and drug design. PMID:26713618

  1. iDPF-PseRAAAC: A Web-Server for Identifying the Defensin Peptide Family and Subfamily Using Pseudo Reduced Amino Acid Alphabet Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Zuo

    Full Text Available Defensins as one of the most abundant classes of antimicrobial peptides are an essential part of the innate immunity that has evolved in most living organisms from lower organisms to humans. To identify specific defensins as interesting antifungal leads, in this study, we constructed a more rigorous benchmark dataset and the iDPF-PseRAAAC server was developed to predict the defensin family and subfamily. Using reduced dipeptide compositions were used, the overall accuracy of proposed method increased to 95.10% for the defensin family, and 98.39% for the vertebrate subfamily, which is higher than the accuracy from other methods. The jackknife test shows that more than 4% improvement was obtained comparing with the previous method. A free online server was further established for the convenience of most experimental scientists at http://wlxy.imu.edu.cn/college/biostation/fuwu/iDPF-PseRAAAC/index.asp. A friendly guide is provided to describe how to use the web server. We anticipate that iDPF-PseRAAAC may become a useful high-throughput tool for both basic research and drug design.

  2. 柠檬酸钠与聚羧酸减水剂复配性能研究%Study on properties of complexes of polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent and sodium citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 蔡其全; 陈军超; 李薇; 宋明健; 张建兵; 唐小刚

    2013-01-01

    This paper used the sodium citrate and polycarboxylate acid for compound research,investigated the influence of complex products of sodium citrate in different contents on fluidity of cement paste,setting time and compressive strength of mortar and so on,and put forward the optimal compound recipe of polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent and sodium citrate.The experiment proved that when the mixing amount of polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent was 0.13%,considering the comprehensive function of sodium citrate of mortar retarding effect,auxiliary plasticizing effect and contribution on cement mortar strength,the appropriate quantity of sodium citrate was 0.02%~0.03%.%采用柠檬酸钠与聚羧酸减水剂进行复配,考察柠檬酸钠在不同掺量条件下的复配产品对水泥净浆流动度、凝结时间和砂浆抗压强度等的影响,提出了聚羧酸减水剂与柠檬酸钠复配的优化配方.试验结果表明,在聚羧酸减水剂掺量0.13%条件下,从综合发挥柠檬酸钠对砂浆的缓凝作用、辅助塑化效果以及对砂浆强度贡献角度考虑,柠檬酸钠的适宜掺量为0.02%~0.03%.

  3. Tranexamic Acid and Reduced Glutathione Clinical Observation of Treating Melasma%氨甲环酸联合还原型谷胱甘肽治疗黄褐斑的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆海山; 郭剑; 陈智勇; 赵启明; 甘精兵; 周蓉蓉; 吴近芳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]观察氧甲环酸联合还原型谷胱甘肽治疗黄褐斑的临床疗效.[方法] 152例黄褐斑患者使用氧甲环酸联合还原型谷胱甘肽口服治疗.观察服药后的临床效果、疗效出现时间、不良反应等.[结果]治疗时间2~6个月,平均3.9个月.治疗后随访3个月,92.11%的患者色斑减轻;服药6个月后痊愈者13.16%、无效者7.89%;停药后色素重新加深及复发者12例,出现胃肠道反应5例,出现月经量减少4例,出现口腔溃疡1例,其余未发现其他明显的不良反应.[结论]氨甲环酸联合还原型谷胱甘肽治疗黄褐斑有较好效果,值得临床应用借鉴.%[Objective] Observation of tranexamic acid and reduced glutathione treatment of melasma the clinical efficacy. [Methods] One hundredand fifty-two patients with melasma were treated with oral administrationof tranexamic acid and reduced glutathione. A retrospective study was madeon the therapeutic effect and Side effects. [Results] The treatment period was 2-6 months (mean 3.9 months). The patients were followed for 3 monthsafter treatment. The total improvement rate was 92.11%. After 6 months'treatment , the percentages of patients who were curetl.or Invalided were13.16% and 7.89% respectively. 12 patients had recurrences. There were no obvious side effects of the treatment except 5 cases of gastrointestinalreaction,4 cases of reduced menstrual, 1 case of oral ulcers . [Conclusion] Tranexamic acid and reduced glutathione treatment of nw-lasma has goodeffect, worthy of clinical application and reference.

  4. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  5. Pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey: perspective on the reduced capacity of dogs to excrete this organic acid relative to the rat, monkey, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchalk, C; Nolan, R J

    1997-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) were measured in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey and compared with the kinetics observed in rats and humans. In addition, studies were conducted in anesthetized dogs to better understand the mechanism by which [14C]triclopyr is eliminated in this species. Triclopyr was dissolved in distilled water, and administered as a single oral dose of 0.5, 5, or 20 mg/kg to three male dogs. A single male rhesus monkey was given an intravenous dose of 30 mg [14C]triclopyr/kg body wt on two occasions separated by 10 days. Anesthetized male dogs, were implanted with venous, arterial, and urethral catheters and given increasing amounts of triclopyr to produce plasma triclopyr levels ranging from 0.3 to 27 microg eq/mL. In the monkey, triclopyr was rapidly eliminated from the plasma (t1/2 = 6.3 hr) with >95% of the urinary 14C activity excreted within 24 hr postdosing. In the dog, orally administered triclopyr was rapidly and effectively absorbed at every dose level with virtually all of it excreted in the urine by 72 hr postdosing. However, the kinetics were slightly nonlinear, and the fraction of the dose excreted in the urine decreased with increasing dose. Several nonlinear processes may collectively contribute to the modest nonlinear pharmacokinetics in the dog. Plasma protein binding of triclopyr in the dog ranged from 94 to 99%, was nonlinear, and was an important determinant in the renal clearance of triclopyr. The nonlinear plasma protein binding indicates that glomerular filtration became disproportionately more important as plasma triclopyr concentration increased. There was good evidence for a high-affinity low-capacity active-secretory process that was saturated by low plasma triclopyr concentrations. As plasma triclopyr concentrations increased, tubular reabsorption begins to exceed secretion, resulting in decreased renal clearance. The volume of distribution, normalized for body weight

  6. 甲基萘磺酸系高效减水剂的合成探讨%Study on the Synthesis of Super Water Reducing Agent of the Series of Mrthylol Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔子祥; 赵红; 李萍

    2009-01-01

    以甲基萘油为原料,经过磺化、水解、缩合、中和四步反应合成高减水率的甲基萘磺酸系减水剂,并对合成中影响高效减水剂性能的甲醛滴加温度、甲醛滴加时间、缩合温度、缩合时间、缩合加水量等因素做了进一步探讨.%The series of methylnaphthalene sulfonic acid were synthesized from methylnaphthalene. And various kinds of factors of influencing the performance of the water reducing agent had been discussed ulteriorly about composition. The factors included the temperature of formaldehhyde added dropwise and condensation, the time of formaldehhyde added dropwise and condensation, the added-water quantity of condensation and so on.

  7. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng, E-mail: fgao1981@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zheng, Delun [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −6} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10{sup −7} M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor.

  8. 硫酸盐还原菌在酸性废水中的运用及发展%The Use of and Development of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria in Acidic Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳晓

    2013-01-01

      文章通过硫酸盐还原菌对含硫酸盐的酸性废水在厌氧条件下,以碳源为电子供体将 SO42-还原到 S2-,废水中重金属离子生成硫化物沉淀得以去除。文章论述了 SRB 处理矿山酸性废水的机理、SRB 检测技术、废水处理工艺,以及作为实用技术处理废水的发展潜力。%The study of sulfate-reducing bacteria on the acidic wastewater containing sulfate under anaerobic conditions, carbon source as an electron donor SO42- reduction to S2-, so the heavy metal ions in wastewater generated sulfide precipitation able to be removed. The paper discussed the SRB mechanism to deal with acid mine drainage, SRB detection technology, wastewater treatment process, as well as a practical technology for waste water treatment development potential.

