WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid rain program

  1. Acid Rain Program Opt-in Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Opt-in Program, which allows sources not required to participate in the Acid Rain Program the opportunity to enter the program on a voluntary basis and receive Acid Rain Program allowances.

  2. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program...

  3. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions....

  4. A European Acid Rain Program based on the US experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, U. Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The paper shows that cost-effective involvement of the source location involves utmost difficulty in practice. Based on the RAINS model, it is recommended that source location should be ignored in a European market for SO2, as is the case in the US Acid Rain Program. Based on the political target...

  5. The US Acid Rain Program: design, performance, and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    The US Acid Rain Program (ARP) from 1990 allows 1,000 major electric utilities all over the US to trade SO2 permits. Historical emission rights have been grandfathered and the target level is 50% SO2 reduction. Market performance has been successfull with much trade activity and unexpectedly low...

  6. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid... State Acid Rain program meeting the requirements of §§ 72.72 and 72.73. (b) The Administrator...

  7. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  8. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  9. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  10. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  11. 40 CFR 74.3 - Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements. 74.3 Section 74.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Background and Summary § 74.3 Relationship to the Acid...

  12. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  13. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  14. Acid rain research program. Annual progress report, September 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Raynor, G.S.

    1976-09-01

    The aims of the research program are: (a) to observe the minimum threshold dose of simulated acid rain to produce visual and histological effects on plant foliage, (b) approach threshold limits of simulated sulfate acid rain that affect plant growth and reproduction, and (c) to measure chemical and meteorological parameters of incident rain. Acute leaf injury to several plant species resulted from exposure of foliage to simulated sulfate acid rain of pH level 2.3 to 2.9. Only slight injury occurred at 3.1. Scanning electron micrographs showed that injury to upper leaf surfaces occurred mostly at the base of trichomes (leaf hairs) and near stomata. An association of lesion development near vascular tissue was also noted. Histologically, lesions are characterized by an initial collapse of the epidermis with eventual lysis and collapse of more internal leaf tissues on the upper leaf surface of pinto beans which complemented detailed descriptions of visual lesion development after daily exposures to simulated rain. Initial experiments with gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum show that reproduction of this fern species is very sensitive to solutions of pH 5.2 while vegetative development is not affected at pH levels of 2.2. Initial rain samples from the sequential sampler have been obtained. Initial portions of rain events exhibit a pH near 3.0 in some cases. More complete chemical analyses are anticipated.

  15. A Fresh Look at the Benefits and Costs of the US Acid Rain Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Acid Rain Program (Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments) has achieved substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States. We compare new estimates of the benefits and costs of Title IV to th...

  16. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  17. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  18. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  19. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  20. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  1. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  2. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  3. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  4. Acid Rain: What We Must Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Eville

    1983-01-01

    Addresses questions about the nature, source, and history of acid rain. In addition, discusses the questions: Why is acid rain a problem? Is acid rain getting worse? What is the threat of further problems? Concludes that it is time to act on the problem and recommends an appropriate course of action. (JN)

  5. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  6. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include...

  7. The Specifications for Monitoring of Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background Since China is a country seriously affected by acid rain pollution,it is a long-term fundamental work for acid rain pollution prevention and control in China by getting well informed of the characteristics of spatial and temporal changes in acid rain and long-term trends of these changes.In order to reach the national demand for acid rain monitoring data,the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) began to construct the network of acid rain monitoring stations in 1992.By the end of 2010,the total number of monitoring stations has exceeded 340.

  8. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  9. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  10. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  11. Acid rain research program. Annual progress report, July 1976--September 1977. [Effects on plants and soil microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Francis, A.J.; Raynor, G.S.

    1977-12-01

    Experiments were carried out and chemical aspects of ambient precipitation were determined using a sequential precipitation collector for the period July 1976 through September 1977. A related report provides experimental details. In experiments with plants, experiments were aimed to document: the foliar response of six clones of hybrid poplar to simulated acid rain; effects of buffered solutions and various anions on vegetative and sexual development of gametophytes of the fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and the acid-sensitive steps of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of the garden pea (Pisum sativum). After five 6 min daily exposures to simulated rain of pH 2.7, up to 10 percent of the leaf area of some poplar clones was injured. Lesions developed mostly near stomata and vascular tissue as shown with other plant species. Acidic solutions have a marked effect on sperm motility and fertilization (sexual reproduction) of bracken fern. Since sexual reproduction of ferns is very sensitive to mildly acidic conditions under laboratory conditions, experiments are planned to view the response of sexual stages of other plant species. Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Pisum is very sensitive to nutrient solution acidity. Specific isolates of Rhizobium bacteria are used and the medium pH can be maintained rigidly. In experiments to determine the effects of excess acidity on soil microbiological processes, the rate of denitrification may be slowed so drastically that increases of N/sub 2/O in the atmosphere may result with a subsequent reduction in soil nitrogen levels.

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  13. Acid rain may cause senile dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, F.

    1985-04-25

    Aluminium, released from the soil by acid rain, may be a cause of several forms of senile dementia including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Many upland reservoirs, fed by acid rain, supply homes with water laced with significant amounts of aluminium. Studies in the Pacific have shown that communities living on soils that are extremely rich in bauxite, the rock containing aluminium, have a very high incidence of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Acid rain and its ecological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of rain-water is identified as one of the most serious environmental problems of transboundary nature. Acid rain is mainly a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids depending upon the relative quantities of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen emissions. Due to the interaction of these acids with other constituents of the atmosphere, protons are released causing increase in the soil acidity Lowering of soil pH mobilizes and leaches away nutrient cations and increases availability of toxic heavy metals. Such changes in the soil chemical characteristics reduce the soil fertility which ultimately causes the negative impact on growth and productivity of forest trees and crop plants. Acidification of water bodies causes large scale negative impact on aquatic organisms including fishes. Acidification has some indirect effects on human health also. Acid rain affects each and every components of ecosystem. Acid rain also damages man-made materials and structures. By reducing the emission of the precursors of acid rain and to some extent by liming, the problem of acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem has been reduced during last two decades.

  15. Acid Rain Materials for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Lance; Kooser, Robert G.

    This booklet contains three separate papers suitable for use in an advanced high school or college chemistry course. The first paper provides background information on acids and bases. The second paper provides additional background information, focusing on certain aspects of atmospheric chemistry as it relates to the acid rain problem. An attempt…

  16. Acid Rain: A Student's First Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Beth Ann; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to help students better understand the science, citizen action, and research issues that are part of the acid rain problem. The guide is designed for students in grades 4-8 and their teachers. Following an introduction, the first seven sections are informative in nature. They include: (1) "Observations about Acidity";…

  17. Acid Rain. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Colin; Barber, Jacqueline; Coonrod, Jan

    This teacher's guide presents a unit on acid rain and introduces hands-on activities for sixth through eighth grade students. In each unit, students act as real scientists and gather evidence by using science process skills such as observing, measuring and recording data, classifying, role playing, problem solving, critical thinking, synthesizing…

  18. Pollution problem: acid rain and beekeeping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B.

    1979-11-01

    Some of the problems caused by acid rain are presented with emphasis on the effects on bees, especially in the Northeast. Scientists believe that rain east of the Mississippi is below 5.6 and average Northeastern rainfall is now down to pH 4. Trace minerals are being leached out of the soils and nectar that lacks calcium is being passed by when the bees forage. The first plants to show the effects will be the wild varieties of the legumes, such as clover. This leaves only plants on the extreme end of the acid scale such as the blueberry for bee forage. This leads to the side effect of the movement of calcium in nectar which will be restricted due to a lack of calcium-lime.

  19. The urban perspectives of acid rain. Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    1993-06-04

    This report documents discussions held during a workshop an Urban Perspective of Acid Rain. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of the Director, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). NAPAP anticipates giving increased emphasis to the benefits in urban areas of emissions reductions. The goal of this informal, exploratory workshop was to serve as a first step towards identifying pollutant monitoring, and research and assessment needs to help answer, from an urban perspective, the two key questions posed to NAPAP by Congress: (1) what are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the acid rain control program, and (2) what reductions in deposition, rates are needed in order to prevent adverse effects? The workshop addressed research activities needed to respond to these questions. The discussions focused. sequentially, on data needs, data and model availability, and data and modeling gaps. The discussions concentrated on four areas of effects: human health, materials, urban forests, and visibility.

  20. Acid rain in Europe and the United States: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredric C. Menz; Hans M. Seip [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY (US). Bertrand Snell Hall, School of Business

    2004-08-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of science and policies to control acid rain in Europe and the United States over the past several decades. Acid rain gained prominence in the late 1960s because of its perceived effects on ecosystem integrity. Extensive research efforts in both Europe and the United States, however, have concluded that the effects of acid rain - at least those on terrestrial ecosystems - were less serious than originally believed. More recently, interest in controlling acid rain precursors stems primarily from health concerns, particularly their effects in the form of fine particulate matter. The paper discusses the emergence of acid rain as an environmental concern, scientific evidence about the effects of acidic deposition on natural ecosystems, US and European acid rain control policies, studies of the costs and benefits of reducing acid rain, and different policy contexts in Europe and the United States.

  1. Effects of simulated acid rain on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on Chenopodium quinoa, Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris. Because of differential species' susceptibility, detailed experiments were conducted only on Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain was simulated by spraying the plants with a hand-held atomizer. Sulfuric acid solutions covering a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5 in one half pH unit increments were used. Gross morphological effects noted at lower pH values included failure to attain normal height, necrosis and wrinkling of leaves, excessive and adventitious budding, and premature abscission of primary leaves. Histological effects included smaller cell size, a decreased amount of intercellular space, hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli, and a reduction in the size of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Dry weight remained an approximately constant percentage of fresh weight, and chlorophyll analyses showed that both chlorophyll concentration and ratio of chlorophyll 'a' to chlorophyll 'b' also remained constant. Respirometer studies showed that, while respiration rate increased only slightly at low pH values, photosynthetic rate increased dramatically. Quantitative analyses indicated that carbohydrate content was reduced at low pH values, with starch content reduced much more than sugar content. Root biomass was also reduced at low pH values. Application of Congo red indicator solution to the acid treated tissue showed that it was being acidified to a pH of below 4. 114 references, 23 figures, 12 tables.

  2. I-Ching of acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, P.

    The yin/yang of I Chin philosophy can describe the acid/alkali balance and the development of acid rain concerns. The author describes the science of sulfur; the chemistry, transport, and ecological impacts as it moves from coal mine to ocean. He then addresses the regulatory options for reducing sulfur emissions or mitigating their environmental impacts at various stages of the coal-sulfur cycle. He sees no fair conclusion because the scientific community is still unwilling to reach a consensus on the widespread ecological risks and because cost-benefit balancing is neither neutral nor objective. If we conclude that a new regulatory initiative is in order, we should recognize that there are better and worse ways of implementing it. Long-term solutions lie in the aggressive promotion of cleaner coal and noncoal technologies. 3 references, 4 figures.

  3. Response of soybean seed germination to cadmium and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting Ting; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region. Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd(2+) and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated that the single treatment with the low level of Cd(2+) (0.18, 1.0, 3.0 mg L(-1)) or acid rain (pH ≥3.0) could not affect the seed germination of soybean, which was resulted in the increased activities of peroxidase and catalase. The single treatment with the high concentration of Cd(2+) (>6 mg L(-1)) or acid rain at pH 2.5 decreased the activities of peroxidase and catalase, damaged the cell membrane and then decreased the seed germination of soybean. Meanwhile, the same toxic effect was observed in the combined treatment with Cd(2+) and acid rain, and the combined treatment had more toxic effect than the single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain. Thus, the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain had more potential threat to the seed germination of soybean than the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain.

  4. Effect of simulated acid rain on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on Chenopodium quinoa, Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris. Detailed experiments were conducted only on Phaseolus vulgaris. Sulfuric acid solutions covering a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5 were used. Gross morphological effects noted at lower pH values included failure to attain normal height, necrosis and wrinkling of leaves, excessive and adventitious budding, and premature abscission of primary leaves. Histological effects included smaller cell size, a decreased amount of intercellular space, hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli, and a reduction in the size of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Dry weight remained an approximately constant percentage of fresh weight, and chlorophyll analyses showed that both chlorophyll concentration and ratio of chlorophyll to chlorophyll also remained constant. Respirometer studies showed that respiration rate increased slightly and photosynthetic rate increased dramatically. Quantitative analyses indicated that carbohydrate content was reduced at low pH values. Root biomass was also reduced. Application of Congo red indicator solution to the acid treated tissue showed that it was being acidified to a pH of below 4. Experiments involving aspiration of control tissue in acid solutions suggest that the increase in photosynthetic rate and the decreases in carbohydrate content and root biomass were caused by an uncoupling of photophosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate. Uncoupling was probably caused by hydrogen ion interference with proton pumps associated with the electron transport chain in the light reactions of photosynthesis. 128 references. (MDF)

  5. Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, B.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.

  6. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  7. Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Prigg, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This is the Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment produced by the North West Water Authority in 1985. This report forms part of a series on component biological investigations, identified by location or topic, within the acid rain project. Reporting of the Wastwater catchment data would not have been given priority ordinarily, but it has been brought forward to coincide with J. Robinson's reporting of his investigations of land use and liming in the catchment. Thi...

  8. Learning about Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide for Grades 6 through 8. EPA 430-F-08-002

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Acid rain is a complex environmental problem which affects the United States and many other countries around the world. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970 to address environmental issues, such as acid rain. Through its programs, EPA works to protect human health and the environment in the United States…

  9. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  10. Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide. Activities for Grades 4 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This guide on acid rain for elementary and secondary students is divided into three study areas: (1) What Causes Acid Rain; (2) What Problems Acid Rain Has Created; (3) How You and Your Students Can Help Combat Acid Rain. Each section presents background information and a series of lessons pertaining to the section topic. Activities include…

  11. Effects of simulated acid rain on fertility of litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Dong-liang; LIU Xing-hui; GUO Su-zhi

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of calcium in fertility of pollen and pistil under simulated acid rein was investigated. The germination percentage of pollen treated with acid rain of pH 4.5 was 9.42% lower than that of control, and that of pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and pH 1.5 were 22.47 %, 45.49% and 71.62%, respectively. Simultaneously, the injury character of pollen was obviously observed when flowers were treated with acid rain of pH 3.5. The difference in fruit setting rate between the female flower treated with acid rain of pH 4.0 and the control was significant at p < 0.05. Ca(NO3 )2 of 0.2-0.4 mmol/L could promote pollen germination under the stress of acid rain. The beneficial function was reduced when calcium concentration surpassed 0.8 mmol/L. Spraying 2 mmol/L Ca(NO3 )2 reduced the injury of acid rain to pistil and increased fruit-setting rate significantly. The physiological importance of calcium during pollen germination and pistil development was also discussed.

  12. Acid rain attack on outdoor sculpture in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Richard A.

    2016-12-01

    A major concern motivating research in acid rain materials effects has been the potential for damage to cultural heritage, particularly outdoor marble and bronze sculpture. However, a combination of field and laboratory studies has failed to show a correlation between rain pH and loss of materials. In order to understand this counterintuitive lack of acid rain effect, an aqueous geochemical modeling approach was used to analyze rain runoff chemistry for the relative importance of acid rain neutralization, dry deposition, and in the case of marble, natural carbonate dissolution. This approach involved the development of pH - SO42- phase diagrams for marble (calcium carbonate) and bronze (copper) under ambient environmental conditions. This then enabled reaction path modeling of the acid neutralization process using the pH range typically found in wet deposition (3.5-6). The results were for marble that the theoretical maximum amount of Ca2+ ion that could be lost due acid rain neutralization would be 0.158 mmol/l compared to 10.5 mmol/l by dry deposition, and for bronze, the Cu2+ ion losses would be 0.21 mmol/l and 47.3 mmol/l respectively. Consequently dry deposition effects on these materials have the potential to dominate over wet deposition effects. To test these predictions the geochemical models were applied to examples of data sets from mass balance (runoff vs rainfall) studies on a marble statue in New York City and some bronze memorial plaques at Gettysburg PA. Although these data sets were collected in the early 1980s they remain valid for demonstrating the mass balance method. For the marble statue, the mean Ca2+ losses by dry deposition was about 69% of the total compared 0.3% for acid rain neutralization, which was less than the natural carbonate dissolution losses of 0.8%. For the bronze, the mean Cu2+ losses were 70.6% by SO42- dry deposition and 23% by NO3- dry deposition compared to 6.4% by acid rain neutralization. Thus for both cases the wet

  13. [Relationship between simulated acid rain stress and leaf reflectance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-dong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhou, Guo-mo; Jiang, Zi-shan

    2010-01-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental problem. Serious acid rain pollution in subtropical China has constituted a potential threat to the health of the local forest. In the present paper, the changing properties of the chlorophyll concentration and spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for the six subtropical broad-leaved tree species leaves under simulated acid rain (SAR) treatment with different pH levels were studied. With the increasing strength of the SAR, the chlorophyll concentrations of the experimental species under pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 treatment were higher than that under pH 5.6; the spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 were lower than that for pH 5.6 in general; while there weren't significant differences between pH 2.5 and pH 4.0. After the treatment with different levels of SAR, the differences in spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths mainly focused around the green peak and red edge on the reflectance curve. The subtropical broad-leaved tree species studied were relatively not sensitive to acid rain stresses; some stronger acid rain may accelerate the growth of the tree species used here to some extent.

  14. Acid rain and its environmental effects: Recent scientific advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aherne, Julian; Gay, David A.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The term 'acid rain' refers to atmospheric deposition of acidic constituents that impact the earth as rain, snow, particulates, gases, and vapor. Acid rain was first recognized by Ducros (1845) and subsequently described by the English chemist Robert Angus Smith (Smith, 1852) whose pioneering studies linked the sources to industrial emissions and included early observations of deleterious environmental effects (Smith, 1872). Smith's work was largely forgotten until the mid-20th century when observations began to link air pollution to the deposition of atmospheric sulfate (SO42-) and other chemical constituents, first near the metal smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and later at locations in Europe, North America, and Australia (Gorham, 1961). Our modern understanding of acid rain as an environmental problem caused largely by regional emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) stems from observations in the 1960s and early 1970s in Sweden by Svante Odén (Odén, 1976), and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues (Likens and Bormann, 1974). These scientists and many who followed showed the link to emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources, and documented the environmental effects of acid rain such as the acidification of surface waters and toxic effects on vegetation, fish, and other biota.

  15. Field evaluation of an acid rain-drought stress interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, W L

    1988-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed to simulate natural field conditions for growing agricultural crops while controlling conditions to study specific environmental effects. This report briefly describes the use of moveable rain exclusion shelters (10.4 x 40.9 m) to study the results of the interaction of acid rain and drought stress on corn and soybean yields. The rain exclusion shelters are constructed of galvanized pipe framing and covered with polyethylene film. Movement is automated by a rain switch to protect crops from ambient rainfall and to treat them with simulated acid rain The facility simulates a real environment with respect to variables such as solar exposure, wind movement, dew formation, and insect exposure, while allowing careful control of moisture regimes. Soybeans and corn were treated with average rainfall amounts, and with one-half and one-quarter of these rainfall amounts (drought stress) at two levels of rainfall acidity, pH 5.6 and 3.0. While drought stress resulted in considerable yield reduction for Amsoy and Williams soybeans, no additional reduction in yield was observed with rainfall of pH 3.0, as compared to rainfall of approximately pH 5.6. Similar results were observed for one corn cultivar, Pioneer 3377. For one year of the study however, yield of B73 x Mo17 (corn) was reduced 3139 kg ha(-1) by the most severe drought, and an additional 1883 kg ha(-1) by acid rain of pH 3.0, as compared to the control (pH 5.6). Yield reduction from acidic rain was considerably less at full water rates, resulting in a significant pH by drought stress interaction. However, during the second year of the experiment, no pH effect or drought by pH interaction was observed for this cultivar. The reason for the difference in the two years was not identified.

  16. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ≤ 3.0.

  17. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  18. Learning About Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide for Grades 6 through 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find on this page a link to the Acid Rain Teacher's Guide for Students Grades 6-8. This guide contains information, class discussions and experiments teachers can use to teach students about acid rain.

  19. Northeast Asia acid rain problem and environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, E.S. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Total emission amounts of sulfur dioxide in the twenty-three (23) territories of Northeast Asia was 14.7 million tons in 1990. The Northeastern area of China accounted for 81%, Korea 12%, Japan 5%, and North Korea 2%. In the basic scenario, the emission amount of sulfur dioxide in Northeast Asia is estimated to reach 40.5 million tons by the year 2020. Long distance, cross-border air pollutants originating in China, move to the Korean Peninsula and Japan, and esp. acid rain is greatly influenced by the emission of sulfur dioxide in China. Acid rain severely damages not only the natural ecosystem and agricultural products, but also human health, too. Therefore, in order to reduce the future damage from acid rain, emission of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide material should be lessened both domestically and in nearby countries. It would be difficult for those countries in Northeast Asia to sign the multilateral agreement for environmental cooperation within a short period of time because they are in different stages of economic development and set different priorities in their discussion of environmental cooperation. Therefore, it is desirable to make them observe improved environmental standards through existing regional cooperative organizations such as ESCAP, APEC or multilateral external financial institutions such as IBRD, ADB, ODA, and to carry out cooperative businesses for regional environmental improvements. At the same time, environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia related to acid rain should start step by step from obtaining objective and reliable information through scientific studies and should be carried out multi-dimensionally and comprehensively by not only the central government but the local government and NGO in various fields, such as Politics, Economics, Science, Diplomacy, etc. 30 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. CR@BaSO4: an acid rain-indicating material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Xu, Xin-Hui

    2011-12-28

    The CR@BaSO(4) hybrid was synthesized, characterized and used as an acid rain-indicating (ARI) material. A painted ARI umbrella was discolored after exposure to simulated acid rain of pH 5 or less and returned to the initial color after the rain stopped. Such a functionalized material may make acid rain visual to remind people in real-time.

  1. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  2. Wood Properties of Poplar from Stand Affected by Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Wood properties from 28 trees (Populus euramericana) selected from healthy and acid rain damaged forest were measured to evaluate the possible impacts on wood quality and utilization. On the heavily damaged location, the pH value of precipitation ranged from 3.7-5.0, and sulfate loading ranged from 20-40 kg·ha-2.y-1. Quantitative and qualitative studies on ring width, physical properties and mechanical properties indicated that changes of wood properties between diseased and healthy poplar occurred. Aci...

  3. [Characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Hong; Chen, Bin-Bin; Sui, Ping; Lin, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38.1% and 61.9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40.6% and 59.4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4.1-5.5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone) and outside of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone). There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, PM10, and the pH of rain in Fuzhou.

  4. Canopy leaching of subtropical mixed forests under acid rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renjun XIANG; Liyuan CHAI; Xilin ZHANG; Gong ZHANG; Guifang ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of major ions from acid precipitation in a subtropical forest was examined based on an experi-ment in four sample sites in Shaoshan City, Hunan Province, China, from January 2001 to June 2002. Results clearly show that when rain passed through the canopy, pH increased and the evidence of ion uptake was presented for SO42- , NO3-, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions, espe-cially of NH4+ and NO3-. The percentages of dissolved SO42-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ show a decreasing trend with increasing rainfall. Percentages of leaching Ca2+, K+ and Cl- ions show an increasing trend as a function of increased pH values. The forest canopy in Shaoshan City has a strong effect on the uptake of SO42- and NO3- ions under acid rain conditions. The decreasing order of ions leaching in the forest canopy is as follows: K+> Ca2+ > Cl- > Mg2+ > SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Na+.

  5. Factors Affecting Sensitivity of Variable Charge Soils to Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJING-HUA

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of a large number of variable charge soils to acid rain was evaluated through examining pH-H2SO4 input curves.Two derivative parameters,the consumption of hydrogen ions by the soil and the acidtolerant limit as defined as the quantity of sulfuric acid required to bring the soil to pH 3.5 in a 0.001mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution,were used.The sensitivity of variable charge soils was higher than that of constant charge soils,due to the predominance of kaolinite in clay mineralogical composition.Among these soils the sensitivity was generally of the order lateritic red soil>red soil> latosol.For a given type of soil within the same region the sensitivity was affected by parent material,due to differences in clay minerals and texture.The sensitivity of surface soil may be lower or higher than that of subsiol,depending on whether organic matter or texture plays the dominant role in determining the buffering capacity.Paddy soils consumed more acid within lower range of acid input when compared with upland soils,due to the presence of more exchangeable bases,but consumed less acid within higher acid input range,caused by the decrease in clay content.

  6. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  7. Acid Rain: A Selective Bibliography. Second Edition. Bibliography Series Twenty-One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid.…

  8. [Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf photosynthate, growth, and yield of wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Bo-Rui; Zheng, You-Fei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Xia; Li, Lu; Zhong, Yan-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    With winter wheat variety Yamgmai 12 as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the stress of simulated acid rain on its growth and development. The results showed that simulated acid rain had considerable effect on wheat growth and yield. When the pH of acid rain was acid rain stress, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid, especially chlorophyll a, decreased obviously. Acid rain also suppressed the synthesis of soluble sugar and reduced sugar, and the suppression was stronger at pH acidity. The total free amino acid and soluble protein contents in leaves decreased with increasing acidity, and were significantly lower than CK when the pH was < or = 3.5 and < or = 4.5, respectively.

  9. [Yesterday, today, tomorrow. A retrospective look at the acid rain problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsman, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Last century, at the end of the seventies, Europe was startled by a serious environmental problem: acid rain. Acid rain was held responsible for the decline of fishes in Scandinavian lakes. Later, it was suggested that acid rain could lead to forest dieback over vast areas of Europe. Forests in the Netherlands could be at great risk, as well. It was clear to everyone what it was all about, for 'rain' means water falling from the atmosphere and the meaning of 'acid' was evident, too. Acid rain caused much commotion in the eighties but, since then, it has faded into the background. Why is it, that there is so little attention paid to acid rain these days? Maybe the acid rain problem was a hype; with an exaggerated reaction to a problem that was, in fact, insignificant. This article aims to reconstruct the history of one of the most prominent environmental problems of the twentieth century. The article describes the origin of the acid rain problem in the 1960s and describes the scientific research that was carried out to develop a better understanding of the problem from an atmospheric chemical point of view. Subsequently, it treats the rise of public awareness in the seventies. The article subsequently focuses on the situation in the Netherlands. The initial research into forest health showed alarming results. This led to widespread concern within The Netherlands, which, once more, urged the government to come into action. Some measures to reduce air-polluting emissions were already taken in the early 1980s. However, these were meant, mainly, to improve local air quality. As the eighties progressed, acid rain provided an additional argument for reducing air pollution. This article presents the consequences of the emission reductions for the acidity of acid rain, and it discusses--in brief--the acid rain problem in light of current scientific knowledge. Finally, it answers the question of why forests did not die.

  10. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. (Univ. of Maryland, Princess Anne (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  11. Study on the relationship between meteorological conditions and acid rain in mid-eastern Fujian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C C; Liu, J X; Cai, Y Y; Li, B L; Wang, Z L; Chen, B B

    2009-08-01

    Based on the acid rain observation data and the contemporaneous historical synoptic charts of Mid-Eastern Fujian during the period of 1991 to 2003, we analyzed the distribution characteristics of acid rain in different seasons, weather types, precipitation grades and wind directions. The results showed that the acid pollution in Mid-Eastern Fujian was still serious. In winter, the precipitation pH value was 4.79, and the acid rain frequency was 60.62% which was twice higher than that in summer. The pH value of warm shear-type precipitation at 850 hPa was 4.79. Nearly half of these precipitations had the problems of acid rain pollution. The acid rain frequency of the inverted trough type was only 26.11% which was the lowest one in all types. There was no marked difference of the acid rain distribution characteristics between ahead-of-trough and behind-the-trough. The precipitation pH values of the five grades were lower than 5.30 and the acid rain frequency changed as an inverted U shape with the increasing of the rainfall. The pH values of precipitations in the eight wind directions were generally below 5.20, and the acid rain frequencies were about 40%.

  12. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  13. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  14. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings.

  15. Interactive effects of cadmium and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Minmin; Wang, Lei; Liang, Chanjuan; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    Interactive effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain and the combined treatment decreased the content of chlorophyll, Hill reaction rate, the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase, maximal photochemical efficiency and maximal quantum yield, increased initial fluorescence and damaged the chloroplast structure in soybean seedlings. In the combined treatment, the change in the photosynthetic parameters and the damage of chloroplast structure were stronger than those of any single pollution. Meanwhile, Cd(2+) and acid rain had the interactive effects on the test indices in soybean seedlings. The results indicated that the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain on the photosynthetic parameters due to the serious damage to the chloroplast structure.

  16. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in β-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

    2011-05-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, β-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to β-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is β-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, β-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress.

  18. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  19. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  1. Combined effects of lead and acid rain on photosynthesis in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Liao, Chenyu; Fan, Caixia; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    To explore how lead (Pb) and acid rain simultaneously affect plants, the combined effects of Pb and acid rain on the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence reaction, Hill reaction rate, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in soybean seedlings were investigated. The results indicated that, when soybean seedlings were treated with Pb or acid rain alone, the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were decreased, while the initial fluorescence (F 0) and maximum quantum yield (Y) were increased, compared with those of the control. The combined treatment with Pb and acid rain decreased the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F(v)/F(m), and Y and increased F 0 in soybean seedlings. Under the combined treatment with Pb and acid rain, the two factors showed additive effects on the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings and exhibited antagonistic effects on the Hill reaction rate. Under the combined treatment with high-concentration Pb and acid rain, the two factors exhibited synergistic effects on the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F 0, F v/F m, as well as Y. In summary, the inhibition of the photosynthetic process is an important physiological basis for the simultaneous actions of Pb and acid rain in soybean seedlings.

  2. Acid rain publications by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villella, Rita F.

    1989-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems has been a concern to society since the burning of fossil fuels began in the industrial revolution. In the past decade or so, this concern has been heightened by evidence that chemical transformation in the atmosphere of combustion by-products and subsequent long-range transport can cause environmental damage in remote areas. The extent of this damage and the rates of ecological recovery were largely unknown. "Acid rain" became the environmental issue of the 1980's. To address the increasing concerns of the public, in 1980 the Federal government initiated a 10-year interagency research program to develop information that could be used by the President and the Congress in making decisions for emission controls. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been an active participant in acid precipitation research. The Service provided support to a number of scientific conferences and forums, including the Action Seminar on Acid Precipitation held in Toronto, Canada, in 1979, an international symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Fishery Impacts in Northeastern North America in 1981, and a symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Atmospheric Deposition: A Western Perspective in 1982. These meetings as well as the growing involvement with the government's National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program placed the Service in the lead in research on the biological effects of acidic deposition. Research projects have encompassed water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Water quality surveys have been conducted to help determine the extent of acid precipitation effects in the northeast, Middle Atlantic, and Rocky Mountain regions. In addition to lake and stream studies, research in wetland and some terrestrial habitats has also been conducted. Specific projects have addressed important sport species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and striped bass (Morone

  3. [Spatiotemporal trends and the impact factors of acid rain in Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-E; Qiu, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Ai-Min; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Su; Wang, Zi-Fa

    2010-06-01

    The observational data of acid rain at seven stations in Anhui province operated by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), as well as the coal consumptions in Anhui and some surrounding provinces along with satellite measured tropospheric NO2 columns, were used to analyze the spatiotemporal trends of acid rain in Anhui and the potential reasons of the increasing occurrence frequency of acid rain. In addition, the technique of back-trajectory-cluster analysis was used to examine the impacts of transport patterns on the precipitation acidity in Anhui. The occurrence frequency shows the lowest in summer and the highest in autumn, with 3-year average pH acid rain were the most severe in southern to middle Anhui and mitigated to north. The distributions of pH were concentrative at Fuyang, Tongling and Huangshan, with more than 75% occurred between 6.00-7.50 (Fuyang), 5.00-6.00 (Tongling) and 5.00-6.50 (Huangshan); quite dispersive at other stations, with the maximum at 4.00-4.50 (Hefei and Anqing), 5.00-5.50 (Maanshan) and 5.50-6.00 (Bengbu). The occurrence frequencies of acid rain increased evidently at all stations comparing with those in the end of 1990s. The results of back-trajectories-cluster analysis show that the acid rain is closely related with the regional-range transport of acid rain precursors at each station. The air-masses from southeast and northeast, especially those passing through Jiangsu and Zhejiang, associated with the highest frequencies of acid rain with pH acid rain in Anhui province. In addition, statistics shows that the occurrence frequency of acid rain in Hefei was highly correlated with the trends of the provincial coal consumptions in Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, also tropospheric NO2 column content over Anhui province and surrounding areas with all correlation coefficients > 0.7, suggesting the close relationship between the quick increasing acid rain in Hefei and the regional pollutant emissions.

  4. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  5. [Effects of acid rain stress on Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-Min; Yu, Shu-Quan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Mei-Hu

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth in different seasons under simulated acid rain stress (heavy, pH = 2. 5; moderate, pH = 4.0; and control, pH = 5.6). In the same treatments, the leaf relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), actual PSII photochemical quantum yield (phi(PS II)), plant height, and stem diameter in different seasons were all in the order of October > July > April > January. In the same seasons, all the parameters were in the order of heavy acid rain > moderate acid rain > control. The interactions between different acid rain stress and seasons showed significant effects on the SPAD, F(v)/F(m), plant height, and stem diameter, but lesser effects on phi(PS II), qp and qN.

  6. Carbon fluxes in an acid rain impacted boreal headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Anne; Hintze, Simone; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon export via inland aquatic systems is a key process in the budget of the global carbon cycle. This includes loss of carbon to the atmosphere via gas evasion from rivers or reservoirs as well as carbon fixation in freshwater sediments. Headwater streams are the first endmembers of the transition of carbon between soils, groundwater and surface waters and the atmosphere. In order to quantify these processes the experimental catchment Uhlirska (1.78 km2) located in the northern Czech Republic was studied. Dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic carbon (DIC, DOC, POC) concentrations and isotopes were analyzed in ground-, soil -and stream waters between 2014 and 2015. In addition, carbon dioxide degassing was quantified via a stable isotope modelling approach. Results show a discharge-weighted total carbon export of 31.99 g C m-2 yr-1 of which CO2 degassing accounts 79 %. Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of DIC, DOC, and POC (in ‰ VPDB) ranged from -26.6 to -12.4 ‰ from -29.4 to -22.7 ‰ and from -30.6 to -26.6 ‰ respectively. The mean values for DIC are -21.8 ±3.8 ‰ -23.6 ±0.9 ‰ and -19.5 ±3.0 ‰ for soil, shallow ground and surface water compartments. For DOC, these compartments have mean values of -27.1 ±0.3 ‰ -27.0 ±0.8 ‰ and -27.4 ±0.7 ‰Ṁean POC value of shallow groundwaters and surface waters are -28.8 ±0.8 ‰ and -29.3 ±0.5 ‰ respectively. These isotope ranges indicate little turnover of organic material and predominant silicate weathering. The degassing of CO2 caused an enrichment of the δ13C-DIC values of up to 6.8 ‰ between a catchment gauge and the catchment outlet over a distance of 866 m. In addition, the Uhlirska catchment has only negligible natural sources of sulphate, yet SO42- accounts for 21 % of major stream water ions. This is most likely a remainder from acid rain impacts in the area.

  7. Application of Ground Phosphate Rock to Diminish the Effects of Simulated Acid Rain of Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYUAN-YAN; LIXUE-YUAN

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain retained in soil on the properties of acid soil and its diminishing by application of ground phosphate rock were investigated by using the sorption method.Results show as follows:(1)For yellow brown soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil with a pH value of 5.9 was relatively small,except a great quantity of acid rain deposited on it.(2) for red soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil was significant.With the increase of the amount of acid deposition,the pH value of soil was declined,but the contents of exchangeable H+,Al3+ and Mn2+ and the amount of SO41- retention were increased.(3) Many properties of acid soils could be improved by applying ground phosphate rock.For example,pH value of soils and the amounts of available P and exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ were increased,and the amounts of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ and SO42- retained was reduced.The application of ground posphate rock could effctively diminish the pollution of acid rain to soil.

  8. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG He; DONG De-ming; WANG Ju; YANG Kai-ning; TIAN Lei; SUN Wei; FANG Chun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar,total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi( Brassica rapa chihensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce( Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramnosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  9. [Effects of simulated acid rain on Quercus glauca seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Jiang, Fu-wei; Yin, Xiu-min; Lu, Mei-juan

    2009-09-01

    Taking the seedlings of Quercus glauca, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in subtropical area, as test materials, this paper studied their photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content under effects of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.6 (CK). After 2-year acid rain stress, the net photosynthetic rate of Q. glauca increased significantly with decreasing pH of acid rain. The acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0 increased the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the effect was more significant under pH 2.5. The intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0. The maximum photosynthetic rate, light compensation point, light saturation point, and dark respiration rate were significantly higher under pH 2.5 and 4.0 than under pH 5.6, while the apparent quantum yield was not sensitive to acid rain stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II and the potential activity of PS II under pH 2.5 and 4.0 were significantly higher than those under pH 5.6. The relative chlorophyll content was in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0, and there was a significant difference between pH 2.5 and 4.0. All the results suggested that the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of Q. glauca increased under the effects of acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0, and the acid rain with pH 2.5 had more obvious effects.

  10. [Release of Si, Al and Fe in red soil under simulated acid rain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Song, Cun-yi; Li, Fa-sheng

    2007-10-01

    bstract:A laboratory leaching experiment on simulated acid rain was carried out using soil columns. The release of Si, Al and Fe from soils and pH values of eluates were investigated. The results showed that under the given leaching volume, the release amounts of cations were influenced by the pH value of simulated acid rain, while their response to acid rain was different. Acid rain led to Si release, nearly none of Fe. Within the range from pH 3.0 to 5.6, a little Al release but mass Al only release at the pH below 3.0, both Si and Al had a declining release ability with the undergoing eluviation. At pH 2.5, the release amounts of Si and Al, especially Al, increased significantly with the strengthened weathering process of soil mineral. With an increase of the leaching amount of acid rain, the release of Si and Al increased, but acceleration of Si was slower than Al which was slower and slower. When the soil pH falling down to a certain grade, there are negative correlation between pH and both Al and DOC concentration of eluate. released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved. Acid deposition can result in solid-phase alumino-organics broken and Al released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved.

  11. Effects and mechanisms of the combined pollution of lanthanum and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2013-09-01

    Rare earth pollution and acid rain pollution are both important environmental issues worldwide. In regions which simultaneously occur, the combined pollution of rare earth and acid rain becomes a new environmental issue, and the relevant research is rarely reported. Accordingly, we investigated the combined effects and mechanisms of lanthanum ion (La(3+)) and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings. The combined pollution of low-concentration La(3+) and acid rain exerted deleterious effects on the phenotype and growth of roots, which were aggravated by the combined pollution of high-concentration La(3+) and acid rain. The deleterious effects of the combined pollution were stronger than those of single La(3+) or acid rain pollution. These stronger deleterious effects on the root phenotype and growth of roots were due to the increased disturbance of absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients in roots.

  12. Characterization of heavy metal desorption from road-deposited sediment under acid rain scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, An; Wu, Guangxue; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios. Investigated heavy metals showed no difference in the proportion of dissolved fraction in the solution under different acid rain pHs above 3.0, regardless of land use. Dissolved loading of heavy metals related to organic carbon content were different in runoff from main traffic roads of three land use types. Coarse particles (>150μm) that could be efficiently removed by conventional street sweepers, accounted for 55.1%-47.1% of the total dissolved metal loading in runoff with pH3.0-5.6. The obtained findings provided a significant scientific basis to understand heavy metal release and influence of RDS grain-size distribution and land use in dissolved heavy metal pollution affected by acid rain.

  13. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China.

  14. Partial least squares regression for predicting economic loss of vegetables caused by acid rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju; MENG He; DONG De-ming; LI Wei; FANG Chun-sheng

    2009-01-01

    To predict the economic loss of crops caused by acid rain, we used partial least squares (PLS) regression to build a model of single dependent variable-the economic loss calculated with the decrease in yield related to the pH value and levels of Ca2+, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, NO3-, and Cl- in acid rain. We selected vegetables which were sensitive to acid rain as the sample crops, and collected 12 groups of data, of which 8 groups were used for modeling and 4 groups for testing. Using the cross validation method to evaluate the performace of this prediction model indicates that the optimum number of principal components was 3, determined by the minimum of prediction residual error sum of squares, and the prediction error of the regression equation ranges from-2.25% to 4.32%. The model predicted that the economic loss of vegetables from acid rain is negatively corrrelated to pH and the concentrations of NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, and Cl- in the rain, and positively correlated to the concentrations of Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Mg2+. The precision of the model may be improved if the non-linearity of original data is addressed.

  15. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  16. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar, total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi(Brassica rapa chinensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce(Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  17. [Combined injured effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chan-juan; Pan, Dan-yun; Xu, Qiu-rong; Zhou, Qing

    2010-07-01

    Combined effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling (Glycine max) and its inherent mechanism were studied in this paper. Compared with treatments by simulated acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5) or rare earth La(III) (60, 100 and 300 mg x L(-1)), the decrease degree of growth parameters in combined treatments was higher, indicating that there were a synergistic effects between acid rain and La. Moreover,the inhibition effects of acid rain and La(III) were more obvious when pH value of acid rain was lower or the concentration of La(III) was higher. The changes of photosynthetic parameters were similar to those of growth, but the decrease degree of each parameter was not same in the same treatment group. The decrease degree of optimal PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content (Chl) were 9.35%-22.75% and 9.14%-24.53%, respectively, lower than that of photosynthetic rate Pn (22.78%-84.7%), Hill reaction rate (15.52%-73.38%) and Mg2+ -ATPase activity (14.51%-71.54%), showing that the sensitivity of photosynthetic parameters to the combined factors was different. Furthermore, relative analysis showed that the change of Pn were mainly affected by Hill reaction rate and Mg2+ -ATPase activity, and was less influenced by Chl and Fv/Fm. It indicates that the effect of acid rain and La on each reaction in photosynthesis was different, and the inhibition of combined treatments on photosynthesis in plants was one of the main factors affecting growth of plant.