  9. Differential effects of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of Alentejana purebred and Large White × Landrace × Pietrain crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Costa, Ana S H; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2013-07-28

    The present study assessed the effect of pig genotype (fatty v. lean) and dietary protein and lysine (Lys) levels (normal v. reduced) on intramuscular fat (IMF) content, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) deposition, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism. The experiment was conducted on sixty intact male pigs (thirty Alentejana purebred and thirty Large White × Landrace × Pietrain crossbred), from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Animals were divided into three groups fed with the following diets: control diet equilibrated for Lys (17·5 % crude protein (CP) and 0·7 % Lys), reduced protein diet (RPD) equilibrated for Lys (13·2 % CP and 0·6 % Lys) and RPD not equilibrated for Lys (13·1 % CP and 0·4 % Lys). It was shown that the RPD increased fat deposition in the longissimus lumborum muscle in the lean but not in the fatty pig genotype. It is strongly suggested that the effect of RPD on the longissimus lumborum muscle of crossbred pigs is mediated via Lys restriction. The increase in IMF content under the RPD was accompanied by increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and PPARG mRNA levels. RPD did not alter backfat thickness, but increased the total fatty acid content in both lean and fatty pig genotype. The higher amount of SAT in fatty pigs, when compared with the lean ones, was associated with the higher expression levels of ACACA, CEBPA, FASN and SCD genes. Taken together, the data indicate that the mechanisms regulating fat deposition in pigs are genotype and tissue specific, and are associated with the expression regulation of the key lipogenic genes. PMID:23286604

  10. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  11. Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Activation of TRR/TRX System Increase the Level of Indole-3-acetic Acid, Gibberellin A3 and trans-Zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin (TRX system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin (TRX increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellin A3 (GA3 and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB. In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  12. 均苯三甲酸合铜选择性降低卷烟主流烟气中的HCN%Selectively Reducing HCN in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke with Copper-1, 3, 5-benzenetricarboxylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    者为; 廖头根; 王明锋; 宫玉鹏; 朱保昆

    2014-01-01

    To selectively reduce the delivery of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in mainstream cigarette smoke, a porous material with metal-organic framework (MOF), copper-1, 3, 5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (Ⅱ) (Cu-BTC), was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The crystal structure, pore structure and thermal stability of the prepared material were characterized by X-Ray powder diffraction, BET surface area analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. The material was added into cigarette filter to test its harm reducing effect. The results showed that: 1) Cu-BTC was a typical MOF porous material with excellent thermal stability under 270 ℃. 2) Under the conditions of a simulated device for evaluating the harm reducing effects of cigarette additives, the reduction rate of HCN in mainstream cigarette smoke by Cu-BTC reached 51.9%; in a real cigarette experiment, the selective reduction rate of HCN by Cu-BTC was 21.83%, while the deliveries of routine components in cigarette smoke were basically similar to the control.%为选择性降低卷烟主流烟气中氢氰酸(H C N)的释放量,采用水热合成法制备了金属有机骨架(MOFs)多孔材料均苯三甲酸合铜(Ⅱ)(Cu-BTC),运用X射线粉末衍射(XPRD)、比表面积孔径分析(B E T)、热重分析(T G)等技术对材料的晶体结构、孔结构参数及热稳定性进行了表征,并将材料添加于卷烟滤嘴中进行了烟气减害测试。结果表明:①Cu-BTC是一种典型的MOFs多孔材料,在270℃以下具有良好的热稳定性。②在卷烟添加剂减害性能模拟评价条件下,Cu-BTC对卷烟主流烟气中HCN的降低效果可达51.9%;在卷烟应用试验中,Cu-BTC对卷烟主流烟气中HCN的选择性降低率为21.83%,而常规烟气成分释放量与对照卷烟基本一致。

  13. Study on Friction-reducing and Anti-wear Performances of Lauric Acid Random Copolyether Aqueous Solutions%月桂酸无规共聚醚水溶液减摩抗磨性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙跃涛; 张朝辉; 刘思思

    2011-01-01

    配制不同质量分数的月桂酸无规共聚醚(Lauric acid random copolyether,LPE)水溶液,使用摩擦磨损试验仪进行钢/铝和钢/钢摩擦副下的减摩抗磨性能试验.分别研究质量分数、载荷和试样表面粗糙度对LPE水溶液减摩抗磨性能的影响,并用三维共聚焦表面形貌仪和能量色散光谱仪分析试样磨痕的表面形貌变化.结果表明,在质量分数为0.5%的LPE水溶液润滑下,其减摩幅度相比纯水润滑已超过65%,LPE水溶液的减摩性能随着质量分数和载荷的增加而提高,随着试样表面粗糙度的改善也得到相应提高.试样磨痕浅而工整,抗磨性能良好.分析原因是LPE水溶液中的极性基团吸附在金属表面而形成了致密的化学吸附膜或物理吸附膜,从而隔离金属摩擦表面而起到了有效的减摩抗磨效果,其中的极性分子具有饱和吸附量,低浓度下就表现出了较好的减摩抗磨性能,获得良好的工业应用.%Laurie acid random copolyether (LPE) aqueou solutions with different mass fraction are prepared. Friction-reducing and anti-wear performances of LPE aqueous solutions are tested on the friction and wear tester. Tribo pairs of steel/aluminum and steel/steel are selected and the influences of mass fraction, load, and specimen surface roughness are discussed. The surface morphology of samples are measured by the phase shift MicroXAM-3D and the energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that friction-reducing capability of 0.5% LPE aqueous solutions decrease up to 65% or more, being compared to water. As the mass fraction, load and specimen surface roughness increasing, friction-reducing performances get better. The specimen wear scars are shallow and uniform. The phenomenon indicates that polarity adsorption groups in LPE aqueous solutions forming thick chemical adsorbed film and physical adsorbed film on the metal surfaces. The films have better friction-reducing and anti-wear performances

  14. 氨甲环酸用于全膝关节置换降低失血量的有效性及安全性%Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in total knee arthroplasty:effectiveness and safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万军; 朱绍灵; 刘显东; 唐承杰; 郑金文; 陈星宇; 刘颖; 肖鹏

    2015-01-01

    背景:氨甲环酸是一种人工合成的抗纤维蛋白溶解的药物,可以经静脉有效的控制全膝关节置换后失血。目的:观察氨甲环酸对初次行单侧全膝关节置换患者置换后失血的有效性及安全性。方法:选取2014至2015年在四川省骨科医院下肢科行单侧全膝关节置换的100例患者。以使用氨甲环酸与否分为试验组和对照组,各50例。试验组患者在全膝关节置换前10 min静脉注射氨甲环酸1 g,而对照组不给予氨甲环酸。结果与结论:试验组患者置换后围手术期总失血量、置换后24 h引流量、输血量明显少于对照组(P <0.05);试验组与对照组术中出血量、输血人数差异无显著性意义。两组患者患者置换前血红蛋白水平差异无显著性意义,而置换后血红蛋白水平均下降,且试验组患者置换后血红蛋白水平均明显高于对照组。置换后24 h,两组患者凝血功能差异无显著性意义。置换后6 d,2组患者双下肢静脉彩色多普勒超声检查均未见深静脉血栓。提示初次单侧全膝关节置换前静脉给予氨甲环酸能明显减少围手术期失血量及输血量,降低输血风险及输血费用,利于术后功能恢复,且不增加下肢深静脉血栓的风险。%BACKGROUND:Tranexamic acid is a synthetic anti-fibrinolytic drug, and can effectively control blood loss after total knee arthroplasty through vein. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss after primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. METHODS:From 2014 to 2015, 100 patients from the Department of Lower Limb, Sichuan Orthopaedic Hospital underwent primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty, and randomly divided into test group which used tranexamic acid and control group which used tranexamic acid, with 50 cases in each group. 1 g tranexamic acid was infused into the vein at 10 minutes before total knee arthroplasty

  15. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  16. Auricular Electroacupuncture Reduced Inflammation-Related Epilepsy Accompanied by Altered TRPA1, pPKCα, pPKCε, and pERk1/2 Signaling Pathways in Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation is often considered to play a crucial role in epilepsy by affecting iron status and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the curative effect of auricular acupuncture and somatic acupuncture on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy in rats. Methods. We established an epileptic seizure model in rats by KA (12 mg, ip. The 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA was applied at auricular and applied at Zusanli and Shangjuxu (ST36-ST37 acupoints for 20 min for 3 days/week for 6 weeks beginning on the day following the KA injection. Results. The electrophysiological results indicated that neuron overexcitation occurred in the KA-treated rats. This phenomenon could be reversed among either the auricular EA or ST36-ST37 EA treatment, but not in the sham-control rats. The Western blot results revealed that TRPA1, but not TRPV4, was upregulated by injecting KA and could be attenuated by administering auricular or ST36-ST37 EA, but not in the sham group. In addition, potentiation of TRPA1 was accompanied by increased PKCα and reduced PKCε. Furthermore, pERK1/2, which is indicated in inflammation, was also increased by KA. Furthermore, the aforementioned mechanisms could be reversed by administering auricular EA and could be partially reversed by ST36-ST37 EA. Conclusions. These results indicate a novel mechanism for treating inflammation-associated epilepsy and can be translated into clinical therapy.

  17. Gymnaster koraiensis and its major components, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and gymnasterkoreayne B, reduce oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or acetaminophen in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Jho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of Gymnaster koraiensisagainst oxidative stress-induced hepatic cell damage. We usedtwo different cytotoxicity models, i.e., the administration oftert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP and acetaminophen, in HepG2cells to evaluate the protective effects of G. koraiensis. The ethylacetate (EA fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound,3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCQA, exerted protective effectsin the t-BHP-induced liver cytotoxicity model. The EA fractionand DCQA ameliorated t-BHP-induced reductions in GSHlevels and exhibited free radical scavenging activity. The EAfraction and DCQA also significantly reduced t-BHP-inducedDNA damage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the hexane fractionof G. koraiensis and its major compound, gymnasterkoreayne B(GKB, exerted strong hepatoprotection in the acetaminopheninducedcytotoxicity model. CYP 3A4 enzyme activity wasstrongly inhibited by the extract, hexane fraction, and GKB. Thehexane fraction and GKB ameliorated acetaminophen-inducedreductions in GSH levels and protected against cell death. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 513-518

  18. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  19. PRD125, a potent and selective inhibitor of sterol O-acyltransferase 2 markedly reduces hepatic cholesteryl ester accumulation and improves liver function in lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adam M; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Posey, Kenneth S; Ohshiro, Taichi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Rudel, Lawrence L; Turley, Stephen D

    2015-11-01

    In most organs, the bulk of cholesterol is unesterified, although nearly all possess a varying capability of esterifying cholesterol through the action of either sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) 1 or, in the case of hepatocytes and enterocytes, SOAT2. Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatomegaly and a massive increase in tissue EC levels are hallmark features of both disorders. While these conditions can be corrected with enzyme replacement therapy, the question arose as to whether pharmacological inhibition of SOAT2 might reduce tissue EC accretion in CESD. When weaned at 21 days, Lal(-/-) mice, of either gender, had a whole liver cholesterol content that was 12- to 13-fold more than that of matching Lal(+/+) littermates (23 versus 1.8 mg, respectively). In Lal(-/-) males given the selective SOAT2 inhibitor PRD125 1,11-O-o-methylbenzylidene-7-O-p-cyanobenzoyl-1,7,11-trideacetylpyripyropene A in their diet (∼10 mg/day per kg body weight) from 21 to 53 days, whole liver cholesterol content was 48.6 versus 153.7 mg in untreated 53-day-old Lal(-/-) mice. This difference reflected a 59% reduction in hepatic EC concentration (mg/g), combined with a 28% fall in liver mass. The treated mice also showed a 63% reduction in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, in parallel with decisive falls in hepatic mRNA expression levels for multiple proteins that reflect macrophage presence and inflammation. These data implicate SOAT2 as a potential target in CESD management. PMID:26283692

  20. The nuclear factor-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid-induced immune response in pregnant rats and the behavioral defects of their adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xueqin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have indicated that maternal infection during pregnancy may lead to a higher incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. It is assumed that the maternal infection increases the immune response, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Maternal polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (PolyI:C treatment induces a wide range of characteristics in the offspring mimicking some schizophrenia symptoms in humans. These observations are consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Methods We examined whether suppression of the maternal immune response could prevent neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring. PolyI:C or saline was administered to early pregnant rats to mimic maternal infection, and the maternal immune response represented by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was used to suppress the maternal immune response. Neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring were examined by prepulse inhibition (PPI, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Results PolyI:C administration to early pregnant rats led to elevated serum cytokine levels as shown by massive increases in serum TNF-α and IL-10 levels. The adult offspring showed defects in prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance and active avoidance tests. PDTC intervention in early pregnant rats suppressed cytokine increases and reduced the severity of neurodevelopmental defects in adult offspring. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PDTC can suppress the maternal immune response induced by PolyI:C and partially prevent neurodevelopmental disorders of adult offspring.

  1. Mechanistic studies of the reactions of the reduced vitamin B12 derivatives with the HNO donor Piloty's acid: further evidence for oxidation of cob(I)alamin by (H)NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Harishchandra; Brasch, Nicola E

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence for the existence of HNO in biological systems. Compared with NO (˙NO), much less is known about the chemical and biochemical reactivity of HNO. Kinetic and mechanistic studies have been carried out on the reaction between the vitamin B12-derived radical complex cob(II)alamin (Cbl(II)˙, Cbl(II)) with the widely used HNO donor Piloty's acid (PA). A stoichiometry of 1 : 2 Cbl(II) : PA was obtained and PA decomposition to HNO and benzenesulfinate (C6H5SO2(-)) is the rate-determining step. No evidence was found for nitrite (Griess assay), ammonia (Nessler's test) or NH2OH (indooxine test) in the product solution, and it is likely that HNO is instead reduced to N2. A mechanism is proposed in which reduction of Cbl(II) by (H)NO results in formation of cob(I)alamin (Cbl(I)(-)) and ˙NO. The Cbl(I)(-) intermediate is subsequently oxidized back to Cbl(II) by a second (H)NO molecule, and Cbl(II) reacts rapidly with ˙NO to form nitroxylcobalamin (NOCbl). Separate studies on the reaction between Cbl(I)(-) and PA shows that this system involves an additional step in which Cbl(I)(-) is first oxidized by (H)NO to Cbl(II), which reacts further with (H)NO to form NOCbl, with an overall stoichiometry of 1 : 3 Cbl(I)(-) : PA. Experiments in the presence of nitrite for both systems support the involvement of a Cbl(I)(-) intermediate in the Cbl(II)/PA reaction. These systems provide the second example of oxidation of cob(I)alamin by (H)NO. PMID:26618754

  2. The oral immunogenicity of BioProtein, a bacterial single-cell protein, is affected by its particulate nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Larsen, L.C.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    -culture homogenate induced immunoglobulin A in saliva but there was no systemic response. The antibodies from BP-fed mice cross-reacted with BP-culture homogenate revealing the presence of the same antigenic components in the two products despite the different oral immunogenicity. Thus, ingestion of BP induces...... a persistent mucosal and systemic immune response of which the systemic response can be avoided by ingesting a BP preparation free of whole cells. This indicates the importance of the non-particulate constitution of single-cell protein products intended for human or animal consumption....