  18. Combined effects of simulated acid rain and lanthanum chloride on chloroplast structure and functional elements in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-05-01

    Acid rain and rare earth element (REE) pollution exist simultaneously in many agricultural regions. However, how REE pollution and acid rain affect plant growth in combination remains largely unknown. In this study, the combined effects of simulated acid rain and lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on chloroplast morphology, chloroplast ultrastructure, functional element contents, chlorophyll content, and the net photosynthetic rate (P n) in rice (Oryza sativa) were investigated by simulating acid rain and rare earth pollution. Under the combined treatment of simulated acid rain at pH 4.5 and 0.08 mM LaCl3, the chloroplast membrane was smooth, proteins on this membrane were uniform, chloroplast structure was integrated, and the thylakoids were orderly arranged, and simulated acid rain and LaCl3 exhibited a mild antagonistic effect; the Mg, Ca, Mn contents, the chlorophyll content, and the P n increased under this combined treatment, with a synergistic effect of simulated acid rain and LaCl3. Under other combined treatments of simulated acid rain and LaCl3, the chloroplast membrane surface was uneven, a clear "hole" was observed on the surface of chloroplasts, and the thylakoids were dissolved and loose; and the P n and contents of functional elements (P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo) and chlorophyll decreased. Under these combined treatments, simulated acid rain and LaCl3 exhibited a synergistic effect. Based on the above results, a model of the combined effects of simulated acid rain and LaCl3 on plant photosynthesis was established in order to reveal the combined effects on plant photosynthesis, especially on the photosynthetic organelle-chloroplast. Our results would provide some references for further understanding the mechanism of the combined effects of simulated acid rain and LaCl3 on plant photosynthesis.

  19. Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pHacid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments.

  20. Influence of Simulated Acid Rain Corrosion on the Uniaxial Tensile Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-zi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on the uniaxial tensile property of concrete exposed to the acid rain environment was carried out. Acid rain with pH level of 1.0 was deposed by the mixture of sulfate and nitric acid solution in the laboratory. Dumbbell-shaped concrete specimens were immersed in the simulated acid rain completely. After being exposed to the deposed mixture for a certain period, uniaxial tensile test was performed on the concrete specimens. The results indicate that elastic modulus, tensile strength, and peak strain have a slight increase at the initial corrosion stage, and with the extension of corrosion process, elastic modulus and tensile strength decrease gradually, while the peak strain still increases. It is found that the compressive strength is more sensitive than the tensile strength in aggressive environment. Based on the experimental results, an equation was proposed to describe the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve of the concrete corroded by acid rain.

  1. Antioxidant response of soybean seedlings to joint stress of lanthanum and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    Excess of rare earth elements in soil can be a serious environmental stress on plants, in particular when acid rain coexists. To understand how such a stress affects plants, we studied antioxidant response of soybean leaves and roots exposed to lanthanum (0.06, 0.18, and 0.85 mmol L(-1)) under acid rain conditions (pH 4.5 and 3.0). We found that low concentration of La3+ (0.06 mmol L(-1)) did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) whereas high concentration of La3+ (≥0.18 mmol L(-1)) did. Compared to treatment with acid rain (pH 4.5 and pH 3.0) or La3+ alone, joint stress of La3+ and acid rain affected more severely the activity of catalase and peroxidase, and induced more H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. When treated with high level of La3+ (0.85 mmol L(-1)) alone or with acid rain (pH 4.5 and 3.0), roots were more affected than leaves regarding the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, physiological function, and growth. The severity of oxidative damage and inhibition of growth caused by the joint stress associated positively with La3+ concentration and soil acidity. These results will help us understand plant response to joint stress, recognize the adverse environmental impact of rare earth elements in acidic soil, and develop measures to eliminate damage caused by such joint stress.

  2. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposure to La(III) or acid rain. In combined exposures, cytosol free Ca(2+) played an important role in the regulation of root activity, metal contents and biomass. These roles were closely related to La(III) dose, acid rain strength and treatment mode (independent exposure or simultaneous exposure). A low concentration of La(III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate the adverse effects on the roots caused by acid rain, and the combined exposures at higher concentrations of La(III) and acid rain had synergic effects on the roots.

  3. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  4. Foliar Responses that may Determine Plant Injury by Simulated Acid Rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L. S.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the research presented here is to try to use visual, scanning electron micrographs, and histological preparations as tools to predict the relative sensitivity of various plant species to simulated acid rain. It is hoped that these results might enable a prediction of the relative sensitivities of major plant groups of economic and aesthetic interest to air pollutants.

  5. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaus, R.R. [Van Ness, Feldman, and Curtis, P.C., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  6. Effects of simulated acid rain on the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Wedelia trilobata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid rain continues to pose a major threat to natural ecosystems in rapidly-developing industrialized regions such as southern China. Despite the significant environmental impact of this phenomenon, relatively little is known concerning its effects on important aspects of ecosystem dynamics such as ...

  7. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  8. Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglong; Xing, Da; Zeng, Lizhang; Ding, Chunfeng; Chen, Qun

    2005-01-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  9. Control strategy for sulfur dioxide and acid rain pollution inChinaa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several factors, namely, coal-dominated primary energy mix, extensive economic development mode, inefficient energy utilization, end the imperfect environmental regulations, result in the serious urban sulfur dioxide pollution end large-scale sulfatetype acid precipitation in China. In 1995, China's sulfur dioxide emissions reached 23.70 Mt, and the areas affected by acid rain accounted for 40% of the territory. Chinese government accords considerable importance to the sulfur dioxide end acid rain contamination. New sets of environmental friendly policies have been promulgated. But enforcement of laws and regulations on SO2 emissions need to be further improved and broadened, especially those respond to market conditions. This paper focuses particular attention on the analysis of strategy, policies, and national actions which had or should be taken against sulfur dioxide emissions nationwide to achieve the environmental targets, on the basis of which gives the technical options in future.

  10. Enhancing tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) to simulated acid rain by exogenous abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Liang, Chanjuan

    2016-12-16

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates much important plant physiological and biochemical processes and induces tolerance to different stresses. Here, we studied the regulation of exogenous ABA on adaptation of rice seedlings to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress by measuring biomass dry weight, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, nutrient elements, and endogenous hormones. The application of 10 μM ABA alleviated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and decreases in contents of nutrient (K, Mg, N, and P) and hormone (auxin, gibberellins, and zeatin). Moreover, 10 μM ABA could stimulate the Ca content as signaling molecules under SAR stress. Contrarily, the application of 100 μM ABA aggravated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and contents of nutrient and hormone. The results got after a 5-day recovery (without SAR) show that exogenous 10 μM ABA can promote self-restoration process in rice whereas 100 μM ABA hindered the restoration by increasing deficiency of nutrients and disturbing the balance of hormones. These results confirmed that exogenous ABA at proper concentration could enhance the tolerance of rice to SAR stress.

  11. GRADIENT DISTRIBUTION OF ACID RAIN IN THE SCENIC RESORT OF THE BAIYUN MOUNTAIN IN GUANGZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 李福娇; 江奕光; 李琼

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the samples of rainwater from January to October 1999 at three monitoring sites of Baiyun Mountain and of aerosol composition in near-surface layer in January and June 1999 at two sites. The results suggest that (1) The pH value of rainwater is between 3.13 and 7.18, and the frequency of acid rain is more than 58 %. With the ascent of the monitoring sites, the pH value of rainwater decreases, and the frequency of acid rain increases. (2) In January, the chemical aerosol compositions at different altitudes are similar, but in June the acidity of aerosol rises at the higher site because of the increase of SO42-. (3) In rainwater, the proportion is such that SO42- is the most significant anion and Ca2+ is the most important cation, but both of them decrease as the altitude ascends. The proportion of NO3- and NH4+ rise at the higher site and have more contribution to the acidity of rainwater. (4) As the impact of automobile emissions around Baiyun Mountain, the proportion of NO3-/SO42-molecular concentration reaches 0.40, and NO3- is relatively more important to the rain acidity at the higher site.

  12. Combined effects of lanthanum ion and acid rain on growth, photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kejia; Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Lihong; Hu, Gang; Zhou, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been accumulated in the agricultural environment. Acid rain is a serious environmental issue. In the present work, the effects of lanthanum ion (La(3+)) and acid rain on the growth, photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in soybean seedlings were investigated using the gas exchange measurements system, chlorophyll fluorometer, transmission electron microscopy and some biochemical techniques. It was found that although the growth and photosynthesis of soybean seedlings treated with the low concentration of La(3+) was improved, the growth and photosynthesis of soybean seedlings were obviously inhibited in the combined treatment with the low concentration of La(3+) and acid rain. At the same time, the chloroplast ultrastructure in the cell of soybean seedlings was destroyed. Under the combined treatment with the high concentration of La(3+) and acid rain, the chloroplast ultrastructure in the cell of soybean seedlings was seriously destroyed, and the growth and of photosynthesis were greatly decreased compared with those of the control, the single treatment with the high concentration of La(3+) and the single treatment with acid rain, respectively. The degree of decrease and destruction on chloroplast ultrastructure depended on the increases in the concentration of La(3+) and acid rain (H(+)). In conclusion, the combined pollution of La(3+) and acid rain obviously destroyed the chloroplast ultrastructure of cell and aggravated the harmful effect of the single La(3+) and acid rain on soybean seedlings. As a new combined pollutant, the harmful effect of REEs ions and acid rain on plant should be paid attention to.

  13. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Potential Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Forest Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Xue-Jun; ZHOU Guo-Yi; HUANG Zhong-Liang; LIU Ju-Xiu; ZHANG De-Qiang; LI Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Acid rain is a serious environmental problem worldwide. In this study, a pot experiment using forest soils planted with the seedlings of four woody species was performed with weekly treatments of pH 4.40, 4.00, 3.52, and 3.05 simulated acid rain (SAR) for 42 months compared to a control of pH 5.00 lake water. The cumulative amounts of C and N mineralization in the five treated soils were determined after incubation at 25 ℃ for 65 d to examine the effects of SAR treatments.For all five treatments, cumulative CO2-C production ranged from 20.24 to 27.81 mg kg-1 dry soil, net production of available N from 17.37 to 48.95 mg kg-1 dry soil, and net production of NO-3-N from 9.09 to 46.23 mg kg-1 dry soil. SAR treatments generally enhanced the emission of CO2-C from the soils; however, SAR with pH 3.05 inhibited the emission.SAR treatments decreased the net production of available N and NO3-N. The cumulative CH4 and N2O productions from the soils increased with increasing amount of simulated acid rain. The cumulative CO2-C production and the net production of available N of the soil under Acmena acuminatissima were significantly higher (P≤0.05) than those under Schima superba and Cryptocarya concinna. The mineralization of soil organic C was related to the contents of soil organic C and N, but was not related to soil pH. However, the overall effect of acid rain on the storage of soil organic matter and the cycling of important nutrients depended on the amount of acid deposition and the types of forests.

  14. Responses of tropical legumes from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Guilherme C; Silva, Luzimar C

    2016-12-08

    We investigated the morphological and anatomical effects of simulated acid rain on leaves of two species native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Paubrasilia echinata and Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya. Saplings were subjected to acid rain in a simulation chamber during 10 days for 15 min daily, using H2SO4 solution pH 3.0 and, in the control, deionized water. At the end of the experiment, fragments from young and expanding leaves were anatomically analyzed. Although L. ferrea var. leiostachya leaves are more hydrophobic, rain droplets remained in contact with them for a longer time, as in the hydrophilic P. echinata leaves, droplets coalesce and rapidly run off. Visual symptomatology consisted in interveinal and marginal necrotic dots. Microscopic damage found included epicuticular wax flaking, turgor loss and epidermal cell shape alteration, hypertrophy of parenchymatous cells, and epidermal and mesophyll cell collapse. Formation of a wound tissue was observed in P. echinata, and it isolated the necrosis to the adaxial leaf surface. Acid rain increased thickness of all leaf tissues except spongy parenchyma in young leaves of L. ferrea var. leiostachya, and such thickness was maintained throughout leaf expansion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acidity causing increase in leaf tissue thickness. This could represent the beginning of cell hypertrophy, which was seen in visually affected leaf regions. Paubrasilia echinata was more sensitive, showing earlier symptoms, but the anatomical damage in L. ferrea var. leiostachya was more severe, probably due to the higher time of contact with acid solution in this species.

  15. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Liang

    Full Text Available The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF, a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0. Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  16. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  17. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids.

  18. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  19. Analysis on Harm of Acid Rain to Environment%酸雨对环境的危害分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明桃

    2014-01-01

    阐述了酸雨形成的原理,通过上海地区的实例分析了酸雨对环境造成的危害,旨在帮助人们认识酸雨对环境造成的危害及其严重程度。%This paper described the forming principle of acid rain,and the harm to environment caused by acid rain was analyzed,through the instance in Shanghai area,aimed to help people be conscious of the harm of acid rain on the environment and its extent.

  20. Mobility and speciation of Cd,Cu,and Zn in two acidic soils affected by simulated acid rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhao-hui; LIAO Bo-han; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Through a batch experiment, the mobility and speciation of heavy metals(Cd, Cu, Zn) in two acidic forest soils from Hunan Province were studied. The results showed that the release and potential active speciation of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tested contaminated red soil(CRS) and yellow red soil(CYRS) increased significantly with pH decreasing and ion concentrations increasing of simulated acid rain, and these effects were mainly decided by the pH value of simulated acid rain. Cd had the highest potential risk on the environment compared with Cu and Zn. Cd existed mainly in exchangeable form in residual CRS and CYRS, Cu in organically bound and Mn-oxide occluded forms, and Zn in mineral forms due to the high background values.

  1. Impacts of simulated acid rain on soil enzyme activities in a latosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Da-Jiong; Huang, Qian-Chun; Ouyang, Ying

    2010-11-01

    Acid rain pollution is a serious environmental problem in the world. This study investigated impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon four types of soil enzymes, namely the catalase, acid phosphatase, urease, and amylase, in a latosol. Latosol is an acidic red soil and forms in the tropical rainforest biome. Laboratory experiments were performed by spraying the soil columns with the SAR at pH levels of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5., 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 7.0 (control) over a 20-day period. Mixed results were obtained in enzyme activities for different kinds of enzymes under the influences of the SAR. The catalase activities increased rapidly from day 0 to 5, then decreased slightly from day 5 to 15, and finally decreased sharply to the end of the experiments, whereas the acid phosphatase activities decreased rapidly from day 0 to 5, then increased slightly from day 5 to 15, and finally decreased dramatically to the end of the experiments. A decrease in urease activities was observed at all of the SAR pH levels for the entire experimental period, while an increase from day 0 to 5 and then a decrease from day 5 to 20 in amylase activities were observed at all of the SAR pH levels. In general, the catalase, acid phosphatase, and urease activities increased with the SAR pH levels. However, the maximum amylase activity was found at pH 4.0 and decreased as the SAR pH increased from 4.0 to 5.0 or decreased from 4.0 to 2.5. It is apparent that acid rain had adverse environmental impacts on soil enzyme activities in the latosol. Our study further revealed that impacts of the SAR upon soil enzyme activities were in the following order: amylase>catalase>acid phosphatase>urease. These findings provide useful information on better understanding and managing soil biological processes in the nature under the influence of acid rains.

  2. Effects of silicon on Oryza sativa L. seedling roots under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shuming; Yin, Ningning; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Cuiying; Wang, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has an important function in reducing the damage of environmental stress on plants. Acid rain is a serious abiotic stress factor, and Si can alleviate the stress induced by acid rain on plants. Based on these assumptions, we investigated the effects of silicon on the growth, root phenotype, mineral element contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidative enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling roots under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. The results showed that the combined or single effects of Si and/or SAR on rice roots depend on the concentration of Si and the pH of the SAR. The combined or single effects of a low or moderate concentration of Si (1.0 or 2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of rice roots, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatment. A high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) or severe SAR (pH 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR with pH 3.0 or 2.0 promoted the rice root growth, decreased the H2O2 content, increased the Si concentration and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, maintained the balance of mineral element (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu) concentrations in the roots of rice seedlings compared with SAR alone. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with a low or high concentration of Si (1.0 or 4.0 mM). The observed effects were due to disruptions in the absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients and impacts on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in roots, and this conclusion suggests that the degree of rice root damage caused by acid rain might be attributed to not only acid rain but also the level of Si in the soil.

  3. Impacts of simulated acid rain on recalcitrance of two different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongmin; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) on recalcitrance in a Plinthudult and a Paleudalfs soil in south China, which were a variable and a permanent charge soil, respectively. Simulated acid rains were prepared at pH 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.0, by additions of different volumes of H2SO4 plus HNO3 at a ratio of 6 to 1. The leaching period was designed to represent 5 years of local annual rainfall (1,200 mm) with a 33 % surface runoff loss. Both soils underwent both acidification stages of (1) cation exchange and (2) mineral weathering at SAR pH 2.0, whereas only cation exchange occurred above SAR pH 3.5, i.e., weathering did not commence. The cation exchange stage was more easily changed into that of mineral weathering in the Plinthudult than in the Paleudalfs soil, and there were some K(+) and Mg(2+) ions released on the stages of mineral weathering in the Paleudalfs soil. During the leaching, the release of exchangeable base cations followed the order Ca(2+) >K(+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) for the Plinthudult and Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) >K(+) for the Paleudalfs soil. The SARs above pH 3.5 did not decrease soil pH or pH buffering capacity, while the SAR at pH 2.0 decreased soil pH and the buffering capacity significantly. We conclude that acid rain, which always has a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, only makes a small contribution to the acidification of agricultural soils of south China in the short term of 5 years. Also, Paleudalfs soils are more resistant to acid rain than Plinthudult soils. The different abilities to prevent leaching by acid rain depend upon the parent materials, types of clay minerals, and soil development degrees.

  4. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf cuticular characteristics and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on adaxial leaf cuticles were investigated for a group of plant species selected from commercially-important crops and trees which exhibited markedly different cuticular characteristics. Expanding leaves of controlled-environment grown plants were exposed from emergence to full expansion to pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.8, 3.4, 3.0 or 2.6 simulated rain (SAR) applied at 2 mm/h on alternate days. The number of events, the amount, droplet size and velocity were representative of UK ambient rainfall characteristics. The non-acidic pH 5.6 simulated rain consisted of 14 inorganic ions in weight/volume concentrations equivalent to those measured at a site in Eastern Canada. The degree of foliar injury and size of lesions was greater on crop species with waxy leaves than those with non-waxy leaves. Injury was least on needles of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.). The relative sensitivity of the species examined to foliar injury decreased in the order: field rap (Brassica napus L.) > Eucalyptus globulus L.) > pea (Pisum sativum L.) > dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) > field bean (Vicia faba L.) > Sitka spruce.

  5. [Seasonality and contribution to acid rain of the carbon abundance in rainwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Song, Zhi-guang; Liu, Jun-feng; Wang, Cui-ping

    2008-02-01

    This paper reports the results from a study of the carbon abundance in rainwater of Guangzhou city, China. The determination of TOC, DOC, POC and PEC helps to study the seasonality of carbon abundance and its contribution to the acid rain. The results display the fact that the average contents of TOC, DOC, POC and PEC are 7.10 mg/L, 3.58 mg/L, 3.60 mg/L and 0.72 mg/L, respectively. These results confirm the deep effect of the organic pollutant to the rain. The seasonality exists in the carbon abundance of rainwater. The contents of TOC and DOC are up to the maximum in spring and the minimum in summer; the contribution of POC to TOC in summer is obviously higher than that in other seasons; and the relative content of POC is clearly higher in dry season than that in wet season. The seasonality reflects the more emission of the total pollutant in spring and the solid particle pollutant in summer than those in other seasons. Moreover, the emission of the organic pollutant from the mobile vehicles is more obvious in dry season than that in wet season. The contents of TOC and DOC have the negative correlation to the pH values, which confirms the contribution effect of the organic pollutant, such as vehicle emission, to the acid rain.

  6. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  7. Influence of 'acid rain' on agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerbeck, D.

    1983-01-01

    The West German average value of 55 kg sulphur precipitation per hectare is not very informative because the local deposition rates vary considerably from less than 20 to more than 100 kg S/haxa. Also the carbonate and exchangeable cation contents of soils differ from place to place. With the exception of very light sands with low exchange capacities short-term soil damages due to acid precipitation are not to be expected. Generally, the natural and production-induced losses of cations may not be increased through the effects of acid precipitation by more than 10%. On the other hand, 'acid rain' is a considerable source of sulphur to agricultural land, which from the viewpoint of plant nutrition would otherwise have to be supplied by fertilization. This even results in realistic monetary gains, although these sulphur additions would preferably not be made in an acid form. The effects of acid rain in agriculture, therefore cannot only be considered to be detrimental, especially since direct damages to annual field crops by SO/sub 2/ at its present concentration can hardly be found.

  8. [Effects of simulated acid rain on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Han, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Hai-Dong

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different acidity simulated acid rain on the physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield of oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Qinyou 9). Comparing with the control (pH 6.0), weak acidity (pH = 4.0-5.0) simulated acid rain stimulated the rape growth to some extent, but had less effects on the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. With the further increase of acid rain acidity, the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, antioxidative enzyme activities, and non-enzyme antioxidant contents all decreased gradually, while the leaf malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity increased significantly. As the results, the pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight, and actual yield decreased. However, different yield components showed different sensitivity to simulated acid rain. With the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the pod number per plant and the seed number per pod decreased significantly, while the seed weight was less affected.

  9. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast.

  10. Endophytic fungi in Scots pine needles: Spatial variation and consequences of simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, S. (Turku Univ., Turku (F)); Sieber, T.N.; Petrini, O. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Within- and among-tree variation in assemblages of endophytic fungi in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles were studied in a subarctic area where background pollution values are low; the effects of tree density and prolonged simulated acid rain on the occurrence of endophytic fungi were investigated. The needle endophyte most frequently isolated was Cenangium ferruginosum, accounting for 64% of all fungal individuals, followed by Cyclaneusma minus (12% of all individuals). Old needles were colonized more frequently by endophytes than young ones. In young needles the colonization by endophytes increased during the summer, whereas in old ones no seasonal variation was detected. Endophyte colonization was positively correlated with stand density and was reduced on pines treated with spring water acidified with either sulphuric acid alone or in combination with nitric acid. In contrast, nitric acid alone did not affect endophyte colonization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Effect of organic/inorganic compounds on the enzymes in soil under acid rain stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guang-shen; XU Dong-mei; WANG Li-ming; LI Ke-bin; LIU Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    The main effects of pollutions including acid rain, Cu2+, atrazine and their combined products on theactivities of urease, invertin, acid phosphatase and catalase were studied by means of orthogonal test. The resultsshowed that H + and Cu2+ had significant influence on the activities of four enzymes and the ability of their inhibitingfollowed the order: H+ > Cu2+ . Al3+ and atrazine only had litter effects on the activity of urease and phosphatase,respectively. Furthermore, interaction analysis revealed that Cu2+ -H+ affected on the activity of acid phosphatasesignificantly and antagonism on invertin and urease, Cu2+ -atrazine only exhibited the synergism on the activity ofacid phosphatase. But atrazine-H+ had non-interaction within the investigated concentration range. Among fourenzymes, acid phosphatase was the most sensitive one to the contaminations.

  12. [Reponses of sugar metabolism in seed germination of three various acid-fast plants to acid rain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hong; Zhou, Qing; Zeng, Qing-Ling

    2008-03-01

    Responses of sugar metabolism during germination of rice (O. sativa ), wheat (T. aestivum) and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) seeds to simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, pH 2.5, pH 3.0, pH 3.5, pH 4.0, pH 4.5, pH 5.0) were investigated. The purpose was to clarify the mechanism of acid rain affecting seed germination. The results show that the alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of the rice, wheat and rape seeds decrease with increased stress level (pH 5.0 - 2.0), and are lower than CK. The response order of three indexes to stress level of acid rain is that rice (pH 3.5 - 4.0/53.88% - 77.7%) is smaller than wheat (pH 3.5 - 4.5/58.60% - 89.41%), and rape (pH 4.0 - 5.0/60.14% - 100%) is the smallest, alpha-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar of rice increase with prolonged stress time, but the three indexes of wheat and rape increase at first, and then decrease. In the same stress time (3 - 7 d), the three indexes of the three species for all treatment groups are lower than CK, and decrease with increased stress level. The stress time when the maximum damage of a-amylase activity, contents of soluble sugar and reducing sugar appeared is that rice (7 d, 7 d, 7 d) > wheat (7 d, 6 d, 5 d) > rape (3 d, 7 d, 5 d). Responses of three indexes to stress level and stress time of acid rain show that the ability of sugar metabolism resisting acid rain is that rice is stronger than wheat and rape is the worst, and the difference in sugar metabolism of 3 species is one of the internal reasons why the germination indexes behave differently.

  13. Response of peroxidase and catalase to acid rain stress during seed germination of rice, wheat, and rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong WANG; Xiaohua HUANG; Qing ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Seed germination of plants with various acid-resistance display different responses to acid rain. To understand the reason why such differences occur, the effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.0) on the activities of peroxidase (ROD) and catalase (CAT) during seed ger-mination of rice (O. sativa),-wheat (T. aestivum), and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) were investigated. Results indi-cated that the maximum change in activities of CAT and POD by acid rain treatment with different acidity and time in relation to the referent treatment without acid rain, was in the order: rice (28.8%, 31.7%)wheat (4.0)>rape (5.0). Moreover, the change in activity of POD was higher than that of CAT, which showed that POD was more sensitive to acid rain stress than CAT. The difference in the ability of POD and CAT in removing free radicals was one reason why the germina-tion indexes of these three species behaved differently.

  14. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gu, Bao-jing; Ge, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, De-an; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Jie

    2009-08-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hangchowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on P(n), soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  15. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng WANG; Bao-jing GU; Ying GE; Zhen LIU; De-an JIANG; Scott X. CHANG; Jie CHANG

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hang-chowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on Pn, soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  16. Ammonium Variational Trends and the Ammonia Neutralization Effect on Acid Rain over East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao; WANG Zi-Fa; Enagnon A. GBAGUIDI

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and variations of ammonium and the ammonia neutralization effect on acid rain were examined in East Asia during the period of 2000-05 using observed wet deposition data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Observational trends show a high proportion of NH4+ in the total cations, with a six-year mean proportion of over 20% for continental and inland regions. The concentrations and deposition of NH4+ were higher in western China and Vietnam than in other regions. The annual variations in NH4+ concentration were smooth in most of the regions, except for southern China and Vietnam, where the NH4+ concentrations increased, and western China, where the NH4+ concentrations decreased. The neutralization factors (NFs) of NH4+ indicate that ammonia has a great neutralization capability toward acid rain, including for the regions with low NH4+ concentrations, such as Japan. The NFs were high in summer, with no obvious discrepancies between the northern and southern stations. However, the correlation coefficients between NH4+ concentrations and rain pH values imply that the ammonia neutralization effects on the pH values were distinct only at southern China and southern Japan stations. The neutralization of precipitation by ammonia was estimated by comparing the discrepancies between the observed pH values and the pH values calculated without ammonia consuming the H+ in NH4+. The results demonstrate that ammonia may increase annual mean pH values by 0.4-0.7 in southern China and by 0.15-0.25 in southern Japan.

  17. Impact of Years of Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program on Depth of Rain Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.; Acosta-Martinez, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a USDA program administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) introduced in 1985 to reduce soil erosion by increasing vegetative cover of highly erodible land. The Texas High Plains (THP) leads the US with >890,000 ha enrolled in CRP. Potential benefits of the CRP include, e.g., increased infiltration of rainfall and organic matter, and better soil structure. However, impact of these benefits is not well characterized. Participation in the CRP is done via contracts (10-15 years in length) and since its inception land area of the THP enrolled in CRP has varied significantly allowing the evaluation of years of enrollment (age) on soil structure and impact on rain infiltration. This information is critical for land users to determine how long it is necessary to enroll their land in the CRP to improve soil structure and impact rain infiltration and increase the water holding capacity of the soil. Stable isotopes of water present a useful technique that is used in ecology and hydrology to study water movement through ecosystems and can be used to evaluate the depth of infiltration of rainwater under CRP management. We compared the infiltration depth of rain in land under CRP management to land under continuous dryland cotton with no irrigation. Two locations, in Terry and Lynn counties, were used for this study. The site in Terry County was enrolled in CRP for 25 years (1985) and 22 years (1992) in Lynn County.

  18. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf anatomy and micromorphology of Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in order to characterize the injuries on leaf structure and micromorphology of G. americana and evaluate the degree of susceptibility of this species to simulated acid rain. Plants were exposed to acid rain (pH 3.0 for ten consecutive days. Control plants were submitted only to distilled water (pH 6.0. Leaf tissue was sampled and fixed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Necrotic interveinal spots on the leaf blade occurred. Epidermis and mesophyll cells collapse, hypertrophy of spongy parenchyma cells, accumulation of phenolic compounds and starch grains were observed in leaves exposed to acid rain. The micromorphological analysis showed, in necrotic areas, plasmolized guard cells and cuticle rupture. Epidermal and mesophyll cells alterations occurred before symptoms were visualized in the leaves. These results showed the importance of anatomical data for precocious diagnosis injury and to determine the sensitivity of G. americana to acid rain.Experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o grau de susceptibilidade e determinar as injúrias causadas pela chuva ácida simulada na anatomia e micromorfologia foliar de Genipa americana. Plantas foram expostas à chuva com pH 3,0 durante 10 dias consecutivos. No tratamento controle utilizou-se apenas água destilada (pH 6,0. Amostras foliares foram coletadas e fixadas para microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foram observados nas folhas expostas à chuva ácida: necroses pontuais intervenais, colapso das células do mesofilo e da epiderme; hipertrofia do parênquima lacunoso e acúmulo de compostos fenólicos e grãos de amido. A análise micromorfológica evidenciou, nas áreas necrosadas, plasmólise das células-guarda e ruptura da cutícula e da crista estomática. Alterações anatômicas ocorreram antes que sintomas visuais fossem observados nas folhas. Estes resultados comprovam a importância de dados anatômicos na diagnose precoce da injúria e na

  19. [Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of Indocalamus barbatus under simulated acid rain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yin-Feng; Yang, Wan-Hong; Lu, Mei-Rong; Cai, Xian-Lei; Zhou, Jian

    2008-06-01

    With Indocalamus barbatus as test material, the effects of silicon on the relative content of chlorophyll, diurnal variations of photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were examined under simulated acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. The results showed that under acid rain stress, 20 and 500 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 could prohibit the decrease of the relative content of chlorophyll to some extent; 100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 could get best effect, with the relative chlorophyll content being 22.7% higher than the control; while 500 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 didn't have any effect. Under the stress, the midday depression of photosynthesis became more serious. The average daily net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal limitation value (Ls), and stomata conductance (Gs) were all decreased significantly, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased. After treated with 20-100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3, the Pn, Ls, and Gs increased to some extent while Ci decreased, and 100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 was most effective, with the average daily Pn increased by 39.2%. The maximum fluorescence of dark adaptation (Fm), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), potential activity (Fv/Fo), effective photochemical efficiency (Fv'/Fm'), maximum fluorescence of light adaptation (Fm') of PSII, photochemical quenching (qp), non-photochemical quenching (qN), and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (PhiPSII) were all decreased obviously under simulated acid rain stress, but the minimum fluorescence of dark adaptation (Fo) and the minimum fluorescence of light adaptation (Fo') increased. 100 mg x L(-1) of Na2SiO3 could restrain the changes of fluorescence parameters obviously, with the Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, Fv'/Fm' and PhiPSII increased by 35.2%, 146.2%, 55.0% and 24.3%, respectively, compared with the control. It was suggested that applying appropriate concentration of exogenous silicon to I. barbatus could efficiently relieve the decrease of its photosynthetic activity and the damage of its

  20. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  1. Effect of Matrix Modification on Durability of Cementitious Composites in an Acid Rain Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kui; YANG Hui; LU Zhenbao; JIA Fangfang; WANG Erpo; DONG Quanxiao

    2014-01-01

    The durability of silane-modified mortar, a cementitious composite, in acid rain environment was investigated given its extensive usage as a structural material. The results indicated that the addition of silane decreased the compressive strength of the cementitious composite. Wetting angle was increased by incorporating silane into the matrix. Decrease in both water absorption ability and coefficient of capillary suction confirmed hydrophobicity as induced by silane addition. Results of mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the sulfuric acid resistance of mortar was enhanced by silane. Based on these results, it is revealed that silane addition inhibits the diffusion of water, and consequently, sulfate ion diffusion rate decreases, thereby resulting in reduction in the rate of corrosion of cementitious composites by sulfuric acid.

  2. [Combined effects of copper and simulated acid rain on copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan-Ying; Gao, Yong-Jie; Shentu, Jia-Li; Chen, Kun-Bai

    2011-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of Cu (0-1500 mg x kg(-1)) and simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.6) on the copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa. With the increasing concentration of soil Cu, the Cu accumulation in R. acetosa increased, being higher in root than in stem and leaf. The exposure to low pH acid rain promoted the Cu uptake by R. acetosa. With the increase of soil Cu concentration and/or of acid rain acidity, the biomass of R. acetosa decreased, leaf and root MDA contents increased and had good correlation with soil Cu concentration, and the SOD and POD activities in leaf and root displayed a decreasing trend after an initial increase. This study showed that R. acetosa had a strong adaptive ability to Cu and acid rain stress, exhibiting a high application potential in the remediation of Cu-contaminated soil in acid rain areas.

  3. Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bo-han; Liu, Hong-yu; Zeng, Qing-ru; Yu, Ping-zhong; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-08-01

    Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were studied in a pot experiment by measurement of fresh weights of the plants, determination of surperoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the plant organs, and observation of injury symptoms. The experimental results demonstrated that all treatments of Cd2+, Zn2+, and/or acid rain significantly decreased fresh weights of kidney bean and caused toxic effects on growth of the plants, especially higher amounts of Cd2+ and Zn2+ and higher acidity of acid rain. Combination of these three pollutant factors resulted in more serious toxic effects than any single pollutant and than combinations of any two pollutants. SOD, POD, and MDA in the plant organs changed with different pollution levels, but MDA content in the leaves showed the best relationship between the pollution levels and toxic effects.

  4. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area.

  5. Corrosion behavior of LY12CZ aluminum alloy in simulated acid rain solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安百刚; 张学元; 宋诗哲; 李洪锡; 韩恩厚

    2003-01-01

    The variations of corrosion potential, electrochemical impedance and surface morphology of LY12 alumi-num alloy with pH of simulated acidic rain solutions were investigated with EIS and SEM. It is found that corrosionpotential shifts to less noble value with increasing pH in the solutions of pH lower than 3.1 and shifts to more noblevalue in the solutions of pH higher than 3.1. In the solutions of pH lower than 3.1,the electrochemical impedancediagram has a capacitive loop at higher frequency and an inductive loop at lower frequency and the magnitude of highfrequency loop decreases with decreasing pH and increasing period of immersion. However, in the solutions of pHhigher than 3.4 two capacitive loops appear and the magnitude of high frequency loops increases with pH and periodof immersion. Observation of SEM shows that the pitting intensity increases with decreasing pH in the range ofpH2.0~3.4, no evident pits are observed at pH higher than 3.4. The experiment results were discussed from re-sistance of oxide film and adsorption processes of anions in simulated acid rain solution.

  6. Runoff changes in Czech headwater regions after deforestation induced by acid rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchtele, J.; Buchtelova, M.; Hrkal, Z.; Koskova, R.

    2003-04-01

    Tendencies in water regime resulting from land-use change represent an important subject for research and in the region of so called Black Triangle at the borders of Czech Republic, Germany and Poland urgent practical problem. Namely extensive deforestation in Czech hilly basins induced by acid rains, which appeared in seventies and eighties, requires attention. Discussions among professionals and public, sometimes having emotional character, took place after large floods on the rivers Odra and Morava in 1997 and in Vltava and Elbe river basins in August 2002. The influence of deforestation induced by acid rains in the Central Europe has been considered as important contribution to disastrous character of floods. Simulations of rainfall-runoff process in several catchments and experimental basins in two distinct headwater regions along German borders, with different extent of deforestation have been carried out using daily time series up to 40 years long. The outputs of two hydrological models of different structure have been compared in these investigations: - the conceptual model SAC-SMA - Sacramento soil moisture accounting - physically based 1- D model BROOK´90 The differences between observed and simulated discharge, which could show the tendencies in the runoff have been followed. They indicate increase of runoff after deforestation.

  7. 基于GIS的中国酸雨控制区酸雨空间分布特征研究%Spatial Distribution of Acid Rain in Acid Rain Pollution Controlled Area of China Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓华; 徐光来

    2014-01-01

    利用全国74个酸雨监测站点2004-2006年降水-pH 数据,通过ArcGIS空间插值,模拟酸雨pH空间分布,根据酸雨“两控区”方案,提取酸雨控制区的酸雨pH空间分布,进行GIS空间分析.结果表明:中国的酸雨严重区主要分布在四川盆地、长江以南广大地区,酸雨强度沿长江向西北和东部有扩大趋势,四川盆地酸雨区已与华南酸雨区连成一片;3年间,pH<5.6的酸雨范围相对研究区面积比值由56.73%扩大到73.11%,pH<4.5的严重酸雨区由2.15%扩大到10.41%,2006年增幅最大;不同等级酸雨范围扩大趋势明显,酸雨污染趋于严重.%The pH distribution of acid rain in the acid rain pollution controlled area in China is simu-lated by using the monitoring data of acid rains from 2004 to 2006 obtained from 74 acid rain monitoring sites with spatial interpolation of ArcGIS. GIS spatial analysis method is used to analyze the distribution of acid rain of the acid rain pollution areas which is extracted from the interpolated map. As the results show,the most serious acid rain polluted areas are located in Sichuan Basin and areas to the south of the Yangtze River;the variations of gradual acid rain region expand from southern China to the northwest and Eastern China along the Yangtze River;the ratio of acid rain range of pH less than 5.6 to the acid rain pollution controlled area expands from 56.73% to 73.11% in the 3-year period;the ratio of the most seri-ous polluted area of pH less than 4.5 expands from 2.15% to 10.41%,which grew the fastest in 2006;the expanding trends of acid rain ranges of different grades are very significant;and the acid rain pollution has become more serious.

  8. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals.

  9. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics of longan (Dimocarpus longana) seedlings under acid rain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-fu; Wang, Ming-yuan; Yang, Chen; Zhu, Ai-jun

    2013-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic regulation substances of longan (Dimocarpus longana 'Fuyan') seedlings under acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. Under the acid rain stress, the seedling leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents decreased obviously, while the leaf malondialdedyde content had a remarkable increase, suggesting the toxic effect of the acid rain on the seedlings. Exogenous nitric oxide had dual nature on the physiological characteristics of longan seedlings under acid rain stress. Applying 0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP improved the SOD, POD and CAT activities and the chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents significantly, and decreased the malondialdedyde content. Low concentrations SNP reduced the oxidative damage caused by the acid rain stress, and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP had the best effect. Under the application of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP, the total chlorophyll, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents and the SOD, POD and CAT activities increased by 76.0%, 107.0%, 216.1%, 150. 0%, 350.9% and 97.1%, respectively, and the malondialdedyde content decreased by 46.4%. It was suggested that low concentration (0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1)) SNP could alleviate the toxic effect of acid rain stress on longan seedlings via activating the leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and reducing oxidative stress, while high concentration SNP (1.0 mmol x L(-1)) lowered the mitigation effect.

  10. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics.

  11. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Sequestering CO(2) by mineral carbonation: stability against acid rain exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel J; Brent, Geoff F

    2010-04-01

    Mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive alternative to storage of compressed CO(2) in underground repositories, known as geosequestration. Processes for the conversion of basic ores, such as magnesium silicates, to carbonates have been proposed by various researchers, with storage of the carbonate as backfill in the original mine representing a solid carbon sink. The stability of such carbon sinks against acid rain and other sources of strong acids is examined here. It is acknowledged that in the presence of strong acid, carbonates will dissolve and release carbon dioxide. A sensitivity analysis covering annual average rainfall and pH that may be encountered in industrialized areas of the United States, China, Europe, and Australia was conducted to determine maximum CO(2) rerelease rates from mineral carbonation carbon sinks. This analysis is based on a worst-case premise that is equivalent to assuming infinitely rapid kinetics of dissolution of the carbonate. The analysis shows that under any likely conditions of pH and rainfall, leakage rates of stored CO(2) are negligible. This is illustrated in a hypothetical case study under Australian conditions. It is thus proposed that sequestration by mineral carbonation can be considered to be permanent on practical human time scales. Other possible sources of acid have also been considered.

  13. Physiological responses of root-less epiphytic plants to acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Bačkor, Martin; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-03-01

    Selected physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) and two lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Xanthoria parietina) exposed to simulated acid rain (AR) over 3 months were studied. Pigments were depressed in all species being affected the most in Tillandsia. Amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were elevated and soluble proteins decreased only in AR-exposed Hypogymnia. Free amino acids were slightly affected among species and only glutamate sharply decreased in AR-exposed Xanthoria. Slight increase in soluble phenols but decrease in flavonoids in almost all species suggests that the latter are not essential for tolerance to AR. Almost all phenolic acids in Tillandsia leaves decreased in response to AR and activities of selected enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) were enhanced by AR. In lichens, considerable increase in metabolites (physodalic acid, atranorin and parietin) in response to AR was found but amount of ergosterol was unchanged. Macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased more pronouncedly in comparison with micronutrients in all species. Xanthoria showed higher tolerance in comparison with Hypogymnia, suggesting that could be useful for long-term biomonitoring.

  14. Electrochemical behaviour of iron and AISI 304 stainless steel in simulated acid rain solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilic, Zora; Martinovic, Ivana [Mostar Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-15

    The growth mechanism and properties of the oxide films on iron and AISI 304 stainless steel were studied in simulated acid rain (pH 4.5) by means of electrochemical techniques and atomic absorption spectrometry. The layer-pore resistance model was applied to explain a potentiodynamic formation of surface oxides. It was found that the growth of the oxide film on iron takes place by the low-field migration mechanism, while that on the stainless steel takes place by the high-field mechanism. Kinetic parameters were determined. Impedance measurements revealed that Fe surface film has no protective properties at the open circuit potential, while the resistance of stainless steel oxide film is very high. The concentration of the metallic ions released into solution and measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy was in accordance with the results obtained from the electrochemical techniques.

  15. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  16. Development and Implementation of a Simple, Engaging Acid Rain Neutralization Experiment and Corresponding Animated Instructional Video for Introductory Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Yennie, Craig J.; Lynch, Patrick; Lowry, Gregory; Budarz, James; Zhu, Wenlei; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an acid rain neutralization laboratory experiment and its corresponding instructional video. This experiment has been developed and implemented for use in the teaching laboratory of a large introductory chemistry course at Brown University. It provides a contextually relevant example to introduce beginner-level students with…

  17. Particle-facilitated lead and arsenic transport in abandoned mine sites soil influenced by simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoping, Hu; Xincai, Chen; Jiyan, Shi; Yingxu, Chen; Qi, Lin

    2008-05-01

    The role of acid rain in affecting Pb and As transport from mine tailings was investigated by pumping simulated acid rain at a infiltration rate of 10.2 cm/h through soil columns. Simulated acid rain with pH of 3.0, 4.5 and 5.6 were used as leaching solutions. Results showed that 86.9-95.9% of Pb and 90-91.8% of As eluted from the columns were adsorbed by particles in the leachates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that particles released from the columns were mainly composed of flocculated aggregates and plate or rod shaped discrete grains. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed that these particles were predominantly silicate minerals. Results from our experiments demonstrated that when rapid infiltration conditions or a rainstorm exist, particle-facilitated transport of contaminants is likely to the dominant metal transport pathway influenced by acid rain.

  18. Evaluating Potential Bias in Media Coverage of the Public Debate over Acid Rain and Chlorofluorocarbons in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tiffany Dawn; Moore, Rebecca; Markewitz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates media coverage of two important environmental issues from the 1980s (acid rain and chlorofluorocarbons), providing historical context for current media coverage analysis. Focusing on popular magazine articles, this study identifies key characteristics of content and presentation. Content-related characteristics are inclusion…

  19. Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ≤ 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection.

  20. Experimental investigation of influence of acid rain on leaching and hydraulic characteristics of cement-based solidified/stabilized lead contaminated clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ning-Jun; Shen, Shui-Long; Jin, Fei

    2012-07-30

    Remediation of contaminated lands in China urban areas is of great concern. Degradation of construction facilities caused by acid rain is a serious environmental pollution issue in China. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of acid rain on leaching and hydraulic properties of cement-based solidified/stabilized lead contaminated soil. Laboratory tests including infiltration test and soaking test are conducted. It is found that the soil hydraulic conductivity decreases with increase in the pore volume of flow of permeant liquids (acid rain and distilled water). The decreasing rate in the case of the acid rain is lower than that in the case of the distilled water. The soaking test results show that pH and the presence of sulfate ions of acid rain have considerable influence on the leached concentrations and leaching rate of calcium.

  1. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  2. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system.

  3. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei

    2014-04-30

    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure.

  4. The effect of particulate matter components on the acidity of rain in upper Silesia (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Department of Environmental Protection and Engineering, Technical University of Czestochowa, Czestochowa (Poland); Korszun, Katarzyna [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    2012-07-15

    Analysis of data characterizing the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation was presented, with an emphasis on components responsible for neutralization of rain acidity. For this purpose, chemometric methods were applied. Based on a principal component analysis (PCA) a strong correlation between precipitation pH and potassium and ammonium ions in the heating period (October-March) and potassium and sodium ions in the non-heating period (April-September) was observed. Additionally, a classification of eight variables, i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} according to their similarities was made using a cluster analysis. Based on this study, two ions, potassium and ammonium, together with the pH value were classified into one group (cluster) in the heating period while in the non-heating period ions of potassium and sodium were clustered together with the pH. The results of the cluster analysis indicated that the selected ions contributed the most to the neutralization of the atmospheric precipitation acidity. This relationship was confirmed by a discriminant analysis in which potassium and ammonium ions were selected as components of the highest potential for precipitation classification according to its acidity degree. The relationship between the precipitation pH and the number of non-precipitation days preceding the precipitation was also analyzed. It was found that although the observed an increase of the pH value was not very high, nevertheless, the effect of the duration of the period preceding the precipitation on the pH value recorded on the day of the precipitation occurrence was quite evident. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Leaf surface and histological perturbations of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus after exposure to simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S. (Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY); Gmur, N.F.; Da Costa, F.

    1977-08-01

    Initial injury to adaxial leaf surfaces of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus occurred near trichomes and stomata after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain. Lesion frequency was not correlated with density of either stomata or trichomes but was correlated with degree of leaf expansion. The number of lesions per unit area increased with total leaf area. Results suggest that characteristics of the leaf indumentum such as development of trichomes and guard cells and/or cuticle thickness near these structures may be involved in lesion development. Adaxial epidermal cell collapse was the first event in lesion development. Palisade cells and eventually spongy mesophyll cells collapsed after continued, daily exposure to simulated rain of low pH. Lesion development on Phaseolus vulgaris followed a specific course of events after exposure to simulated rain of known composition, application rate, drop size frequency, drop velocities, and frequency of exposures. These results allow development of further experiments to observe accurately other parameters, such as nutrient inputs and nutrient leaching from foliage, after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain.

  6. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

    2013-04-01

    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the wheat leaves decreased because of calcium foliar application. Calcium hindered degradation of the rubisco subunits under acid rain treatment compared with water-treated plants. Results suggest that acid rain induces the production of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane so that significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed. In addition, photosynthetic parameters i.e. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were drastically suppressed by acid rain. The cellular damage caused by free radicals might be reduced or prevented by a protective metabolism including antioxidative enzymes and calcium. We report that foliar application of calcium before acid rain may ameliorate the adverse effects of acid rain in wheat plants.

  7. Planning of an Integrated Acidification Study and Survey on Acid Rain Impacts in China. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydersen, Espen; Angell, Valter; Eilertsen, Odd; Muniz, Ivar P. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway); Larssen, Thorbjoern; Seip, Hans Martin; Aagaard, Per; Vogt, Rolf D. [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Mulder, Jan

    1997-12-31

    This is the final report from the PIAC project, which was a multidisciplinary survey on acid rain in China. One goal was to document effects of airborne acidifying compounds on vegetation, soil, soil- and surface-water and aquatic biota. Other goals were to exchange knowledge between Chinese and Norwegian scientists, and to visit research sites in highly polluted areas in China and evaluate their need of support in a future collaborative monitoring and research programme. Samples have been collected from over 20 sites in three areas. Negative effects of air pollution are found on all ecosystem levels investigated. The concentration of sulfur in the air in urban and near-urban areas is very high. The concentration of volatile organic compounds is generally high, which means that increased NOx emissions in coming years may increase the ozone problems. Reduced photosynthesis activities were found in some plants and acidification observed in soil and surface water. Aquatic biota also reflect the acidification status of the surface waters investigated. However, it is difficult to assess the degree of damage in these regions because the survey includes too few sites. Surface water acidification is currently not a major environmental problem in China and is unlikely to be one during the next decades. The report includes a status report on acidification in China and a proposed framework for a monitoring programme based on Norwegian experiences. 139 refs., 16 figs., 45 tabs.

  8. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  9. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  10. [Complex effects of simulated acid rain and Cu on the physiological characteristics of Paulownia fortunei and its detoxification mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Chong-Bang; Ke, Shi-Sheng; Qian, Bao-Ying

    2010-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain (pH 4.0, 5.0) and Cu (0-200 mg x kg(-1)) on the physiological characteristics of Paulownia fortunei and its detoxification mechanism. With no Cu addition, the leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid, O2 division by, H2O2, and MDA contents of P. fortunei had no significant differences between the two acid rain treatments. However, with the addition of 100 and 200 mg Cu x kg(-1), the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of treatment pH 4.0 were lower, while the O2 divided by, H2O2 and MDA contents were higher thanthose of treatment pH 5.0. The chlorophyll a/b ratio of treatments Cu was higher than that of the control. The leaf Cu content decreased obviously with the increasing acidity of stimulated acid rain, but the root Cu content was in reverse. With increasing Cu addition, both the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and the total contents of phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) in treatment pH 5.0 increased, while the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX in treatment pH 4.0 decreased after an initial increase, and the total contents of glutathione (GSH) decreased greatly in treatment 200 mg Cu x kg(-1). All of these demonstrated that the oxidative stress of high Cu concentration to P. fortunei was aggravated by stimulated acid rain.

  11. Analysis of the combined effects of lanthanum and acid rain, and their mechanisms, on nitrate reductase transcription in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Binxin; Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) pollution and acid rain are major global environmental concerns, and their spatial distributions overlap. Thus, both forms of pollution combine to act on plants. Nitrogen is important for plant growth, and nitrate reductase (NR) is a key plant enzyme that catalyzes nitrogen assimilation. Studying the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plant nitrogen-based nutrients has important environmental significance. Here, soybean (Glycine max) plants, commonly used for toxicological studies, were exposed to lanthanum (La), a REE, and acid rain to study the NR activities and NR transcriptional levels in the roots. To explain how the pollution affected the NR transcriptional level, we simultaneously observed the contents of intracellular La and nutrient elements, protoplast morphology, membrane lipid peroxidation and intracellular pH. A combined treatment of 0.08mmol/L La and pH 4.5 acid rain increased the NR activity, decreased the NR transcriptional level, increased the intracellular nutrient elements' contents and caused deformations in membrane structures. Other combined treatments significantly decreased the aforementioned parameters and caused serious damage to the membrane structures. The variation in the amplitudes of combined treatments was greater than those of individual treatments. Compared with the control and individual treatments, combined treatments increased membrane permeability, the malondialdehyde content, and intracellular H(+) and La contents, and with an increasing La concentration or acid strength, the change in amplitude increased. Thus, the combined effects on NR gene transcription in soybean seedling roots were related to the intracellular nutrient elements' contents, protoplast morphology, membranous lipid peroxidation, intracellular pH and La content.

  12. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Spinach and Soil under Condition of Using REE and Acid Rain Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严重玲; 洪业汤; 林鹏; 王世杰; 李心清; 梁洁

    2002-01-01

    The content and distribution characteristics of REE in spinach and soil under using REE and acid rain stress were studied by pot experiments. The results show that the content of REE is 0.527~0.696 (μgg-1) in the above-ground portion of spinach, 2.668~3.003 (μg*g-1) in the under-ground portion of spinach and 229.09~250.30 (μg*g-1) in the soil. With the acidity of acid rain increasing, the leaching of REE in plants and soil is strengthened and the amount of REE reduces with decreasing of pH value. After REE are used, though plants show the selective absorption to Ce group elements (especially spraying on leaves), regardless under acid rain stress or using REE or not, the distribution model of REE in the above-ground and under-ground portion of plants is basically the same with the control. Plants also follow the Oddo-Harkins rule of the REE of distribution abundance, light rare earth elements is enriched, the minus of Eu is abnormal and admeasure of Ce is a rich model. The results show that REE in plants mainly come from soil and are affected by it.

  13. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress.

  14. Corrosion and Runoff Behavior of Carbon Steel in Simulated Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baigang AN; Xueyuan ZHANG; Enhou HAN; Honxi LI

    2004-01-01

    Under the condition of simulated rain precipitation in the laboratory, with ElS and SEM observation, the effects of pH value of simulated rain on corrosion and runoff behavior of carbon steel A3 were studied. The corrosion rate of A3 steel increased and runoff action of rain precipitation on A3 steel surface was intensified with decreasing pH value, of simulated rainwater.The runoff and corrosion traces were formed along the flowing direction of rainwater, which appeared more apparently with decreasing pH value.

  15. Emission control for precursors causing acid rain(V):Improvement of acid soil with the bio-briquette combustion ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xu-hui; SAKAMOTO Kazuhiko; WANG Wei; GAO Shi-dong; ISOBE Yugo

    2004-01-01

    The bio-briquette technique which mixes coal, biomass and sulfur fixation agent and bio-briquettes under 3-5 t/cm2 line pressure has aroused people's attention in view of controlling the air pollution and the acid rain. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of bio-briquette and its ash were investigated. And the acid soil was improved by the bio-briquette combustion ash, which contained nutritive substances such as P, N, K and had the acid-neutralizing capacity(ANC). The pH, EC, effective nutrient elements(Ca, Mg, K, P and N), heavy metal elements(Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) and acid-neutralizing capacity change of ash-added soils within the range of 0%-10%, were also studied. Specially, when 5% bio-briquette combustion ash was added to the tested soil, the content of the effective elements such as Ca, Mg and K rose by 100 times, 7 times and twice, respectively. The total nitrogen also increased by about twice. The results showed the oxyanions such as that of Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn were not potentially dangerous, because they were about the same as the averages of them in Chinese soil. It is shown that the ANC became stronger, though the ANC hardly increases in the ash-added soil. On the basis of the evaluation indices, it is concluded that the best mixture ratio is to add 2.5%-8% of the bio-briquette combustion ash to the tested soil.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF ACID RAINS ON THE LITHOTHAMNIAN LIMESTONE ON THE GALLERY OF THE MARY'S ASCENSION CATHEDRAL, ZAGREB, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban, environmental pollution, caused by acid rains and damages of stone elements on Cathedral of Zagreb are described. On the surfaces of limestone elements that are in the »shade«, the black scabs have developed. The outher crusts, and inner powdery matter of the black scabs have been investigated by microscopy, and analyzed by means of x-ray. thermal and chemical analyses. They contain gypsum, calcite, soot, and sporadic fly ash.

  17. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects.

  18. Silicon alleviates simulated acid rain stress of Oryza sativa L. seedlings by adjusting physiology activity and mineral nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shuming; Wang, Liping; Yin, Ningning; Li, Dan; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Cuiying

    2017-03-16

    Silicon (Si) has been a modulator in plants under abiotic stresses, such as acid rain. To understand how silicon made an effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress, the growth, physiologic activity, and mineral nutrient content in leaves of rice were investigated. The results showed that combined treatments with Si (1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mM) and SAR (pH 4.0, 3.0, or 2.0) obviously improved the rice growth compared with the single treatment with SAR. Incorporation of Si into SAR treatment decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content; increased soluble protein and proline contents; promoted CAT, POD, SOD, and APX activity; and maintained the K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu content balance in leaves of rice seedlings under SAR stress. The moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) was better than the low and high concentration of Si (1.0 and 4.0 mM). Therefore, application of Si could be a better strategy for maintaining the crop productivity in acid rain regions.

  19. [Relationships between soil moisture and needle-fall in Masson pine forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Hao; Wang, Yan-Hui; Li, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Peng-Tao; Xiong, Wei; Hao, Jia; Duan, Jian

    2012-10-01

    From March 2009 to November 2011, an investigation was conducted on the spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture and its effects on the needle-fall in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southeast China, with the corresponding soil moisture thresholds determined. No matter the annual precipitation was abundant, normal or less than average, the seasonal variation of soil moisture in the forests could be obviously divided into four periods, i.e., sufficient (before May), descending (from June to July), drought (from August to September), and recovering (from October to November). With increasing soil depth, the soil moisture content increased after an initial decrease, but the difference of the soil moisture content among different soil layers decreased with decreasing annual precipitation. The amount of monthly needle-fall in the forests in growth season was significantly correlated with the water storage in root zone (0-60 cm soil layer), especially in the main root zone (20-50 cm soil layer). Soil field capacity (or capillary porosity) and 82% of field capacity (or 80% of capillary porosity) were the main soil moisture thresholds affecting the litter-fall. It was suggested that in acid rain region, Masson pine forest was easily to suffer from water deficit stress, especially in dry-summer period. The water deficit stress, together with already existed acid rain stress, would further threaten the health of the Masson forest.

  20. Effects of La3+ on ATPase Activities of Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Casuarina Equisetifolia Seedlings under Acid Rain Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕红; 严重玲; 刘景春; 陈英华; 胡俊; 薛博

    2003-01-01

    The effects of La3+ on the growth and the ATPases activities of plasma membrane(PM) vesicles isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings under artificial acid rain(pH 4.5) stress were studied. The results show that the height, length of roots, fresh weight and PM H+-ATPase activites of Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings increase by the treatments of soaking seeds in LaCl3 solutions with lower concentrations, and those can reach their peak values by treating with 200 mg·L-1 La3+. However, in comparison with the CK, those are inhibited by the higher La3+ concentrations; PM Ca2+-ATPase activity is inhibited with the treatments of La3+. The results also reveal that the H+-ATPase activity and the growth of cell enlarge have a remarkable positive correlation, and La3+ activating H+-ATPase can facilitate plant growth. La3+ also can alleviate cytosolic acidification of plant under acid rain stress and indirectly maintain the stability of intracellular environment. In order to resistant to acid rain and accelerate the growth of Casuarina equisetifolia, the suitable range of La3+ concentrations to soak seeds for 8 h is 50~200 mg*L-1.

  1. Marginal bleaching of thalli of Rhizocarpon as evidence for acid rain in the Norra Storfjället, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W C; Wilson, E; Boyer, M G; Hancock, R G

    1995-01-01

    Recent lichen surveys in the foreland of The Syterbäcken glacier reveal that the crustose lichens, principally species of Rhizocarpon section Rhizocarpon, exhibit marginal bleaching, readily distinguishable from normal pigmented forms. The largest elliptical thallus of Rhizocarpon measured 290 mm maximum diameter on a bedrock outcrop beyond the margin of Little Ice Age moraines in the upper Syterbäcken Valley. Many small and large thalli of Rhizocarpon suffered damage to the periphery of individual thalli. We examine here some of the possible hypotheses explaining these occurrences. Among others, these are bedrock lithology, ice crystal blasting, long-term snowbank cover, ultraviolet exposure and acid rain. While at this time none of the possibilities can be ruled out entirely, acid rain would appear to be at least one of the factors involved. Acid rain, which is known to produce a soil pH as low as 3.3 in the field area, appears to provide a high input of H(+) ions that the lichen algal component cannot withstand. However, the lack of similar effects on associated foliose or fruticose forms raises the possibility that perhaps two or more factors specific to the environment of Rhizocarpon are operating.

  2. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brick, S. [MSB Energy Associates, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Desorption of metals from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. Lichen using solutions simulating acid rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Ana A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desorption of metals K, Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Ba, Zn, Mn, Cu and Sr from Cetraria islandica (L. with solutions whose composition was similar to that of acid rain, was investigated. Desorption of metals from the lichen was performed by five successive desorption processes. Solution mixtures containing H2SO4, HNO3 and H2SO4-HNO3 were used for desorption. Each solution had three different pH values: 4.61, 5.15 and 5.75, so that the desorptions were performed with nine different solutions successively five times, always using the same solution volume. The investigated metals can be divided into two groups. One group was comprised of K, Ca and Mg, which were desorbed in each of the five desorption processes at all pH values used. The second group included Al, Fe, Zn, Ba, Mn and Sr; these were not desorbed in each individual desorption and not at all pH values, whereas Cu was not desorbed at all under any circumstances. Using the logarithmic dependence of the metal content as a function of the desorption number, it was found that potassium builds two types of links and is connected with weaker links in lichen. Potassium is completely desorbed, 80% in the first desorption, and then gradually in the following desorptions. Other metals are linked with one weaker link (desorption 1-38% and with one very strong link (desorption below the metal detection limit. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009 i br. ON 172019

  4. Causes and Countermeasures of Acid Rain in Taiyuan%太原市酸雨成因及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时红; 张永波

    2001-01-01

    The author analyses the conditions of acid rain pollution in Taiyuan and the causes of acid rain.Results show that the acid rain pollution of Dongru area in Taiyuan is serious, and the intensity of acid rain pollution is rising gradually. Finally,some comprehensive countermeasures are presented.%通过对太原市酸雨污染状况及成因进行分析,表明太原市酸雨的污染以董茹地区为严重污染区,且污染强度逐渐加大,并提出酸雨的综合防治措施。

  5. Histological characterization of gell formation and lesion development on leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and clones of hybrid poplar after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacosta, F.

    1978-01-01

    Histological investigations with leaves of several hybrid poplar clones illustrate gall formations in response to simulated acid rain that result from hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mesophyll cells. Similar experiments with phaseolus vulgaris and clones of hybrid poplar show a sequence of events that follow a general pattern of adaxial epidermis destruction, injury to palisade parenchyma and eventual destruction of more interior tissues after continued exposure to one, six-minute, rain event daily. Results show that most (95%) lesions on Phaseolus vulgaris developed near trichomes and stomata after exposure to the simulated acid rain.

  6. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress.

  7. Characteristics and analysis of acid rain in valley and basin%山谷、盆地酸雨形成的特点及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪正昉

    2001-01-01

    通过多年来对酸雨监测资料的研究,根据酸雨的发展情况,分析了山谷、盆地的酸雨形成特点,提出了山谷和盆地酸雨形成的新观点,认为其酸雨的形成主要是来自当地自身环境所产生的大气污染,其次才是外界的污染因素,中和离子也是酸雨污染加重的原因之一。%This paper analyzed the formation characteristics of acid rain in valley and basin based on the research on the acid rain mate-rials in the past years and the developed circumstances of acid rain.The new viewpoint of the acid rain formation in valley and basin was presented.It is considered that the formation of acid rain is mainly resulted from the atmospheric pollution of the local environment,and secondly,the outside pullulate factors,and then neutralizing ions are also one of the factors of making the pollution of acid rain.

  8. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6.

  9. Kaifeng Acid Rain Appears Circumstance Analysis%近年来开封市酸雨出现情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二虎; 仝文伟; 郭艳玲; 李树新

    2011-01-01

    Making use of weather bureau acid rain observation post in Kaifeng prognosticates data, the folio seals city acid rain the phenomenon appears of frequency and pH strength variety carried on analysis. Express as a result: Acid rain in Kaifeng appears the month, quarter of frequency to change a little bit obviously. Acid rain's appearing the month of most frequency is a September, appearing the month of minimal frequency is a February. The autumn appears the frequency of acid rain biggest, secondly is a summer, spring but appear the frequency of acid rain in winter minimal. The month, quarter variety of acid rain pH strength in Kaifeng all presents more obvious "Mountain peak-valley" motion to change,the spring is as biggest as the acid rain strength of the autumn,in summer time, winter minimum. Kaifeng city appears the number of times of one less than 5.6 following acid rains most,pH less than 4.5 stronger acid rain number of timeses are slightly a little bit little, pH the number of times of less than 4.0 following common acid rains is the minimal. But allow of no what to neglect BE,although strong acid rain in Kaifeng appears number of times less, present to obviously and year by year increase of trend. This elucidation acid rain in Kaifeng endangers of the situation is gradually rigorous. The acid rain is the main reason that makes farmland soil sour to turn, so the prevention and cure acid rain harm should strengthen the management of pollutant emissions in the city and raise energy utilization. Moreover still need to strengthen the protection to the farmland environment.%利用开封市气象局酸雨观测站2008-2010年的酸雨观测资料,对开封市酸雨出现的频率及其pH值变化进行了分析.结果表明开封市出现酸雨的月、季变化比较明显:酸雨出现频率最多的是9月份,出现最少的是2月份;秋季出现酸雨的频率最大,其次是夏季、春季、而冬季的频率最少.开封市酸雨pH值强度的月、季变

  10. Detection of Acid Rain Stress Effect on Plant Using Hyperspectral Data in Three Gorges Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaodong; JIANG Hong; YU Shuquan; ZHOU Guomo

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to use hyperspectral data to detect the spectral change caused by acid stress to a native forest type in the Three Gorges region of China.For this purpose,a ground-based hyperspectral experiment was conducted at the Three Gorges region to detect acid deposition that caused Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest degradation.Continuum removal method was used to isolate wavebands more responsive to stress in wavelengths 450-750nm.The differences in chlorophyll concentrations and needle thickness caused by acidic stress are found to be explicable to the different spectral reflectance patterns in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths.Two new chlorotic indices were utilized to explain the stress-caused leaf chiorosis.The comparison of simulated vegetation indices and principal component analysis (PCA) results suggests that it would be possible to monitor acid rain stress effect on forest ecosystem from some wider spectral regions.

  11. Ozone and simulated acid rain effects on growth root hydraulic conductivity, and photosynthesis of red spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Chevone, B.I.; Seiler, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Three-year-old red spruce seedlings were exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) at 0.00 (control) or 0.10 ppm, 4 hr/d, 3 d/wk in combination with simulated rain (pH 3.0 or 5.6, 1 hr/d, 2 d/wk at 0.75 cm/hr) for 10 wks. All seedlings were submitted to two drought cycles after the 10-wk-treatment. O/sub 3/ significantly decreased root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) by 21% after 10 wks across all rain pHs. The reduction of Lp in seedlings treated with O/sub 3/ was enhanced by drought stress. Rain pH alone did not affect Lp during the 10-wks-exposure and drought cycles. However, the O/sub 3/ effect on Lp was more severe at pH 5.6 than at pH 3.0. Rain at pH 3.0 stimulated shoot height growth by 31% compared with pH 5.6 across all O/sub 3/ treatments. However, root, shoot, and total dry weight of seedlings were not changed by any treatments. Neither O/sub 3/ nor rain pH affected net photosynthetic (P/sub i/) response to branch water potential in plants subjected to one or two drought cycles. However, P/sub i/ was less sensitive to water potential after two drought cycles, indicating physiological adjustment to drought stress.

  12. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  13. Effect of simulated acid rain on the litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana in forest soil microcosms and the relationship with soil enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Guo, Peng; Han, Guomin; Feng, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Peng; Tian, Xingjun

    2010-06-01

    With the continuing increase in human activities, ecologists are increasingly interested in understanding the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition. Two dominant litters were chosen from Zijin Mountain in China: Quercus acutissima from a broad-leaved forest and Pinus massoniana from a coniferous forest. The litters were incubated in microcosms and treated with simulated acid rain (gradient pH levels). During a six-month incubation, changes in chemical composition (i.e., lignin, total carbohydrate, and nitrogen), litter mass losses, soil pH values, and activities of degradative enzymes were determined. Results showed that litter mass losses were depressed after exposure to acid rain and the effects of acid rain on the litter decomposition rates of needles were higher than on those of leaves. Results also revealed that simulated acid rain restrained the activities of cellulase, invertase, nitrate reductase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, and urease, while it enhanced the activities of catalase in most cases during the six-month decomposition process. Catalase and polyphenol oxidase were primarily responsible for litter decomposition in the broad-leaved forest, while invertase, nitrate reductase, and urease were primarily responsible for litter decomposition in the coniferous forest. The results suggest acid rain-restrained litter decomposition may be due to the depressed enzymatic activities. According to the results of this study, soil carbon in subtropical forests would accumulate as a long-term consequence of continued acid rain. This may presumably alter the balance of ecosystem carbon flux, nutrient cycling, and humus formation, which may, in turn, have multiple effects on forest ecosystems.

  14. The politics of environment and acid rain in the Federal Republic of Germany: forests versus fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer-Christiansen, S.

    1989-09-01

    In June 1982 the Federal Government of the FRG reversed its international position on 'acid rain' and, by joining Sweden, set in motion pressures for cleaning up industrial emissions within the EEC, especially of sulphur dioxide from fossil-fuel burning power stations. This paper deals with the reasons behind this conversion and as such is a case study in environmental decision-making. This report analyses the pressures inside the Federal Republic which forced air pollution to the top of the environmental agenda in the early 1980s and describes the processes by which air pollution controls in general and the GFAVo (Ordinance on Large Firing Installations or Large Combustion Plants, Grossfeuerungsanlagenverordnung) in particular were adopted. This requires reference to both the societal context, the West German energy sector and official policies for both energy and pollution control. The turbulence of German domestic politics between 1981 and 1983 is described as an essential ingredient of policy formation. The strong regional dimensional of German policy and politics, always important, is emphasised and relates to the unequal geographical distribution of both forests and nuclear capacity. Waldsterben (or forest die-back), the still not fully understood illness of forests in Central Europe observed since the late 1970s, was very quickly ascribed to acid rain and in particular to emissions of sulphur dioxide from power stations. Both the Schmidt and Kohl administrations found in acid rain abatement policy a solution to the perceived conflict between energy and environment. This in turn allowed government to ignore, avoid or postpone confronting even more controversial and fundamentally destabilising German 'eco-issues': the future of nuclear power, the presence of foreign nuclear and chemical weapons and, above all, the nature and direction of economic growth.

  15. Characteristics and causes of regional acid rain in Fujian province%福建省区域酸雨特征及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彬彬; 王宏; 郑秋萍; 杨凯

    2016-01-01

    利用2007—2014年福建省邵武、福州、永安和厦门4个气象观测站的酸雨监测资料,统计分析了福建省不同区域酸雨的时空变化和强酸雨变化特征,并对酸雨成因进行了初步探讨。结果表明:2007—2014年福建省降水年平均 pH值为4.64—4.97,达中度酸性标准,pH值呈逐年升高的趋势,降水酸度呈逐渐减弱的趋势,强酸雨发生频率呈下降的趋势。邵武和福州地区为酸雨高发区,邵武地区降水酸度最强,酸雨和强酸雨发生频率最高,2011年后两个地区降水酸度均减弱,强酸雨发生频率均降低;厦门和永安地区为轻酸雨区,永安地区全年基本无强酸雨发生,由于两个地区酸雨发生频率增加,累积酸雨量比例增大,2012年后两个地区降水酸度均呈不同程度的增强。福州、厦门和邵武地区月酸雨变化均表现为一定的规律性,冬春季酸雨污染较重,夏季酸雨污染偏轻;永安地区则相反,秋冬季降水呈碱性,春季有轻微的酸雨污染。2007—2014年福建省降水月平均pH值<4.50的概率分别为:永安地区0.0%、厦门地区4.2%、福州地区29.2%和邵武地区42.7%,均呈逐年下降的趋势。城市致酸污染物排放、酸性物质的省际输送、地理环境和天气条件是造成福建省区域性酸雨污染的原因。%Based on the monitoring data of acid rain obtained from four meteorological stations including Shaowu, Fuzhou,Yong′an,and Xiamen of Fujian province from 2007 to 2014,the temporal-spatial characteristics of acid rain in different regions and the variation of strong acid rain were analyzed,and the causes of acid rain formation were preliminarily explored.The results show that the annual mean pH in precipitation is between 4.64 and 4.97, which belongs to moderate acid rain.The pH value has an increasing trend,and the acidity in precipitation as well as the occurrence frequency of strong

  16. 酸雨对林木伤害研究综述%Research Review of the Harm of Acid Rain on Forest Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代永刚; 宋鹏; 冯毅; 鲁洋

    2011-01-01

    Based on the research of acid rain, the formation and distribution of acid rain are elaborated. Acid rain which is a great harm to the ecosystem, human health and materials is a global environmental problem. The study and achievements on the acid rain injury to forest trees were reviewed from three major aspects, such as the injury to metabolism function, growth and development and wood characteristics. Several disruptive problems which should be emphasized in our later acid rain research were proposed.%文章从酸雨的研究历史出发,阐述了酸雨的形成和分布,指出酸雨是一种全球性的环境问题;从酸雨污染对林木代谢功能、生长发育、木材特性这三大方面综述了国内外在酸雨给林木造成伤害方面的研究动态及其成果,并提出了在今后酸雨研究中应该重视的几大突破性问题。

  17. 酸雨观测采集过程中的注意事项%Points for attention in acid rain observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美纯; 蔡伟坤; 翁永限

    2012-01-01

    The observation of acid rain provides precious scientific data to study its temporal and spatial distribution and long-term trend, which is significant to control atmosphere pollution and prevent acid rain. Meanwhile, acid rain observation is an important part for meteorological business. Based on instrument faults and artificial operation mistakes during daily acid rain collection, this paper puts forward precautions and quality control methods in the process of acid rain observation and acquisition.%酸雨观测为研究酸雨的时空分布及其长期变化趋势提供了宝贵的科学数据,对治理大气污染和防治酸雨具有重要意义。酸雨观测是气象业务工作的重要组成部分。文章针对汕头酸雨观测站在日常酸雨采测过程中容易出现的仪器故障和人为操作错误进行分析,提出了酸雨观测采集中的注意事项及质量控制方法。

  18. Effects of Lanthanum on Redox Systems in Plasma Membranes of Casuarina equisetifolia Seedlings Under Acid Rain Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuhong (李裕红); Yan Chongling (严重玲); Liu Jingchun (刘景春); Mohammed Almasri; Liang Jie (梁洁); Zhang Ruifeng (张瑞锋)

    2003-01-01

    The effects of lanthanum on some redox system(PMRS) properties of the plasma membrane(PM) vesicles from Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings under artificial acid rain(pH 4.5)stress were studied. The results show that there are NADH oxidase and EDTA-Fe3+ reductase, and nitrate reductase in the seedling PM, and they have different responses to soaking seeds for 8 h in a series of LaCl3 solution. The NADH oxidase activities and the Nitrate reductase activities can be stimulated when La3+ concentrations is in the range of 50~200 mg*L-1, but their activities are inhibited or fluctuate by the higher La3+ concentrations. The EDTA-Fe3+ reductase activities can be stimulated by La3+ concentrations in the range of 50~400 mg*L-1. The research also revealed that La3+ reduces the relative permeability of membranes and have the function in protecting membranes under acid rain stress by the way of inhibiting the leakage of electrolyte.

  19. A combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis on sulfur metabolism pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana under simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingwu; Chen, Juan A; Wang, Wenhua; Simon, Martin; Wu, Feihua; Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Juan B; Zheng, Hailei

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development, most regions in southern China have suffered acid rain (AR) pollution. In our study, we analyzed the changes in sulfur metabolism in Arabidopsis under simulated AR stress which provide one of the first case studies, in which the systematic responses in sulfur metabolism were characterized by high-throughput methods at different levels including proteomic, genomic and physiological approaches. Generally, we found that all of the processes related to sulfur metabolism responded to AR stress, including sulfur uptake, activation and also synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acid and other secondary metabolites. Finally, we provided a catalogue of the detected sulfur metabolic changes and reconstructed the coordinating network of their mutual influences. This study can help us to understand the mechanisms of plants to adapt to AR stress.

  20. Effects of simulated acid rain on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism of recalcitrant-seeded Trichilia dregeana grown in its natural seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlall, Chandika; Varghese, Boby; Ramdhani, Syd; Pammenter, Norman W; Bhatt, Arvind; Berjak, Patricia; Sershen

    2015-01-01

    Increased air pollution in a number of developing African countries, together with the reports of vegetation damage typically associated with acid precipitation in commercial forests in South Africa, has raised concerns over the potential impacts of acid rain on natural vegetation in these countries. Recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation sensitive) seeds of many indigenous African species, e.g. must germinate shortly after shedding and hence, may not be able to avoid exposure to acid rain in polluted areas. This study investigated the effects of simulated acid rain (rainwater with pH adjusted to pH 3.0 and 4.5 with 70:30, H2 SO4 :HNO3 ) on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism in a recalcitrant-seeded African tree species Trichilia dregeana Sond., growing in its natural seed bank. The results suggest that acid rain did not compromise T. dregeana seed germination and seedling establishment significantly, relative to the control (non-acidified rainwater). However, pH 3.0 treated seedlings exhibited signs of stress typically associated with acid rain: leaf tip necrosis, abnormal bilobed leaf tips, leaf necrotic spots and chlorosis, reduced leaf chlorophyll concentration, increased stomatal density and indications of oxidative stress. This may explain why total and root biomass of pH 3.0 treated seedlings were significantly lower than the control. Acid rain also induced changes in the species composition and relative abundance of the different life forms emerging from T. dregeana's natural seed bank and in this way could indirectly impact on T. dregeana seedling establishment success.

  1. Significance of Ligand Exchange Relating to Sulfate in Retarding Acidification of Variable Charge Soils Caused by Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJINGHUA; YUTIANREN

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the role of ligand exchange of sulfate ions in retarding the rate of acidification of variable charge soils,the changes in pH after the addition of different amounts of HNO3 or H2SO4 to representative soils of China were measured .A difference between pH changes caused by the two kinds of acids was observed only for variable charge soils and kaolinite,but not for constant charge soils and bentonite,The larger the proportion of H2SO4 in the HNO3-H2SO4 mixture,the lower the calculated H+ ion activities remained in the suspension.The difference in H+ ion activities between H2SO4 systems and HNO3 systems was larger for soils with a low base-saturation(BS) percentage than those with a high BS percentage.The removal of free iron oxides from the soil led to a decrease in the difference,while the coating of Fe2O3 on a bentonite resulted in a remarkable appearance of the difference.The effect of ligand exchange on the acidity status of the soil varied with the soil type.Surface soils with a high organic matter content showed a less pronounced effect of ligand exchange than subsoils did.It was estimated that when acid rain chiefly containing H2SO4 was deposited on variable charge soils the acidification rate might be slower by 20%-40% than that when the acid rain chiefly contained HNO3 for soils with a high organic matter content,and that the rate might be half of that caused by HNO3 for soils with a low organic matter content,especially for latosols.

  2. A Stochastic Integer Programming Model for Minimizing Cost in the Use of Rain Water Collectors for Firefighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rivera-Morales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a stochastic integer programming optimization model to determine the optimal location and number of rain water collectors (RWCs for forest firefighting. The objective is to minimize expected total cost to control forest fires. The model is tested using a real case and several additional realistic scenarios. The impact on the solution of varying the limit on the number of RWCs, the RWC water capacity, the aircraft capacity, the water demands, and the aircraft operating cost is explored. Some observations are that the objective value improves with larger RWCs and with the use of aircraft with greater capacity.

  3. 蚌埠市酸雨污染趋势分析及对策%Analysis and Countermeasures of Acid Rain in Bengbu city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚海军; 孟维娜

    2012-01-01

    According to the statistics of precipitation monitoring data during the "Eleventh Five-Year" in Bengbu City,revealing the temporal and spatial distribution of the acid rain pollution in Bengbu City.Bengbu City of acid rain causes acid rain component monitoring results,and put forward some Countermeasures.%根据对蚌埠市"十一五"期间大气降水监测资料的统计,揭示了蚌埠市酸雨污染的时空分布特征。根据酸雨成分监测结果,分析了蚌埠市酸雨的形成原因,并初步提出一些防治对策。

  4. Characteristics and Effective Factors of Acid Rain in Jinan for Recent Years%济南市近年酸雨特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨何著

    2015-01-01

    The annual and seasonal characteristics of acid rain in Jinan, and the relationship between acid rain, meteorological factors and pollutant concentrations were analyzed based on the observed acid rain data, the sounding data and atmospheric monitoring data from 2008 to 2012 at Acid Rain Observation Station of Jinan. The statistics showed a decreased tendency for both the frequency and intensity of acid rain in Jinan in recent 5 years. The average pH value of precipitation was lowest in autumn and highest in summer, while the frequency of acid rain was highest in autumn and lowest in winter. It was found that PM10 and SO2 were the main atmospheric pollutants contributing to acid rain in Jinan. The transport of pollutants by easterlies enhanced the acidity of precipitation. The acid rain was also influenced by the temperature inversion. The frequency of acid rain increased when temperature inversion occurred at rainy days and the days before. The pH value decreased with the increase of rainfall in a single event. The acid rain was most likely to form when moderate rain occurs. Additionally, fog (light fog) also favored the formation of acid rain.%根据2008~2012年济南市酸雨观测资料、探空资料和大气监测资料,分析了济南市酸雨的年、季变化特征,同时研究了酸性降水与气象条件和大气污染物的关系。统计资料证明:近5年济南市的酸雨无论从频率还是从强度上都呈现减弱趋势。降水pH值秋季最低,夏季最高;酸雨频率秋季最高,冬季最低。分析得出,影响济南市酸雨的主要大气污染物是PM10和SO2;在偏东风影响下,酸雨污染严重;酸雨的发生也会受逆温影响,降水前1 d及当天均出现逆温时,酸雨出现频率最高;随着降水量的增加,pH值逐渐降低,中雨时酸雨频率最高;另外,雾和轻雾也容易导致酸雨的发生。

  5. 中国酸雨概况及防治对策探讨%Discuss on Present Situation and Countermeasures for Acid Rain Prevention and Control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 夏菲; 潘家永; 陈益平; 彭花明; 陈少华

    2011-01-01

    中国受酸雨影响的地区已占国土面积的30%,已成为继欧州和北美之后世界第三大酸雨区。中国的酸雨为典型的硫酸型,其空间分布主要呈现以南方酸雨比北方严重,城市酸雨比郊区严重的特点。酸雨令中国农林业、畜牧业、水产养殖业、建筑业等都遭受了巨大的损失,如不采取果断有效的控制措施,由此所造成的大气污染及环境酸化将进一步加剧。本文系统阐述了中国酸雨的成因特点、现状及其危害,并根据中国酸雨的实际情况,结合国家制定的控制目标,提出了具体的防治对策。%The problem of acid rain has become an important environmental problem at present. The areas which have been affected by acid rain in our country have reached 30% of the total land area, making China the world's third largest acid rain areas nest to Europe and North America. The acid rain of China has the characteristics, including typical sulfuric acid type, more serious in south than in north in spatial distribution, more serious in cities than in suburban areas. Acid rain has inflicted great losses on agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquaculture and construction. Without decisive and effective controlling measures, air pollution and environment acidification which made by acid rain will be further intensified, furthermore, it will bring greater threat to Chinese environment which is already in heavy burden. This paper describes the characteristics, situation and harms of acid rain. According to the actual situation of acid rain in China and combined with the control targets set by government, specific prevention and control countermeasures were proposed.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPACT FACTORS OF ACID RAIN IN JINING%济宁市酸雨特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓默

    2011-01-01

    The property of seasonal variation for acid rain in Jining, also the relationship between acid precipitation and meteorological factor were analyzed according to the observed acid rain data in 2006 till 2010 that from Acid Rain Observation Station of Jining. Through statistics, the tendency for both frequency and intensity of acid rain in Jining was shown to be reduced in those years. Among the 242 precipitation samples, there were 94 of them with pH value below 5.6, accounting for 38. 8% ; the frequency of acid rain in autumn is the highest, while the ones in winter and spring are lower, also the frequency in Winter Half Year was obviously higher than that in Spring Half Year; mostly the acid rain appeared at night, and the non - acid rain appeared in the day, which related to the lower of the mixed layer height. It was analyzed that the formation of acid rain was closely related with SO2, then related with NOX , besides, related with direction and speed of the wind, the amount of precipitation and fog (light fog) , and the geographical position and terrain.%根据济宁市酸雨观测站2006 - 2010年的酸雨观测资料,分析了济宁市酸雨的季节变化特征,同时研究了酸性降水与气象条件的关系.统计得出,济宁市的酸雨无论从频率还是从强度上都呈现减弱趋势.在242个降水样本中,pH值小于5.6的酸性样本94个,占38.8%;酸雨在秋季出现频率最高,冬、夏两季频率较少,且冬半年要明显高于夏半年;济宁市的酸雨多出现在夜间,非酸性降水多出现在白天,这与夜间混合层高度低有关.分析得出,济宁市形成酸雨的主要物质是SO2,其次是NOx,此外还与风向风速、降水量、雾(轻雾)以及地理位置和地形有密切的关系.