  3. Bioprotein til mink i vækst - indflydelse på protein- og energiomsætning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein;

    2007-01-01

    farvetypen Scanbrown. Dyrene fik tildelt en af de fire forsøgsdiæter, hvor den ene diæt var en kontroldiæt (M1) uden BP. I de øvrige diæter blev stigende mængder af fiskemel udskiftet med BP således at 20% (2), 40% (M3) og 60% (M4) af den fordøjelige nitrogen kom fra BP. I løbet af minkenes vækstperiode blev...... der udført 5 balance- og respirationsforsøg. Dyrene var henholdsvis i deres 10. (periode 1), 15. (periode 2), 18. (periode 3), 24. (periode 4) og 29. (periode 5) leveuge ved forsøgets start. Indtaget af foder var sisgnifikant lavere for M4 end for de øvrige diæter. Den tilsyneladende fordøjelighed af...

  4. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  5. A defective ABC transporter of the MRP family, responsible for the bean lpa1 mutation, affects the regulation of the phytic acid pathway, reduces seed myo-inositol and alters ABA sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Panzeri, D; Cassani, E; Doria, E; Tagliabue, G; Forti, L; Campion, B; Bollini, R; Brearley, CA; Pilu, R; Nielsen, E.; Sparvoli, F

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified the lpa1 (low phytic acid) 280-10 line that carries a mutation conferring a 90% reduction in phytic acid (InsP6) content. In contrast to other lpa mutants, lpa1(280-10) does not display negative pleiotropic effects. In the present paper, we have identified the mutated gene and analysed its impact on the phytic acid pathway. Here, we mapped the lpa1(280-10) mutation by bulk analysis on a segregating F2 population, an then, by comparison with the soybean genome, we iden...

  6. 冻干对红阳猕猴桃果浆还原型抗坏血酸的影响%Effects of Freeze-drying Conditions on Reduced Ascorbic Acid of Hongyang Kiwifruit Pulps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓琴; 陈彦; 李竞晋; 王林琳; 李明章

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pre-freezing methods,relative ratio surface(RRS) and the positions of container loading Hongyang Kiwifruit pulps in freezing chamber on the preservation rate of reduced ascorbic acid (RAA) during the freeze-drying processing were studied by orthogonal experimerits.The results showed that the pre-freezing methods and the RRS affected the preservation rate of RAA significandy in the freeze-drying process(p0.05).The preservation rate of RAA of Hongyang Kiwifruit pulps was more than 98% under the optimum freeze-drying conditions.The comparison of the lyophilized products and the hot-air drying products was also conducted in view of their sensory properties and physical-chemical indexes.Tne physical-chemical indexes (i.e.RAA preservation rate) and sensory properties of lyophilized Hongyang Kiwifruit pupls were superior to that of hot-air drying products.%以还原型抗坏血酸保存率为指标,采用正交试验方法研究了冻干中红阳(Hongyang)猕猴桃果浆料的预冻方式、相对比表面积、放置位置因素等的影响.结果表明,在冻干加工处理中,果浆料的预冻方式、相对比表面积因素等冻干工艺参数对红阳猕猴桃果浆还原型抗坏血酸的保存率影响极显著(p0.05),在优化冻干工艺条件下获得的红阳猕猴桃果浆干制品的还原型抗坏血酸保存率超过98%.此外,从理化指标(主要为抗坏血酸的保存率)与感官指标方面比较了冻干制品与热风干燥制品的差异,红阳猕猴桃果浆冻干加工制品的指标值均大大优于热风干制加工制品的指标值.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides ( ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  8. Br离子液体中微波辐射加热促进稻草秸秆酸水解制备还原糖%Microwave irradiation promoting acid hydrolysis of straw pole into reducing sugar in ionic liquid Br

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明妮; 柴连周; 毕先钧

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the enhancement of acid hydrolysis process of plant fiber in [Bmim]Br ionic liquid medium by the microwave irradiation heating, the microwave irradiation promoting acid hydrolysis of straw pole and preparation the reducing sugar were determined with the [Bmim]Br ionic liquid as reactive medium in this paper.The influences of ionic liquid volume, microwave power, irradiation time, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature on yield of reducing sugar with acid hydrolysis of straw pole were mainly tested.The results indicated that the best condition of acid hydrolysis of straw pole into reducing sugar in microwave irradiating was 10.0% H2SO430.0 mL, [Bmim]Br 10.0 mL,reactive temperature 85℃, irradiation time 45 min, microwave power 500 W, and the yield ratio of reducing sugar reached 22.94% at the best condition, but the yield ratio of reducing sugar at the conventional acid hydrolysis was only 14.50%.It is clear that the yield ratio of reducing sugar in the straw pole by microwave irradiation promoting acid hydrolysis was higher than the yield ratio of reducing sugar by the conventional acid hydrolysis.So the microwave radiation could promote acid hydrolysis of plant fiber and significantly shorten the time of saccharification and raise the yield ratio of reducing sugar in the ionic liquid medium.%为了探讨微波辐射及离子液体对酸催化植物纤维素水解的促进作用, 以稻草秸秆为原料,在[Bmim]Br离子液体介质中,用微波辐射加热促进纤维素的酸水解,并对水解产物中的还原糖进行了测定.着重考察了微波辐射功率、微波辐射时间、硫酸浓度、反应温度等因素对还原糖收率的影响.结果表明,在[Bmim]Br离子液体介质中,用微波辐射加热促进稻草酸水解制备还原糖的最佳条件是:30.0 mL质量分数为10.0%的硫酸、[Bmim]Br10.0 mL、微波辐射温度85℃、微波辐射时间45 min、微波辐射功率500 w,在此条件

  9. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  10. Biological treatment of acid mine water: selection of a biomass population enriched in sulphate-reducing bacteria; Tratamiento biologico de aguas acidas de mineria: seleccion de una poblacion bacteriana enriquecida en bacterias sulfatoreductoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel Villagran, F. J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the biological sulphate reduction. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the metal mining industry. This wastewater is formed when sulphide ores undergo chemical and biological oxidation processes and is characterized by low pH-values and high levels of sulphate and metals. The effect of stimuling bacteria sulphate reduction in such systems in order to improve water quality was examined in a laboratory scale experiment, in 250 mL, magnetically stirred, batch, anaerobic reactors, to 25 degree centigree. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  12. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  13. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  14. Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss in Complex Posterior Lumbar Surgery%氨甲环酸对减少复杂腰椎后路手术围手术期出血的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石厚银; 江锋; 谢显平; 马川; 胡旭光

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid on blood loss associated with complex posterior lumbar surgery. Methods 238 patients who received complex posterior lumbar surgery,from June 2013 to December 2015,were retrospectively analyzed. 123 patients were received tranexamic acid before incision in treatment group. 115 patients were not received tranexamic acid during perioperative period in the control group. Intraoperative estimated blood loss,postoperative drainage volume,amount of blood transfusion,hemoglobin and complications were compared. Results The average intraoperative estimated blood loss was significant difference between the groups[TXA group(523±153)ml vs. control group(785±188) ml,P=0.026]. The average postoperative drainage volume was significant difference too,between the groups[TXA group(265±84)ml vs. control group(381±105)ml,P=0.031]. The amount of blood transfusion was no statistical different between groups[TXA group(278±53)ml vs. control group(335±71)ml,P=0.187]. There was insignificantly different in operative time. Deep vein thrombosis and other adverse effects did not discover in both groups. Conclusion Tranexmaic acid is safe and effective in complex posterior lumbar surgery.%目的:观察氨甲环酸减少复杂腰椎后路手术围手术期出血的疗效与安全性。方法回顾2013年6月~2015年12月238例行复杂腰椎后路手术患者,其中氨甲环酸组123例,对照组115例。比较氨甲环酸组与对照组术中出血量,术后引流量,输血量,血红蛋白及深静脉血栓等。结果术中出血量:氨甲环酸组(523±153)ml,对照组(785±188)ml,差异有统计学意义(P=0.026);术后引流量:氨甲环酸组(265±84) ml,对照组(381±105)ml,差异有统计学意义(P=0.031);输血量:氨甲环酸组(278±53)ml,对照组(335±71)ml,差异无统计学意义(P=0.187);两组均未见深静脉血栓、肾功能

  15. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  16. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. The present review includes updated searches of randomised trials on tranexamic acid versus placebo, cimetidine or lansoprazole....

  17. 分光光度法测定生物质水解液中糠醛、酸溶木质素、还原糖的含量%FURFURAL, ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN AND REDUCING SUGAR CONTENT IN BIOMASS HYDROLYSATE BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绍晖; 宋勇; 孙培勤; 陈俊武

    2013-01-01

    使用紫外可见分光光度法测定糠醛、酸溶木质素、还原糖浓度,通过选择合适的波长、空白和测定顺序,消除各组分之间的相互干扰.优化的测定方法为:首先用双波长法测定糠醛和酸溶木质素浓度,再在530nm处测定酸水解液与DNS的吸光值扣除糠醛与DNS的吸光值即为还原糖与DNS的吸光值.可简便快速准确测定生物质水解液中糠醛、酸溶木质素、还原糖浓度.%The concentrations of furfural, acid-soluble lignin and reducing sugar were detected using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The interaction between the components was eliminated by selecting the appropriate wavelength, the blank and detection order. The optimum detection method was as follows: first, detecting the concentration of furfural and acid-soluble lignin using dual-wavelength method; then, detecting the absorbance of acid hydrolysate and DNS at 530 nm, the exact absorbance of sugar and DNS was obtained by deducting absorbance of furfural and DNS. The concentration of the furfural, acid-soluble lignin, reducing sugar in woody biomass hydrolyzed solution can be accurately determined by this method.

  18. Experimental Study on the Inhibition of the Growth and Reducing Acid Production of Streptococcus Mutans with Green Tea Extracts EGCG%绿茶提取物EGCG抑制致龋菌变形链球菌生长、产酸的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of green tea extracts Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on inhibiting the growth and reducing acid production of Streptococcus mutans ,and to provide evidence for the pre-vention of den tal caries .Methods The inhibition zone was used to observe the effects of EGCG on growth of Streptococcus mutans and the changes of acid producing capacity of Streptococcus mutans .Results EGCG could inhibit the growth and reduce the acid production of Streptococcus mutans significantly .The minimum in-hibitory concentrations was 6.25 mg/L.With the increase of drug concentration , the diameter of the inhibition zone increased .But the changes of pH was reduced .Conclusion EGCG may be a potential antibacterial and anticaries medicine .%目的:初步探讨绿茶提取物表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯( EGCG)对变形链球菌生长、产酸的抑制作用,为龋病的防治提供一定的依据。方法采用抑菌环实验观察EGCG对变形链球菌生长的影响,检测其对变形链球菌产酸能力的影响。结果EGCG对变形链球菌生长、产酸有显著的抑制作用,最低抑菌浓度为6.25 mg/L,且随着药物浓度的增加,抑菌圈直径越大,pH值变化越小。结论EGCG是一种潜在的天然抗菌、防龋药物。

  19. Oxidized Amino Acid Residues in the Vicinity of QA and PheoD1 of the Photosystem II Reaction Center: Putative Generation Sites of Reducing-Side Reactive Oxygen Species

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Laurie K.; Sallans, Larry; Limbach, Patrick A.; Terry M Bricker

    2013-01-01

    Under a variety of stress conditions, Photosystem II produces reactive oxygen species on both the reducing and oxidizing sides of the photosystem. A number of different sites including the Mn4O5Ca cluster, P680, PheoD1, QA, QB and cytochrome b559 have been hypothesized to produce reactive oxygen species in the photosystem. In this communication using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry we have identified several residues on the D1 and D2 proteins from spinach which are...

  20. 抗坏血酸还原亚碲酸钠水相合成CdTe量子点%Aqueous Synthesis of CdTe Quantum Dots via Ascorbic Acid Reducing Sodium Tellurite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宪; 于梅花; 张惠萍; 王益林

    2015-01-01

    Cd-SCH2 COO- complex was formed under basic condition, then the ascorbic acid reacted with Na2 TeO3 to form Te2- ions that combined with Cd-SCH2 COO- complex to give CdTe nucleus. With the CdTe nucleus growing under refluxing, CdTe quantum dots( QDs) with different emission colors were formed at last. The influence of experimental conditions, including refluxing time, thioglycolic acid to cadmium molar ratio and sodium tellurite to cadmium molar ratio, on the luminescent properties of the obtained CdTe QDs were sys-tematically investigated. Furthermore, the obtained QDs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction ( XRD) and transmission electron microscopy( TEM) . Experimental results showed that the proposed method enables us to obtain zinc-blended CdTe QDs with high photoluminescence quantum yield(up to 27. 1%). The growth time and the relative quantities of reactants impacted the optical properties of QDs.%在碱性条件下,镉离子与巯基乙酸形成配合物( Cd-SCH2 COO-),亚碲酸钠中+4价的碲被抗坏血酸还原成-2价后与Cd-SCH2 COO-配合物结合,形成CdTe晶核;经加热回流后晶核不断生长,得到不同发射波长的CdTe量子点.研究了反应时间、巯基乙酸与镉及碲与镉的摩尔比等实验条件对CdTe量子点荧光性能的影响.用X射线粉末衍射和透射电镜等分析手段对量子点的结构进行了表征.结果表明,采用这种方法制得的CdTe量子点为立方晶型,荧光量子产率可达27.1%,反应时间及反应物的相对用量对量子点的荧光性能有明显影响.