  7. Characteristics of acid rain and its impact factors in Dandong%丹东市区酸雨特征及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文革; 梁铁军; 孙莹; 宋丽丽; 白华; 赵婷婷

    2016-01-01

    利用2009—2013年丹东地区酸雨观测资料、高空和地面气象观测资料,分析了丹东市区酸雨的时空分布特征,采用相关分析方法分析了不同气象条件对降水pH值和酸雨频率的影响,以期为丹东市区酸雨的评估和预报提供科学依据。结果表明:2009—2013年丹东市区酸雨pH值空间分布较均匀,降水pH值和酸雨频率呈逐年升高的趋势,秋季降水pH值最低,且酸雨频率最高。不同级别降水量与降水pH值相关关系较大,雾有利于增强降水酸度。丹东市区出现酸雨的地面主导风向为偏南风,降水前期和降水期间地面风速对酸雨强度的影响存在明显差异;850 hPa的24 h变温、降水前12 h的风向及降水时的风速对丹东市区降水pH值影响较大,酸雨的850 hPa主导风为偏南风;逆温和K指数对酸雨污染有明显的影响。%Based on the observational data of acid rain and the surface and high-level meteorological data in Dan-dong from 2009 to 2013,the spatial and temporal characteristics of acid rain were analyzed,and the pH value in precipitation and frequency of acid rain under different weather conditions were investigated using a correlation a-nalysis method.This study is aimed at providing a scientific basis for the evaluation and prediction of acid rain.The results show that the distribution of pH values of acid rain is uniform in Dandong.Both of the pH value in precipi-tation and the frequency of acid rain have an increasing trend during the study period,and the smallest pH value in precipitation and the largest frequency of acid rain occur in autumn.The pH value in precipitation is closely related to precipitation magnitude,and fog favors to enhance the precipitation acidity.The southerly winds prevail at ground when acid rain occurs in Dandong.There is an obvious difference in the effects of surface wind speed on the intensity of acid rain during the early stage and the middle stage

  8. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (Pacid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation rates, decrease their availability, alter their rhizosphere effects, and have impact on nutrient cycling in tea plantation.

  9. Characteristics and impact factors of acid rain in Zhenjiang of Jiangsu province%镇江市酸雨特征及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翠梅; 孔启亮; 郭煜; 吴琼; 钱鹏; 周勍

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and variations of the intensity and occurrence frequency of acid rain at the annual, seasonal,and monthly scales as well as its meteorological impact factors were analyzed in this study,using the ob-servational data of acid rain in Zhenjiang from January of 2008 to December of 2012.The results show that all the annual,seasonal,and monthly mean pH values of acid rain are relatively small,the intensity of acid rain is strong, and the occurrence frequency of acid rain is usually high in spring and autumn.Considering the effects of meteoro-logical parameters such as precipitation,wind direction,temperature inversion,and the vertical transport of non-lo-cal pollutants,it is found out that both of the occurrence frequency of acid rain and its proportion to the total pre-cipitation are large.More than half of the acid rain in Zhenjiang occurs under the northeasterly,southeasterly,and easterly wind conditions.Acid rain in Zhenjiang is also related to the pollutants transport from other regions,proba-bly including the northern China region,the eastern China region,Hu′nan province,and Hubei province.The deep temperature inversion in the lower troposphere (at and below 925 hPa)usually favors the occurrence of acid rain, and the acid rain intensity is associated with the temperature inversion intensity,which means the temperature devi-ation in the inversion layer is larger,the pH values is smaller,and the acid rain intensity is larger.%利用2008年1月至2012年12月镇江市酸雨观测资料,详细分析了镇江市酸雨强度和发生频率的年、季、月变化特征,并对影响酸雨发生的气象因素进行了分析。结果表明:镇江市酸雨年、季、月平均pH值均较低,酸雨强度均较大,春季和秋季是酸雨的高发季节。由降水量、风向、逆温及外来污染源垂直输送等气象要素对镇江市酸雨的影响可知,镇江市强酸雨的发生频率和占总降水量的

  10. Mercury cycling in boreal ecosystems: The long-term effect of acid rain constituents on peatland pore water methylmercury concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branfireun, Brian A.; Bishop, Kevin; Roulet, Nigel T.; Granberg, Gunnar; Nilsson, Mats

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria have been identified as primary methylators of mercury (Hg) in the laboratory and in field investigations. However, no studies have investigated the effect of long-term deposition of sulphate on methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in peatlands, which are known to be significant sources of MeHg to downstream waters in the boreal forest zone. As an ancillary experiment to a larger project investigating the effects of acid rain constituents on peatland carbon dynamics, the influence of experimentally elevated Na2SO4 and/or NH4NO3 deposition on peat pore water MeHg concentrations was determined using a simple mesocosm experimental design. After three years, additions of S in amounts equivalent to the 1980s dry and wet deposition in Southern Sweden resulted in peat pore water MeHg concentrations up to six times above background levels. Elevated N loads had no effect on pore water MeHg concentrations.

  11. Initial corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in simulating acid rain under wet-dry cyclic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in simulating acid rain under wet-dry cyclic condition was investigated.The results show that corrosion potential shifts positively and the corrosion current density decreases at low wet-dry cyclic time.Further increase of the cyclic time results in the negative movement of corrosion potential and the increase of current density.SEM observation indicates that corrosion Occurs only in αphase,βphase is inert in corrosive medium,and the corrosion of AZ91 magnesium appears in uniform characteristic.XPS analysis suggests that the corrosion product is mainly composed of oxide and hydroxide of magnesium and aluminum,and a small amount of sulfate is also contained in the film.

  12. UV-Vis Spectroscopy Study on Interaction between Microperoxidase-11 and Pr Ion Under Acid Rain Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉红念; 黄晓华; 周青; 陆天虹

    2002-01-01

    Interaction between rare earth ion praseodymium (Pr(Ⅲ)) and MP11 with/without hydrogen ion (H+) in different media( aqueous, phosphate buffer, physiological condition) were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the results indicate that Pr(Ⅲ) interacts with MP11, increasing the non-planarity of porphyrin periphery, leading MP11 to form two conformations when titrated by Pr(Ⅲ). Excessive Pr(Ⅲ) acts as a contaminant in living organism. H+ and Pr(Ⅲ) have antagonistic effect on MP11, suggesting that at suitable concentration under physiological conditions, Pr(Ⅲ) can be used as biomodulator in protecting plants from acid rain stress or in rehabilitating the harm.

  13. Effects of simulated acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of a local variety of maize (Suwan-1) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Babajide Milton; Enahoro, Gloria Ebarunosen

    2015-10-01

    Effects of acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of maize (Suwan-1 variety) were investigated. The maize seedlings were subjected to different pH treatments (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0) of simulated acid rain (SAR) with pH 7.0 as the control for a period of 90 days. The common morphological defects due to SAR application were necrosis and chlorosis. It was observed that necrosis increased in severity as the acidity increased whilst chlorosis was dominant as the acidity decreased. SAR encouraged rapid floral and cob growth but with the consequence of poor floral and cob development in pH 1.0 to 3.0 treatments. The result for the dry biomass indicates that pH treatments 2.0 to 7.0 for total plant biomass were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from one another, but were all significantly higher (P acid rain but with pronounced morphological and phenological defects which, however, have the capacity to reduce drastically the market value of the crop. Therefore, it may be concluded that Suwan-1 tolerated acid rain in terms of the parameters studied at pH 4.0 to 7.0 which makes it a suitable crop in acid rain-stricken climes. This research could also serve as a good reference for further SAR studies on maize or other important cereals.

  14. Spatial and spectral characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth J.; Tanis, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Results from this study demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis was that seasonal and multiyear changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present. DOC is a strong absorbing, nonscattering material which has the greatest impact at short visible wavelengths, including Thematic Mapper band 1. Acid-sensitive lakes have high concentrations of aluminum which have been mobilized by acidic components contained in the runoff. Aluminum complexing with DOC is considered to be the primary mechanism to account for observed increases in lake transparency in acid-sensitive lakes. Thus seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes should provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  15. Research on the acid rain under the short-term environment control measures of the Youth Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Qing, W.; Chen, Y.; Peng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Northern China emits the most part of acid pollution of the whole nation but turns out to be in a light acid precipitation extent. Research shows that it is the carbonate particles from dust that neutralize the acid in the rainfall. Construction in southern China becomes more and more active so that alkaline dusts from construction are receiving an increasing attention. Nanjing hosts the Youth Olympic Games in 2015 and implements a strict plan to control the emission of construction dust. Thus, The Youth Olympic Games provides a good opportunity to analyze the neutralization of alkaline dusts emitted from construction in Nanjing. Experiment is conducted by collecting the total of rainfall events from June to September in 2015, besides, TSP (total suspended particles) before and after each rainfall events is collected due to find the collaboration with rainfall. Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+,Sr2+,F-,Cl-,SO42-,NO3- concentrations in rain water and water soluble fraction of TSP are analyzed using ICP-OES and ICS in Nanjing University. Results showed that Ca2+and SO42- makes the major part of total ions, indicating the fact that Nanjing is suffering from a severe acid rainfall and alkaline dusts which mainly consist of Ca2+ neutralize a large number of acid particles. pH of rainfall has a good correlation with the flux of TSP. pH of rainfall keeps falling as the YOG plan starts and picking up after the YOG, which indicates that the declination of artificial alkaline dust in TSP reduces the neutralization on the acid rainfall.

  16. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  17. Protective effect of Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B upon oxidative stress caused by ozone and acid rain in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jéssica Bordotti Nobre; Esposito, Breno Pannia; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Cruz, Luciano Soares; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Mn complex (Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B (MnDFB)) on oxidative stress in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba" following exposure to ozone and acid rain. We determined the suitable dose of MnDFB to apply to G. max seedlings using a dose-response curve. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Mn content in leaves were found upon the application of 8 μM MnDFB. Thus, G. max seedlings pretreated with 8 μM MnDFB were individually exposed to ozone and acid rain simulated. Pretreatment with MnDFB reduced lipid peroxidation upon ozone exposure and increased SOD activity in leaves; it did not alter the metal content in any part of the plant. Conversely, following acid rain exposure, neither the metal content in leaves nor SOD enzyme activity were directly affected by MnDFB, unlike pH. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous MnDFB application before ozone exposure may modulate the MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, and FeSOD activities to combat the ROS excess in the cell. Here, we demonstrated that the applied dose of MnDFB enhances antioxidative defenses in soybean following exposure to acid rain and especially to ozone.

  18. PERSISTENT EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF STREAMS LINKED TO ACID RAIN EFFECTS ON SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indic...

  19. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. 大连市酸雨的变化趋势及来源简析%Analysis in the Variational Trend and Sources of Acid Rain in Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王日东; 苏静

    2011-01-01

    “十一五”期间大连市的酸雨污染呈波动趋势,2009年的酸雨污染最为严重,酸雨频率达到40.3%,pH均值4.84,属于中酸雨污染。大连市酸雨的来源受外来地区输送的影响较大,大连市本地源排放对硫和氮的湿沉降的贡献仅在10—20%之间;外来源中,山东排放的贡献占30~40%,辽宁其他区域的贡献10%左右,同时日本、朝鲜和韩国的贡献也不容忽视。%The acid rain pollution of Dalian presents to fluctuant trend during the eleventh five - year plan. The acid rain pollution Was the most serious in 2009. The frequency of the acid rain achieved 40. 3% and the pH value was 4.84 (medium acid rain pollution) . Acid rain in Dalian was significantly affected by external sources via transportation. The emissions from local sources only contributed to 10 -20% of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen. Among all external sources, emissions from Shandong contributed to 30 -40%, other regions in Liaoning only accounted for about 10%, and effect of emission in neighbor countries ( such as Japan,Noah Korea and South Korea) should not be neglected.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Acid Rain in Shenzhen%深圳市酸雨时空变异特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志彬; 梁鸿; 马嵩

    2016-01-01

    According to acid rain monitoring data of Shenzhen in 2009—2013 , statistical analysis had been done such as the intensity and frequency of acid rain, temporal and spatial variability and ( SO2-4 )/( NO3-) ratio characteristic change.The results showed that:the amount of rainfall was negatively correlated with the number of precipitation times or acid rain times;the amount of acid rain presented a“V” trends in six districts of Shenz-hen during 2009—2013, with the lowest was in 2011.Yantian District, Nanshan District and Futian District were seriously damaged by acid rain, Bao’an District and Longgang District were secondary, while Luohu District was slightly harmed.%根据深圳市2009—2013年酸雨监测数据,统计并分析深圳市酸雨强度与频率、时空变异特征和降水c( SO2-4)/c( NO3-)比值特征变化。结果表明:雨量的大小及其出现次数与酸雨出现次数呈负相关;2009—2013年间6个行政区酸雨量呈现“V”形变化趋势,且2011年达到最低值;酸雨危害较严重的是盐田区、南山区和福田区,其次是宝安区和龙岗区,危害较轻的是罗湖区。

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain on dissolution and transformation of aluminum in acid soils of south China%模拟酸雨对酸性土壤铝溶出及其形态转化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞元春; 丁爱芳

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the releasing characteristics and the transformation of aluminum in acid soils of south China with simulated acid rain leaching method. The results revealed that the leaching of acid rain resulted in release of aluminum from the soils. The amount of aluminum released from the soils increased with the decrease of pH value of the acid rain. Leaching of acid rain also cause transformation of aluminum forms in the soils. With the decreasing of pH value of the acid rain, The content of hydroxy aluminum and organic aluminum decreased, whereas exchangeable aluminum in the soils increased%研究了我国南方酸沉降区主要土壤类型在模拟酸雨影响下,土壤中铝离子释放及铝形态转化的特点。结果表明,酸雨淋洗造成土壤中铝离子释放,酸雨pH值越低,铝离子释放量越大;酸雨淋洗还造成土壤中铝形态发生变化,酸雨pH越低,土壤中羟基态铝和腐殖质铝含量愈低,交换态铝含量越高,土壤中铝对植物和生态系统的危害性也越大。

  3. Perfluorinated acids in air, rain, snow, surface runoff, and lakes: relative importance of pathways to contamination of urban lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-12-15

    Concentrations of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, rain, snow, surface runoff water, and lake water) in an urban area, to enable identification of sources and pathways of PFAs to urban water bodies. Total PFA concentrations ranged from 8.28 to 16.0 pg/ m3 (mean 11.3) in bulk air (sum of vapor and particulate phases), 0.91 to 13.2 ng/L (6.19) in rainwater, 0.91 to 23.9 ng/L (7.98) in snow, 1.11-81.8 ng/L (15.1 ng/L) in surface runoff water (SRW), and 9.49 to 35.9 ng/L (21.8) in lake water. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound, accounting for > 35% of the total PFA concentrations, in all environmental matrices analyzed. Concentrations and relative compositions of PFAs in SRW were similar to those found for urban lakes. SRW contributes to contamination by PFOA in urban lakes. The measured concentration ratios of FTOH to PFOA in air were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the ratios calculated based on an assumption of exclusive atmospheric oxidation of FTOHs. Nevertheless, the mass balance analysis suggested the presence of an unknown input pathway that could contribute to a significant amount of total PFOA loadings to the lake. Flux estimates of PFOA at the air-water interface in the urban lake suggest net volatilization from water.

  4. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-01

    We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR × Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil.

  5. Acid rain mitigation experiment shifts a forested watershed from a net sink to a net source of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Bernhardt, Emily S; Buso, Donald C; Driscoll, Charles T; Likens, Gene E

    2016-07-01

    Decades of acid rain have acidified forest soils and freshwaters throughout montane forests of the northeastern United States; the resulting loss of soil base cations is hypothesized to be responsible for limiting rates of forest growth throughout the region. In 1999, an experiment was conducted that reversed the long-term trend of soil base cation depletion and tested the hypothesis that calcium limits forest growth in acidified soils. Researchers added 1,189 kg Ca(2+) ha(-1) as the pelletized mineral wollastonite (CaSiO3) to a 12-ha forested watershed within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Significant increases in the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of soils and streamwater resulted, and the predicted increase in forest growth occurred. An unanticipated consequence of this acidification mitigation experiment began to emerge a decade later, with marked increases in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports in streamwater from the treated watershed. By 2013, 30-times greater DIN was exported from this base-treated watershed than from adjacent reference watersheds, and DIN exports resulting from this experiment match or exceed earlier reports of inorganic N losses after severe ice-storm damage within the study watershed. The discovery that CaSiO3 enrichment can convert a watershed from a sink to a source of N suggests that numerous potential mechanisms drive watershed N dynamics and provides new insights into the influence of acid deposition mitigation strategies for both carbon cycling and watershed N export.

  6. The combined effects of urea application and simulated acid rain on soil acidification and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmei; Zhou, Jian; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to test the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) at different pHs, when applied to fertilized and unfertilized soils, on the leaching of soil cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na) and Al. Their effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+) and microbial community structure were also determined. A Paleudalfs soil was incubated for 30 days, with and without an initial application of urea (200 mg N kg(-1)soil) as nitrogen (N) fertilizer. The soil was held in columns and leached with SAR at three pH levels. Six treatments were tested: SAR of pH 2.5, 4.0 and 5.6 leaching on unfertilized soil (T1, T2 and T3), and on soils fertilized with urea (T4, T5 and T6). Increasing acid inputs proportionally increased cation leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized soils. Urea application increased the initial Ca and Mg leaching, but had no effect on the total concentrations of Ca, Mg and K leached. There was no significant difference for the amount of Na leached between the different treatments. The SAR pH and urea application had significant effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+). Urea application, SAR treated with various pH, and the interactions between them all had significant impacts on total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The highest concentration of total PLFAs occurred in fertilized soils with SAR pH5.6 and the lowest in soils leached with the lowest SAR pH. Soils pretreated with urea then leached with SARs of pH 4.0 and 5.6 had larger total PLFA concentrations than soil without urea. Bacterial, fungal, actinomycete, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs had generally similar trends to total PLFAs.

  7. Research Progress on Acid Deposition over China and Effect of Acid Rain on Agricultural Production%中国酸雨及其对农业生产影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖竹; 陈惠阳; 余土元; 冯茜丹

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of acid rain in China and its effect on agricultural production, an overview of 30 years of acid rain over China and its impact on agricultural production were elaborated in this paper. The outcome of characteristics of acid rain in China mainly included the spatial and temporal distribution (geographical distribution) of acidity, and the ion concentration in precipitation. The outcomes of various aspects in the research about effects of acid rain on agricultural production were introduced, which mainly included the seed germination, the growth, the quality and yield of main crops. The main origins of acid rain formation were discussed, and measures to reduce acid rain damage were investigated. Finally, future research was suggested.%为了研究中国酸雨特征及其对农业生产的影响,综述了30多年来有关中国酸雨及其对农业生产影响的研究成果.对中国酸雨特征的研究主要包括中国大气降水酸度分布和离子浓度特征.酸雨对农 业生产影响方面主要包括酸雨对主要农作物种子萌发、生长发育、品质和产量的影响.同时,分析了中国酸雨的成因,探讨了减少酸雨危害的措施,指出了有待研究的科学问题.

  8. Deterioration of Cement-Concrete Cementitious Materials under Acid Rain Attack and Its Evaluation-Effect of Acid Rain Components%酸雨侵蚀下水泥基材料的腐蚀损伤与评价——酸雨介质成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦成; 王凯; 谢力

    2012-01-01

    通过测试长期浸泡在不同酸雨中的混凝土试件相对弹性模量随侵蚀时间的变化,着重研究了酸雨酸度( pH值)及其SO2-4浓度等酸雨侵蚀介质参数对水泥混凝土抗酸雨侵蚀能力的影响.研究结果表明:在酸雨静态长期浸泡环境下,水泥基材料表面和内部腐蚀损伤程度及速率与酸雨侵蚀介质H+和SO2-4浓度以及产生的腐蚀产物有关;在酸雨介质其它离子成分保持不变的情况下,酸雨pH值和SO2-4对受酸雨腐蚀后的水泥混凝土表面性能及其内部微观结构有着十分明显的影响,并且从酸雨侵蚀破坏过程来看,各水泥混凝土随着酸雨中的H+和SO2-4浓度的增加而腐蚀越来越严重.%Variations of relative elastic modulus with deterioration duration of cement-concrete specimens immersed for long time in different simulated acid rain solutions were measured, and effects of H+ and SO42- concentrations, etc. On corrosion-resistance of cementitious materials under the acid rain attack were investigated particularly. The experiment results show that the deterioration extent and rate of the outer layer and inner layer of cementitious materials are related to H+ and SOO42- concentrations in the acid rain and their corrosion products under conditions of long-term acid rain immersion. If other components of acid rain remain unchanged, H+ and SO42- concentrations in the acid rain have great impacts on inner microstructures and surface properties of cement-concrete cementitious materials under the acid rain attack. The deterioration of cement-concrete cementitious materials becomes more and more serious with increasing H + and SO42- concentrations in the acid rain from the process of deterioration.

  9. Interaction of acid rain and global changes: effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.F.; Schindler, D.W. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway)

    1995-12-01

    Both acid deposition and changes in the global atmosphere and climate affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the atmosphere sulphate aerosols tend to increase haze, altering the global radiation balance. Increased nitrogen deposition to N-limited systems such as boreal forests results in increased growth and increased sequestration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, slowing the increase in CO{sub 2} levels in the atmosphere. Future reduction in S and N emissions may results in a trade-off better with respect to some effects of acid deposition and greenhouse warming, but worse with respect to others. Global warming may cause the incidence and severity of drought to increase. Mineralisation of N and oxidation of organic S compounds release pulses of SO{sub 4}, acid and Al to surface waters. Effects in lakes may include reduced deep water refugia for cold stenotherms, lower nutrient concentrations, and greater penetration of harmful UV radiation. Longer water renewal times cause declines in SO{sub 4} and NO{sub 3} due to increased in situ removal, but increases in base cations. The net result in increased internal alkalinity production. In areas characterised by cold winters, global warming may result in a major shift in hydrologic cycle, with snowmelt episodes occurring during the winter rather than the typical pattern of accumulation in the winter and melting in the spring. Increased storm frequency predicted for the future will cause increased frequency and severity of sea salt episodes in coastal regions. Predicting the interactions of regional and global environmental factors in the coming decades poses new challenges to scientists, managers and policy-makers. 52 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Interaction of acid rain and global changes: Effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.F. [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Schindler, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Both acid deposition and changes in the global atmosphere and climate affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the atmosphere sulphate aerosols tend to increase haze, altering the global radiation balance. Increased nitrogen deposition to N-limited systems such as boreal forests results in increased growth and increased sequestration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} slowing the increase in CO{sub 2} levels in the atmosphere. Future reduction in S and N emissions may result in trade-off -- better with respect to some effects of acid deposition and greenhouse warming but worse with respect to others. Global warming may cause the incidence and severity of drought to increase. Mineralisation of N and oxidation of organic S compounds release pulses of SO{sub 4}, acid and Al to surface waters. Effect in lakes may include reduced deep water refugia for cold stenotherms, lower nutrient concentration and greater penetration of harmful UV radiation. Longer water renewal times cause declines in SO{sub 4} and NO{sub 3} due to increased in situ removal but increases in base cations. The net result is increased internal alkalinity production. In areas characterised by cold winters, global warming may result in major shift in hydrologic cycle, with snow melt episodes occurring during the winter rather than the typical pattern of accumulation in the winter and melting in the spring. Increased storm frequency predicted for the future will cause increased frequency and severity of sea salt episodes in coastal regions. Predicting the interactions of regional and global environmental factors in the coming decades poses new challenges to scientists, managers and policy makers.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to Simulated Acid Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain (AR, a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  12. Populus yunnanensis males adopt more efficient protective strategies than females to cope with excess zinc and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2013-05-01

    Dioecious plants show sexually different responses to environmental stresses. However, little is known about the dimorphic morphological and physiological responses to soil pollution. To investigate sex-related adaptive responses of Populus yunnanensis seedlings when exposed to excess zinc (Zn), acid rain (AR) and their combination (Zn+AR), we analyzed growth parameters, Zn accumulation and allocation, photosynthetic capacity and biochemical responses under different treatments. Results revealed that both excess Zn and Zn+AR have a negative effect on plant growth. Males have a greater potential than females to enrich Zn. The photosynthesis limitation could be attributable to a lower stomatal conductance, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and nitrate reductase activity induced by Zn accumulation. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species was detected, and females showed higher levels of H2O2 and O2- than did males under excess Zn and Zn+AR. In addition, indicators related to plant injury showed expected increases and exhibited sexual differences. Males synthesized more biochemical molecules, such as proline and non-protein thiol, showing a stronger defense capacity in responses to either excess Zn or Zn+AR. Taking into account the Zn accumulation and the resulting injuries in plants, we suggest that excess Zn causes sex-related adaptive responses and males possess a more effective self-protection mechanism, Zn-stressed individuals suffering from AR did not show notable aggravation or alleviation when compared to damages induced by excess Zn alone.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-03-12

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  14. Durability of Concrete Using Rice Husk Ash as Cement Substitution Exposed To Acid Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acidity of rainfall in major areas of Indonesia is under neutral pH. Average pH of rainfall is between 3 and 5. Free lime within concrete will react with acid and cause a decrease in the strength of concrete. A means to anticipate the damage is to reduce the content of free lime within concrete. Silicon oxide contained in rice husk ash can react with free lime to form a new compound that is harder and denser. It became the basis for the use of rice husk ash in concrete mixtures. The mixtures were prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of cement with rice husk ash and the results were compared with a reference mix with 100% cement. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the mechanical characteristics of concrete specimens as durability parameters. Then to evaluate the mechanical characteristics, microstructure test was conducted. The lower the mechanical properties of the concrete, the higher the level of gypsum contained within concrete. The percentage of 5% rice husk ash of the cement weight has a lower compressive strength decrease than the 10% rice husk ash. In addition, the proposed durability model is a model of polynomial equation with two variables.

  15. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Acid rain and forest decline. 3. rev. ed. Saurer Regen und Waldsterben; Unterrichtsmaterialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kues, J.; Matzner, E.; Murach, D.; Blanck, K.

    1991-01-01

    These materials for sixth-form education and adult education provide information on emissions of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x] and heavy metals and their propagtaion, as well as on the formation of oxidants and other chemical conversion processes in the atmosphere. The pathway of the pollutants is followed up, via their atmospheric transport in their deposition on plants and soil, including forms and rates of deposition, and further to their direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems and their elements. Effects on leaves, buffering of acids and soil acidification, and hazards to ground water are described; the physiological consequences of heavy-metal release in soil on roots and overground organs are explained. The kinetic of the effect of pollutants is followed up and its interaction with other stress factors discussed. Finally, suitable counter-measures are presented. (UWA)

  17. Characteristcs of Acid Rain in Linyi City and Its Relationship with Meteorological Conditions%临沂市酸雨特征及其与气象条件的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋莹华; 庄众; 吴忠振

    2014-01-01

    According to the 617 acid rain observation data of 11 years during 2003 to 2013 of Linyi meteorological observation,the interannual and seasonal variability characteristics of Linyi precipitation pH value,the frequency of acid rain,acid rain and the wind,the wind and other weather conditions were analyzed and calculated. The results showed that,the average acid rain pH value of 11 years in Linyi City was 4.84,acid rain frequency was 47.0%,the frequency of acid rain decreased during 2003 to 2013. Seasonal variation characteristics was the frequency of acid rain in autumn and winter was high,the frequency of acid rain in spring and summer was small,showed that acid rain pollution in autumn and winter was more serious than in spring and summer. When the wind speed was≤3.0 m/s,acid rain frequency was 67.6%,with the increase of wind speed,occurrence frequency of acid rain was more and more small. When the wind direction was northeast wind and partial southeast wind,the chance of acid rain was high.%根据临沂市气象观测站2003-2013年11年间617次酸雨观测资料,计算和分析了临沂降水pH值、酸雨频率的年际和季节变化特征,研究了酸雨与风向、风速等气象条件的关系。结果表明,临沂市11年间酸雨平均pH值为4.84,酸雨频率为47.0豫,2003-2013年间酸雨频率呈下降趋势。季节变化特征为秋季和冬季酸雨频率较大,春季和夏季酸雨频率较小,表明秋、冬季两季的酸雨污染比春、夏两季严重。当风速≤3.0 m/s时,酸雨发生频率达67.6豫,随着风速的增大,酸雨发生频率越来越小。当风向为偏东北风和偏东南风时,酸雨发生的机会偏大。

  18. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Pabian

    Full Text Available Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  19. 贵州省酸雨情况及其危害防治的初步分析%The Preliminare Analysis for the condition of acid rain and the prevention measures for it ' s risk in Guizhou Provence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费越

    2011-01-01

    在初步分析了我国以及贵州省酸雨的现状后,阐述了酸雨的形成原因、分布及酸雨对生态系统、人类健康、材料等的危害.最后,结合我国尤其以贵州为典型的硫酸型酸雨特征,提出了可行的防治酸雨的具体对策.%After analyzing the situation of acid rain in toth China and Guizhou Province,formation and distribution of acid rain are elaborated. Great harm of acid bain tu the ecosystem, human health and rnaterials is also described. Finally.specific countemeasures against acid rain are proposed, when typical sulfate acid rain is described.

  20. Acid deposition in the United Kingdom 1992-1994. Fourth report of the Review Group on Acid Rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The fourth report in the series examines the nature and extent of acid deposition throughout the United Kingdom. Topics are covered under the following headings: emissions of air pollutants leading to acidification, atmospheric transport and chemical conversion of acidifying air pollutants; wet deposition; concentrations of gases and particles; dry deposition processes, spatial patterns and recent trends; cloud droplet interception; total deposition; modelling of acid deposition in the United Kingdom; changes in concentrations and deposition of acidifying pollutants over the United Kingdom; and conclusions and recommendations. While emissions of SO{sub 2} are falling, emissions of nitrogen oxides have remained fairly constant since 1970. 240 refs., 128 figs., 34 tabs., 5 apps.

  1. 如何减少酸雨pH计的测量误差浅析%How to reduce measurement errors of acid rain meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀勋

    2012-01-01

    According to the practical experience of Tongren National Acid Rain Observation Station, this paper focuses on the working principle, operation method, daily maintenance and common troubleshooting points of Leici PHS-3B acid rain meter made in Shanghai. Being familiar with design principle of the instrument can help observers to correct operate and maintain the instrument, accurate diagnose measurement errors and master troubleshooting skills, which can improve acid rain observation and quality of services.%根据铜仁国家酸雨观测站的实践经验,详细介绍了上海雷磁牌PHS-3B型酸雨pH计的工作原理、操作方法、日常维护以及常见故障排除要点。熟悉和了解设备的工作和设计原理,有助于观测员正确使用和维护仪器,帮助准确诊断分析测量误差和掌握排除故障技能,以利于提高酸雨观测水平和业务质量。

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil respiration and its components in a subtropical mixed conifer and broadleaf forest in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Wu, Jianping; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-01

    Soil respiration is a major pathway in the global carbon cycle and its response to environmental changes is an increasing concern. Here we explored how total soil respiration (RT) and its components respond to elevated acid rain in a mixed conifer and broadleaf forest, one of the major forest types in southern China. RT was measured twice a month in the first year under four treatment levels of simulated acid rain (SAR: CK, the local lake water, pH 4.7; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.25; and T3, water pH 2.5), and in the second year, RT, litter-free soil respiration (RS), and litter respiration (RL) were measured simultaneously. The results indicated that the mean rate of RT was 2.84 ± 0.20 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in the CK plots, and RS and RL contributed 60.7% and 39.3% to RT, respectively. SAR marginally reduced (P = 0.08) RT in the first year, but significantly reduced RT and its two components in the second year (P acid rain, the decline trend of RT in the forests in southern China appears to be attributable to the decline of soil respiration in the litter layer.

  3. 混凝土的抗酸雨腐蚀性及其机理研究%Concrete's Resistance to Acide Rain and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石立安; 麻海燕; 柯凯

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the durability of concrete constructions exposed to acid rain, such properties of concrete corroded by acid rain are investigated here as compressive strength, flexural strength and resistance to impact. By means of X ray diffraction ( XRD), mercury intrusion poremea-surement(MIP) , scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) and energy dispersive spectrometer ( EDS ), mechanism of fly ash, expansive agent and polypropylene fiber are investigated. Microstructure and porosity characteristics of hydrated products before and after corrosion are also examined. The results indicate that the polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete incorporated with fly ash and expansion agent exhibit better anti acid rain corrosion performance than other mixes. The hydration products of the reference sample are easily converted to gypsum and SiO2 ·nH2O under the action of acid rain. Microstructure of concrete adding admixture is denser so as to effectively prevent concrete damage induced by acid rain.%为了考察混凝土建筑在酸雨环境腐蚀下的耐久性问题,研究不同配合比的混凝土材料在酸雨侵蚀作用下的抗压强度、抗折强度和抗冲击性等性能,通过X射线衍射(XRD)、压汞测孔法(MIP)、扫描电镜和能谱仪(SEM-EDS)等测试方法,从粉煤灰、膨胀剂、聚丙烯纤维的作用机理入手,研究了侵蚀前后混凝土试块中水化产物微观结构及内部孔结构特征的变化.结果表明,聚丙烯纤维粉煤灰膨胀混凝土的抗酸雨腐蚀性效果最佳.基准混凝土水化产物在酸雨介质侵蚀下易转换为石膏和SiO2·nH2O,而聚丙烯纤维粉煤灰膨胀混凝土结构致密,有害孔显著减少,可有效阻碍酸雨介质侵蚀作用.

  4. Acid rain research[NIVA contributions to ACID REIGN '95? Conference in Gothenburg, Sweden, 26-30 June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The conference dealt with various sources, aspects and present and future consequences of pollution, particularly acid precipitation on the environment especially on the terrestrial and aquatic parts, with the focus on acidification. Surveys of the extent of the problems were presented. Various methods of reversing the effects are dealt with. Much attention was focused on various water systems such as rivers, lakes, surface waters and ground water and consequences of pollution chemically, geologically, biologically and botanically. The problems of global warming and changes were also focused upon. The origins of pollutants were discussed.

  5. ACID RAIN MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides an overview of existing statistical methodologies for the estimation of site-specific and regional trends in wet deposition. The interaction of atmospheric processes and emissions tend to produce wet deposition data patterns that show large spatial and tempora...

  6. Acid rain: Microphysical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    A microphysical model was used to simulate the case of a ground cloud without dilution by entrainment and without precipitation. The numerical integration techniques of the model are presented. The droplet size spectra versus time and the droplet molalities for each value of time are discussed.

  7. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Edward W.; Stubbs, Harriett S.

    Too often science seems to be a matter of studying from books and responding to questions raised by teachers about the information either in the classroom or on examinations. Such a view of science misses its importance as a way of thinking, doing, and preparing for citizenship roles. The problems and activities included in this volume are…

  8. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  9. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  10. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  11. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  12. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge Arslan, Harika; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a lack of knowledge from a misconception, a certainty response index is added as a third tier to each item. Based on propositional knowledge statements, related literature, and the identified misconceptions gathered initially from 157 pre-service teachers, the AREPDiT was constructed and administered to 256 pre-service teachers. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the pre-service teachers' scores was estimated to be 0.74. Content and face validations were established by senior experts. A moderate positive correlation between the participants' both-tiers scores and their certainty scores indicated evidence for construct validity. Therefore, the AREPDiT is a reliable and valid instrument not only to identify pre-service teachers' misconceptions about GW, GE, OLD, and AR but also to differentiate these misconceptions from lack of knowledge. The results also reveal that a majority of the respondents demonstrated limited understandings about atmosphere-related environmental problems and held six common misconceptions. Future studies could test the AREPDiT as a tool for assessing the misconceptions held by pre-service teachers from different programs as well as in-service teachers and high school students.

  13. Seismic Vulnerability of Masonry Structures Subjected to Acid Rain%酸雨环境下砌体结构地震易损性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑山锁; 程明超; 马德龙; 牛丽华; 郑捷

    2016-01-01

    Because of environmental pollution,the frequency of acid rain is increasing.In rural ar-eas and small towns in China,many ancient buildings are masonry structures that are easily cor-roded by acid rain.Because of the poor seismic performance of masonry structures subjected to acid rain,research on these structures corroded by acid rain has become increasingly important. In this study,we designed four brick walls with common characteristics and tested them with a series of 0,100,200,and 300 corrosion cycles of acid rain.Then,using a low reversed cyclic loading test,we obtained the hysteresis curve of the four brick walls under these corrosion cycles. Based on the three-spring element model combined with the Lu Xinzheng-Qu Zhe restoring force model,we used the finite element software Marc to simulate the response of the brick walls.Our experimental results proved that the three-spring element model can accurately predict the hyster-etic properties of masonry structures.To verify the rationality of using the three-spring element model to simulate the whole structure,we used it to construct a finite element model of a teach-ing building for modal analysis and compared it with the ABAQUS modal analysis results of pre-vious research.Our results show that the three-spring element model can better reflect basic dy-namic structural characteristics and satisfy requirements for nonlinear earthquake analysis.We al-so summarize domestic and overseas drift allowance angles of different damage states combined with our experimental results and China's national code to demarcate appropriate drift allowance angles.We used 15 seismic waves from the ATC-63 project to perform an incremental dynamic a-nalysis of structures and to obtain seismic vulnerability curves under different corrosion cycles.Based on our analysis of the failure probability for different structural damage states from small, medium,and large earthquakes,acid rain can seriously affect structural mechanical properties

  14. Effects of precipitation variation on severe acid rain in southern China%降水变化对中国南方强酸雨分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志清; 杜银; 曾燕; 李亚春; 严明良; 焦圣明

    2009-01-01

    Acid rain has been recognized as a serious environmental problem in China since the 1980s, but little is known about the effects of the climatic change in regional precipitation on the temporal and spatial variability of severe acid rain. We present the effects of the re-gional precipitation trend change on the area and intensity of severe acid rain in southern China, and the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SO2 and NO2 concentrations are analyzed on the basis of SO2 and NO2 column concentration data. The results are as follows. (1) The emission levels of SO2 and NO2 have reached or passed the precipitation scavenging capacity in parts of southern China owing to the emission totals of SO2 and NO2 increasing from 1993 to 2004. (2) Notable changes in the proportion of cities subject to severe acid rain occurred mainly in the south of the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River during 1993-2004. With an abrupt change in 1999, the severe acid rain regions were mainly located in central and western China during 1993-1999 and moved obviously eastward to the south of the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River with the proportion of cities subject to se-vere acid rain increasing significantly from 2000 to 2004. (3) The spatial distribution and variation in the seasonal precipitation change rate of more than 10 mm/10a are similar to those of severe acid rain in southern China. An abrupt change in 1999 is seen for winter and summer precipitation, the same as for the proportion of cities subject to severe acid rain in southern China. The significant increase in summer storm precipitation from 1991 to 1999 mitigated the annual precipitation acidity in the south of the Yangtze River and reduced the area of severe acid rainfall. On the other hand, the decrease in storm rainfall in summer ex-panded the area of severe acid rainfall in the south of the Yangtze River in 2000-2006. Therefore, the change in seasonal precipitation is an important factor in the

  15. 近5a江苏省苏南五市酸雨分布特征分析%An analysis of acid rain distribution characteristics of five cities in south Jiangsu in recent five years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋名淑; 施丹平; 陈彦

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain distribution characteristics of 7 acid rain monitoring stations in Nanjing, Zhen-jiang,Changzhou,Wuxi and Suzhou in south Jiangsu were analyzed based on acid rain monitoring data from January 2007 to December 2011. The results indicate that the frequency of acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Nanjing. The frequency was minimum in 2011 and maximum in 2009. The frequency of strong acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Liyang. The frequency was maximum when the rainfall was strong acidity at 3 points at the same time. The strong acid precipitation failed at 7 points at the same time appeared only on February 22, 2009. The acid rain intensity was the strongest in Dongshan and weakest in Liyang. The precipitation of the four seasons in a year were acidic. The precipitation in 2011 was weak acidity, but it was strong acidity during 2008 -2010.%统计江苏省苏南地区南京、镇江、常州、无锡和苏州5市7个酸雨监测站2007年1月至2011年12月的酸雨监测资料得到:(1)酸雨发生频率以东山最高,南京最低;2011年最低,2009年最高.强酸雨发生概率以东山最高,溧阳最低;3站同时出现强酸雨的概率最高,7站同时为强酸雨的仅2009年2月22日1d.(2)四季均为酸性降水;酸雨强度以东山最强,溧阳最弱.2011年呈弱酸性,其余3 a呈强酸性.