  1. Amino acid substitution or insertion patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone%头孢曲松低敏的淋球菌中青霉素结合蛋白2氨基酸替代或插入模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋法兴; 其木格; 钱革; 郑波; 叶顺章; 苏晓红; 胡白; 王千秋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the amino acid patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2(PBP2)in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxonc.and the relationship between the amino acid patterns and reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility.Methods DNA was extracted from 13 clinical isolates of N.gonorrhoeae.including 11 strains with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and 2 sensitive isolates.The full-length penA gene encoding the penicillin-binding protein 2 was amplified and sequenced.BLASTn and BLASTx programs were used to assess the insertion and substitution patterns of nucleotides in penA gene and of amino acids in PBP2,respectively.Results BLASTn analysis revealed insertion or substitution of 18-38 nucleotides in the penA gene of gonococcal isolates with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility.As shown by BLASTX analysis.there were five patterns of amino acid substitution or insertion in PBP2 of the 11 isolates with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility.However.mosaic structure of PBP2 was not found in any of these isolates.Conclusion Mosaic PBP2 seems not to be the major factor contributing to the decrease in susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone.%目的 检测头孢曲松低敏的淋球菌中青霉素结合蛋白2(PBP2)模式,探讨其是否与淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性降低有关.方法 将11株头孢曲松低敏和2株头孢曲松敏感的淋球菌penA基因全基因测序,通过BLASTn与BLASTx分析,研究penA基因的碱基插入和置换情况及PBP2中氨基酸插入和置换模式.结果 13株淋球菌的penA基因中有多个碱基置换或插入,PBP2中共发现5种模式的氨基酸插入或置换模式,没有发现PBP2镶嵌状结构模式.结论 PBP2的镶嵌状结构可能不是导致淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性下降的主要因素.

  2. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  3. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m−1), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g−1) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance

  4. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  5. The gap junction modifier, GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], improves conduction and reduces atrial fibrillation/flutter in the canine sterile pericarditis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Eric I; Liu, Kun; Morgan, Gwen A; Swillo, Robert E; Krueger, Julie A; Gardell, Stephen J; Butera, John; Gruver, Matthew; Kantrowitz, Joel; Feldman, Hal S; Petersen, Jørgen S; Haugan, Ketil; Hennan, James K

    2009-06-01

    Gap junction uncoupling can alter conduction pathways and promote cardiac re-entry mechanisms that potentiate many supraventricular arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Our objective was to determine whether GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], a small dipeptide gap junction modifier, can improve conduction and ultimately prevent AF/AFL. In rat atrial strips subjected to metabolic stress, GAP-134 prevented significantly conduction velocity slowing at 10 nM compared with vehicle (p < 0.01). In the canine sterile pericarditis model, conduction time (CT; n = 5), atrial effective refractory period (AERP; n = 3), and AF/AFL duration/inducibility (n = 16) were measured 2 to 3 days postoperatively in conscious dogs. CT was significantly faster after GAP-134 infusion (average plasma concentration, 250 nM) at cycle lengths of 300 ms (66.2 +/- 1.0 versus 62.0 +/- 1.0 ms; p < 0.001) and 200 ms (64.4 +/- 0.9 versus 61.0 +/- 1.3 ms; p < 0.001). No significant changes in AERP were noted after GAP-134 infusion. The mean number of AF/AFL inductions per animal was significantly decreased after GAP-134 infusion (2.7 +/- 0.6 versus 1.6 +/- 0.8; p < 0.01), with total AF/AFL burden being decreased from 12,280 to 6063 s. Western blot experiments showed no change in connexin 43 expression. At concentrations exceeding those described in the AF/AFL experiments, GAP-134 had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure, or any electrocardiogram parameters. In conclusion, GAP-134 shows consistent efficacy on measures of conduction and AF/AFL inducibility in the canine sterile pericarditis model. These findings, along with its oral bioavailability, underscore its potential antiarrhythmic efficacy.

  6. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. De Boer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT macrophages (ATM play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad, may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish-oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM. We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute (18 h ACM plus LPS for the last 6 h or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2 and Ccl5 compared with CON ACM (p≤0.05; however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p>0.05. Further, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2 and Il1β and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p≤0.05; however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT inflammation.

  7. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies. PMID

  8. Treatment of acid zinc wastewater by sulfate reducing bacteria cooperated with iron%硫酸盐还原菌与单质铁协同作用处理酸性含锌废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晓雷; 康勇; 冯颖

    2006-01-01

    研究利用硫酸盐还原菌(sulfate reducing bacteria,SRB)与单质铁协同作用处理含Zn2+废水的效果和相应机理.采用间歇式生物反应器,在Zn2+名义浓度为0~90mg/L范围内,分别考察SRB和SRB+Fe0两种体系的处理效果.实验表明:SRB+Fe0体系的处理效果明显优于SRB体系;加入单质铁之后,高Zn2+浓度下(>75 mg/L)SRB适应期缩短20%以上;Zn2+对SRB的抑制浓度提高约20%;硫酸盐还原速率明显加快,硫酸盐最终还原率以及Zn2+的去除速率都有所提高.分析了单质铁对废水处理过程的强化机理,确定Zn2+的去除形式主要为硫化物沉淀.

  9. 全髋关节置换术关节内注射氨甲环酸预防术后失血的效果%Efficacy of intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid to reduce postoperative blood loss dur- ing total hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 刘世清

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of using tranexamic acid for prevention of postoperative intra-articular hemorrhage in total hip arthroplasty. Methods 58 patients with total hip arthroplasty were randomly divided into two groups, 29 cases in each group, the experimental group after skin closure intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid 1g/10ml saline,and the control group injected with saline 10ml. Postoperative hemoglobin concentration, drainage, transfusion rate, blood transfusion and complications were obscured. Results Compared with the control group,the reduce of hemoglobin difference preoperative and postoperative in the experimental group was lower(P0. 05). Conclusions Tranexamic acid can effectively reduce postoperative bleeding, but does not increase the in-cidence of complications.%目的:探讨全髋关节置换术中关节内注射氨甲环酸预防术后失血的效果。方法将58例全髋关节置换患者随机分为两组,每组29例。试验组缝皮后关节腔注射氨甲环酸(1 g溶于10 ml生理盐水),对照组注射生理盐水10 ml。观察术后血红蛋白浓度、引流量、输血率、输血量及并发症。结果与对照组比较,试验组手术前后血红蛋白差值少(P0.05)。结论氨甲环酸能有效减少术后出血,但并不增加并发症发生率。

  10. Recovery of zinc and manganese, and other metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Na, K) from Zn-MnO2 and Zn-C waste batteries: Hydroxyl and carbonate co-precipitation from solution after reducing acidic leaching with use of oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobianowska-Turek, A.; Szczepaniak, W.; Maciejewski, P.; Gawlik-Kobylińska, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the current situation of the spent batteries and portable accumulators management. It reviews recycling technologies of the spent batteries and portable accumulators which are used in the manufacturing installations in the world. Also, it presents the authors' research results on the reductive acidic leaching of waste material of the zinc-carbon batteries (Zn-C) and zinc-manganese batteries (alkaline Zn-MnO2) delivered by a company dealing with mechanical treatment of this type of waste stream. The research data proved that the reductive acidic leaching (H2SO4 + C2H2O4) of the battery's black mass allows to recover 85.0% of zinc and 100% of manganese. Moreover, it was found that after the reductive acidic leaching it is possible to recover nearly 100% of manganese, iron, cadmium, and chromium, 98.0% of cobalt, 95.5% of zinc, and 85.0% of copper and nickel from the solution with carbonate method. On the basis of the results, it is possible to assume that the carbonate method can be used for the preparation of manganese-zinc ferrite.

  11. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  12. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  13. DILUTE SOLUTION BEHAVIOR OF CHITOSAN IN DIFFERENT ACID SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Lihua; QIN Wen

    1994-01-01

    Dilute solution behavior of chitosan was studied in formic acid, acetic acid,lactic acid and hydrochloric acid aqueous solution under different pH values. The reduced viscosities, ηsp/C,of chitosan solutions were dependent on the properties of acid and pH value of solvents. For a given chitosan concentration, ηsp/C decreased with the increase of acid concentration, or decreasing pH of solvent, indicating shielding effect of excessive acid similar to adding salt into solution. The stabilities of dilute chitosan solution in formic acid and lactic acid were better than that in acetic acid and hydrochloric acid.