  16. 基于EOF分析的广西酸雨时空分布特征研究%Study on the Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristic of Acid Rain in Guangxi Based on EOF Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙崇智; 梁骏; 王超球; 郑凤琴

    2011-01-01

    Based on acid rain data from ten monitoring sites in Guangxi from 2003 to 2009, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristic of acid rain in Guangxi were analyzed by means of empirical orthogonal function resolution (EOF). The results showed that there was fluctuating change of acid rain frequency in Guangxi , and acid rain pollution became severer in 2004 - 2008; acid rain frequency changed conformably in the whole region and it was higher in eastern and northwestern Guangxi, while acid rain pollution became severe in western Guangxi;acid rain frequency varied out of phase between northeastern and seuthwestern Guangxi in an individual year.%利用广西10个酸雨监测点2003~2009年的酸雨资料,采用经验正交函数分解(EOF)的统计方法,分析了广西区域酸雨的空间分布特征与时间变化趋势.结果表明,广西酸雨频率呈波动性变化,特别是2004~2008年酸雨污染趋势加剧;全区域酸雨频率变化一致,东部、西北部明显高于其他地区,酸雨污染严重的地带已扩展到西部;个别年份广西东北部与西南部的酸雨频率变化反位相.

  17. The Comparative Analysis on Acid Rain' Characteristics in Xichang, Panzhihua and Wenjiang%西昌攀枝花温江三地酸雨特征对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫芳; 郑丽英; 房鹏; 郑自君; 李林; 王哲

    2015-01-01

    利用西昌、攀枝花、温江三站近7年的酸雨观测资料,分析三地的酸雨月、年变化特征.结果表明:西昌1—12月为弱酸雨污染;攀枝花1—3月无酸雨污染,4—12月为弱酸雨污染,温江秋、冬、春三季均为强酸雨污染,夏季为弱酸雨污染.西昌近年来pH值有增大趋势,攀枝花与温江年变化趋势不显著.经综合比较,温江为重酸雨区,攀枝花与西昌为轻酸雨区.%Based on Xichang, Panzhihua and Wenjiang's nearly seven years acid rain monitoring data, the month and annual variation characteristics of acid rain in three places are analyzed. The results shows that: in Xichang, there is weak acid rain pollution all year in Panzhihua, there is no acid rain pollution from January to March and weak pollution from April to December in Wenjiang, there is strong acid rain pollution in spring autumn and winter and weak pollution in summer The value of Xichang's PH has increasing trend in recent years, while the trend of Panzhihua and Wenjiang's Ph is not significant. Through comprehensive comparison, Wenjiang belongs to heavy acid rain area, Panzhihua and Xichang belong to light acid rain area.

  18. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhart, M.; et al,

    2005-08-01

    Under Title IX of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Congress reauthorized the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) to continue coordinating acid rain research and monitoring, as it had done during the previous decade, and to provide Congress with periodic reports. In particular, Congress asked NAPAP to assess all available data and information to answer two questions: (1) What are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of Title IV? This question addresses the costs and economic impacts of complying with the Acid Rain Program as well as benefit analyses associated with the various human health and welfare effects, including reduced visibility, damages to materials and cultural resources, and effects on ecosystems. (2) What reductions in deposition rates are needed to prevent adverse ecological effects? This complex questions addresses ecological systems and the deposition levels at which they experience harmful effects. The results of the assessment of the effects of Title IV and of the relationship between acid deposition rates and ecological effects were to be reported to Congress quadrennially, beginning with the 1996 report to Congress. The objective of this Report is to address the two main questions posed by Congress and fully communicate the results of the assessment to decision-makers. Given the primary audience, most of this report is not written as a technical document, although information supporting the conclusions is provided along with references.

  19. Characteristics of acid rain and its influencing factors from 2006 to 2010 in Nangong,Hebei province%2006—2010年南宫酸雨变化特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨允凌; 王丛梅

    2012-01-01

    Based on the observational data of acid rain,the ground meteorological data in Nangong from 2006 to 2010,the sounding data and synoptic situation,the characteristics of acid rain and the effect of meteorological conditions on it were analyzed.The results indicate that the mean pH value of precipitation is less than 4.70 in Nangong and acid rain frequency is more than 50%,so it belongs to the serious or more serious acid rain area.The acidity of precipitation is stronger in summer and autumn,while the frequency of acid rain is high in autumn and winter.The conductivity of precipitation is the largest in winter.Acid rain often occurs when the dominant wind is the eastward,calm and north-northwest wind.The frequencies of acid rain and serious acid rain increase with the increase of precipitation grade when upper weather system is a shear line.The intensity of acid rain increases with the increase of relative humidity and inverse temperature.%利用2006—2010年南宫酸雨观测资料和地面气象资料,结合邢台探空资料及天气形势,采用数理统计方法,分析南宫酸雨变化特征及不同气象条件对酸雨的影响。结果表明:近年来南宫降水平均pH值均小于4.70,酸雨频率大于50%,属于重酸雨区或较重酸雨区。降水酸性在夏秋两季较强,而酸雨出现频率则在秋冬两季较大,降水电导率冬季最大。南宫酸雨多出现在主导风向为偏东风或静风及北—西北风;高空天气系统为切变线时,酸雨及强酸雨频率随降水量级增大而增大;酸雨强度随相对湿度和逆温增加而增强。

  20. Characteristics of acid rain and its relationship with meteorological elements in Datong,Shanxi province%大同市酸雨变化特征及其与气象要素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明明; 王雁; 韩照宇; 闫世明; 张逢生

    2011-01-01

    利用2007—2009年大同市酸雨资料,应用《酸雨观测规范》方法对大同市酸雨变化及其与气象要素的关系进行分析。结果表明:大同市酸雨发生频率为25.0%—36.36%,10月酸雨频率最高,达到75%;其他月份酸雨频率较低。大同市夏季酸雨强度为弱酸雨程度,而秋季酸雨频率则为最高。大同市小雨时酸雨发生频率为33.33%;中雨时酸雨发生频率为19.23%;大雨时酸雨发生频率为60.00%;暴雨时酸雨发生频率为0。由此可见,大同市在大雨天气时,酸雨出现的概率较高。随着风速的增大,降水的酸雨频率逐渐增大。大同市在S风向下的酸雨频率最高为18.60%,ESE和NNW风向下的酸雨频率较高为13.95%。通过分析大同市酸雨变化规律、气象气候条件等因素对酸雨的影响,探讨影响大同市酸雨形成的主要因素,从而为大同市酸雨污染控制提供科学依据。%Based on the acid rain data from 2007 to 2009,the characteristics of acid rain and its relationship with meteorological elements were analyzed in terms of a method provided by "acid rain observational criterion".The results indicate that the frequency of occurrence for acid rain is about 25.0%-36.36% in Datong.The highest frequency of 75% occurs in October,while the frequencies are lower in other months.The intensity of acid rain is weak in summer,and the frequency of occurrence is the highest in autumn.The frequencies of occurrence for acid rain reach 33.33%,19.23%,60.00% and 0 under light rain,moderate rain,heavy rain and rainstorm conditions.The frequency of occurrence for acid rain increases with the increase of wind speed.The frequency of occurrence for acid rain reaches 18.60% under S wind direction in Datong and this is the highest frequency in relation to the wind direction.The frequency is about 13.95% under ESE and NNW wind directions.According to the analysis of acid rain changes and their relationship with meteorological

  1. 酸雨对我国生态环境的危害及防治对策%THE HARMFULNESS OF ACID RAIN TO AGRICULTURALECO-ENVIRONMFENT IN CHINA AND THECORRESPONDING PREVENTIVE COUNTERMEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士功; 张华

    2001-01-01

    The viewpoints that the harnmfulness of acid rain to macro-agriculture is one of the most serious 10environmental problems were put forward at the 3rd international symposium on environmental protection in 1996.With the development of modem industry,following the North Europe and North America,China has became the 3rd largest acid rain area in the world,and 40% of her area is harmed by acid rain.Acid rain already has become one of the main factors restraining sustainable development of economy in China.Based on the studies of harmfulness of acid rain to agricultural eeo-environment and macro-agriculture in China,the relative preventive countermeasures were presented.%随着现代工业的发展,我国已成为继北欧和北美之后的第三大酸雨区,占国土总面积的40%的地区受到酸雨的危害。酸雨问题已成为制约我国经济可持续发展的主要因素之一。文章从农业可持续发展角度出发,在分析酸雨对我国大农业危害的基础上,提出了酸雨防治的对策建议。

  2. Rain Barrels in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Brian; Mesner, Nancy; Brain, Roslynn

    2015-01-01

    Rain barrels are an easy way to conserve rain water and help protect our environment. This fact sheet tells how to find out about the current regulations in Utah and how to build a rain barrel for your own home.

  3. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively.

  4. Ectomycorrhizae-induced mitigation mechanisms against the damages of acid rain on plants: A review%外生菌根缓解植物酸雨胁迫的机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慰; 陈展; 邓仕槐; 尚鹤

    2012-01-01

    森林作为陆地生态系统的主体,是酸雨污染的主要受体,酸雨对生态系统产生着巨大的影响.菌根是菌根真菌与植物营养根的共生体.外生菌根真菌与宿主植物间互惠互利,在森林生态系统中,外生菌根在维持生态系统的养分平衡和改善树木营养等方面有重要的作用.本文综述了国内外关于菌根和酸雨关系的研究,酸雨能抑制外生菌根的形成,降低其活力;但另一方面,外生菌根能够缓解酸雨造成的植物危害,提高植株对酸雨的耐受力.外生菌根主要通过以下几方面缓解酸雨胁迫:(1)菌根形态结构的物理屏蔽作用;(2)增加养分吸收,增加御酸能力;(3)增强酶活性,提高植物生存能力;(4)产生有机酸或其他物质.%As a main body of terrestrial ecosystem, forest is a major receptor of acid rain pollu tion. Acid rain has severe impact on forest ecosystem. Ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiose with plant roots, and protect their hosts against various aggressions, including that from acid rain. Many of the macrofungi form symbiotic ectomycorrhizae with forest trees, playing an important role in maintaining the nutrient balance of the trees and protecting the trees against pathogens. This paper reviewed the research advances in the relationships between mycorrhizae and acid rain. Acid rain can inhibit and reduce ectomycorrhizal formation and vitality, whereas ectomycorrhizae can alleviate the damage of acid rain to host plants and improve the hosts' tolerance against acid rain. The ectomycorrhizae-induced mitigation mechanisms against the acid rain stress on plants are: 1) physical shielding effect of ectomycorrhizal morphological structure, 2) promoting host plant nutrient uptake and increasing host plant acid-defense capability, 3) improving host plant enzyme activities and host plant viability, and 4) secreting organic acids or other substances.

  5. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf litter decomposition of Ginkgo biloba and Taxodium ascendens%模拟酸雨胁迫对银杏与池杉凋落叶分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶龙华; 孙小川; 宋曰钦; 薛立

    2015-01-01

    以硫酸、亚硫酸为原料配制不同 pH 值的酸溶液,采用分解袋法,在室内模拟酸雨处理银杏和池杉凋落叶,研究模拟酸雨胁迫对银杏和池杉凋落叶分解的影响。结果表明:不同 pH 值的模拟酸雨胁迫对银杏和池杉凋落叶的分解率均存在一定的抑制作用,以对照组(pH 值7.0)的凋落叶分解率最高,其次是轻度(pH 值5.6)酸雨胁迫和中度(pH 值4.0)酸雨胁迫处理的,分解率最低的是重度(pH 值2.5)酸雨胁迫处理的,表现为随酸雨胁迫强度增强即 pH 值的减小而减小的趋势。2个不同树种的凋落叶对酸雨胁迫的反应也存在差异,池杉落叶分解受酸雨的影响比银杏落叶的小。%In order to probe the growing problem of acid rain on leaf litter decomposition,the effects of simulated acid rain on leaf litter decomposition of Ginkgo biloba and Taxodium ascendens were studiedby litterbag method in laboratory conditions.The leaf litters of G.biloba and T.ascendens were treated by different pH value of simulated acid rain.The re-sult indecated that the leaf litter decomposition rates of G.biloba and T.ascendens increased with decreasing acid rain in-tensity.The leaf litter decomposition rate of both species was the fastest in the control (pH7.0),followed by mild acid stress (pH5.6),moderate acid rain (pH4.0)and the severe acid rain (pH2.5).There was a difference in respond of leaf litter decomposition of the two species to acid rain.Acid rain influenced on leaf litter decomposition of T.ascendens was smaller than G.biloba.

  6. 酸雨对混凝土建筑物和文物损坏机理的研究%Acid Rain on the Damage Mechanism of Concrete Buildings and Cultural Relics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灏阳; 李衍红

    2016-01-01

    Introduces the acid rain macro analysis of the mechanism of concrete damage of buildings and cultural relics , adding a small amount of gypsum, cement can delay setting time, but when adding quantity is big, will cause cement expansion, so that debacle, and acid rain on concrete structure and microscopic analysis of damage of cultural relics, such as acid rain are particularly to generate a variety of sulfate, through the analysis of the acid rain from the chemical reaction principle of sulfur diox-ide generated by reaction with calcium ions in the concrete mechanism of gypsum, acid rain are discussed from the gypsum charac-teristics of concrete buildings and cultural relics of the erosion mechanism, and thus puts forward the protection of concrete build-ings and cultural relics under the condition of acid rain .%介绍了酸雨对混凝土建筑物和文物损坏机理的宏观分析,水泥中加入少量石膏,可延缓凝结时间,但当加入量大,将引起水泥膨胀,以致溃裂,探讨了酸雨对混凝土建筑物与文物损坏的微观分析,特别是酸雨等生成各种硫酸盐,通过从化学反应原理上分析了酸雨中二氧化硫与混凝土中钙离子反应生成石膏机理,从石膏特性上探讨了酸雨对混凝土建筑物和文物侵蚀机制,并由此提出了酸雨条件下保护混凝土建筑物和文物应对措施。

  7. Response to Letter on the Use of Sulfur Dioxide Allowances Allocated Under the Acid Rain Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. 酸雨侵蚀对水泥砂浆力学性能的影响%Effect of acid rain attack on mechanical properties of cement mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军

    2015-01-01

    研究了不同水胶比、不同胶凝材料的水泥砂浆受酸雨侵蚀后的力学性能变化。结果表明:在酸雨侵蚀条件下,砂浆抗压强度和抗折强度呈现先快速增长,而后迅速降低的趋势,且水灰比越小,强度增长和下降速度越快;粉煤灰掺量越高,56 d以前强度增长越快,56 d以后强度下降速度越缓慢;28 d前掺矿粉砂浆在酸雨中的抗压强度增长幅度高于未掺加矿粉的基准砂浆,且矿渣掺量越高砂浆抗压强度越高,矿粉对砂浆抗折强度的作用相对较小。%The mechanical properties of cement material of various water cement ratio and cement mortar under acid rain stress were studied. The results show that the compressive strength and bending strength of mortar show a rapid increase under acid rain stress,and then decrease,the strength increases and the decrease rate is faster when the water cement ratio is small. The strength of cement with the increase of fly ash show a rapid growth before 56d and a slow down after 56 d.The compressive strength of mortar with mineral powder increased more than that of control sample under acid rain stress before 28 d,The strength of mortar would be increased with the propor-tions of slag increased ,and mineral powder has little effect on the flexural strength of mortar.

  9. 模拟酸雨胁迫对杨梅幼苗水分生理特性的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seed lings.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚兆斌; 江洪; 余树全; 鲁美娟

    2011-01-01

    选择浙江省典型亚热带经济植物杨梅为对象,通过盆栽试验研究了重度酸雨( pH2.5)、中度酸雨(pH 4.0)和对照(pH 5.6)处理对杨梅幼苗水分生理特性的影响.结果表明:季节、年份和酸雨对杨梅幼苗的光合速率均有显著影响,各处理中,夏季的差异大于春、秋季,pH 4.0处理对光合速率有促进作用;季节、年份、酸雨,季节-年份交互作用以及三者交互作用对气孔导度均有显著影响,各处理在夏季的差异大于春、秋季,酸雨对气孔导度有抑制作用;季节、年份、酸雨及季节-年份和季节-酸雨两两交互作用对蒸腾速率有显著影响,各处理夏季的差异大干春秋季,且pH2.5处理对蒸腾速率的抑制作用最强;酸雨、季节-年份和季节-酸雨交互作用对水分利用率有显著影响,且pH2.5处理对水分利用率有一定的促进作用.%Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhe-jiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2. 5 and pH 4. 0), with water ( pH 5. 6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4. 0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (G,), and also, the G, had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on G,. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (TT) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tt had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2. 5) had

  10. 酸雨对菜地系统氮素收支的影响%EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON NITROGEN BUDGET IN VEGETABLE FIELD ECOSYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定勇; 蒋红梅; 魏世强

    2009-01-01

    分别在酸沉降重污染区、轻污染区和对照区选择代表性的蔬菜样地,对土壤、蔬菜、降水、施肥、渗滤水等的氮素动态进行为时一年的定位、定时监测,研究了不同酸雨影响区氮素在菜地系统中的收支平衡.结果表明:在相同的种植条件下,由于酸雨影响了蔬菜的正常生长,致使酸雨影响区菜地系统中氮素收支失衡,酸沉降重污染区和轻污染区菜地系统中氮素I/O值分别为1.27和1.19;而对照区菜地系统中氮素I/O值为1.08,收支基本平衡.在酸沉降重污染区,降水输入系统的氮远大于轻污染区和对照区(约3~4倍),同时因酸雨危害,蔬菜产量明显低于对照区,仅为对照区产量的60%,使系统中通过作物收获的氮输出减少,结果导致大量氮滞留于土壤中并以硝态氮等形态淋失,给水环境带来了氮污染风险.%In order to understand effects of acid rain on nitrogen (N) balance of soil-vegetable systems, field experiments were carried out at three sites in Chongqing for one year to monitor N dynamics in soils and vegetables, atmospheric N deposition from rainfall, and N leaching loss. These sites were subjected to acid rain to a varying extent, i.e. heavily polluted area (HPA), lightly polluted area (LPA), and control area (CK). Under the condition of similar field management, acid rain affected normal growth of vegetables and hence N balance in the soil vegetable systems at the three sites. The N I/O ratio (input/output) was 1.27 and 1.19 in HPA and LPA, respectively, while it was 1.08 (nearly reaching the balance) in CK. The N input from rainfall in HPA was about 3 to 4 times higher than that in LPA and CK. However, the biomass of vegetables in HPA was decreased by up to 40%, when compared with that in CK, thus leading to a significant decrease in N output through crop harvesting. As a result, a large proportion of N was sequestrated in the soils subjected to acid rain, which subsequently

  11. 2012年丰都县酸雨特征及其相关分析%Characteristic of Acid Rain of Fengdu in 20 1 2 and Its Correlation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小路

    2014-01-01

    The acid rain situation in Fengdu District was studied according to the rainfall monitoring data of this re-gion in 2012.It came to the conclusion that the acid rain pollution was serious in Fengdu District.The acid rain frequency in every month was above 90%,the rainfall acidity changed obviously from season to season and the se-verity was higher in winter than in summer.SO2-4 was the major anion in the rainfall which should be sulfate acid rain,and the correlation matrix analysis showed the definite correlation among the concentration of SO2-4 ,NO3-and F-in the rainfall.%根据2012年丰都县降水监测资料,对该地区的酸雨状况进行研究。结果表明,丰都县酸雨污染状况较重,各月的酸雨频率均在90%以上,降雨酸性的季节变化明显,冬季较夏季高。降雨成分中以SO2-4为主要阴离子,仍为硫酸型酸雨。相关矩阵分析表明,SO2-4、NO3-、F-相关性较好。

  12. Analysis on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Acid Rain Pollution in Fushun%抚顺市酸雨污染特征及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解宇

    2011-01-01

    Based on the acid rain data from monitoring sites between 2006 and 2010, the variation characteristics and related factors of acid rain in recent five years are analyzed in this paper. The results show that the acidity reduced and the frequency of acid rain dropped in recent fives years. The frequency of acid rain increased when the continuous rainfall and heavy rainfall appeared. The precipitation pH value and the ratio of anion and cation are closely related. The precipitation pH value is negatively correlated with sulfur dioxide and positively correlated with dust. Acid rain is the combined result of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and alkaline dust.%文章利用2006年-2010年抚顺市环境监测中心站酸雨监测点位的监测数据,分析了近五年来抚顺市酸雨的变化特征及其相关因素。结果表明:近五年来抚顺市的降水酸度减轻,酸雨频率下降;降水量大时酸雨频率增加;降水pH值与阴阳离子的比率密切相关;降水pH值与大气污染物二氧化硫呈负相关,与尘呈正相关,酸雨是由大气污染物二氧化硫、二氧化氮和碱性尘共同作用的结果。

  13. Mechanical properties of bridge concrete on the anti-corrosion of acid rain%桥梁混凝土耐酸雨侵蚀力学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志武; 李彪; 李世秋

    2009-01-01

    按C50预制混凝土桥梁的现场配合比设计要求,通过实验室模拟酸雨条件下桥梁混凝土的耐酸雨侵蚀性能,根据模拟酸雨中5种混凝土的抗折、抗压强度的变化与模拟结束时对比样品的试验结果分析可知:掺加矿渣、SBR聚合物和粉煤灰对混凝土后期力学性能有一定改善作用,或降低酸雨对混凝土侵蚀程度和速率.%According to the design requirements of the local C50 pie-cast bridge concrete, through the experiment investigation on corrosion of simulated acid rain to bridge concrete,the influence of simulated acid rain on the properties of concrete is studied by measuring the index of the flexural strength and compressive strength.Based on the research,the concrete resisting acid rain was applied in civil engineering,adding slag, SBR polymer concrete and fly ash on concrete improved the mechanical properties of the latter situation, the extent and rate of corrosion of acid rain to bridge concrete were reduced.

  14. 模拟酸雨对南方红豆杉生理特性的影响%Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Physiological Characteristics in Taxus chinensis var. Mairei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建福; 杨晨; 王明元

    2012-01-01

    The test was conducted with 2—year—old trees of Taxus chinensis var. Mairei. Leaves were sprayed with the simulated acid rain with different pH values to study the effects of the acid rain on the physiological characteristics and leaf morphology in Taxus chinensis var. Mairei. The results indicated that blade tip appeared damage spots and leaf loss occurred under the stress of acid rain. There were not significant change of the content of chlorophyll and carotenoids and malondialdehyde and soluble sugar and protein. Superoxide dismutase activity did not change significantly under the acid rain stress. Compared to the control, catalase activity significantly increased with acid rain of pH4.0 and 5.6, decreased with acid rain of pH2.5. and peroxidase activity was significantly higher than those of control in pH5.6, and lower than those of control in pH4.0 and 2.5. Therefore, it has been showed a certain resistance to acid rain stress of Taxus chinensis var. Mairei. in pH4.0 and 5.6.%研究模拟酸雨对南方红豆杉叶片形态和生理特性的影响.结果表明:酸雨胁迫下南方红豆杉叶尖出现伤害症状,叶片发生脱落,随着酸雨胁迫程度的加剧,叶片损伤程度加重;酸雨胁迫下叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、丙二醛和可溶性糖含量变化不明显;酸雨胁迫下超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性变化不明显;中度胁迫(pH4.0)和轻度胁迫(pH5.6)时过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著高于对照,而重度胁迫(pH2.5)的CAT活性显著低于对照;轻度胁迫时过氧化物酶(POD)活性显著高于对照,而中度胁迫和重度胁迫的POD活性显著低于对照.这说明南方红豆杉对pH4.0~5.6的酸雨胁迫有一定的适应性和抵抗力.

  15. Effect of simulated different types of acid rain on physiological characteristics in Carya cathayensis%模拟不同类型酸雨胁迫对山核桃生理特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶欣桐; 江洪; 郭凯

    2013-01-01

    随着经济的发展,中国酸雨污染类型由硫酸型向硫酸、硝酸复合型转变,为了解转变对我国陆地植物生态系统的影响,以山核桃(Carya cathayensis)为试验对象,研究模拟硫酸型酸雨(SAR)、硝酸型酸雨(NAR)及混合型酸雨(MAR)对山核桃的生理特征影响.试验测定了山核桃在不同酸雨类型下,生长量,叶绿素含量和光合反应参数在pH值为5.6,4.0,2.5时的数据.结果表明:SAR处理下,山核桃的株高、基径在pH 5.6时高于另两个梯度,NAR处理下,生长量的大小为pH5.6处理<pH 2.5处理<pH 4.0处理;MAR处理下,对株高的胁迫明显高于SAR和NAR;在相同pH值下对叶绿素的胁迫影响表现为NAR> MAR> SAR,有显著差异,但三种酸雨类型各梯度间的叶绿素含量差异不显著;三种酸雨对山核桃的光合作用都产生抑制,净光合速率在pH2.5处理下小于pH5.6处理,对表观量子效率(AQE)、最大净光合速率(Pnmax)、光饱和点(LSP)都表现为MAR< NAR.@@研究结果表明NAR和MAR对植物的生理特征影响较SAR更复杂,混合型酸雨对植物的株高和叶绿素含量的胁迫都大于硫酸型酸雨.%With economic development,the type of acid rain pollution in China changed from the sulfuric acid to sulfuric acid and nitric acid complex,due to the increase of nitrogen content in the acid rain,which may lead to the change of terrestrial plant ecosystem.In this paper,Carya cathayensis was used as the experimental material to study the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR),nitric acid rain (NAR) and the mixed acid rain (MAR) on physiological characteristics in Carya cathayensis.In experimental design,in addition to three types of acid rain,three gradients of pH value as pH 2.5 (severe acid rain stress),pH 4.0 (moderately acid rain stress),pH 5.6 (acid rain control treatment) were also designed.The growth parameters,chlorophyll content and photosynthetic reaction paameters of Carya cathayensis under three

  16. Effect of Three Types of Simulated Acid Rain on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Schima superba%模拟3种类型酸雨对木荷光合生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 江洪; 陶欣桐; 胡莉

    2013-01-01

    我国酸雨类型正在由硫酸型酸雨(Sulfuric acid rain,SAR)逐步向混合型酸雨(Mixed acid rain,MAR)、硝酸型酸雨(Nitric acid rain,NAR)转变,电此将产生各种未知环境效应.以木荷(Schima superba)为试验材料,在试验大棚内测定其在此3种光合生理特性参数.结果表明,在酸雨胁迫下木荷都受到不同程度的伤害.在同酸雨类型不同pH值处理下,3种酸雨类型均以pH 2.5处理各类光合参数数值较低,但是在pH 4.0时MAR处理的光饱和点(LSP)值最高,达到508.3 μmol/(m2·s),此时对应的表观量子效率(AQE)值最低,为0.023 CO2/photon;对照组(CK,pH 5.6)在3种类型酸雨处理中,以SAR处理数值最低.不同酸雨类型同pH值处理下,SAR和MAR处理的光响应曲线pH 4.0组均低于pH 2.5组和CK组,而NAR处理的光响应曲线pH 4.0组高于pH 2.5组和CK组;而且,3种酸雨类型处理pH 2.5组的最大光合速率(Amax)始终低于CK组.这说明植物的Amax在一定程度上随着酸雨浓度的增加而减小.%Types of acid rain in China have been in transformation from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to mixed acid rain (MAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR). To explore the effect of acid rain on Schima superba in Zhejiang Province, photosynthetic characteristics of Schima superba were studied under SAR, NAR and MAR stress with pH 2.5,4.0 and 5.6 (CK). Results showed that simulated acid rain can inhibit photosynthesis of Schima superba in various degrees. At pH 2.5, values for photosynthetic parameters were lower among all the treatments. At pH 4.0, light saturation point peaked at 508.3μmol/m2·s, and apparent quantum efficiency dropped to a minimum of 0.023 CO2/photon accordingly. Data changes of CK, pH 5.6 in the pattern of SAR was least observable. In the pattern of SAR and MAR, the light response curve at pH 4.0 was lower than that at pH 2.5 and CK. But there was a contrary result in the pattern of NAR. Maximum photosynthetic rate at pH 2.5 had been consistently

  17. Acid rain recovery may help to mitigate the impacts of climate change on thermally sensitive fish in lakes across eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R; Kraft, Clifford E; Josephson, Daniel C; Driscoll, Charles T

    2016-12-15

    From the 1970s to 1990s, more stringent air quality regulations were implemented across North America and Europe to reduce chemical emissions that contribute to acid rain. Surface water pH slowly increased during the following decades, but biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery. Fortunately, this situation is changing. In the past few years, northeastern US fish populations have begun to recover in lakes that were historically incapable of sustaining wild fish due to acidic conditions. As lake ecosystems across the eastern United States recover from acid deposition, the stress to the most susceptible populations of native coldwater fish appears to be shifting from acidification effects to thermal impacts associated with changing climate. Extreme summer temperature events - which are expected to occur with increasing frequency in the coming century - can stress and ultimately kill native coldwater fish in lakes where thermal stratification is absent or highly limited. Based on data from northeastern North America, we argue that recovery from acid deposition has the potential to improve the resilience of coldwater fish populations in some lakes to impacts of climate change. This will occur as the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water increases with increasing lake pH. Increased DOC will reduce water clarity and lead to shallower and more persistent lake thermoclines that can provide larger areas of coldwater thermal refuge habitat. Recovery from acidification will not eliminate the threat of climate change to coldwater fish, but secondary effects of acid recovery may improve the resistance of coldwater fish populations in lakes to the effects of elevated summer temperatures in historically acidified ecosystems. This analysis highlights the importance of considering the legacy of past ecosystem impacts and how recovery or persistence of those effects may interact with climate change impacts on biota in the coming decades.

  18. 重庆市主城区酸雨的影响因素及防治措施%Influencing Factors of Acid Rain in Main Urban Districts of Chongqing and Its Prevention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇; 熊增连; 陈昌鸣

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis of acid rain pollution situation and changing trend of acid rain concentration in main urban districts of Chongqing in decades, this paper holds that irrational energy structure and industrial layout is the main reason for acid rain pollution in main urban districts of Chongqing and that special meteorology and geological condition make acid rain pollution more serious in the main urban districts of Chongqing. Prevention measures for acid rain based on the real situation of the main urban districts of Chongqing are put forward, which shows that the only way for sustainable development in the main urban districts of Chongqing is the harmonious development between economy and environment.%通过分析重庆市主城区历年来的酸雨污染状况及酸雨浓度的变化趋势,认为不合理的能源结构和产业布局是造成重庆市主城区酸雨污染的主要原因,而特殊的气象和地形条件使主城区的酸雨污染程度进一步加重;并结合主城区的实际情况提出了酸雨的治理措施,表明走经济与环境协调发展是重庆市主城区实现可持续发展的唯一途径。

  19. 1992~2012年福州市和厦门市酸雨变化特征及影响因素%Characteristics and the Impact Factors of Acid Rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秋萍; 王宏; 陈彬彬; 隋平; 林文

    2014-01-01

    利用1992~2012年福州市和厦门市的酸雨观测资料、天气形势和大气污染物浓度资料,分析酸雨变化特征及酸雨可能的影响因素.结果表明,福州市非酸雨和酸雨频率分别为38.1%和61.9%,厦门市分别为40.6%和59.4%;福州市年均降水pH值在4.1~5.5之间,2007年之后酸雨污染减轻,厦门市2006年之后酸雨污染减轻;冬、春季节酸雨污染重,夏、秋季节酸雨污染轻.降水强度能改变降水的酸性程度;福州市在东南( SE)、西南( SW)、西( W)、西北( NW)风向下酸雨污染较严重,厦门市在东北( NE)、SW、W、NW风向下酸雨污染较重;变性冷高压下酸雨污染最重,台风(热带辐合带)及其外围的天气形势下酸雨污染最轻;福州市大气污染物SO2、NO2、PM10浓度与降水pH值呈负相关关系.%Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38. 1% and 61. 9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40. 6% and 59. 4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4. 1-5. 5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon ( intertropical convergence zone ) and outside of typhoon ( intertropical convergence zone) . There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants

  20. Effects of ultraviolet rays and acid rain on strength of spider silk; Kumo ito no kyodo ni oyobosu shigaisen oyobi sanseiu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, M.; Sasagawa, H. [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of engineering; Kawagoe, M. [Toyama Prefectural Univ., Toyama (Japan)

    1995-12-15

    Spider silk, differing to the synthetic fibers yarned at high temperature or using hazardous solvents, is a fiber in the body of animal and the process itself is safe. Again, the silk is made of up protein and is kind to the environment because does not cause pollution even after disposal. Also, it is a material of interest as a strong fiber having high tensile strength reaching to 2000 MPa. Accordingly, spider silk can be taken as an effective industrial material if the mass production of the fiber is possible by genetic engineering. In previous report, the mechanical properties of dragline silk spewed out from the same silk gland as the warp, a kind of silk spewed out by Nephila clavata, so called Jorogumo, were studied. In this report, the deformation behavior of circular net made by Jorogumo and applicability to environmental evaluation are under study, and effect of acid environment and ultraviolet rays on the mechanical properties of spider silk are studied. As a result, it was revealed that ultraviolet rays degraded the spider silk, and further, promoted the degradation when the acid rain acted at the same time. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Precipitation Chemistry and Occurrence of Acid Rain over the Oil-Producing Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayo Chukwu Nduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH, and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between April–June, July–August, and September–October of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oil–producing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing industries. The same was done in Awka, a non-oil producing city in the hinterland of southeastern Nigeria. In each of the cities, rain samples were collected from three points in a triangular equilibrium using a clean plastic basin fastened to a table 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. The parameters were determined after filtering, using their respective standard methods. Averages of 1.50, 1.81, 1.13 and 2.14, 1.50, 1.86 mg/l of nitrate for April–June, July–August, and September–October were recorded for Warri in 2005 and 2006, respectively. While 15.21, 3.23, 22.31 and 20.89, 9.96, and 14.27 mg/l were recorded in Port Harcourt. Sulfate levels for Warri and Port Harcourt for the same periods are follows: 1.38, 1.88, 1.06, 1.50, 1.43, 1.50 and 2.64, 1.15, 5.88, 4.73, 1.90, 1.55 mg/l, respectively. Nitrate levels were higher than sulfate. Other parameters include TDS (5.44, 4.79, 3.30 and 7.63, 3.69, 2.56 mg/l for Warri in 2005 and 2006; 12.57, 2.07, 25.214 and 28.87, 6.73, 7.80 mg/l for Port Harcourt for the same periods. Other parameters also varied in that order for the 2 years in same cities. Crude oil exploration and gas flaring in the Niger Delta, and multiplicity of cottage industries in Awka, impacted on the inorganic ion pollution of the rainwater. This may have public health implications in the region.

  2. 佛山市降水成分及酸雨污染状况分析%Analysis of Components of Precipitation and Pollution Status of Acid Rain in Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚镇; 梁丽红

    2012-01-01

    以“十一五”期间佛山市降水样品监测资料为基础,对佛山市大气降水的离子组成和酸雨污染状况进行了分析,结果表明:佛山市降水pH值较低,酸雨污染较为严重,降水中的主要阳离子是Ca2+和NH4+,主要阴离子为SO4^2-和NO3-,酸雨类型已从单一的硫酸型逐渐转变为硫酸和硝酸混合型。%The ion composition of atmospheric precipitation and the acid rain pollution status of Foshan are studied in this paper on the basis of monitoring data measured during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period. The results show that the pH value of precipitation is low, and the acid rain pollution status is serious; the major cations in precipitation are Ca2+ and NH4+ and the major anions are SO4^2- and NO3^2- ;the acid rain type has been gradually transformed from a single sulfate acid type into the mixed type of sulfuric acid and nitric acid.

  3. Rain Gauges Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).

  4. Effect of simulated acid rain stress on germination of four turf grass seeds%模拟酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田如男; 张培东; 程澄

    2011-01-01

    以中性溶液(pH =7.0)为对照,研究了模拟酸雨(pH为2.0、2.5、3.0、3.5、4.0、5.0)胁迫对黑麦草(Lolium perenne)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、匍匐剪股颖(Agrostis palustris)和狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)4种多年生草坪草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响不同,pH =2.0的酸雨完全抑制了4种草坪草种子的萌发,表现为发芽率、发芽势、活力指数均为零.黑麦草、高羊茅种子能在pH:≥2.5的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,匍匐剪股颖种子能在pH≥3.0的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,狗牙根种子在不同程度酸雨胁迫下均萌发不良.此外,酸雨胁迫还延缓了4种草坪草种子的萌发进程.应用主成分分析和隶属函数分析法对4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力进行综合评定,得出4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力由强到弱的顺序依次为高羊茅、黑麦草、匍匐剪股颖、狗牙根.%The seeds of Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea, Agrostis palustris and Cynodon dactylon were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5,4. 0,5.0 and 7. 0(as control) to study the effects of acid rain on their germination. The results showed that the seeds germination of four turf grass under acid rain stress were affected at different levels. Acid rain intensity pH 2.0 completely inhibited the seed germination of turf grass, showing no germination was observed and germination energy and vigor index was 0.0. The seeds of L. Perenne and F. Arundinacea could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^2. 5) ,and the seeds of A. Paluslris could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^3.0).The seeds of C. Dactylon germinated poorly under acid rain stress. In addition, the process of germination became slow under acid rain stress. The comprehensive evaluation results derived from principal components analysis and subordinate function analysis showed the order (from strong to weak) of anti-acid rain ability

  5. The Disaster Risk Assessment of Acid Rain in Jiangsu Province Based on Information Diffusion Theory%基于信息扩散理论的江苏省酸雨风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟丽; 吴洪颜; 贺金芳; 朱双

    2015-01-01

    Data of acid rain from 24 stations during 2008-201 3 are used to analyze the trends of acid rain in Jiangsu Province.It is shown that the intensity and frequency of acid rain are decreasing within the recent 6 years and the frequency is highest in autumn and winter and lowest in summer.The acid rain risk of the province is eval-uated based on information diffusion theory.The results indicate that:the distribution characteristics between the pH value of precipitation and the frequency of acid rain is consistent in different level of risk and it increases gradu-ally from Northwest to Southeast.The pH value of annual precipitation is between 3.8 and 4.5 with about 80%probability and it presents weak acidity.There is more than 90% probability that the acid rain is with 40% risk level in South of Huaihe River.%利用江苏省2008-2013年24个站的酸雨监测资料,分析出2008-2013年江苏省酸雨的强度和发生频率都有下降趋势,秋冬季酸雨发生频率高,夏季最低。基于信息扩散理论对全省酸雨进行风险评估,结果发现:年降水pH值和酸雨发生频率在不同风险水平分布特征较为一致,呈西北-东南逐渐增强趋势;年降水pH值80%的可能介于4.5~5.6之间,呈弱酸性;淮河以南地区酸雨发生频率的风险为40%的概率超过90%。

  6. Acid rain and resulting chemical composition of soils; Der saure Regen und die daraus resultierende chemische Zusammensetzung der Bodenloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugolini, F.C. [Dipt. di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Univ. Florenz (Italy); Cecchini, G. [Dipt. di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Univ. Florenz (Italy); Buffoni, A. [ENEL - CRTN, Mailand (Italy); Sanesi, G. [Dipt. di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Univ. Florenz (Italy)

    1993-11-01

    The input of free acids in the central and northern Appenine mountains is low and gets almost fully neutralised on its path through the vegetation. Nitrogen penetrating the ecosystem is largely accumulated. Soil solutions show low acidities and low aluminium contents. Formation of chelates of organic pollutant and stratification of vermiculite account for Al-immobilisation. At Monte Mottarone too, acid input which is considerably higher but neutralised during transition through the vegetation. A greater part of the ammonia is accumulated in the soil, a considerable output of nitrate takes place. This leads to strong acidification and mobilises large amounts of aluminium. (orig./EW). [Deutsch] Im zentralen und noerdlichen Appenin ist der Input an freien Saeuren gering und wird auch fast zur Gaenze beim Durchgang durch die Vegetation neutralisiert. Der ins Oekosystem gelangende Stickstoff wird zum Grossteil angereichert. Die Bodenloesung ist gering sauer und enthaelt wenig Aluminium. Die Chelatbildung der organischen Substanz und die Vermikulitschichtung sind die beiden fuer die Al-Immobilisierung ausschlaggebenden Prozesse. Auch am Monte Mottarone wird der Saeure-Input, der dort allerdings um einiges hoeher ist, zum Grossteil beim Durchgang durch den Bewuchs neutralisiert. Im Boden wird ein grosser Teil des Ammoniums angereichert, waehrend ein beachtlicher Nitrat-Austrag stattfindet. Dies fuehrt zu einer starken Versauerung und dementsprechend auch zur Mobilisierung grosser Aluminiummengen. (orig.)