  14. NUTRITIONAL AND BAKING QUALITY OF LOW PHYTIC ACID WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorus in wheat grain. Non-ruminant animals cannot utilize phytic acid phosphorus, and phytic acid reduces the nutritional availability of important minerals. We have identified a wheat mutant (Lpa1-1) with reduced phytic acid P and increased inorganic ...

  15. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KANAZAWA, Akio; TESHIMA, Shin-ichi; TOKIWA, Shigeru; IMATANAKA, Nobuya; カナザワ, アキオ; テシマ, シンイチ; トキワ, シゲル; イマタナカ, ノブヤ; 金沢, 昭夫; 手島, 新一; 常盤, 繁; 今田中, 伸哉

    1984-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) methylesters (ME) were preparedfrom a squid-liver oil and their hypocholesterolemic activities examined with rats. The supplementof 0.3% EPA-ME to the diet containing 1.0% cholesterol and 4.0% butter as lipids reduced a serum-cholesterollevel markedly, whereas DHA-ME gave almost no effect on the serum-cholesterol level.Both EPA-ME and DHA-ME reduced the liver-cholesterol level as effectively as linoleic acid did.The supplement of smal...

  16. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  17. Individual variation and intraclass correlation in arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in chicken muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen Ingrid; Haug Anna; Christophersen Olav A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chicken meat with reduced concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) and reduced ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has potential health benefits because a reduction in AA intake dampens prostanoid signaling, and the proportion between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is too high in our diet. Analyses for fatty acid determination are expensive, and finding the optimal number of analyses to give reliable results is a challenge. The objective of the present study was i) to analys...

  18. Low acid producing solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  19. Determination of total iron in iron ore by potentiometric titration with ascorbic acid as reducing titrant%以抗坏血酸作还原滴定剂电位滴定法测定铁矿石中全铁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚淑芳; 张杰; 王莹; 宁松

    2011-01-01

    提出了以抗坏血酸作为还原滴定剂、全自动电位滴定仪判定滴定终点的测定铁矿石中全铁的方法.对滴定酸介质和酸度、温度、电位滴定仪参数进行了优化,对干扰元素的影响等进行了试验.结果表明,全铁可在铁矿石溶样的酸介质及酸度下滴定,无需进行酸度调节,滴定的温度范围为50~80℃.采用过氧化氢或过硫酸铵作预氧化剂,过量的预氧化剂煮沸数分钟即可除去,操作简便.铁矿石中大多数元素均不干扰测定,尤其是铜、钼、钒的允许量可达到5%(质量分数).测定结果相对标准偏差(RSD)小于0.2%.对两个铁矿石标准样品进行加标回收试验,得到加标回收率分别为99.6%和100.4%.%The determination method of total iron in iron ore using ascorbic acid as reducing titrant was development. The end point of titration was determined by full-automatic potential titrimeter. The titration acid medium and acidity, temperature, and potential titrimeter parameters were optimized.The influence of interference elements was tested. The results showed that titration of total iron could be carred out in the medium and acidity of dissolving iron ore samples without pH adjustment. The titration temperature range was 50 -80 ℃ . The hydrogen peroxide or ammonium persulfate was used as pre-oxidant. Since the excessive pre-oxidant could be removed by boiling for a few minutes, the operation was easy. The majority elements in iron ores did not intcrfcrc in the determination, especially the tolerant amount of copper, molybdenum and vanadium could be up to 5 % (mass fraction). The relative standard deviation (RSD) of determination results was less than 0. 2 % , and the recoveries for two samples were 99. 6% and 100. 4 % ,respectively.

  20. Preparation of Reducing Sugar Solution by Acidic Hydrolyzing Corn Cob and Its Application in Tobacco Reaction Flavor%酸法水解玉米芯制备还原糖液及其在烟用反应型香料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐利; 侯亚龙; 罗昌荣

    2011-01-01

    Corn cob was one kind of ideal raw materials for processing flavor precursor because of its rich xylose and arabinose. The extracted pentosans were hydrolyzed by diluted acid to obtain reducing sugars hydrolysates. HPLC-ELSD analysis results revealed that xylose and arabinose were rich in the hydrolysates. The standardized solutions of reducing sugars were utilized in the process of different reaction flavors. Therefore, one cheap raw materials of pentose for reaction flavors was developed.%玉米芯中富含木糖和阿拉伯糖,研究表明玉米芯是生产Maillard反应香料前驱体-戊糖的良好原料.以玉米芯为原料,提取得到戊聚糖,运用稀酸水解法获得还原糖液.HPLC-ELSD法测定表明还原糖液富舍木糖和阿拉伯糖.将标准化的还原糖液与氨基酸混和后,经Maillard反应获得了不同风味的反应型香料,为反应型香料的生产找到了一种廉价易得的戊糖原料,并为农产品加工废弃物-玉米芯找到了新的利用途径.

  1. Ionic liquid supported acid-catalysed esterification of lauric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic Liquid (IL) based on 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonyl)imide (BMI.NTf2) under acidic condition was used as catalyst for the esterification reaction of fatty acid. Various acids namely sulphuric acid, perchloric acid, p-toulene sulphonic acid and various chloride salts such as zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) immobilized in ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 gave acidic ILs. These acidic ILs were tested as catalysts for esterification reactions. Esterification of alcohol (methanol) with fatty acid (lauric acid) using ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 combined with H2SO4 (BMI.NTf2(H2SO4)) gave high activity (>85 %) and selectivity (100 %) observed over a period of 2 hours reaction with reaction temperature 70 degree Celsius. The ester became easily separated due to IL forming biphasic with product after the reaction where ester accumulated as the upper phase and IL with water produced after reaction at lower phase. Catalytic activities comparison also be studied between acidic ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 with acidic ionic liquid ChCl.2ZnCl2 and conventional acid catalyst. These ILs were characterised by using FTIR, NMR and TGA. Results from FTIR were showed no significant difference between ILs with ILs in acidic condition. The TGA curve show BMI.NTf2 thermals decomposition is ≥400 degree Celsius but when BMI.NTf2 combination with H2SO4, TGA curve show weight loss increase and becomes unstable. The advantages of ILs as catalyst are clean process and green chemistry due to its behaviour such as non-volatile, no loss of solvent through evaporation and reduced environmentally impact. This ILs-catalyst system can be recycle for further reaction. (author)

  2. Agronomic Performance of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) genotypes of wheat are one approach to improving the nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the concentration of phytic acid in the aleurone layer, thus reducing the chelation of nutritionally important minerals and improving the bioavailability of phosphorus. Field studies ...

  3. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  4. Reducing Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    By caring for and improving your soil, you will help it absorb water more readily, reducing runoff and erosion as well as improving plant health. This publication gives the homeowner tips to help prevent runoff and erosion on their property.

  5. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  6. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  7. Reducible functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shah

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a survey on analytic solutions of functional differential equations (FDE. Some classes of FDE that can be reduced to ordinary differential equations are considered since they often provide an insight into the structure of analytic solutions to equations with more general argument deviations. Reducible FDE also find important applications in the study of stability of differential-difference equations and arise in a number of biological models.

  8. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  9. 关节腔内灌注氨甲环酸降低全膝关节置换手术出血的前瞻性随机对照研究%Effects of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty by intra-articular injection on reducing blood loss:a prospective randomized controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵令田; 翁文杰; 邱勇; 王渭君; 袁涛; 吴明达; 李佳怡; 刘飞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨关节腔内注射氨甲环酸在减少全膝关节置换术后出血的疗效和安全性。方法选取符合纳入标准的患者60例,采用RandA 1.0软件随机平均分为两组。氨甲环酸组于术后关节腔内注射50 ml溶有3.0 g氨甲环酸的生理盐水,夹闭引流管1 h后负压吸引;对照组则术后通过引流管直接向关节腔注入生理盐水50 ml,夹闭引流管1 h后负压吸引。术后三日每天复查患者血常规、凝血指标,并记录每日引流量,术后3~5d行下肢静脉造影,观察血栓发生率。结果氨甲环酸组术后3d总的引流量以及总失血量明显少于对照组。氨甲环酸组输血人数明显小于对照组。两组患者在术后凝血功能、血栓发生率及术后不良事件方面差异无统计学意义。结论全膝关节术后关节腔内注射氨甲环酸可有效减少出血量,并不增加血栓发生概率。%Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss during the primary total knee arthroplasty ( TKA ) by intra-articular injection . Methods A prospective randomized controlled study was carried out , including 60 patients who underwent the primary TKA by the same surgeon team on a standardized technique .Each group instantly accepted 50 ml normal saline intra-articular injection postoperatively with 3.0 g tranexamic acid dissolved in or not .Each patient had negative pressure drainage after the drainage-tube clamped for one hour and received the blood routine examination and the blood coagulation indicator test; their daily drainage in the first three days was recorded postoperatively .The vein angiography of the lower limb was carried out within 3 -5 days to observe the incidence of thrombosis .Results The postoperative drainge and the total blood loss in the tranexamic acid group were significantly less than the control group .The number of the patients accepted transfusion in the tranexamic group was

  10. Intra-articular and intravenous injection of tranexamic acid effectively reduces blood loss after total knee arthroplasty%氨甲环酸关节腔给药联合静脉给药可有效减少全膝关节置换后出血

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建; 哈承志; 田少奇; 王远贺; 刘宁宁; 孙康

    2016-01-01

    背景:有研究表明氨甲环酸能够有效减少全膝关节置换术患者的术后出血量,但是氨甲环酸的给药方式有多种,包括关节腔注射,静脉注射和两者联合用药,但效果尚无定论。  目的:探讨关节腔注射,静脉注射和两者联合用药3种氨甲环酸给药方式是否能够有效的减少全膝关节置换后出血。  方法:试验选择2014年12月到2015年12月进行单侧全膝关节置换术的患者103例,根据氨甲环酸的给药方式不同随机分为4组:关节腔注射组术中膝关节切口缝合后给予关节腔注射液2000 mg氨甲环酸;静脉注射组在止血带使用前15 min静脉注射1000 mg氨甲环酸;联合治疗组采用上述2种方法联合干预;空白对照组不采用氨甲环酸干预。  结果与结论:①总出血量和输血率:关节腔注射组和联合治疗组的总出血量和输血率均少于静脉给药组(P 0.05),两组输血率均为0%;②不良反应:各组中均未出现深静脉血栓、肺部血栓、切口感染、血肿和坏疽等不良反应;③结果证实:氨甲环酸关节腔给药联合静脉给药可有效减少全膝关节置换后出血,效果略优于单独给药。%BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that tranexamic acid can effectively reduce postoperative blood loss in patients with total knee arthroplasty. There are many means to inject tranexamic acid (intra-articular injection, intravenous injection and their combination). Which is the best way has no conclusion. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether all three ways (intra-articular injection, intravenous injection and their combination) to inject tranexamic acid can all effectively reduce the bleeding after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS:103 patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty from December 2014 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study. The patients were allocated into four groups according to injection way. In the intra

  11. Study of effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and blood transfusion rate of elderly hip fracture surgery%氨甲环酸减少老年髋部骨折手术失血量与输血率的有效性及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明新; 于华; 赵金红; 苏杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of preoperative intravenous administration of tranex-amic acid in the hemiarthroplasty treatment of elderly hip fracture. Methods Seventy patients who received hemiarthro-plasty due to femoral neck fracture (Garden Ⅲ/Ⅳ) in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, of which 35 patients were given preoperative intravenous administration of tranexamic acid and 35 pa-tients were not. The patients'preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit values were collected. The to-tal blood loss amount was calculated through Gross equation and the postoperative drainage amount, number of people receiving blood transfusion, blood transfusion amount and occurrence of thrombus events were recorded. Results The total blood loss amount of the tranexamic acid group was (867.79±76.93) mL, which was significantly lower than (1207.07±403.83) mL of the control group, with statistically significant difference(P=0.036). The postoperative drainage amount was (305.67±103.68) mL, which was lower than the (393.00±66.29) mL of the control group, with statistically significant difference (P<0.01). The application of tranexamic acid decreased the blood transfusion rate from 42.86% to 20.00%(P=0.039). The complications of postoperative thrombus events did not increase (P=0.643). Conclusion In the treatment of elderly femoral neck fracture, the preoperative intravenous administration of tranexamic acid can effec-tively and safely reduce the blood loss amount and blood transfusion rate of hemiarthroplasty.%目的:探讨术前静脉使用氨甲环酸在半髋关节置换术治疗老年髋部骨折中的有效性与安全性。方法回顾性分析我院2008年1月~2012年12月因股骨颈骨折(GardenⅢ/Ⅳ型)行半髋关节置换术患者70例,其中35例术前静脉使用氨甲环酸,35例未使用。收集患者的术前、术后血红蛋白及血细胞比容值,通过Gross方程计算

  12. Interaction between maternal periconceptional supplementation of folic acid and reduced folate carrier gene polymorphism of neural tube defects%神经管畸形患儿还原叶酸载体基因和叶酸之间交互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽君; 朱慧萍; 李智文; 张卫; 任爱国; 朱江辉; 李竹

    2005-01-01

    Objective To search the interaction between reduced folate carrier gene ( RFC1 A80G) polymorphism of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) and maternal periconceptional no supplementation of folic acid. The purpose is to provide the epidemiological evidence for finding genetic marker of NTDs. Methods RFC1 (A80G) genotype was detected using PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism for the blood DNA of 104 trios with NTDs-affected child, and 100 control families with non-malformed control children. The authors investigated the gene-environment interactions between the offspring RFC1 genotype and maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation through a case-control study. Results It was observed that the offspring with the GG genotype were associated with a 2.56-fold increased risk of NTDs when compared to those with the AA genotype (OR=2.56;95%CI=1.04-6.36) in this population under investigation. The risk of mothers who did not take folic acid for having an NTDs-affected infants was 7.69 (95%CI=2.86-21.75). Among the mothers who did not utilize folic acid supplements, the NTDs risk was 3.30 (95%CI=1.15-9.65) for offspring with the GG genotype, compared to the reference (AA) genotype. Children who had the GG genotype and whose mothers did not take folic acid had an elevated risk for NTDs (OR=8.80, 95%CI=2.86-29.82), compared to "offspring with AA or GA genotype" and "maternal folic acid use", the interactive coefficient being 1.45. Conclusion The above findings indicate that the RFC1 genotype (GG) is a possible susceptible gene marker for an increased NTDs risk in Chinese population, and there is a potential gene-nutrient interaction between offspring RFC1 GG genotype and maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid on the risk of NTDs. However,the sample size of this study was limited, a larger sample of population-based study is required to pursue the initial observation.%目的探讨神经管畸形(neural tube defects, NTDs)患儿还原叶酸载体基因(reduced

  13. Reducible chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.

  14. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  15. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

  16. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva; Reinaldo Bertola Cantarutti; Gelton Geraldo Fernandes Guimarães; Ivo Ribeiro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These ...

  17. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  18. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  19. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  20. Stearic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.