  7. Responses of antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis in rape seedling to the combined stresses of acid rain and ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chan-juan; HUANG Xiao-hua; TAO Wen-yi; ZHOU Qing

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the simulated acid rain(AR) and ultraviolet-B(UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation with a single or two ways simultaneously (AR + UV-B) on the antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis of the rape seedlings were investigated by the hydroponic culture. The results of static experiment indicated that the tolerance of rape seedling to single stress(AR or UV-B) is stronger than that to dual stresses(AR +UV-B). Furthermore, the dual stresses had additive effect on catalase activity, and a synergistic effect on MDA content, net photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency as well as intercellular CO2 concentration. Meanwhile, it has an independent effect on chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate as well as membrane permeability. During 64 h restoration course, the dynamic change in the curves of physiological and biochemical indices were not identical, and none of them show a simple linear variation.According to the static and dynamic experiments, it was found that a responsive sequence of catalase activity, membrane permeability,M DA content and photosynthetic characteristics to the above-mentioned stresses was as follows: AR + UV-B > UV-B > AR.

  8. Proteomic analysis reveals differences in tolerance to acid rain in two broad-leaf tree species, Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Hu, Wen-Jun; Wang, Chao; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chalifour, Annie; Chen, Juan; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain (AR) is a serious environmental issue inducing harmful impacts on plant growth and development. It has been reported that Liquidambar formosana, considered as an AR-sensitive tree species, was largely injured by AR, compared with Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species. To clarify the different responses of these two species to AR, a comparative proteomic analysis was conducted in this study. More than 1000 protein spots were reproducibly detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. Among them, 74 protein spots from L. formosana gels and 34 protein spots from S. superba gels showed significant changes in their abundances under AR stress. In both L. formosana and S. superba, the majority proteins with more than 2 fold changes were involved in photosynthesis and energy production, followed by material metabolism, stress and defense, transcription, post-translational and modification, and signal transduction. In contrast with L. formosana, no hormone response-related protein was found in S. superba. Moreover, the changes of proteins involved in photosynthesis, starch synthesis, and translation were distinctly different between L. formosana and S. superba. Protein expression analysis of three proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) by Western blot was well correlated with the results of proteomics. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into AR stress responses in woody plants and clarifies the differences in strategies to cope with AR between L. formosana and S. superba.

  9. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR.

  10. Research on Acid Rain Erosion Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete%粉煤灰混凝土抗酸雨侵蚀的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树东; 费治华

    2011-01-01

    不同粉煤灰掺量(0,20%,40%,60%)高性能混凝土经不同pH值(1、2、4)硫酸溶液浸泡后,研究其相对动弹性模量和质量损失规律.试验表明,随着溶液酸性的增加,混凝土破坏严重;粉煤灰掺量为20%~60%时,混凝土抗酸性能有所增加;高掺量粉煤灰混凝土在酸性环境中浸泡,当粉煤灰掺量为60%时,混凝土以相对动弹性模量损失形式遭到破坏,粉煤灰掺量为0~40%时都是以质量损失形式遭到破坏.粉煤灰混凝土的抗酸性研究对混凝土结构耐久性和寿命预测具有现实意义.%The relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and mass loss of high performance concrete with different fly ash proportion(0% ,20%,40% ,60% )after being soaked in sulfuric acid solution of different pH value( 1, 2, 4) are studied. Experiment results show that the concrete is seriously damaged with the higher strong of acidic solution. The performance of acid resistant increased when the concrete add 20% -60% fly ash.The destructional form of high value fly ash concrete dip in acid solution is relative dynamic modulus of elasticity loss when the concrete add 60% fly ash, and the destructional form is mass loss when the concrete add 0.40% fly ash. The research of the acid rain erosion resistance of concrete has redity meaning for the structure durability and life prediction of concrete.

  11. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Photosynthetic Physiology Characteristics of Ipomoea Cairica Seedling%模拟酸雨对五爪金龙幼苗光合生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵则海

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of acid rain on growth and development of crop and economic crop often caused serious economic lossess in the Southern China. However, some harmful invasive species was still spreading and its harmfulness was not obviously inhibited under acid rain conditions. Therefore, the study on biological characteristics of invasive species with acid rain condition will help reveal its invasion rules. The pot experiments for Ipomoea cairica seedling were implemented under artificial environmental conditions (light incubator conditions:temperature was 30℃, relative humidity was 47.6%and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) was 63.6 μmol·m-2·s-1). And nutrient solution was spraying on leaves of I. cairica seedling every day. I. cairica seedling were continuously treated with simulated acid rain (pH value of acid rain were 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The photosynthetic physiology characteristics were mensurated using LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system and spectrophotometry. The results showed that:the net photosynthetic rate of leaves of I. cairica decreased with reducing the pH values of acid rain. When the photosynthetic active radiation was less than 200 μmol·m-2·s-1, the net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing of photosynthetic active radiation under different acid rain treatments. When the photosynthetic active radiation was more than 200 μmol·m-2·s-1, rules of the net photosynthetic rates with different pH values of acid rain at the same photosynthetic active radiation were as follows: CK(control check)> pH6.0> pH5.0> pH4.0 > pH3.0> pH2.0. With decreasing of pH values of acid rain, light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), maximum net photosynthetic rate, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and dark respiration rate displayed a decrease trend. Among them, the inhibitory effects on all photosynthetic characteristic parameters reached the significant level under the acid rain treatments of pH3.0 and pH2.0. The treatments of acid

  12. On Feature Analysis and Control Strategies of Acid Rain Pollution in Bengbu Downtown%蚌埠市区酸雨污染特征分析及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翀

    2013-01-01

    利用2008年至2012年蚌埠市区降水监测数据,综合分析蚌埠市区酸雨污染时空、季节、化学组分的变化特征、变化趋势及其成因,致酸前体物、气象因素等与酸雨污染的关系,同时针对蚌埠市区酸雨污染提出几点治理措施和建议。%On the basis of monitoring data of precipitation between 2008 and 2012 in Bengbu downtown , the paper makes a synthesis of acid rain here involving the following aspects: pollution space and time , pollution season , the variation characteristics of chemical compositions , variation tendency and cause , and the relations between acid rain pollution and acidic precursor as well as meteorological factor, furthermore, in view of acid rain pollution in Bengbu downtown , the paper puts forwards several countermeasures and proposals .

  13. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of abscisic acid signal core components during cucumber seed germination and under Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺, NaCl and simulated acid rain stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Pei; Sun, Liang; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Wang, Yidong; Pei, Yuelin; Leng, Ping

    2014-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that regulates lots of physiological and biochemical processes in plant life cycle, especially in seed germination and stress responses. For exploring the transcriptional regulation of ABA signal transduction during cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed germination and under Cu(2+), Zn(2+), NaCl and simulated acid rain stresses, nine CsPYLs, three group A CsPP2Cs and two subclass III CsSnRK2s were identified from cucumber genome, which respectively showed high sequence similarities and highly conserved domains with homologous genes in Arabidopsis. Based on Real-time PCR analysis, most of the tested genes' expression decreased during cucumber seed germination, which was in accordance with the ABA level variation. In addition, according to the absolute expression, CsPYL1, CsPYL3, CsPP2C5, CsABI1, CsSnRK2.3 and CsSnRK2.4 were highly expressed, indicating that they may play more important roles in ABA signaling during cucumber seed germination. Moreover, most of these highly expressed genes, except CsPYL3, were up-regulated by ABA treatment. Meanwhile, most of the tested genes' expression dramatically changed at the initial water uptake phase, indicating that this period may be critical in the regulation of ABA on seed germination. Under Cu(2+), Zn(2+), NaCl and simulated acid rain stresses, cucumber seed germination percentage decreased and ABA content increased. Meanwhile, the expression of ABA signal transduction core components genes showed specific response to a particular stress and was not always consist with ABA variation. Generally, the expression of CsPYL1, CsPYL3, CsABI1, CsSnRK2.3 and CsSnRK2.4 was sensitive to 120 mM NaCl and 0.5 mM Cu(2+) treatments.

  15. 酸雨作用下钢纤维煤矸石混凝土耐久性研究%Durability of Steel Fiber Reinforced Coal Gangue Concrete under Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路沙沙; 麻凤海; 刘书贤

    2016-01-01

    In order to study change characteristics of durability indexes of steel ifber reinforced coal gangue concrete under different pH values of acid rain solution and steel ifber content, which including mass, splitting tensile strength and carbonation depth, based on the cyclic corrosion test of acid rain. The test result shows that in the pH=2.0 acid rain solutions, steel ifber reinforced coal gangue concrete reaches its maximum mass at the ifrst cycle of acid rain, and the mass increase rate of steel ifber reinforced coal gangue concrete is 0.25%, then drops to the minimum mass and gets its the peak of mass loss rate when the value is 2.37%. In pH=2.0 acid rain solution, the loss rate of splitting tensile strength is approximate linear increasing with the cycle number, the peak loss rate is 21.91%. The relationship between carbonation depth and cycle number of acid rain is positive in the different pH values of acid rain solution, and the signiifcant strength is pH=2.0>pH=3.0>pH=4.0. The optimal steel ifber content of steel ifber gangue concrete is 1%, and optimizes its air space structure then effectively inhibits the erosion of acid rain.%基于酸雨循环侵蚀试验,探究了在不同pH值酸雨溶液与钢纤维掺量条件下,钢纤维增强煤矸石混凝土质量、劈裂抗拉强度及碳化深度等耐久性指标的变化特性。结果表明:第1次酸雨循环时,pH值为2.0酸雨溶液中钢纤维煤矸石混凝土达到最大质量,其增加率为0.25%,随后骤降到最小质量,其质量损失率峰值2.37%;钢纤维煤矸石混凝土劈裂抗拉强度损失率与循环数呈近似线性关系,其最大损失率为21.91%;不同pH值酸溶液中钢纤维煤矸石混凝土碳化深度与酸雨循环数呈正相关,显著性表现为pH=2.0>pH=3.0>pH=4.0;1.0%钢纤维掺量是钢纤维煤矸石混凝土的最优掺量,可优化其空隙结构,有效抑制酸雨溶液的侵蚀。

  16. Effect of acid rain on mercury leaching from forest yellow soil in Jinyun Mountain%酸雨对缙云山林地黄壤汞溶出的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 魏世强; 杨学春

    2004-01-01

    Forest yellow soil and arable yellow soil in Jinyun Mountain were collected to study the effect of simulated acid rain(adjusted to pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) on the Hg leaching from soils by the methods of static extraction and dynamic leaching. The results showed that in forest yellow soils, surface accumulation of Hg occurred, and the accumulated Hg was easier to be leached out than that in arable yellow soil by acid rain. The amount of leached Hg was the largest at pH 4.0. To abate the risk of Hg pollution in water bodies by the Hg leaching from this forest soil, the Mountain should be closed, and timber-felling should be forbidden.

  17. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  18. 模拟酸雨对亚热带阔叶树苗土壤呼吸的影响%SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN BROADLEAF TREE SAPLING-SOIL SYSTEMS IN SUBTROPICAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘源月; 江洪; 李雅红; 原焕英

    2011-01-01

    To explore short-term effects of acid rain on soil respiration in three zonal evergreen broadleaf tree sapling-soil systems, i.e. Paramecia latungensis ( PL), Cyclobalanopsis glauca (CG) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus (EG), typical of Zhejiang Province, where acid rain pollution has been severe for a long time, showers of acid rain different in pH (2.5, 4. 0 and 5.6 separately) were simulated. Soil carbon effluxes (E) of the three sapling stands were monitored in various growing seasons. ( 1 ) When the stands were stressed by severe acid rain ( pH 2.5 ), E decreased significantly in all seasons in the PL stand; dropped in winter but rose in spring and summer in the CG stand compared to the control, and varied sharply only in winter in the EG stand. the effect of acid rain moderate in pH (4.0) was significant in the PL stand where E was lower than the control in all the two years except for in August 2007, when E was 25.3% higher than the control; in the CG stand, E dropped well below the control in December 2006 and rose up to 1.96 μmol m-2 s -1 in August 2007; and in the EG stand, E decreased by 18.0% only in November 2007. (2) the effect of acid rain on E was not significant in the PL and EG stands at the growing period-time scale. Although in the CG stand, E increased by 87.8% and 11.1% respectively, by exposure to severe acid rain and moderate acid rain, only the effect of severe acid rain was significant. (3) The leading factors affecting soil respiration were soil temperature and acid rain in the PL and CG stands; soil temperature in the EG stand; and acid rain in the CG stand, where a negative relationship of E with pH of acid rain was observed.%通过利用pH 2.5、4.0和5.6的模拟酸雨喷淋乐东拟单性木兰(Paramecia latungensis)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)和秃瓣杜英(Elaeocarpus glabripetalus)3种浙江典型地带性阔叶植物幼苗-土壤系统(编号分别为PL、CG和EG),研究了模拟酸雨短期胁迫对土

  19. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  20. Effect of the Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber%模拟酸雨对黄瓜种子萌发及幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 齐泽民; 肖小君; 黄作喜

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The reference for the corrective assessment of the loss of large-scale cucumber production caused by acid rain was provided through the measurement of its tolerance to acid rain. [ Method ] The effect of six different simulated acid rains with the pH values of 6.5,5.0, 4.0,3.5,3.0 and 2.5 on the seed germination and the seedling physiological characteristics of the cucumber variety-Jinyou 1 as experimental material was studied. [Result] The stress of the acid rain with pH ≤ 3.5 obviously inhibited the seed germination rate, germination energy, germination index and vigor index. While the pH value was 2.5 ,the seeds did not sprout. The inhibition index of the acid rain to root( stem) was intensified with the reduction of the pH value and under the condition of same pH value,its inhibition to main root was stronger than that to stem. The acid rain with the pH =5.0 was with the promotion to the formation of lateral root. As the pH value-decreasing,the activity root system and POD was firstly increased and then decreased,while the relative conductivity and the content of MDA had been increased. [ Conclusion] The threshold of the acid rain affecting the seed germination and seedling physiological activity of the cucumber was in the pH value of about 3.5.%[目的]衡量黄瓜对酸雨的耐受能力,同时也为正确评估酸雨给黄瓜规模化生产造成的损失提供参考.[方法]以津优1号黄瓜为试验材料,研究6个不同pH(6.5、5.0、4.0、3.5、3.0、2.5)的模拟酸雨对黄瓜种子萌发和幼苗生理特性的影响.[结果]pH≤3.5的酸雨胁迫对黄瓜种子的发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数和活力指教均表现明显抑制作用,pH 2.5时,种子不萌芽;根(茎)抑制指数随pH降低而升高,同一pH下对主根的抑制强于茎,pH 5.0的弱酸对侧根的形成有促进作用;随着pH逐渐下降,根系活力和POD活性呈先升高后降低的趋势,而相对电导率和MDA含量一直上升.[结论]酸雨对

  1. Model State Acid Rain Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. 模拟酸雨对水稻根系激素含量与生长的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on hormone concentration and growth of rice roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玺; 梁婵娟

    2016-01-01

    为进一步清晰酸雨抑制植物生长的内在机制,采用水培法研究酸雨(pH 5.0—2.5)对水稻根系激素含量(生长素IAA、赤霉素GA、玉米素ZT、脱落酸ABA)、根系活力与质膜H+?ATPase活性及根系生长的影响.结果表明,与对照(CK)相比,经酸雨胁迫5 d后,pH 5.0组水稻幼苗根长及鲜重下降,但激素含量IAA和ABA、根系活力、H+?ATPase活性、根表面积和体积均显著上升,表明pH 5.0酸雨下水稻幼苗通过提高IAA、ABA含量,根系活力以及激活H+?ATPase活性调控水稻对营养的吸收,使根长及鲜重较其他酸雨处理组受抑较弱.pH 4.5、pH 3.5和pH 2.5酸雨组水稻幼苗IAA/ABA、GA/ABA、ZT/ABA、根系活力以及根系生长指标显著下降,表明pH 4.5、pH 3.5和pH 2.5酸雨降低激素含量影响根系细胞分裂和伸长,抑制根系活力导致水稻根系各生长指标受抑.将胁迫后幼苗移至对照条件下恢复5 d后,pH 5.0酸雨组根系活力和生长指标均恢复至CK,IAA/ABA、GA/ABA和ZT/ABA和质膜H+?ATPase活性有所上升;而pH 4.5—2.5酸雨组各指标变幅减小且优于胁迫期,表明水稻幼苗通过提高生长促进型激素(IAA、GA、ZT)含量、根系活力以及质膜H+?ATPase活性减轻酸雨对根系生长的制约,根系生长指标均有一定程度的恢复,且恢复程度受酸雨强度制约.%To clarify further the internal mechanism on damage caused by acid rain to plants, we studied effects of acid rain (pH 5.0—pH 2.5) on hormone concentrations (auxin IAA, gibberellin GA, zeatin ZT and abscisic acid ABA), root activity, plasma membrane H+?ATPase activity and growth in rice roots by hydroponic culture. Results show that root length and fresh weight in rice seedlings treated with acid rain at pH 5. 0 were lower than those of the control, whereas concentrations of IAA and ABA, root activity, H+?ATPase activity, root surface area and volume were higher. They indicate that the decrease of root length and fresh

  3. Effects of Acid Rain in the Central Area of Hunan Province on the Durability of Concrete%湖南省中部地区酸雨对混凝土耐久性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小林; 王劲松; 薛文韬; 商旭升; 张金勇

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,acid rain caused by air pollution in China is worsening,and the impact caused by it can not be ignored for our living environment. The project based on the concrete corrosion mechanism studies the degree of acid rain harm to concrete durability in central region of Hunan Province and presents effective protective measures by analyzing trends of acidity,composition,rainfall and simulating the acid rain corrosion of concrete. The studies show that the impact of acid rain on the concrete can not be ignored. Concrete acid corrosion occurs mainly in general under the influence of acid rain,sulfate attack,car_bonation of soft water corrosion and concrete,etc. ,so that the film is formed on the surface of concrete,damage occurs,the deterioration of mechanical properties and neutral,largely influences durability of concrete and makes the concrete compressive reduce significantly. In order to reduce and avoid adverse impacts of acid rain,erosion prevention and treatment of concrete are very significant.%近年来我国大气污染造成的酸雨危害日益严重,对环境造成了不可忽视的影响。本项目分析湖南省中部地区酸雨酸度、成分、降雨量的变化趋势,基于酸雨对混凝土的腐蚀机理,通过模拟酸雨腐蚀的实验方法,研究酸雨对湖南省中部地区混凝土耐久性的危害程度并提出有效的防护措施。试验研究表明:酸雨对混凝土的影响是不容忽视的。混凝土在酸雨的影响下主要发生一般的酸类腐蚀、硫酸盐腐蚀、软水腐蚀和混凝土的碳化作用等,使得混凝土表面生成薄膜,出现损伤,力学性能劣化和中性化,很大程度上影响了混凝土的耐久性。经过试验得出混凝土的抗压性能明显降低。为了减轻和避免工程实际中由于酸雨的危害产生的不良影响,防治混凝土受酸雨侵蚀显得尤为重要。

  4. The use of permit markets for incorporating source location. The case of acis rain in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1997-12-31

    The paper shows that cost-effective involvement of the source location involves utmost difficulty in practice. Based on the RAINS model, it is recommended that source location should be ignored in a European market for SO{sub 2}, as is the case in the US Acid Rain Program. The RAINS-model predicts a cost-saving of 37 percent but an average loss of 2 percent in ecological protection. To overcome this reduction in protection, we recommend that some of the large cost-savings should be reallocated in further overall reduction and that the countries suffering the most from introducing the permit-market should be compensated by receiving extra permits in the initial distribution. (au)

  5. The Influence of Acid Rain on the Growth and Physiological Metabolism of Two Turf Grasses%酸雨对2种草坪草生长及生理代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈高峰

    2011-01-01

    为了解酸雨污染对草坪草生长的影响,以高羊茅和多年生黑麦草为材料,通过盆栽试验,研究不同pH酸雨条件下对草坪草生长和代谢的影响.分别测定生物量、叶绿素含量、超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶、丙二醛和电导率等指标.结果表明,高羊茅和多年生黑麦草鲜重、叶绿素含量等在高酸度、长时间胁迫下整体呈降低趋势,氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶则先高后低,丙二醛和电导率则随酸雨pH减小而有增加趋势.%For the sake of understanding acid rain influence of the pollution upon the turfgrass growth, With the material of Fescue arundinacea and Lolium perenne, this paper studied on the physiological characteristics of turf grass under different pH values of simulated acid rain. It measured indicators like fresh weight,chlorophyll content, SOD, POD, MDA and electric conductivity. The result indicated that, under conditions of high acidity and long period of time, the fresh weight of Fescue arundinacea and Lolium perenne, and chlorophyll content entirely showed a reduced trend, while the contents of SOD and POD first rose and then fell down. The pH value of acid rain decreased, there was an increasing trend of MDA and electric conductivity.

  6. RAINE Public Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The file geodatabase (fgdb) contains the New England Town Boundaries and information related specifically to the Resilience and Adaptation in New England (RAINE) web...

  7. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Release of Aluminum Ion in the Soil%模拟酸雨对土壤释放铝离子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万俊丽; 周小苹; 孙伟

    2016-01-01

    该研究用不同pH的溶液模拟酸雨淋洗土壤,不同时间同一pH的溶液模拟酸雨交换出铝离子,再用铝离子在醋酸-醋酸钠缓冲介质中与铬天青-S(CAS)及溴化十六烷基三甲基铵(CTMAB)反应生成蓝色三元铬合物在610nm处测其吸光度。结果表明:溶液的pH影响土壤淋洗液中的铝含量,随着酸雨pH的降低,淋出液中铝含量增加;同一pH溶液的淋浴时间越长,淋出液中铝离子浓度增大。酸雨使土壤的溶出铝量增加,从而危害植物的生长。%In solution of different pH of simulated acid rain solution leaching of soil, unequal time in the same pH of simulated acid rain solution aluminum ion was exchanged , aluminum ion in acetic acid sodium acetate buffer medi⁃um and chromium Azure-S(CAS)and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTMAB)reaction to generate blue ternary chromium complexes and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm. The pH of the solution affected the aluminum con⁃tent in the soil leaching solution. With the decrease of the acid rain pH, the aluminum content in the leaching solu⁃tion was increased;the longer the bath time of the same pH solution , the greater the concentration of aluminum ion in the leaching solution. Acid rain increases the amount of dissolved aluminum in the soil, which is harmful to the growth of plants.

  8. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth,Physiology and Quality of Crop in Northeast of China%模拟酸雨对东北地区农作物生长、生理及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟赫; 董德明; 王菊; 张胜楠; 侯洁; 杨萌尧; 房春生

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal the effects of simulated acid rain on growth, physiology and quality of crop(pakchoi), in Northeast of China. Pakchoi growing in the greenhouse was exposed to simulated acid rain and to a control group. The results showed that the injury of pakchoi was highly correlated to pH of acid rain. Biomass and plant height decreased significantly after the exposure to simulated acid rain indicating that simulated acid rain may limit the growth of pakchoi. Compared with root, eat-part was more sensitive to acid rain. The contents of total free amino acids, soluble sugar,soluble protein and vitamin C were decreased under the treatment of simulated acid rain. As increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the concentrations of quality decreased obviously. Under the treatment of weak acid, the synthesis of nutrients of pakchoi was promoted. The synthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoid were inhibited, and the photosynthesis affected by acid rain,which ultimately lead to lower production, quality degradation.%通过模拟试验,研究不同pH模拟酸雨胁迫对农作物(小白菜)生长、生理及品质的影响,量化不同PHH酸雨对小白菜的影响程度.试验结果表明:小白菜植株受害与pH密切相关,酸性越强,胁迫影响越显著,受害程度越重.随着酸雨酸性增强,小白菜生长受抑,生物量、株高等明显降低,食部鲜质量、干质量受影响程度比根部鲜质量、干质量大.在酸雨胁迫下,小白菜游离氨基酸总量、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白质和维生素C含量均出现不同程度的降低,且酸性越强,受影响幅度越大,弱酸务件下可在一定程度上促进营养物质的合成.酸雨可抑制叶绿素类与类胡萝卜素合成,影响光合作用,最终导致产量降低、品质下降.

  9. 南岸区酸雨污染现状及成因分析%On Currant Status of Acid Rain Pollution in Nan'an District of Chongqing and Its Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筱琳; 李杰; 熊万明; 曾雪梅; 钟成华

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis of precipitation data in Nan'an District in the past 10 years,this study deals with the pollution characteristics and the changing tendency of acid rain in this area. The result shows that contaminants can be eliminated by precipitation,and the formation of acid rain does not have direct relationship with the concentration of air contaminants,but the amount of precipitation,air temperature,wind speed,relative humidity and so on. Meantime,this study has concluded that the fundamental causes for acid rain in Nan'an District and Chongqing are the massive emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide,the bad diffusion condition for air contaminants caused by the physiognomy of mountain city and the steamy weather condition.%在对重庆市南岸区近十年的降水监测数据进行综合分析的基础上,研究了南岸区酸雨污染特征和变化趋势,分析了酸雨的成因.结果表明,降水对空气污染物有清除作用,但酸雨的形成与空气污染物浓度无直接关联,而是取决于降水量、气温、风速、相对湿度等气象因子.大量二氧化硫和氮氧化物的排放、不利于污染物扩散的山城地貌以及潮湿闷热的气象条件是导致南岸乃至重庆酸雨污染的根本原因.

  10. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Lolium Multifolorum%模拟酸雨对黑麦草种子萌发及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 邵辉; 吴坤胜; 柯健; 高素权; 李刚; 吴胜

    2011-01-01

    以一年生黑麦草(Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum)种子为材料,研究不同pH值的模拟硫酸型酸雨作用下,种子的萌发及幼苗生理特性发生的变化.实验分别测定了种子发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数及幼苗鲜重、叶片导电率等指标.结果表明,一年生黑麦草种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数整体变化趋势比较一致,随着模拟酸雨pH值的增大而减小.幼苗叶片的生长量变化差异比较大,单株幼苗的平均鲜重随模拟酸雨酸性的减弱而增大,所测幼苗叶片的相对电导率值随模拟酸雨pH值的升高而减小,与对照相比差异显著,表明幼苗叶片受到了酸雨的破坏.试验表明,一年生黑麦草种子在pH≥3.09的弱酸条件下能够正常萌发和生长,具有一定的耐酸性,但是在pH≤2.03的强酸条件下,种子的萌发和幼苗的生长受到了显著的抑制.%Using Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum seed as material to study the effect of different pH simulated acid rain on the seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics. The experiment tested the gemination power, germination rate, germination index,seedling fresh weight and permeability of plasma membrane etc indexes. The results indicated that the germination power, gemination rate and germination indexes all decreased with the simulated acid rain density increasing. There were great changes among the indexes of seedling growth increment: seedling fresh weight increased with simulated acid rain pH rising. And permeability of plasma membrane decreased with the acid rain pH increasing, which showed that seedling leaves were destroyed by the acid rain. The study indicated that the seed of nnual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum could sprout and grow normally under the condition of weak acid ( pH ≥3.09), and had certain acidtolerance. But seed germination and seedling growth were seriously restrained under the condition of strong acid (pH ≤2.03 ).

  11. Waving in the rain

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaleri, Luigi; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of rain on wind wave generation and dissipation. Rain falling on a wavy surface may have a marked tendency to dampen the shorter waves in the tail of the spectrum, the related range increasing with the rain rate. Following the coupling between meteorological and wave models, we derive that on the whole this should imply stronger wind and higher waves in the most energetic part of the spectrum. This is supported by numerical experiments. However, a verification based on the comparison between operational model results and measured data suggests that the opposite is true. This leads to a keen analysis of the overall process, in particular on the role of the tail of the spectrum in modulating the wind input and the white-capping. We suggest that the relationship between white-capping and generation by wind is deeper and more implicative than presently generally assumed.

  12. 模拟酸雨对吊竹梅生长及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on the growth and antioxidant activity of Zebrinapendula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远兵; 汪建飞; 刘爱荣; 夏海东

    2014-01-01

    Zebrinapendulaplants were sprayed with simulated acid rain at different pH values (6.7,5.6,4.5, 3.5,2.5,1.5)in pot experiments,and the biomass,relative anthocyanin concentration,chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity,proline content,antioxidase activity (including superoxide dismutase,peroxidase and catalase),malondialdehyde content,and membrane permeability were determined.With decreased pH value from simulated acid rain,the dry weight,relative anthocyanin concentration,chlorophyll content,nitrate re-ductase activity and CAT activity decreased.SOD activity showed a trend of initial increase and then decrease. Proline content,POD activity,MDA content and membrane permeability increased with decreasing pH value. An integrated analysis indicated that under simulated acid rain-induced pH values 5 .6-3 .5 ,the growth and antioxidant activity of Z.pendulawas only slightly inhibited and there was no effect on ornamental quality;under a simulated acid rain-induced pH value 2 .5 ,the inhibition effect on growth and antioxidant activity be-came heavier and there was a slight effect on ornamental quality;under simulated acid rain-induced stress of pH value 1.5,the inhibition effect was large and there were visible injury symptoms on leaves,with a sharp decline in ornamental quality.%采用盆栽方法,对吊竹梅用pH 值为6.7(对照)、5.6、4.5、3.5、2.5、1.5的模拟酸雨进行喷雾处理,测定其生物量、花青素相对浓度、叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶活性(nitrate reductase,NR)、脯氨酸含量、超氧化物歧化酶(super-oxide dismutase,SOD)活性、过氧化物酶(peroxidase,POD)活性、过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)活性、丙二醛(ma-londialdehyde,MDA)含量和质膜透性等指标。结果显示,吊竹梅单株干质量、叶绿素含量、NR 活性、花青素相对浓度、CAT活性均呈下降趋势;SOD活性呈先上升后下降趋势;脯氨酸含量、POD活性、MDA

  13. Chemical analysis of acid rains collected in 1993 at ENEA Research Center of Brasimone, Bologna; Caratterizzazione chimiche delle deposizioni raccolte nel 1993 presso il Centro Ricerche ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilli, L.; Olivieri, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``E. Clementel`` Bologna (Italy). Dip. di Ambiente; Salvi, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dip. di Ambiente

    1995-06-01

    In this paper the measurements of the water quality in acid rains, collected in 1993 at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) research centre of Brasimone station, are reported. Chemical analysis was performed on pH, the electric conductivity, the alkalinity and Ca, Mg, Na, K, NH{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}, Cl concentrations in weekly samples.The wet depositions are weakly acid, the median value of pH being 5.94; this reflects that the most of samples have been of `bulk` type. Therefore the amount of the calcium ion has been very high and higly correlated with the alkalinity. The loads of nitrogen and sulfur are maximum in the first months of the year, after a period of lack of precipitations.

  14. The value of rain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the gains that can be made by shifting the focus of water resources management from the water towards the rain. This causes also a shift in perception of what is the largest user of water: instead of irrigation it is the evapotranspiration

  15. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  16. Rain of Seattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julie Jindal

    2006-01-01

    @@ I've got a deep secret few people understand and even fewer will admit to sharing. It's time to tell the truth: I love the rain, deeply and passionately and more than the sun. At least I live in the right place, famous for its damp weather and spawning its own genuine rainforest.

  17. After the Rain: Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old Elk, Arlene; Stoklas, Jackie

    The Heard Museum (Phoenix, Arizona) has developed and updated an integrated curriculum for use in grades K-3. The goals for this curriculum are to: (1) share museum resources with schools; (2) promote cross-cultural understanding through a focus on rain, a universal requirement for life; (3) help students understand that Native Americans are…

  18. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  19. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  20. 模拟酸雨对德保苏铁叶片光合作用及根系分泌有机酸的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on photosynthesis of leaves and organic acid secreted by roots of Cycas debaoensis Y.C.Zhong et C.J.Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明昆; 李正文; 李志刚; 李素丽; 李楠; 刘鹏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Effects of acid rain on photosynthesis changes of leaves and organic acid secreted by roots of Cycas debaoensis were studied to better protect Cycas debaoensis. [Method]According to the rainfall characteristics in Guangxi, simulated acid rain spraying was adopted to investigate changes in organic acirl secreted by roots and photosyn-thetic physiology. [Result]Under pH 2.1 acid rain stress, soil pH decreased, the plant leaves showed necrotic lesion, and net photosynthetic rate, stomalal conductance, transpiration rate and the plant intercellular C02 concentration in leaves were all seriously impacted. Oxalic acid was the main organic acid detected from the roots of Cycas debaoensis. The oxalic acid secreted by the roots of Cycas debaoensis showed no change under moderate acid rain stress (pH 4.2 and pH 3.1), but obviously increased under strong acid rain stress(pH 2.1). [Conclusion ]Simulaled acid rain with pH 2.1 severely damaged the leaves of Cycas debaoensis, and weakened their photosynthesis. In response, Cycas debaoensis roots had to secrete more organic acid to adapt and resist overwhelming acid rain stress.%[目的]研究酸雨胁迫下德保苏铁根系分泌有机酸及叶片光合生理变化特征,为德保苏铁的保护提供参考.[方法]针对德保苏铁分布地(广西德保)的降雨特点,采用喷淋模拟酸雨的方法研究土培德保苏铁的根系分泌有机酸和光合生理的变化特征.[结果]在pH 2.1的模拟酸雨胁迫下,土壤pH值降低,德保苏铁叶片出现枯斑,叶片净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、胞间CO2浓度均受到严重影响;在德保苏铁根系分泌的有机酸中主要检测出草酸,中强度酸雨(pH 4.2和pH 3.1)对德保苏铁根系分泌草酸的影响不大,而强酸雨(pH 2.1)处理可引起根系分泌草酸含量显著增加.[结论]人工模拟酸雨强度达pH 2.1时对德保苏铁叶片造成严重伤害,其光合作用也随之减弱;德保苏铁根系通过分

  1. When It Rains, It Pours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Linda

    2012-01-01

    "It's raining, it's pouring, the old man is snoring!" "The itsy, bitsy spider crawled up the waterspout, down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout again." What do children's nursery rhymes have to do with the school library? The author begins by telling a…

  2. Analysis of Temporal-spatial Variation Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Acid Rain in Guangxi dur- ing 2004 ~ 2011%2004-2011年广西酸雨时空变化特征及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋芸芸

    2012-01-01

    基于2004-2011年广西14个设区市及部分县的降水监测数据,对降水pH值进行统计和空间插值,分析广西酸雨特征的变化趋势和时空分布状况,并探讨影响广西酸雨形成的主要因素。结果表明,2004~2011年,广西降水pH值年均值均小于5.6,酸雨城市比例自2007年起逐年下降;酸雨发生频率在25%以上的城市比例自2006年起逐年下降;2004-2007年,广西酸雨区域分布格局变化不大,自2008年起,广西酸雨区域面积呈现较大幅度的减少。广西的酸雨污染有所减轻,这与广西近年来对二氧化硫排放量的严格控制有关。%Based on the acid rain monitoring data of 14 cities and some counties in Guangxi Province during 2004-2011,the annual variation trend and temporal-spatial distribution of the acid rain were analyzed, and the influencing factors were explored. The results showed that the annual mean pH value was less than 5.6 during 2004-2011. The proportion of acid rain cities annually had decreased since 2007, and the proportion of acid rain cities with acid rain occurrence frequency being over than 25% had decreased gradually since 2006. During 2004-2007,the distribution pattern of Guangxi acid rain region slightly changed. The area of acid rain region in Guangxi dramatically decreased. The rigid control of the SO2 emission recent years in Guangxi is play an important role in the decrease of pollution caused by acid rain.

  3. Analysis of concrete corrosion resistant performance based on the coupled action of acid rain and carbonization%基于酸雨和碳化耦合作用的混凝土耐蚀性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹健; 龚胜辉; 张贤超; 庞绮玲; 宋卫民

    2011-01-01

    With environment deterioration, the harm of acid rain on the durability of concrete has been paid more and more attention. By optimizing of mix design, this paper researched influence of the variety and content of mineral admixtures on concrete properties, and by variance analysis and regression of extensive quantity of experimental data, the carbon and corrosion law of concrete in acid rain and carbon coupling conditions was studied. The results show that the concrete strength decreases when the concrete is eroded in coupling conditions of acid rain and carbon corrosion, while the depth of neutralization increases with age. For different erosion pattern, the influence law is; S mode

  4. Adaptive rain fade compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A large available margin must be provided for satellite communications systems operating near 20 GHz, which occasionally experience fades due to rain attenuation. It is proposed that this margin may be achieved in high-capacity FDMA satellites by dynamically providing a large margin to those links which are experiencing deep fades, while maintaining a small fade margin on all others. Single-beam SCPC operation and multiple-beam, satellite-switched FDMA systems are described, and the optimization of the dynamic FDMA links in a severely fading environment is investigated. A solution is derived which takes into account: (1) transponder intermodulation distortion, (2) cochannel and cross-polarization antenna interference, and (3) rain fade characteristics. The sample system configuration presented shows that such systems reach availability levels approaching 0.9999 at Ka-Band.

  5. 模拟酸雨对水芹根部NH4+ NO3- 、H+离子通量的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on NH4+, NO3-, H + ion fluxes in roots of Oenanthe javanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗英; 薛建辉; 尹璐; 吴殿鸣

    2012-01-01

    氮素是植物生长发育必需的营养元素,利用水生植物吸收水体中的氮素是富营养化水体生态修复的重要途径.以水芹(Oenanthe javanica)为研究材料,在中富营养和超富营养两种水平下,探讨模拟酸雨对水芹根部H+、NH4+和NO3-离子流及根系活力的影响.结果表明,酸雨对水芹根系吸收水体中氮素产生影响,并随富营养化水平提高其影响加大.分析发现:(1)水芹对NH4+有吸收偏好;(2)与对照相比,模拟酸雨降低了根部H+的外排,相应地减弱了NH4+的内流,增加了NO3-的外排,但对根系活力无显著影响;(3)超富营养水平下,酸雨对水芹离子流的影响增强,并使根系活力显著降低.%Nitrogen is necessary for plant growth of the nutritional elements. To absorb Nitrogen from eutrophicational water by using aquatic plants is important means to ecological restoration. Acid rain has become a serious region environment problem. China is the third acid rain area in the world. It should be further studied that how aquatic plants responded with simulated acid rain, and how acid rain effected on the nutrition cycle of roots. It was significant for the further physiological and ecological studies on the interrelationship between acid rain and aquatic plants in acid rain region. In this study, Oenanthe javanica was selected as research material to study the effects of simulated acid rain on H+ , NH4+ , NO3- fluxes in the roots and root activity among middle eutropher or hyper eutropher. The results showed: (1) 0. javanica preference to absorption of NH4+. (2)Compared with the contrast, simulated acid rain reduced H + effluxes, receded NH4+ influxes, increased NO3- effluxes, and no significant effect on the root activity. (3)The effect of simulated acid rain on ion fluxes in the roots was enhanced and the root activity was significant deceased among hyper eutropher. To conclude that acid rain affected the absorption of Nitrogen ions fluxes and

  6. Effects of Acid Rain Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Leaves of Gazania Hybrids%酸雨对勋章菊保护酶活性及叶绿素荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯维; 潘远智

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of simulated acid rain that included four different pH values (5.6,4.5,3.5,2.5) on the membrane permeability,malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant enzyme activity,chlorophyll (Chl) content,and chlorophyll fluorescence in of leaves Gazania Hybrids.The membrane permeability and MDA content increased significantly after acid rain stress and with an extremely significant correlation between them.The dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were showed a single-peak curve which was firstly increased and then decreased,and the maximum activity of SOD,CAT and POD were observed at pH4.5.Chl a,Chl b,total chlorophyll content,Chl a/b,the PS Ⅱ photochemical efficiency (Fv/ Fm) and the PS Ⅱ potential activity (Fv/Fo),actual PS Ⅱ photochemical quantum yield (ΦpsⅡ) and qP decreased accordingly with the decreasing of pH value,while qN increased.The study showed that G.Hybrids has strong resistance to acid rain stress and the visible damage threshold was less than pH 3.5.Therefore,G.Hybrids can be considered as one of the landscaping and vegetation constructing plants in the acid rain-hit areas.%采用盆栽方法,以不同pH值(5.6、4.5、3.5、2.5)的模拟酸雨胁迫试验,探讨其对勋章菊(Gazania Hybrids)叶片质膜透性、MDA含量、保护酶活性、叶绿素含量及叶绿素荧光参数的影响.结果表明,随pH值的降低,勋章菊叶片质膜透性和MDA含量呈逐渐升高的趋势,且二者呈显著正相关;SOD、CAT和POD活性呈先升高后下降的单峰曲线变化,其中SOD、CAT和POD活性最大值均出现在pH4.5处理;叶绿素a、叶绿素b、叶绿素a+b的含量、叶绿素a/b、PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、PSⅡ的潜在活性(Fv/Fo)、PSⅡ实际光化学量子产量(Φps.Ⅱ)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)均随pH值的降低而下降,非光化学淬灭系数(qN)随pH值的降低而升高.模拟酸雨对勋章菊叶片

  7. 模拟酸雨对铝在土壤中腐蚀行为的影响%Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Corrosion Behaviors of Aluminum in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍远辉; 罗宿星; 勾华

    2012-01-01

    Effects of simulated acid rain(SAR) on the corrosion behaviors of aluminum in soil were studied by means of polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the SAR increased the corrosion rate of the aluminum in soil. The corrosion rate of the aluminum increase with decreasing pH value of SAR. There are two capacitive arcs which included two time constants for the acid rain with the low pH values, and one capacitive loop for the high pH value, indicating the control step of corrosion was the charge-transfer process. The corrosion products of aluminum surface in soil are mainly composed of O, Al and Si.%利用极化曲线、电化学阻抗和扫描电镜等方法,研究了模拟酸雨对铝在土壤中腐蚀行为的影响.结果表明,模拟酸雨加速了土壤中铝的腐蚀.随着模拟酸雨pH值减小,土壤中铝的腐蚀速率增加.模拟酸雨pH值较低时,铝的电化学阻抗谱为2个时间常数的双容抗弧,模拟酸雨pH值较高时,铝的电化学阻抗谱为单容抗弧,腐蚀主要由电荷转移过程控制.土壤中铝表面的腐蚀产物主要由O、Al和Si等元素组成.

  8. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  9. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Migration and Transformation of Hexavalent Chromium in a Water Spinach-soil System%模拟酸雨对空心菜-土壤系统中六价铬迁移转化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂葵; 李志鹏; 陈恋; 刘明中; 黎华寿

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of acid rain on the distribution, migration and transformation of hexavalent chromium in a water spinach(Ipomoea aquatica) soil system. Results showed that the amount of total chromium in water spinach treated with simulated acid rain was significantly higher than those without acid rain. The content of chromium in the underground part of water spinach was significantly higher than it in the aboveground part in treatments with simulated acid rain. While water spinach could survive and grow normally in soil with 100 mg·kg-1 chromium, they couldn't survive in soil with chromium up to 200 mg·kg-1. Valences of more than 97.0% added hexavalent chromium was changed. The majority portion of the chromium was remained in soil. Only very small portion was absorbed by water spinach. The simulated acid rain could significantly enhance the absorption rate of chromium by water spinach. The amount of absorbed chromium in treatments with acid rain was 2.6 to 5 times as those in the treatments without acid rain. The chromium enrichment coefficients were 2.2 and 4.6 for the aboveground part and the underground part of water spinach respectively by comparing the treatments with and without acid rain. The research result shows that acid rain increases the risk of crop grown in soil contaminated by chromium especially through the absorption of chromium by root system. Hence, agricultural food safety problem in chromium polluted area will be enhanced by acid rain.%通过盆栽试验,研究了模拟酸雨条件下六价铬在土壤和空心菜之间的分布、迁移和转化规律.结果发现,酸雨处理显著提高了空心菜体内铬的含量,其中空心菜地下部的铬含量显著高于其地上部;空心菜在100 mg·kg-1的铬处理下仍然可以正常生长,但当土壤中的铬达到200 mg· kg-1时,空心菜生长数天后即全部死亡;添加到土壤中的六价铬97.0%以上已经转化成其他形态而留

  10. Music after the rain

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The group Home Cooking (left to right: Jean-Marie Planche, Tony Arnold, Serge Waeffler, Django Manglunki) entertains the crowd with a humoristic blues/rock performance. The earth moved in Prévessin on 29 July. This was not an earthquake but an 'international' music event, the seventeenth CERN Hardronic Festival, which saw musicians from many different countries, including Russia, Britain, Spain, France, Belgium and the USA, take to the stage. The audience rocked to music from eight different groups until the early hours. About a thousand people flocked to CERN to hear what the best of its musical talents had to offer. The evening was very nearly a wash-out, though. After a week of scorching hot temperatures, the heavens suddenly opened and the rain didn't stop until a few minutes before the first act came on stage. Thanks to this narrow escape, the organisers can boast a 17-year run of rain-free Hardronic festivals. All the different musical styles were given a warm reception, from traditional Russian folk...

  11. The Analysis of Acid Rain Characteristics during “Twelfth Five-Year” Period in Songjiang District of Shanghai%上海市松江区“十二五”期间降水的变化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周焱

    2016-01-01

    本文通过分析上海市松江区“十二五”期间降水pH值、酸雨频率及化学组分和浓度变化趋势,得出“十二五”期间松江区酸雨由硫酸型向硫酸-硝酸混合型演变的趋势,且降水酸化仍在继续,并对其主要成因进行了分析。建议松江区“十三五”期间在巩固控硫成果的基础上,加大对氮氧化物的控制力度。%In this paper, according to analyzing the acid rain pH, acid rain frequency and the change of the chemical composition and concentration in Songjiang District of Shanghai during“twelfth five-year” period, it is concluded that the acid rain evolved from sulfuric acid type to mixed acid type of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, and the precipitation acidification continuously happened � Also, the main causes of these phenomena were further analysed� Finally, it is suggested to strengthen nitrogen oxide control based on the effect of sulfur control during “thirteenth five-year” period.

  12. The Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Leaching Behavior of Havy Metals from Brick Made in MSWI Lime - ash%模拟酸雨对污泥焚烧灰渣砖中重金属浸出影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世宇; 童飞; 陈兴凡

    2012-01-01

    Bricks made in ted acid rain. Effect of soaking municipal sludge waste incineration (MSWI) lime - ash were soaked in kinks of simulatime of brick and pH of simulated acid rain on the leaching behavior of heavy metals from the bricks was investigated. Results showed that under the same dip in times, the total leaching concentration of 4 kinds of heavy metals was Cr, Mn, Cu and Fe, with the simulated acid rain pH accretion and drop. At the pH 4.4 of simulated acid rain, the order to leaching concentration of 4 kinds of heavy metals was Cr 〉 Mn 〉 Cu 〉 Fe, after 8 h dip in times. The total leaching concentration of Cd, Ni and Cu was lower than 0. 1 ppb, at the kinks of simulated acid rain.%用不同pH的模拟酸雨浸泡掺杂污泥焚烧灰渣自制的混凝土路面砖,探讨了相同浸泡时间时,模拟酸雨pH对自制路面砖中重金属浸出的影响。结果表明,在相同浸泡时间时,铬、锰、铜、铁的浸出浓度都随着模拟酸雨pH的增大而下降。在pH为4.4的模拟酸雨中,浸泡时间大于8小时后,铬、锰、铜、铁浸出浓度的大小关系是铬〉锰〉铜〉铁。而镉、镍、铅的浸出浓度在各种模拟酸雨中都小于0.1 ppb。

  13. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY OF H.mitabilis L.SEEDLINGS%酸雨对木芙蓉幼苗光合作用及抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王应军; 邓仕槐; 姜静; 尚鹤; 林波; 孙亚琴; 胡晓梅

    2011-01-01

    以pH 5.6为对照,采用pH 4.0、pH 3.0、pH 2.0强度的酸雨对2年生木芙蓉进行人工模拟胁迫,研究酸雨胁迫对木芙蓉叶片可见伤害、质膜透性(Membrane Permeability,MP)、叶绿素(Chlorophyll,Chl)含量、抗氧化酶系统及气体交换参数的影响.研究结果表明,pH 2.0和pH 3.0的酸雨处理使叶片出现可见伤害;木芙蓉细胞膜透性在酸雨胁迫处理下均明显增加,并与pH值呈极显著负相关(r=-0.961**);超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide Dismutase,SOD)活性在pH 3.0处理下最高(216.80U·g-1·FW),过氧化氢酶(Catalase,CAT)和过氧化物酶(Peroxidase,POD)活性在pH 2.0处理下最强(分别为48.75mg·min-1·g-1·FW和77.69U·min-1·g-1·FW);叶绿素a、叶绿素b、总叶绿素、叶绿素a/b、净光合速率(Net Photosynthetic Rate,Pn)、气孔导度(Stomatal Conductivity,Gs)和蒸腾速率(Transpiration Rate,Tr)均随pH值的降低而降低,胞间CO2浓度(Intercellular CO2 Concentration,Ci)呈先降后升的趋势,而水分利用效率(Water Use Efficiency,WUE)先升高后降低.模拟酸雨对木芙蓉的可见伤害阈值小于pH 2.0,对木芙蓉生理活动影响阈值大致在pH 2.0~3.0,表明木芙蓉对酸雨具有较强的耐受性.本研究为木芙蓉栽培管理、抗性筛选,以及为南方城市绿化树种的选择提供理论依据.%A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain on foliar damage, chlorophyll (Chi) content, membrane permeability (MP) , antioxidant enzyme activity and gas exchange parameters in leaves of 2 - year H. Mitabilis seedlings. Four gradients of simulated acid rain solutions of pH 5. 6 ( CK) , 4. 0, 3. 0 and 2. 0 were used. Results showed that the leaves treated by pH 2. 0 and 3. 0 showed visible injury spots to various extent. The membrane permeability ( MP) increased significantly after acid rain stress with an extremely significant negative correlation to pH value ( r = - 0. 961 * * ). The maximum catalase ( CAT

  14. 大连市区大气氮湿沉降研究%Program on the nitrogen concentrations in rain water in Dalian city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜文娟; 史锟

    2013-01-01

    The rainfall water contains mainly water and low concentration of nitrogen compounds which have certain impacts on plants growing in spring, summer and autumn. Besides rain water demands satisfy plant growing in physiology and ecology water, it also provide for nitrogen nutrition in plant. Regardless of environmental science or plant growing science, it has a certain significance to determine the nitrogen content in the rain water how to affect plant growing at the distributions of spaces and times. Content of atmospheric active nitrogen in precipitation rain was examined in the city of Dalian, the most southern tip of Liaodong Peninsula, China. The wet atmospheric deposition samples were collected continuously in rainy days in the years between in 2009 and 2010, which were measured by rain gauge and analyzed by Continuous Flow Analytical System .It was found that among the two years the rainfall times were 34 and 51 while the precipitation values were 687.55 and 630.22 mm, respectively, which were the range on mean annual precipitation(550-950 mm) in normal years .The total nitrogen contents were 22.94 and 41.65 kg·hm-2 in the years of 2009 and 2010 while the total inorganic nitrogen contents were 17.67 and 18.67 kg·hm-2, for the previous year ,the amount of ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were 7.99 and 9.68 kg·hm-2 ,for the after year ,they were 7.72 and 10.95 kg·hm-2. The results showed that the positive correlation of the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen with the rainfall amount were quite explicit. The nitrogen intensity was different in some months. It in the mean months was 0.42 and 0.55 mg·L-1·h-1 in rain water in the two years, respectively. The order to total nitrogen intensity was:winter>autumn>spring>summer in the seasons The flux of total nitrogen at mean in annual was equal to 69.15 kg·hm-2 usage of CO(NH)2, which was a considerable amount of nitrogen fertilizers. Some inorganic nitrogen compounds can be utilized

  15. Acetylsalicylic acid induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Heredia, José M; Hervás, Manuel; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Navarro, José A

    2008-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a derivative from the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA), is a commonly used drug that has a dual role in animal organisms as an anti-inflammatory and anticancer agent. It acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs), which catalyze prostaglandins production. It is known that ASA serves as an apoptotic agent on cancer cells through the inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme. Here, we provide evidences that ASA also behaves as an agent inducing programmed cell death (PCD) in cell cultures of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in a similar way than the well-established PCD-inducing agent H(2)O(2), although the induction of PCD by ASA requires much lower inducer concentrations. Moreover, ASA is herein shown to be a more efficient PCD-inducing agent than salicylic acid. ASA treatment of Arabidopsis cells induces typical PCD-linked morphological and biochemical changes, namely cell shrinkage, nuclear DNA degradation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and induction of caspase-like activity. However, the ASA effect can be partially reverted by jasmonic acid. Taking together, these results reveal the existence of common features in ASA-induced animal apoptosis and plant PCD, and also suggest that there are similarities between the pathways of synthesis and function of prostanoid-like lipid mediators in animal and plant organisms.

  16. The Rain Keeps Falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Rose

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The force of disaster hit me in the heart when, as a young woman, I heard Bob Dylan sing ‘Hard Rain’. In a voice stunned by violence, the young man reports on a multitude of forces that drag the world into catastrophe. In the 1960s I heard the social justice in the song. In 2004 the environmental issues ambush me. The song starts and ends in the dying world of trees and rivers. The poet’s words in both domains of justice are eerily prophetic. They call across the music, and across the years, saying that a hard rain is coming. The words bear no story at all; they give us a series of compelling images, an account of impending calamity. The artistry of the poet—Bob (Billy Boy Dylan—offers sequences of reports that, like Walter Benjamin’s storm from paradise, pile wreckage upon wreckage.

  17. Effects of simulated acid rain on the photosynthetic physiological characteristics in Ulva fasciata under salt stress%低盐胁迫下模拟酸雨对裂片石莼光合作用生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓婷; 李亚鹤; 王东; 徐年军

    2016-01-01

    为探讨低盐胁迫下模拟酸雨对裂片石莼光合作用、抗氧化活性等生理特性的影响,实验设置3个盐度梯度、2个pH水平,运用叶绿素荧光仪、液相氧电极等仪器测定叶绿素荧光参数和光合放氧速率,采用氮蓝四唑法、考马斯亮蓝G250法及蒽酮硫酸比色法测定超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、可溶性蛋白和糖含量.结果发现:(1)模拟酸雨(pH 4.4)处理显著抑制了裂片石莼的生长,且受盐度的影响.pH 8.1、盐度10处理的裂片石莼具有较高的生长速率;盐度越高,模拟酸雨的影响越大.(2)模拟酸雨(pH 4.4)处理显著抑制了裂片石莼的最大光合效率(Fv/Fm)和有效光化学效率(Fv'/Fm'),但受盐度的影响不显著;模拟酸雨和低盐度协同降低了裂片石莼的最大相对电子传递速率(rETRmax).(3)模拟酸雨(pH 4.4)降低了裂片石莼的暗呼吸和光合放氧速率,但受盐度的影响不显著.(4)正常盐度及正常pH处理的裂片石莼SOD活性最高;在盐度(10、25)处理下,模拟酸雨抑制了裂片石莼的SOD活性;而在盐度5处理时,模拟酸雨提高了SOD活性.(5)相对于海水正常pH处理,模拟酸雨显著降低了裂片石莼可溶性蛋白含量,但其可溶性糖含量显著提高,尤其是在低盐条件下.研究表明,模拟酸雨对裂片石莼生长的影响受海水盐度的调控,这在一定程度上也将影响近岸海域大型海藻的生态群落组成.%Ulvafasciata,an extremely rich wild seaweed in natural resources,has a high agricultural and medicinal value.They can also absorb large amounts of nitrogen,phosphorus and other nutrients,and can be used for aquaculture wastewater treatment and the culture environment improvement.With the rapid economic development,industrial pollution gradually increased,the effects of acid rain on terrestrial ecosystems and their harm have received widespread concern,while the effects of acid rain on the photosynthetic physiology of macroalgae in the

  18. 高频度模拟酸雨胁迫条件下菲白竹的光合响应%Response of photosynthetic characteristics of Pleioblastus fortunei to high frequent simulated acid rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚飞; 张珊珊; 孙鑫; 王涛; 代丽; 谢寅峰

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the photosynthetic response characteristic of bamboos to the high frequency of acid rain stress, the relative content of chlorophyll, the diurnal variation of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves of Pleioblastus fortunei, an ornamental bamboo species were determined by foliar spraying with simulated acid rain (SAR) in different intensity of pH (2.0,3.0,4.0). The results showed that treating with different intensity of SAR could result in the decrease of the relative content of chlorophy. The lower was the pH value, was the greater the decrease. The acid rain stress led to diurnal variation changing from the control “single peak” to “bimodal”, which present obviously photosynthetic depression at midday. With the increase of stress intensity, net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) , stomatal con⁃ductance ( Gs ) , transpiration rate ( Tr ) and stomatal limitation ( Ls ) decreased. while, the increasement of the intercel⁃lular CO2 concentration ( Ci ) indicated that the decline of photosynthetic rate was mainly caused by non⁃stomatal limiting factor under acid rain stress. In addition, the determination of fluorescence parameters showed that SAR of different in⁃tensity made PSⅡ photochemical efficiency ( Fv/Fm ) , the largest PSⅡ activity of potential ( Fv/Fo ) , PSⅡ photo⁃chemical efficiency ( Fv′/Fm′) , PSⅡ photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) , photochemical quenching ( qP ) significantly lower, but the non⁃photochemical quenching (NPQ) was significantly increased. After the recovery of a month, the fluo⁃rescence parameters of P.fortunei under pH 4.0 treatment could mostly recover;However, all of P.fortunei under pH 2.0 can�t recover. It shows that P. fortunei treated with SAR of pH 4.0 has a strong ability to repair itself, but with pH 2.0, it can�t recover through self⁃regulation. The enhancement of NPQ in P. fortunei might be a vital mechanism for the resis⁃tence to light under the acid

  19. UV-B 辐射增强和模拟酸雨对C4植物玉米和苋菜生长的影响%Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation and Simulated Acid Rain on Growth of C4 Plants Maize and Amaranth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙云; 刘锦春; 钟章成

    2016-01-01

    The constant reduction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere due to man‐made ozone‐destroying pollutants is leading to an increase in solar ultraviolet‐B (UV‐B ,280-315 nm) radiation at ground level . Acid rain ,resulting from emission of SO 2 and NOx into atmosphere ,has become to another environmental problem of global concern .As a consequence of rapid development ,China ,especially Southwest of China , has been suffered by acid rain with increasing frequency and acidity ,a great threat to the local economic development .Under natural conditions ,elevated UV‐B radiation and acid rain can happen simultaneously and affect plants as well as ecosystem collaboratively .Therefore ,based on the extensive studies on the effects of elevated UV‐B radiation or acid rain on plant physiology ,growth and development ,an increasing interest has turn to focus on combination of UV‐B with acid rain .Although C4 plants represent only a small portion of the world’s plant species ,accounting for only 3 % of the vascular plants ,they contribute about 20% to the global primary productivity because of highly productive C 4‐grass‐lands .most studies concerning the combination effects mentioned above ,mostly centered on the C3 plants ,and rare about C4 plants .To estimate the responses of C4 plants to the combined UV‐B and acid rain and determine whether there are differences between monocotyledon and dicotyledon C4 plant ,we examed the effects of combined UV‐B irradiation and acid rain on the growth ,leaf traits ,biomass accumulation and distribution of mono‐cotyledon plant waxy corn (Zea mays L. certain Kulesh) and dicotyledon plant edible amaranth (Amaran‐thus mangostanus L. ) .The UV‐B irradiation treatments included three levels of 0 ,2.88 and 5.76 (maize) or 4.32 (amaranth ) kJ/m2 · d according to the average stratospheric ozone depletion 10% and 20%(maize) or 15% (amaranth) of sunny days in summer of the year of 2005 in Chongqing of China ,namely

  20. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN STRESS ON GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL A FLUORESCENCE PARAMETERS IN LEAVES OF LONGAN%模拟酸雨对龙眼叶片气体交换和叶绿素a荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱栋梁; 刘星辉; 郭素枝

    2002-01-01

    Longan (Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) seedlings of two different ages grown in pots were selected to study the effects of acid rain stress on gas exchange, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and their recovery. Sulfuric acid and nitric acid were selected for the preparation of artificial acid rain, based on the mole ratio 1:5 of sulfuric acid to nitric acid in the precipitation of southern Fujian. Dilution of reagent grade acid was done with distilled water and determined by Phsj-4 acidity analyzer. A series of solutions of simulated acid rains with pH 5.6, 3.0 and 2.5 were prepared. A sprayer was used to apply the acid solution to young trees. At each application, leaves were thoroughly wetted. Sprays were repeated 12 times in 6 h at 30 min intervals. Gas exchange was detected with an open gas analyzer CID-301PS, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with OS5-FL modulated chlorophyll fluorometer.The results showed that photosynthesis was inhibited by acid rain stress, and light compensation point (LCP) of stressed leaves increased. Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of leaves were reduced after 6 h stress with acid rain of pH 3.0, and could be recovered to the level of control 72 h after the treatment ended. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cs), transpiration rate (Tr), ratio of variable fluorescence to initial fluorescence (Fv/F0), ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of PSⅡelectron transport (ΦPSⅡ), ratio of fluorescence decrease (Rfd), nonphotochemical quenching (qN) and photochemical quenching (qP) were reduced after a 6 h stress with acid rain of pH 2.5, and could not be recovered 72 h after the stress ceased. Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased under treatment with acid rain of pH 2.5, rose in the first day and surpassed the level of control 72 h after the acid rain spraying stopped. Dark respiration (Rd) was increased by acid rain, and

  1. Effect of simulated acid rain on biomass and physiological index of rape (Brassica napus L.) seedling%模拟酸雨对油菜幼苗生物量及其生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佩; 周琴; 张国正; 王福政; 江海东; 濮梅娟

    2010-01-01

    采用土培的方法研究了不同pH值的模拟酸雨(acid rain,AR)对油菜幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,pH≥4.0的酸雨刺激幼苗生长,生物量和色素含量维持在与对照(pH6.0)相当或更高的水平;抗氧化酶(超氧化物歧化酶SOD、过氧化物酶POD和过氧化氢酶CAT)活性和非酶抗氧化剂(抗坏血酸AsA和谷胱甘肽GSH)含量与对照相比无显著差异.随着酸雨酸度的进一步增强(pH≤4.0),油菜幼苗的生物量、色素含量、抗氧化酶活性和非酶抗氧化剂含量逐渐下降,且下降速度越来越快;膜脂发生过氧化,丙二醛含量和相对电导率显著增加.当pH≤2.5时,幼苗叶片可观察到不同程度的伤斑.

  2. 重庆酸雨区马尾松与木荷的叶凋落物分解特征%Decomposition characteristics of leaf litter of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba in the acid rain region of Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任来阳; 于澎涛; 刘霞; 王彦辉; 李振华; 王轶浩

    2013-01-01

    The Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests grow widely in south China, and are seriously damaged by the long-term acid rain. It is expected that an intercropping with broadleaved tree species, such as Schima superba which can grow well under the canopy of Masson pine forests, can improve the health condition of Masson pine trees damaged by acid rain by accelerating the nutrition cycling of forest ecosystems. In order to assess the possible improving effect of intercropping with Schima superba, a field study of litter decomposition was carried out at Tieshanping forest Farm of Chingqing, a region with severe acid rain and forest damage, to compare the decomposition rate of Masson pine needle litter with that of the broad-leaf litter of Schima superba, and to see if the decomposition rate of Pinus massoniana needle litter can be increased by mixing them with the broad-leaf litter of Schima superba. It was found that the decomposition rate of leaf litter of both tree species was very low because of the severe soil acidification, with the annual decomposition coefficient of 0.345 0 and 0.413 2 for Pinus massoninana and Schima superba respectively. The decomposition rates in Tieshanping amounted to only about half of that reported in the forests of Fuzhou City in Fujian Province (with the annul decomposition coefficient of 0.651 2 and 0.813 3). It needs 2.0 and 1.68 years for a 50%decomposition of the litter of Pinus massoninana and Schima superba, and 8.64 and 7.26 years for a 95%decomposition of them. It was also found that the decomposition rate of Pinus massoniana needles was not increased when it was mixed with the broad-leaf litter of Schima superba, probably because of the decomposer quantity reduction and the change of decomposer composition caused by severe soil acidification. It seems from this study that the intercropping of Schima superba can no more play the role of improving the health condition of Masson pine forests damaged by acid rain. Moreover, it was

  3. Changes in soil chemistry and root growth of Cryptomeria japonica, chamaecyparis obtusa, and chamaecyparis pisifera exposed simulated acid rain; Jinko sanseiu bakuro ni tomonau dojo rikagakusei no henka to sugi, hinoki, sawara no seiiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y.; Matsumura, H.; Kobayashi, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-10

    Plants of Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, and Chamaecypris pisifera grown in andosol were exposed to simulated acid rain (SAR) for 23 months, to examine the relationship between change in soil chemistry and root growth. Soil pH exposed to SAR of pH 4.0 did not show any significant differences from that of soil exposed to pH 5.6. Exposed to SAR of pH 2.0 lowered soil pH to 4.0. The pH of fertilized soil was lower than that of non-fertilized one. Total precipitation and cultivated plant species did not significantly affect the soil pH. Exposure to 5,450 mm of pH 2.0 for Cryptomeria japonica significantly decreased concentrations of exchangeable Ca and Mg, while increased concentration of water-soluble Al, with decreasing pH of soils. Thus, molar ratio of (K+Ca+Mg)/Al was reduced, remarkably. This ratio reached to the equilibrium after one year. Soil acidification stress with high Al concentration did not appear to cause significant growth reduction in conifers even under non-fertilized conditions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of the behavior of clouds in a region of severe acid rain pollution in southern China: species, complexes, and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yue, Taixing; Yang, Xueqiao; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud samples were collected during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012 at a high-elevation site in southern China in an effort to examine the chemical characteristics of acid clouds. In total, 141 cloud samples were collected during 44 cloud events over the observation period. The dominant ionic species were SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-), contributing approximately 75% of the total inorganic ion concentration. The primary acidifying factors were sulfate and nitrate, and the primary neutralizing factors were ammonium and calcium. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH of the cloud water was 3.79, indicating an acidic nature. In these cloud samples, Zn and Al exhibited the highest trace metal concentrations, contributing approximately 60% of the total trace element concentration. Toxic metals, such as Pb, Ba, As, and Cr, were detected at high concentrations, indicating potential hazards for human health, vegetation, and waters in this region. Visual MINTEQ 3.0 results revealed that the majority of Zn(II) and Pb(II) existed in the form of free ions. The behavior of Al, however, differed from the behaviors of zinc and lead. The temporal variation in cloud chemistry indicated that temperature, sandstorms, and long-range transport could affect the concentrations of species. During the lifetime of a cloud event, the concentrations of the chemical species were controlled by the transfer of gases or particles to liquid droplets.

  5. 模拟酸雨对紫茎泽兰种子萌发和幼苗生长及化感作用的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination,seedling growth and allelopathic potential of Eupatorium adenophorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱繤之; 刘莎; 阳从魏; 唐凯; 高婷

    2016-01-01

    酸雨作为全球环境问题中的一个重要议题,但与生物入侵的关系常常被人们忽视.文中利用外来入侵植物紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adenophorum)作为研究对象,研究模拟酸雨(pH分别为2.5、4.0和5.6,并且H2 SO4与HNO3摩尔浓度比为5.17∶1的混合酸溶液)对其种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.同时将酸雨污染与生物入侵通过化感作用联系起来,用模拟酸雨浸提紫茎泽兰叶片化感物质,考察其对受体植物旱稻(Oryza sativa L.)、黑麦草(Lolium perenne)、紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)和小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:酸雨存在时,紫茎泽兰种子萌发和幼苗生长受到明显抑制,尤其在pH 2.5的模拟酸雨下,紫茎泽兰已完全不能发芽.对于紫茎泽兰化感作用来说,当以旱稻和小麦为受体植物时,模拟酸雨并未增强紫茎泽兰浸提液的抑制作用;但当以黑麦草和紫花苜蓿为受体植物时,模拟酸雨显著增强了紫茎泽兰浸提液的化感作用效果.%As one of the most important issues of global environmental problems,acid rain may have a close rela-tionship with biological invasions.Here we used Eupatorium adenophorum,the most destructive alien plant spe-cies in China,to study the effects of simulated acid rain (mixed acid solution made of H2 SO4 and HNO3 , 5.17 ∶1 )on its germination and seedling growth.Since allelopathy serves as“bridge”in connection of acid rain pollution and biological invasion,we also used simulated acid rain to leach E.adenophorum leaves to study its impact on germination and seedling growth of four plant species,Oryza sativa L.,Lolium perenne,Medicago sati-va,and Triticum aestivum L.The results showed that the germination and seedling growth of E.adenophorum were significantly inhibited by simulated acid rain.Especially when pH 2.5 simulated acid rain applied,E.ade-nophorum could not

  6. Structural characteristics of rain fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnard, FréDéRic; Sauvageot, Henri

    2003-07-01

    This paper analyzes the shape of rain area size distributions (RASDs) observed by radar in tropical and midlatitude regions. The rain area is defined, with respect to a rain threshold τ, as the area, inside a contour, where the rain rate is higher than τ. The size considered is the diameter of the equivalent circular area D. The reflectivity peaks inside the rain areas are numbered and the rain areas put together by classes having the same peak number. The size distributions of the rain areas containing the same number of peaks p are well fitted by lognormal functions, the parameters of which, μp and σp, are weakly dependent on the conditions of the peak determination. The parameters μp and σp are found to be linked by a power relation. For D RASD without peak number distinction is a lognormal mixture. Using the relations obtained for μp, σp, and the rain area number as functions of p enables one to simulate RASDs with results in good agreement with the observations. Because of the limitation in the radar sampling at both ends of the RASD and the decrease of area number with increasing size, the radar-observed RASDs are severely truncated. The possibility of an approximate fitting of the truncated RASD with diverse functions is discussed. At the intermediary values of the threshold, i.e., for τ ranging between 3 and 12 mm h-1, where the RASD is easiest to compute, the slope of these truncated distributions is not strongly dependent on the threshold. This slope appears not to be very sensitive to the minimum and maximum distances bounding the domain where the rain field is observed. The RASD is found to be sloping more over sea than over land. The slope of the RASDs shows a small diurnal variation but no significant annual variation. The "perimeter to area" (fractal) dimension of the rain area for the sample without peak number distinction is around 1.35. Single-peaked and multipeaked rain areas have different perimeter to area dimensions, ˜1.23 and 1

  7. Study on the Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Wheat Using the Spectral Reflectance at Canopy and Leaf Level%利用冠层和叶片水平的反射光谱研究模拟酸雨对小麦的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛忠财; 高辉远; 刘鹏; 柳洁

    2011-01-01

    通过光谱分析技术,研究了模拟酸雨(SO:NO=5:1)对小麦产量和生理特性的影响.结果表明,模拟酸雨伤害了小麦叶片的结构和功能,降低了叶绿素含量和光合速率,从而显著降低了小麦的产量,经过pH为2的酸雨处理后的小麦产量降幅达19.1%.通过对植被指数的分析可以看出,小麦冠层叶绿素含量在开花期以后逐渐降低,而旗叶的叶绿素含量则在灌浆期以后开始下降,两者的下降幅度都随着酸雨pH的下降而增大.光合速率表现出与叶绿素含量相同的变化.另外,对小麦产量与不同生育期冠层和叶片水平的植被指数的相关分析表明.灌浆期的小麦冠层水平的NDVI、mVD705和WI与酸雨处理后小麦的产量显著相关.总之,利用光谱分析技术可以快速、无损伤地监测不同酸雨处理对小麦的生长和营养状况的影响.%Acid rain has been considered as one of the most serious environment problems. The traditional monitor methods are expensive and time consume. Recently, the spectral reflectance technical has been developed and used to reflect the effects of the environment on plants rapidly and non-invasively. However, relationship between spectral reflectance and effects of acid rain on wheat is still limited. In this paper the effects of simulated acid rain( SO4-2 :NO3-1 =5:1 ) on the grain yield and physiological characteristics of wheat were studied using spectral reflectance. The results showed that the simulated acid rain decreased the grain yield due to damaged leaf internal structure and function, decreased chlorophyll content and photosynthesis. The grain yield was also reduced by 19.1% in the wheat treated with simulated acid rain of pH 2. The net photosynthetic rate and the pigment content decreased after flowing at the canopy level but it decreased after filling at the leaf level. The decrease extent at both canopy and leaf levels was enhanced by the decreasing of pH in the simulated acid

  8. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vasant R Choudhary; Abhijeet J Karkamkar

    2003-08-01

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of water and ammonia over ZrO2 and sulphated ZrO2 prepared by different methods has been investigated for measuring strong acidity and acidity distribution on sulphated zirconia-type solid super-acid catalysts. The TPD of water provides a simple reliable method for this purpose because of the high stability of water molecules under redox conditions.

  9. Automated Rain Sampler for Real time pH and Conductivity Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weerasinghe, R; Jayananda, M K; Sonnadara, D U J

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the acidity of rain water in real time, a rain water sampling system was developed. The rain sampler detects the initial rain after a dry spell and collects a water sample. Before performing the measurements, the pH probe is calibrated using a standard buffer solution whereas the conductivity probe is calibrated using deionized water. After calibrating the probes the pH and the conductivity of the collected rain water sample are measured using the pH and the conductivity probe. Weather parameters such as air temperature, humidity and pressure are also recorded simultaneously. The pH and conductivity measurement data including weather parameters are transmitted to central station using a GSM modem for further analysis. The collected rain water sample is preserved at the remote monitoring station for post chemical analysis. A programmable logic controller controls the entire process.

  10. Using Rain Gardens to Promote Service Learning and Climate Science Education with Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Sharon B.; Haberland, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The Jersey Roots, Global Reach 4-H Climate Science Program conducted in Camden, New Jersey introduces middle school students to the evidence, impacts, and potential solutions to climate change. For their service learning project, students installed two rain gardens at the school. Rain gardens are shallow landscaped depressions in the soil that can…

  11. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Physiological and Bio-chemical Characteristics of Ficus elastica cv. Deco-ra%模拟酸雨胁迫对橡胶榕生理生化特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中军; 李君可

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain with different pH (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.0) onthe leaf injury, soluble sugar content, catalase activity, net photosynthetic rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and freeproline content of the potted seedlings of Ficus elastica cv. Deco-ra. With the decrease of pH value, the percent of foliardamage gradually increased; soluble sugar content first decreased and then increased, and a maximum is attained at pH of3.0; catalase activity firstly increased and then decreased, and its maximum appeared at pH of 4.0; the proline contentand MDA content both gradually increased, and reached their maximum values at pH of 3.0; the net photosynthetic rateshowed an irregular decrease.%采用盆栽方法研究了4种不同pH值(3.0、4.0、5.0、7.0)的模拟酸雨对榕树幼苗叶片损伤、可溶性糖质量分数、净光合速率(Pn)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、丙二醛(MDA)质量摩尔浓度、游离脯氨酸质量摩尔浓度的影响.结果表明:叶片受害率随着pH值的降低而增高;可溶性糖质量分数随着pH值的降低先减小后增高,在pH=3.0时迭最大值;CAT活性随着pH值的降低先增大后降低,在pH=4.0时达最大值;游离脯氨酸、MDA质量摩尔浓度随着pH值的降低均逐渐增高,且都在pH=3.0时达最大值;净光合速率随着pH值的降低与对照相比,呈现不规律下降.

  12. Monitoring of the folic acid supplementation program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    In November of 1993, the Dutch government recommended daily folic acid supplementation of 0.4 or 0.5 mg for all women planning pregnancy, starting 4 weeks before conception until 8 weeks after. In 1995, a one-time mass media campaign was conducted, and due to this campaign, the use of folic acid in

  13. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Amritpal S; Putman, Charles T; Mazurak, Vera C

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids.

  14. Tempered by Winds and Rains of Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A few years ago, a popular TV program Animal World produced by China Central Television (CCTV), was well received by men and women, old and young, and people from all circles. Sun Qiuping, a reporter from CCTV, led her colleagues to film the section about wild animals in China.For six years, Sun and her colleagues sought those nearly extinct wild animals in the virgin forests and barren hills. They experienced many hardships, and even the trial of death.In 1992, Sun won first prize in the First National TV Program Contest for her first TV program Oasis in the Mist about the tropical rain forest and its wild life. She also won awards for photography and music. Sun edited the TV program Mongoose and won a first prize for programs on special topics. Because of her accomplishments, she has been awarded the prize of the CCTV director’s special fund, and was named a national "March 8 Pacesetter’ by the All-China Women’s Federation.

  15. The rain-powered cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2016-09-01

    A frictionless cart in the shape of a right triangle (with the vertical side forward) is elastically impacted by vertically falling raindrops. The speed of the cart as a function of time can be analytically deduced as an exercise in the use of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. A characteristic time defines the approach to a terminal speed which is a sizeable fraction of the speed of the rain. The treatment is accessible to a student in a calculus-based mechanics course.

  16. 富营养条件下酸雨对两种湿生植物硝酸还原酶活性的影响%The effects of simulated acid rain on the nitrate reductase activities of Acorus gramineus and Saururus chinensis under eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹璐; 薛建辉; 罗英

    2014-01-01

    Based on a hydroponic experiment, the effect of the simulated acid rain( pH2.0 and pH3.5) was investigated on the nitrate reductase activities of leaves in Acorus gramineus and Saururus chinensis. The main results were described as follows:( 1) There existed extremely significant impact on the leaf nitrate reductase activity for both aquatic plants caused by eutrophication treatment( three levels);with the increase of eutrophication level the leaf nitrate reductase ac-tivity increased first and then decreased afterwards. ( 2) There was no significant impact on the leaf nitrate reductase ac-tivity for both aquatic plants caused by the simulated acid rain ( pH2�0 and pH3.5) . With the increase of acid rain con-centration level. The leaf nitrate reductase activity represented a decreasing trend; the leaf nitrate reductase activity of Acorus gramineus and Saururus chinensis reduced with increase of acid rain processing times.%采用水培试验法,研究模拟酸雨( pH=2.0,pH=3.5)在富营养条件下对石菖蒲及三白草叶片的硝酸还原酶活性的影响。结果表明:富营养化对石菖蒲及三白草叶片硝酸还原酶活性产生极显著影响(p<0.01),随着富营养化水平的提高,植物叶片硝酸还原酶活性呈现先上升后下降趋势;酸雨处理对石菖蒲及三白草叶片硝酸还原酶活性影响未达显著水平,但随酸雨浓度的增加,石菖蒲及三白草硝酸还原酶活性呈现逐渐降低的趋势;另外,随着酸雨次数的增加,石菖蒲及三白草叶片硝酸还原酶活性逐渐降低。

  17. The adaptation mechanism of plasma membrane H + -atpase in rice leaves to acid rain stress%水稻叶片质膜H+-ATPase对酸雨胁迫的适应机制∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛玉晴; 吕霞; 梁婵娟∗∗

    2013-01-01

      采用水培法研究酸雨胁迫对水稻叶片质膜 H +-ATPase 活性的影响,结果表明,高强度酸雨(pH 2.5和 pH 3.0组)胁迫下,pH 2.5组质膜 H +-ATPase 活性显著受抑,胞内 pH 降低,POD 活性受抑,pH3.0组质膜H +-ATPase 活性上升,胞内 pH 降低,POD 活性升高,质膜透性和 MDA 含量均增加,Fv/ Fm 和叶鲜重降低;低强度酸雨(3.0< pH≤5.5)胁迫下,质膜 H +-ATPase 活性应激升高,虽胞内 pH 降低,POD 活性升高,质膜未遭明显损伤,对生长的抑制程度明显低于高强度酸雨胁迫.可见,酸雨胁迫下,质膜功能蛋白 H +-ATPase 能在一定范围内调节胞内 pH,进而缓解大量 H +引发的活性氧积累,减轻质膜损伤,从而增强作物对酸雨胁迫的抗逆性和适应性.%The effect of acid rain( AR) on plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity of rice leaves was investigated under hydroponic conditions in order to explore the relationship between change of H + -ATPase activity and adaptation of plants to AR stress. The results show that AR (pH 2. 5) led to a decrease in plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity, intracellular pH and POD activity,while AR ( pH 3. 0) led to an increase in plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity and POD activity and a decrease in intracellular pH Both groups led to an increase in membrane permeability and MDA content, and reduced Fv / Fm and fresh weight of leaves. AR (3. 0 < pH≤5. 5) caused an increase in the plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity and POD activity, and a decrease in intracellular pH. However, no obvious change was observed for membrane permeability and MDA content, indicating that low intensity of AR did not obviously damage cell membrane. Inhibition of low intensity AR on growth was less than that caused by high intensity AR. Under AR stress, H + -ATPase in plasma membrane can regulate intracellular pH within a certain range, and alleviate the damage caused by excess H + on plasma membrane, thereby showing that crop stress resistance

  18. Quality in the organizations (enterprises and institutions of production and of services). Validation of the determination by atomic absorption of sodium and potassium in acid rain; Calidad de las organizaciones (empresas e instituciones de produccion y de servicios). Validacion de la determinacion por absorcion atomica de sodio y potasio en lluvia acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola T, D.L

    2005-07-01

    The present work is focused to the environmental area and in specific to the validation of an analytical method by means of one of the techniques more used for the determination of metals, the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Applied to the study of the acid rain and its diverse forms in the nature. As well as their consequences and the role that the man carries out in the contribution toward this phenomenon. To approach the following text it will be mention shortly how is distributed, beginning with the introduction that is about the importance of the role of the acid rain, its effects and repercussions in the environment. In the first chapter the points that we should be evaluated to carry out a validation are analyzed. Being the main ones, the precision, accuracy, lineal interval, among others. Continuing in the second chapter with the foundation study, equipment and interferences of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The last chapter contains the experimental part, continuing for each evaluated point, from the experimental development, results and its analysis. (Author)

  19. Rain on small tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  20. Household response to environmental incentives for rain garden adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, David A.; Alberini, Anna

    2016-02-01

    A decentralized approach to encourage the voluntary adoption of household stormwater management practices is increasingly needed to mitigate urban runoff and to comply with more stringent water quality regulations. We analyze the household response to a hypothetical rebate program to incentivize rain garden adoption using household survey data from the Baltimore-Washington corridor. We asked respondents whether the household would adopt a rain garden without a rebate or when offered a randomly assigned rebate. An interval-data model is used to estimate household demand on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a rain garden as a function of demographic factors, gardening activities, environmental attitudes, and other household characteristics. Estimation results indicate that mean WTP for a rain garden in our sample population is approximately $6.72 per square foot, corresponding to almost three-fourths of the installation cost. The expected adoption rate more than tripled when comparing no rebate versus a government rebate set at one-third of the installation cost, indicating that economic incentives matter. There is substantial heterogeneity in the WTP among households. Higher levels of WTP are estimated for households with higher environmental concern for the Chesapeake Bay and local streams, garden experience, higher income, and non-senior citizen adults. We conclude that a cost-share rebate approach is likely to significantly affect household adoption decisions, and the partial contributions paid by households can assist with lowering the substantial compliance costs for local governments to meet water quality requirements.

  1. Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn (Zea mays)%模拟酸雨对不同类型玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海艳

    2013-01-01

    以普通玉米、糯玉米、爆裂玉米和甜玉米为材料,研究了不同模拟酸雨(pH 6.0、5.0、4.0、3.0、2.0、1.0)对玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:pH 2.0 ~5.0模拟酸雨对玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长没有显著影响;pH l.0处理的普通玉米、糯玉米、爆裂玉米和甜玉米的种子发芽率分别为91.3%、68.7%、27.5%和11.7%.与pH 6.0处理(CK)相比,pH l.0模拟酸雨显著降低了玉米种子的发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数、发芽速度、苗高、根长、苗和根干物质、贮藏物质运转效率,延长了平均发芽时间.pH l.0模拟酸雨对玉米幼苗生长阶段的影响大于发芽阶段,对幼苗地下部分的影响大于地上部分;受基因型的影响,普通玉米和糯玉米的抗酸雨能力最强,其次为爆裂玉米,甜玉米最差.玉米属于抗酸雨作物,酸雨抑制阈值介于pH1.0~2.0之间.酸雨地区可优先选择种植普通玉米和糯玉米.%Taking normal corn,waxy corn,pop corn,and sweet corn as test materials,this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0,5.0,4.0,3.0,2.0,and 1.0).Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth,but at pH 1.0,the germination rate of normal corn,waxy corn,pop corn,and sweet corn was 91.3%,68.7%,27.5%,and 11.7%,respectively.As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK),the germination rate,germination index,vigor index,germination velocity,shoot height,root length,shoot and root dry mass,and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease,and the average germination time extended apparently.At pH 1.0,the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage,and greater on underground part than on aboveground part.Due to the differences in gene type,normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain

  2. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    2014-01-01

    The globally-used herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its most frequently detected metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were studied in a unique 12-year field-scale monitoring program. The leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particles were studied in a shallow...... intensity and the timing of rain events after glyphosate application....

  3. Scale Dependence of Spatiotemporal Intermittence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Siddani, Ravi K.

    2011-01-01

    It is a common experience that rainfall is intermittent in space and time. This is reflected by the fact that the statistics of area- and/or time-averaged rain rate is described by a mixed distribution with a nonzero probability of having a sharp value zero. In this paper we have explored the dependence of the probability of zero rain on the averaging space and time scales in large multiyear data sets based on radar and rain gauge observations. A stretched exponential fannula fits the observed scale dependence of the zero-rain probability. The proposed formula makes it apparent that the space-time support of the rain field is not quite a set of measure zero as is sometimes supposed. We also give an ex.planation of the observed behavior in tenus of a simple probabilistic model based on the premise that rainfall process has an intrinsic memory.

  4. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, Concept: Water that Comes Down as Rain Is Used Over and Over Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Provides directions for basic science experiments which demonstrate the rain cycle, fundamentals of cloud formation, and testing for the presence of acidity in local rainwater. Describes materials required, step-by-step instructions, and discussion topics. (NEC)

  5. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  6. Program Trainer for Operator of Phosphoric Acid production by Wet-Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir А. Krivonosov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the major problems of operator of phosphoric acid production by wet-process during production control, develops program trainer, enabling to speed up the process of operators training, promote their professional qualifications and the production control

  7. Is there A Role for Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Fetal Programming of Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia I. Leikin-Frenkel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of ω3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, and its effect on the prevention of disease and programming of health in offspring, is largely unknown. Compared to ALA, ω3 docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA acids have been more widely researched due to their direct implication in fetal neural development. In this literature search we found that ALA, the essential ω3 fatty acid and metabolic precursor of DHA and EPA has been, paradoxically, almost unexplored. In light of new and evolving findings, this review proposes that ALA may have an intrinsic role, beyond the role as metabolic parent of DHA and EPA, during fetal development as a regulator of gene programming for the prevention of metabolic disease and promotion of health in offspring.

  8. Is there A Role for Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Fetal Programming of Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia I.

    2016-01-01

    The role of ω3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, and its effect on the prevention of disease and programming of health in offspring, is largely unknown. Compared to ALA, ω3 docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids have been more widely researched due to their direct implication in fetal neural development. In this literature search we found that ALA, the essential ω3 fatty acid and metabolic precursor of DHA and EPA has been, paradoxically, almost unexplored. In light of new and evolving findings, this review proposes that ALA may have an intrinsic role, beyond the role as metabolic parent of DHA and EPA, during fetal development as a regulator of gene programming for the prevention of metabolic disease and promotion of health in offspring. PMID:27023621

  9. Is there A Role for Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Fetal Programming of Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia I

    2016-03-23

    The role of ω3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, and its effect on the prevention of disease and programming of health in offspring, is largely unknown. Compared to ALA, ω3 docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids have been more widely researched due to their direct implication in fetal neural development. In this literature search we found that ALA, the essential ω3 fatty acid and metabolic precursor of DHA and EPA has been, paradoxically, almost unexplored. In light of new and evolving findings, this review proposes that ALA may have an intrinsic role, beyond the role as metabolic parent of DHA and EPA, during fetal development as a regulator of gene programming for the prevention of metabolic disease and promotion of health in offspring.

  10. Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Freitas, Luiz P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological disruption and water pollution from urbanization can be reduced if households in urban areas adopt decentralized storm water controls. We study a citywide municipal subsidized rain-barrel program in the third biggest city in the United States, Chicago, to explore what factors influence whether households purchase this sort of green storm water management technology in an urban setting. Specifically, we regress census-tract level data on the number of rain barrels adopted in different parts of the city on socioeconomic variables, data on local flood frequency, and features of the housing stock. We find that rain-barrel purchases are not correlated with local levels of flooding, even though city residents were told by program managers that rain barrels could alleviate local flooding. Instead, rain barrels are heavily concentrated in places with high-income attitudinally green populations. We do find more rain barrels were adopted in places close to rain-barrel distribution points and near sites of hydrological information campaigns; thus, policy makers might increase green-technology adoption in areas where they can do the most good by reducing transaction costs and providing education programs to those areas. Finally, our results indicate that owner occupancy is positively correlated with green-technology adoption. Low-rise rental housing may have inefficiently low levels of adoption, such that city managers might want to develop programs to encourage storm water management investments by landlords who do not live in their own properties.

  11. Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, R. F.; Jenkins, A

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The RAIN and CLIMEX experiments at Risdalsheia, southernmost Norway, together cover 17 years (1984-2000) of whole-catchment manipulation of acid deposition and climate. A 1200 m2 roof placed over the forest canopy at KIM catchment excluded about 80% of ambient acid deposition; clean rain was sprinkled under the roof. A climate change treatment (3.7°C increase in air temperature and increase in air carbon dioxide concentrations to 560 ppmv) was superimposed on the clean...

  12. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  13. Rain Erosion/Measurement Impact Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FARM Rain Erosion/Impact Measurement Lab develops solutions for deficiencies in the ability of materials, coatings and designs to withstand a severe operational...

  14. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koob, Meriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Radiologie 2, Strasbourg (France); Doray, Berenice; Fradin, Melanie [CHU de Strasbourg, Hopital de Hautepierre, Laboratoire de Genetique Medicale, Strasbourg (France); Astruc, Dominique [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Neonatologie, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-03-15

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology. (orig.)

  15. Simulating Rain Fade In A Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Nagy, Lawrence A.; Svoboda, James K.

    1994-01-01

    Automated, computer-controlled assembly of electronic equipment developed for use in simulation testing of downlink portion of Earth/satellite microwave digital communication system. Designed to show effects upon performance of system of rain-induced fading in received signal and increases in transmitted power meant to compensate for rain-induced fading. Design of communication system improved iteratively in response to results of simulations, leading eventually to design ensuring clear, uninterrupted transmission of digital signals.

  16. Simple determination of sulfate ion in rain by volumetric methods using lead (II) nitrate and dithizone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yongzuo; Zhou Qizhi (Sichuan Univ., Chengdu, SC (China)); Iwatsuki, M.; Fukasawa, T. (Yamanashi Univ., Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-05-10

    Nowadays, 'acid rain' is one of serious problems in the world. Sulfate ion is one of main constituents in the acid rain, and its rapid and reliable determination is very important for the application to a lot of samples. For its determination, turbidimetry, spectrophotometry and ion chromatography are generally employed. In this paper, volumetric methods are proposed for simple determination of sulfate ion in rain. Lead (II) nitrate and dithizone are used as titrant and indicator, respectively, and the end point is determined either visually or photometrically. Recovery ratio of ions, precision, and effect of foreign ions on determination of sulfate ion by the methods were studied, and compared with those by the turbidimetry and ion chromatography. The proposed methods, especially the visual titration has advantages of simplicity, rapidity, and suitability for routine analysis, and requires no expensive equipment. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Assessment of the environmental aspects of the DOE phosphoric acid fuel cell program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, H. L.; Cavagrotti, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The likely facets of a nationwide phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant commercial system are described. The beneficial and adverse environmental impacts produced by the system are assessed. Eleven specific system activities are characterized and evaluated. Also included is a review of fuel cell technology and a description of DOE's National Fuel Cell Program. Based on current and reasonably foreseeable PAFC characteristics, no environmental or energy impact factor was identified that would significantly inhibit the commercialization of PAFC power plant technology.

  18. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack three-dimensional model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed distributed mathematical model of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack have been developed, with the FORTRAN computer program, for analyzing the temperature distribution in the stack and the associated current density distribution on the cell plates. Energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses in the stack were combined to develop the model. Several reasonable assumptions were made to solve this mathematical model by means of the finite differences numerical method.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eGiannattasio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications.

  20. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  1. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  2. Regulation functions of Ca^(2+) physiological of Zephyranthes candida under simulated acid rain stress%模拟酸雨胁迫下Ca^(2+)对葱兰(Zephyranthes candida)的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 潘远智

    2011-01-01

    探讨不同pH模拟酸雨对葱兰主要生理特性的影响及Ca2+的调控作用。通过盆栽试验,研究10mmol/LCa(NO3)2处理后不同pH(2.0、2.5、3.0、4.0和5.6)模拟酸雨胁迫对葱兰的有机物代谢、膜系统稳定性、抗氧化酶活性、叶绿素(Chl)及气体交换参数的影响。结果表明:随着pH的降低,葱兰叶片相对电导率(γ)、丙二醛(MDA)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)逐渐升高,可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖含量和过氧化物酶(POD)逐渐下降;Chl和净光合速率(Pn)随pH的降低而降低,气孔导度(Gs)和胞间CO2浓度(ci)先随pH的降低而升高,当pH 2.0时显著降低;在pH≤4.0时,可溶性糖与pH呈显著正相关,SOD和Pn均与pH呈显著负相关。同一强度酸雨胁迫下,经10mmol/L Ca(NO3)2处理后,葱兰叶片中可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖、POD、SOD、Chl和Pn均有不同程度的升高,γ和MDA显著降低,且各指标的变化随pH的降低变化不明显。模拟酸雨胁迫下,Ca2+能增强葱兰各项生理功能的稳定性,从而减轻酸雨对葱兰的伤害,试验还发现,Ca2+对葱兰的调控作用在强酸度(pH≤3.0)胁迫下,效果更明显。%The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of simulated acid rain at different pH levels on physiological of Zephyranthes candida Herb.and the regulation function of Ca2+.With pot experiments,this paper studies the effect of simulated acid rain that included 5 different pH levels(pH 2.0,2.5,3.0,4.0 and 5.6) and the regulation function of Ca2+ on the organic matter metabolism,and membrane damage,and antioxidant enzyme activity,Chl content,and gas exchange parameters of Zephyranthes candida leaves.With the decrease of the pH,value of REC,MDA and SOD,increased gradually while value of soluble protein,soluble sugar,POD,Chl and Pn decreased gradually,Gs and Ci were firstly increased and then significantly reduced in pH2.0;when pH≤4.0,there was a

  3. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-07-10

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  4. RAINS: Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Only one computer model has ever been at the center of major international environmental negotiations. That model is RAINS. Twice it has been central to renegotiation of the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, the umbrella convention regarding air pollution across all Europe. It also underpins the European Union policy and directives on air pollution. Countries in Southeast Asia are turning to the model for help with their growing air pollution problems. RAINS will be used to determine emission ceilings for emissions of four key pollutants in EU countries - sulphur, ammonia, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The same four pollutants are also the subject of a parallel negotiation in Geneva under the convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. The article and illustrations outline the model`s development and its structure in 1998, the historic role it has played in negotiations and some examples of its output. They highlight the central role of IIASA`s Transboundary Air Pollution project where a team of 12 works on the RAINS model and related issues. IIASA`s next goal is to develop a model of particulates pollution and incorporate it into RAINS. The information needed (such as particle sizes and chemical properties) and at what geographical scale must be identified to create an inventory of emissions suitable for RAINS modelling. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Wright

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The RAIN and CLIMEX experiments at Risdalsheia, southernmost Norway, together cover 17 years (1984-2000 of whole-catchment manipulation of acid deposition and climate. A 1200 m2 roof placed over the forest canopy at KIM catchment excluded about 80% of ambient acid deposition; clean rain was sprinkled under the roof. A climate change treatment (3.7°C increase in air temperature and increase in air carbon dioxide concentrations to 560 ppmv was superimposed on the clean rain treatment for four years (1995-1998. Sea-salt inputs and temperature are climate-related factors that influence water chemistry and can confound long-term trends caused by changes in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. The RAIN and CLIMEX experiments at Risdalsheia provided direct experimental data that allow quantitative assessment of these factors. Run-off chemistry responded rapidly to the decreased acid deposition. Sulphate concentrations decreased by 50% within three years; nitrate and ammonium concentrations decreased to new steady-state levels within the first year. Acid neutralising capacity increased and hydrogen ion and inorganic aluminium decreased. Similar recovery from acidification was also observed at the reference catchment, ROLF, in response to the general 50% reduction in sulphate deposition over southern Norway in the late 1980s and 1990s. Variations in sea-salt deposition caused large variations in run-off chemistry at the reference catchment ROLF and the year-to-year noise in acid neutralising capacity was as large as the overall trend over the period. These variations were absent at KIM catchment because the sea-salt inputs were held constant over the entire 17 years of the clean rain treatment. The climate change experiment at KIM catchment resulted in increased leaching of inorganic nitrogen, probably due to increased mineralisation and nitrification rates in the soils. Keywords: acid deposition, global change, water, soil, catchment, experiment, Norway.

  6. Study on Germination Characteristics of Perilla frutescens under Simulation Environment of Acid Rain and Bryophyta%模拟酸雨及苔藓植物化感条件下紫苏种子萌发特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天; 江安娜; 王曼君; 颜凤; 方元平; 项俊

    2012-01-01

    通过模拟酸雨胁迫及苔藓化感作用两种不同的生长环境,初步探讨了模拟酸雨及3种苔藓凤尾藓(Fissidens bryoides)、提灯藓(Mnium hornum)、缩叶藓(Ptychomitrium)种植水对紫苏(Perilla frutescens)种子萌发特性的影响.结果表明,pH为5.0及以上的低浓度模拟酸雨环境对紫苏种子的萌发及幼苗生长影响不大,但随着酸化程度的加深,对紫苏种子萌发的抑制作用明显增加,当pH降到1.0时种子不发芽.紫苏幼苗叶片POD活力随胁迫时间的延长呈先升后降的趋势.而叶片MDA含量除pH为5.0处理组与对照组相近外,其他胁迫浓度下均有显著增加,说明pH低于5.0紫苏幼苗生长受到较严重损害.在苔藓种植水培养环境中,与对照组相比,紫苏种子发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数均随苔藓植物种植水浓度的升高而升高,在浓度为100%时对种子萌发的促进效果最为显著.%By simulating two different growth environment, acid rain stress and moss allelopathy, the effects of acid rain and three bryophyte cultivate water (Fissidens bryoides ,Mnium hornum,Ptychomitrium) on Perilla frutescens seed germination was studied. The results showed that the simulated acid rain with pH lower than 5.0 had little effect on P. frutescens seed germination and seedling growth; as the increasing of acidification, there was a significant inhibition of seed germination, and the seed could not germinate under the pH lower than 1.0. The POD activity in P. frutescens blade increased firstly and then decreased as the stress time prolonged, and the MDA content was decreased when pH was lower than 5.0, suggesting that P. frutescens seedling growth was affected by pH lower than 5.0. In the culture water environment, compared to the control, P. frutescens germination rate, germination index, vigor index increased as the bryophyte planting concentration increasing, and the treatment with the most significant effect was 100% bryophyte planting

  7. A novel rain removal technology based on video image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Piao, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Due to the effect of bad weather conditions, it often conducts visual distortions on images for outdoor vision systems. Rain is one specific example of bad weather. Generally, rain streak is small and falls at high velocity. Traditional rain removal methods often cause blued visual effect. In addition, there is high time complexity. Moreover, some rain streaks are still in the de-rained image. Based on the characteristics of rain streak, a novel rain removal technology is proposed. The proposed method is not only removing the rain streak effectively, but also retaining much detail information. The experiments show that the proposed method outperform traditional rain removal methods. It can be widely used in intelligent traffic, civilian surveillance and national security so on.

  8. Multidimensional modeling of coronal rain dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, X; Keppens, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations which capture the initial formation and the long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in-situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match with modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into $V$-shaped like features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views on blobs which evaporate in situ, or get siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys o...

  9. Propagating Characteristics of Pulsed Laser in Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the performance of laser ranging system under the rain weather condition, we need to know the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain. In this paper, the absorption and attenuation coefficients were calculated based on the scattering theories in discrete stochastic media, and the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain were simulated and analyzed using Monte-Carlo method. Some simulation results were verified by experiments, and the simulation results are well matched with the experimental data, with the maximal deviation not less than 7.5%. The results indicated that the propagating laser beam would be attenuated and distorted due to the scattering and absorption of raindrops, and the energy attenuation and pulse shape distortion strongly depended on the laser pulse widths.

  10. A Large-Scale Assessment of Nucleic Acids Binding Site Prediction Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Miao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of nucleic acid binding sites in proteins are necessary to disentangle functional mechanisms in most biological processes and to explore the binding mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed, but the state-of-the-art approaches display a great diversity in i the definition of nucleic acid binding sites; ii the training and test datasets; iii the algorithmic methods for the prediction strategies; iv the performance measures and v the distribution and availability of the prediction programs. Here we report a large-scale assessment of 19 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets including more than 5000 proteins derived from 3D structures of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Well-defined binary assessment criteria (specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy… are applied. We found that i the tools have been greatly improved over the years; ii some of the approaches suffer from theoretical defects and there is still room for sorting out the essential mechanisms of binding; iii RNA binding and DNA binding appear to follow similar driving forces and iv dataset bias may exist in some methods.

  11. Sex-Dependent Programming of Glucose and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mouse Offspring by Maternal Protein Restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Esther M. E.; Bloks, Vincent W.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Baller, Julius F. W.; Huijkman, Nicolette C. A.; Kuipers, Irma; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Plosch, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nutritional conditions during fetal life influence the risk of the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in adult life (metabolic programming). Impaired glucose tolerance and dysregulated fatty acid metabolism are hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We aim

  12. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant optimization model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    An optimized cost and performance model for a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system was derived and developed into a modular FORTRAN computer code. Cost, energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses were combined to develop a mathematical model for optimizing the steam to methane ratio in the reformer, hydrogen utilization in the PAFC plates per stack. The nonlinear programming code, COMPUTE, was used to solve this model, in which the method of mixed penalty function combined with Hooke and Jeeves pattern search was chosen to evaluate this specific optimization problem.

  13. Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew. MJ

    2009-12-01

    The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and Λ, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.

  14. Pesticides in Mississippi air and rain: A comparison between 1995 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michael S; Coupe, Richard H.; Foreman, William T.; Capel, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of current-use pesticides were determined in weekly composite air and rain samples collected during the 1995 and 2007 growing seasons in the Mississippi Delta (MS, USA) agricultural region. Similar sampling and analytical methods allowed for direct comparison of results. Decreased overall pesticide use in 2007 relative to 1995 generally resulted in decreased detection frequencies in air and rain; observed concentration ranges were similar between years, however, even though the 1995 sampling site was 500 m from active fields whereas the 2007 sampling site was within 3 m of a field. Mean concentrations of detections were sometimes greater in 2007 than in 1995, but the median values were often lower. Seven compounds in 1995 and 5 in 2007 were detected in ≥50% of both air and rain samples. Atrazine, metolachlor, and propanil were detected in ≥50% of the air and rain samples in both years. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in ≥75% of air and rain samples in 2007 but were not measured in 1995. The 1995 seasonal wet depositional flux was dominated by methyl parathion (88%) and was >4.5 times the 2007 flux. Total herbicide flux in 2007 was slightly greater than in 1995 and was dominated by glyphosate. Malathion, methyl parathion, and degradation products made up most of the 2007 nonherbicide flux.

  15. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Torsten W; Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss.

  16. A heterogeneous chemistry model for acid rain`s effect on ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Tao [Univ. of New York, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A computer model for simulating heterogeneous reactions in cloud is developed to determine the S(IV) species` effect on ozone. Crutzen claims that NO{sub x}, HO{sub x} families and H{sub 2}CO in the troposphere can decrease ozone by 5 to 10%. However, is this claim valid for a SO{sub x} polluted atmosphere? The SO{sub x} family reacts with the ozone destroyers. These reactions seem to be significant enough to reduce the H{sub 2}CO`s destructive effect on ozone.

  17. Programmed cell death in Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) tissues infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin

    2004-01-01

    TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97~48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.

  18. Urban Water-Quality Management. Rain Garden Plants

    OpenAIRE

    French, Sue (Sue C.); Fox, Laurie; Andruczyk, Mike; Gilland, Traci; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.

  19. Program summaries for 1979: environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress in research is reported for the three Divisions and one Group. Current programs in the Atmospheric Sciences Division include major participation in the multilaboratory cooperative Multistate Power Production Pollution Study - Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions (MAP3S-RAINE), involving both field and modeling studies related to power-plant produced atmospheric pollutants on a regional scale, the study of the meteorology of the coastal land-sea interface, including both field and analytical activities, and field and modeling studies of the exchange of momentum, heat, and water vapor between the atmosphere and the ocean. The Environmental Chemistry Division is engaged in a wide range of programs including the development of methodologies and practical instrumentation for the detection and measurement of a variety of atmospheric constituents at ambient levels in real time in the field and in the laboratory, development and measurement of atmospheric tracers at extremely low levels, theoretical, laboratory, and field studies of the formation and behavior of aerosol particulates, and studies of gaseous and particulate emissions at power plants and in stack plumes in the atmosphere. The programs in Oceanographic Sciences include studies on coastal transport and diffusion, primary production and utilization, food chain dynamics, and ecosystems analysis. Emphasis in the Land and Freshwater Environmental Sciences Group has been on the effects of acid rain caused by energy-related pollutants on field crops, microbiota, and forest and freshwater ecosystems. Studies of the effects of acidification on the biota and biological processes of freshwater lakes are reported. Areas in the eastern United States sensitive to acidification were evaluated and mapped in a field and library study. (JGB)

  20. Identity crisis in "The Rain Child"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亭亭

    2008-01-01

    In the short story "The Rain Child" , Canadian Margaret Laurence gives a clear outline of encounters between the European culture and the African culture. This thesis analyzes the meaning of culture and cultural identity. It focuses on the different psychological states of Ruth, the heroine, under different social circumstances. It explains how her cultural identity crisis is generated. As the final analysis, fierce cultural conflicts and contradictions are caused by the misunderstanding of different cultural groups.

  1. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  2. 镧对西葫芦幼苗模拟酸雨胁迫的缓解效应%Alleviative effects of LaCl_3 on simulated acid rain stresses for Cucurbita pepo seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边才苗; 王锦文

    2011-01-01

    Using Cucurbita pepo as the experimental material,the alleviative effects of foliar surface spraying for LaCl3(12 mg/L) on seedling growth and three physiological indexes of C.pepo were investigated under some simulated acid rain(SAR) stresses.Results show that the damage effects of SAR on C.pepo seedlings are alleviated by the LaCl3 treatment.The fresh weights of the seedlings treated with LaCl3 solutions of pH 3.5 and pH 3.0 are significantly higher than those of the treatments only with SAR,and are equivalent to 94.7% and 78.6% of the control level(pH 6.5).However,no significant differences are observed between the treatment with other SAR+LaCl3 solution and the treatment only with SAR.The chlorophyll and dissolved protein contents follow the trend of the seedling fresh weight,and the indexes treated with pH 3.0 and pH 3.5 SAR+LaCl3 solutions are higher significantly than that treated only with SAR,but the differences of pH 3.0 are slightly greater than those of pH 3.5.Compared with the control,the dissolved protein content treated with pH 3.5+LaCl3 solution is the highest.The proline content increase consistently with the pH value,and improved by the LaCl3 treatment.The proline contents treated with pH 3.5 and pH 3.0 SAR+LaCl3 solution are higher significantly than that treated only with SAR.Therefore,the alleviative effects of LaCl3 on middle SAR stresses for C.pepo seedling are significant.%以西葫芦为材料,研究模拟酸雨胁迫下适量镧(La)对幼苗生长及叶绿素、可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸含量的影响。结果显示,镧处理对酸雨胁迫有一定的缓解作用。在pH 3.5和3.0时,幼苗鲜重均显著高于模拟酸雨组,并恢复到对照的94.7%和78.6%;但在其他胁迫强度下,镧处理的缓解效应不显著。叶绿素和可溶性蛋白的含量变化与幼苗鲜重类似,在pH 3.0时镧处理的缓解效应最显著;pH 3.5时镧处理的可溶性蛋白含量超过对照。脯氨酸含量呈现持

  3. Rain-Flow and Reverse Rain-Flow Counting Method for the Compilation of Fatigue Load Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉普; 李朝阳; 王立成

    2001-01-01

    The rain-flow counting method is widely used to compile the fatigue load spectrum. The second stage counting of the rain-flow method is a troublesome process. In order to overcome this drawback, the rain-flow and reverse rain-flow counting method is proposed in this paper. In this counting method, the rule for counting of the rain-flow method is modified, so that the sequence of load-time need not be adjusted. This is a valid and useful method to count cycles and compile the load spectrum and it can be widely used in ocean engineering.

  4. Temperature-programmed Deoxygenation of Acetic Acid on Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Connor P.; Farberow, Carrie A.; Hensley, Jesse E.

    2017-02-07

    Temperature programmed reaction (TPRxn) is a simple yet powerful tool for screening solid catalyst performance at a variety of conditions. A TPRxn system includes a reactor, furnace, gas and vapor sources, flow control, instrumentation to quantify reaction products (e.g., gas chromatograph), and instrumentation to monitor the reaction in real time (e.g., mass spectrometer). Here, we apply the TPRxn methodology to study molybdenum carbide catalysts for the deoxygenation of acetic acid, an important reaction among many in the upgrading/stabilization of biomass pyrolysis vapors. TPRxn is used to evaluate catalyst activity and selectivity and to test hypothetical reaction pathways (e.g., decarbonylation, ketonization, and hydrogenation). The results of the TPRxn study of acetic acid deoxygenation show that molybdenum carbide is an active catalyst for this reaction at temperatures above ca. 300 degree C and that the reaction favors deoxygenation (i.e., C-O bond-breaking) products at temperatures below ca. 400 degrees C and decarbonylation (i.e., C-C bond-breaking) products at temperatures above ca. 400 degrees C.

  5. 产毒与不产毒铜绿微囊藻对模拟酸雨及紫外辐射的生理响应%Physiological responses of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of Microcystis aeruginosa to simulated acid rain and UV radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 杨雨玲; 黄松; 董丽丽; 潘健; 李亚鹤; 周月; 高坤山

    2015-01-01

    Acid precipitation from natural and human activities can lead to different extents of acidification in different freshwater ecosystems, with noticeable changes in the carbonate system and aquatic chemistry. For example, acidification is known to decrease the ionic concentrations of magnesium and calcium, but enhance aluminum concentrations. The changes to chemicals associated with freshwater acidification could induce physiological disturbance to most aquatic organisms, which would then need to spend additional energy to cope with acidic stress. Phytoplankton species with different sensitivities to acid stress may have differential physiological responses; thus, acid stress may lead to altered community structure and species richness. Alternatively, UV-B ( 280—320 nm) irradiance has been increasing due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which would also impact freshwater phytoplankton. Meanwhile, significantly decreased dissolved organic matter as a result of acid rain may further enhance the penetration of solar UV radiation ( UVR, 280—400 nm) in the water column due to decreased light attenuation. Therefore, freshwater acidification and solar UVR may interact to influence phytoplankton physiology. This study examined the physiological responses of a freshwater bloom forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to acidification and UVR. Two strains were used for the experiments; a toxigenic strain ( FACHB-905) and a non-toxigenic strain ( FACHB-469) . Microcystis aeruginosa cells were grown under simulated acid rain ( with a mole ratio of H2 SO4∶HNO3= 8∶1 ) under a solar simulator with and without UVR, to observe whether photosynthetic performance and sensitivity to UV irradiance differed between the two strains. Three pH levels were used, pH 7.10 ( regular BG11+N medium), 5.65, and 4.50, with the latter two pH levels reflecting acidification conditions. Two solar radiation treatments were carried out, including:photosynthetically active radiation alone

  6. Science and Policy Interactions: A Case Study with Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of air pollution has a long history in the United States. A succession of laws, with the first Federal law, passed in 1955, has lead to substantial reductions in emissions and improvements in air quality. These laws were simulated originally by acute local effects on ...

  7. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  8. Understanding Acid-Base Concepts: Evaluating the Efficacy of a Senior High School Student-Centred Instructional Program in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Kita, Masakazu; Ibnu, Suhadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was a mixed quantitative-qualitative research to evaluate the efficacy of a designed student-centred instructional (DSCI) program for teaching about acids and bases. The teaching innovation was designed based on constructivist, hands-on inquiry and context-based approaches and implemented in seven 45-min lessons with a class of 36 grade…

  9. EFFECTS OF RAIN ATTENUATION ON SATELLITE COMMUNICATION LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Ezeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major challenge to microwave satellite communication especially at frequencies above 10 GHz, causing unavailability of signals most of the time. Rain attenuation predictions have become one of the vital considerations while setting up a satellite communication link. In this study, rain attenuation models, cumulative distribution curves and other analytical tools for successful prediction of rain attenuation are presented. A three year Rain rate data was obtained from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET database in addition to experimental data. Of the three prediction models used in the study, Ajayi model gave the range of values closest to the experimental data. A correctional factor was determined as 1.0988 and used to modify the Ajayi model. This modification to Ajayi’s model enabled its rain attenuation values conform more closely to the experimental result.

  10. Acidic environment activates inflammatory programs in fibroblasts via a cAMP-MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, A; Ihling, A; Thomas, J; Schneider, B; Thews, O; Gekle, M

    2015-02-01

    The tissue micromilieu in disorders (inflammation, ischemia, tumor) often shows pronounced metabolic acidosis that may alter signaling and transcriptional activity in resident cells which can be of special importance for omnipresent fibroblasts. In the present study we investigated the impact of metabolic acidosis on rat fibroblasts with special emphasis on their role in inflammation by regulation of TNF-α, MCP-1, COX-2 and iNOS expression and the signaling pathways involved. Extracellular acidosis led to an enhanced expression of TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS in parallel to an activation of p38 and ERK1/2 kinases that was not observed by sole intracellular acidosis. Accordingly, the protein amounts of TNF-α and COX-2 as well as the production of nitrate and nitrite were elevated. Acidosis-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS depended on p38 kinase, but not on ERK1/2. In contrast acidosis-induced TNF-α expression was independent of both kinases. Although GPR4, GPR68 and GPR132 are expressed in fibroblasts, the involvement of these potential candidate pH sensors could be ruled out since no acidosis-induced elevation in intracellular cAMP or free calcium content was observed. Furthermore our data show that MAPK activation by an acidic micromilieu depends on Ser/Thr phosphatase activity, but not on the production of reactive oxygen species and is sensitive to cAMP antagonism by Rp-cAMPS. In conclusion, our results show that an acidic microenvironment induces a differential transcriptional program of pathological relevant genes in fibroblasts via the cAMP-phosphatase-MAPK pathway and thereby generates a parainflammatory situation that can result in tissue remodeling.

  11. Spatial and temporal characteristics of rain intensity in the peninsular Malaysia using TRMM rain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikoden, Hamza; Samah, A. A.; Babu, C. A.

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe present study is focused on the intensity distribution of rainfall in different classes and their contribution to the total seasonal rainfall. In addition, we studied the spatial and diurnal variation of the rainfall in the study areas. For the present study, we retrieved data from TRMM (Tropical Rain Measuring Mission) rain rate available in every 3 h temporal and 25 km spatial resolutions. Moreover, station rainfall data is used to validate the TRMM rain rate and found significant correlation between them (linear correlation coefficients are 0.96, 0.85, 0.75 and 0.63 for the stations Kota Bharu, Senai, Cameron highlands and KLIA, respectively). We selected four areas in the Peninsular Malaysia and they are south coastal, east coastal, west coastal and highland regions. Diurnal variation of frequency of rain occurrence is different for different locations. We noticed bimodal variation in the coastal areas in most of the seasons and unimodal variation in the highland/inland area. During the southwest monsoon period in the west coastal stations, there is no distinct diurnal variation. The distribution of different intensity classes during different seasons are explained in detail in the results.

  12. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Behling

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa. The calculated average influx of pollen rain from the native Atlantic rain forest was 12465 pollen grains per cm² and year. The influx from the ± 50 years old and from the 7 years old secondary forest was relatively low (4112 and 3667 grains per cm² and year, respectively compared to the undisturbed rain forest. The occurrence of pollen grains of herbs and fern spores were significantly higher in the secondary forests than in the undisturbed rain forest.Estudou-se a relação entre a Floresta Tropical Atlântica sul brasileira e a chuva polínica atual através de coletores de pólen. O estudo foi realizado em uma parcela de um hectare de floresta não perturbada localizada na Reserva Volta Velha (26º 04' S, 48º 38' W, 9 m s.n.m. e duas outras parcelas de floresta secundária (± 50 e 7 anos de idade. Cerca de 248 espécies arbóreas, arbustivas e herbáceas (excluindo epifitas, englobadas em 50 familias estavam representadas por 126 diferentes tipos de pólen e esporos (incluindo taxa não locais. Na área não perturbada, a média do fluxo de entrada da chuva polínica foi de 12465 grãos de pólen por cm²/ano. Nas áreas de ± 50 anos e 7 anos correspondentes a estádios florestais secundários o fluxo de entrada foi relativamente baixo (4112 e 3667 grãos por cm²/ano, respectivamente comparativamente à área não perturbada. A ocorrência de grãos de pólen de herbáceas e esporos de pteridófitas foi significativamente maior nas áreas secundárias do que na área não perturbada.

  13. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway to prevent programmed hypertension in maternal fructose-fed male adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Four groups of male offspring were studied: control, HF, HF+AUDA and HF+15dPGJ2. In HF+AUDA group, mother rats received AUDA 25 mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the HF+15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension is associated with increased renal protein level of SEH and oxidative stress, which early AUDA therapy prevents. Comparison of AUDA and 15dPGJ2 treatments demonstrated that AUDA was more effective in preventing HF-induced programmed hypertension. AUDA therapy increases angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein levels and PGE2 levels in adult offspring kidney exposed to maternal HF. 15dPGJ2 therapy increases plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and decreases L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway, especially inhibition of SEH, on renal programming may aid in developing reprogramming strategy to prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to antenatal HF intake.

  14. RAIN INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE SPLASH REGION OF ATOMIZED FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Hong-dong; LIU Shi-he; LUO Qiu-shi; HUANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    Atomized flow is an unnatural two-phase flow produced while water discharges in water release structures. This flow might threaten the normal operation of hydraulic and hydroelectric installations owing to the unnatural and high-density rain as well as the unnatural and dirty mist. The splash region, the region with the highest rain intensity, hence should receive much attention during the design and operation of the hydraulic and hydroelectric installations. In this paper rain intensity distribution in the splash region of the atomized flow is investigated experimentally, and the method of random simulation is used to predict the rain intensity distribution in the splash region.

  15. Review and Discussion on the Plum Rain Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to review the research progresses and the research achievements of plum rain in China.[Method] By using the precipitation,the sunshine data in the related observatories during 1961-2009 and the daily height field data of NCEP/DOE2 in 1996,which were provided by the National Meteorological Information Center,the prior researches about the plum rain in China were reviewed from the division of plum rain,the range of plum rain area and the space distribution.[Result] The formulati...

  16. Rain Rate-Radar Reflectivity Relationship for Drop Size Distribution and Rain Attenuation Calculation of Ku Band Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhani.Immadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increased demand for long distance Tele communication day by day, satellite communication system was developed. Satellite communications utilize L, C, Ku and Ka bands of frequency to fulfil all the requirements. Utilization of higher frequencies causes severe attenuation due to rain. Rain attenuation is noticeable for frequencies above 10ghz. Amount of attenuation depends on whether the operating wave length is comparable with rain drop diameter or not. In this paper the main focus is on drop size distribution using empirical methods, especially Marshall and Palmer distributions. Empirical methods deal with power law relation between the rain rate(mm/h and radar reflectivity(dBz. Finally it is discussed about the rain rate variation, radar reflectivity, drop size distribution, that is made for two rain events at K L University, Vijayawada on 4th September 2013 and on 18 th August 2013.

  17. Rain attenuation statistics over millimeter wave bands in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sujan; Choi, Dong-You

    2017-01-01

    Rain induced degradations are significant for terrestrial microwave links operating at frequencies higher than 10 GHz. Paper presents analyses done on rain attenuation and rainfall data for three years between 2013 till 2015, in 3.2 km experimental link of 38 GHz and 0.1 km link at 75 GHz. The less link distance is maintained for 75 GHz operating frequency in order to have better recording of propagation effect as such attenuation induced by rain. OTT Parsivel is used for collection of rain rate database which show rain rate of about 50 mm/h and attenuation values of 20.89 and 28.55 dB are obtained at 0.01% of the time for vertical polarization under 38 and 75 GHz respectively. Prediction models, namely, ITU-R P. 530-16, Da Silva Mello, Moupfouma, Abdulrahman, Lin and differential equation approach are analyzed. This studies help to identify most suitable rain attenuation model for higher microwave bands. While applying ITU-R P. 530-16, the relative error margin of about 3%, 38% and 42% along with 80, 70, 61% were obtained in 0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001% of the time for vertical polarization under 38 and 75 GHz respectively. Interestingly, ITU-R P. 530-16 shows relatively closer estimation to measured rain attenuation at 75 GHz with relatively less error probabilities and additionally, Abdulrahman and ITU-R P. 530-16 results in better estimation to the measured rain attenuation at 38 GHz link. The performance of prominent rain attenuation models are judged with different error matrices as recommended by ITU-R P. 311-15. Furthermore, the efficacy of frequency scaling technique of rain attenuation between links distribution are also discussed. This study shall be useful for making good considerations in rain attenuation predictions for terrestrial link operating at higher frequencies.

  18. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  19. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  20. Stellar mixing length theory with entropy rain

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Stellar mixing length theory is modified to include the effects of a nongradient term that originates from the motion of convective elements with entropy perturbations of either sign. It is argued that such a term, first studied by Deardorff in the meteorological context, represents the effects of thin intense downdrafts caused by the rapid cooling in the granulation layer at the top of the convection zone. They transport heat nonlocally, as originally anticipated by Spruit in the 1990s, who describes the convection in the strongly stratified simulations of Stein & Nordlund as entropy rain. Although our model has ill-determined free parameters, it demonstrates that solutions can be found that look similar to the original ones, except that the deeper layers are now Schwarzschild stable, so no giant cells are produced and the typical convective scale is that of granules even at larger depth. Consequences for modeling solar differential, the global dynamo, and sunspots are briefly discussed.

  1. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  2. A technique for collecting botanical specimens in rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyland, B.P.M.

    1972-01-01

    I. Introduction — The need for a simple method of collecting botanical material from rain-forest trees became evident during the construction of a field key to the rain-forest trees of North Queensland. Many collecting techniques have been developed, e.g. throwing sticks and stones, severing branche

  3. Mechanics of interrill erosion with wind-driven rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vector physics of wind-driven rain (WDR) differs from that of wind-free rain, and the interrill soil detachment equations in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model were not originally developed to deal with this phenomenon. This article provides an evaluation of the performance of the...

  4. A Rain Garden for Our School: Becoming Environmental Stewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a rain garden project at Hampton Elementary School in Bay City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to slow and filter silt-laden runoff (from parking lots, sidewalks, and playground) on its path to Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. In addition, doing so, the rain gardens would demonstrate to the township, city,…

  5. Sources of sulphur in rain collected below a wheat canopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybould, C.C.; Unsworth, M.H.; Gregory, P.J.

    1977-05-12

    The quantity of sulfur in rain collected below a maturing wheat canopy was measured. The measurement and calculations show that leaching of plant sulfur by rain was the main source of additional sulfur in throughfall and that most sulfur dry-deposited on leaf surfaces remained fixed there.

  6. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... hail ingestion. (a) All engines. (1) The ingestion of large hailstones (0.8 to 0.9 specific gravity) at... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  7. Relativistically speaking: Let's walk or run through the rain?

    CERN Document Server

    Assis, Armando V D B

    2010-01-01

    We analyse under a simple approach the problem one must decide the best strategy to minimize the contact with rain when moving between two points through the rain. The available strategies: walk (low speed boost $<<$ $c$) or run (relativistic speed boost $\\approx$ $c$).

  8. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Tropical Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sensing, mapping and monitoring the rain forest in forested regions of the world, particularly the tropics, has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years as deforestation and forest degradation account for up to 30% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and are now included in climate change negotiations. Approach: We reviewed the potential for air and spaceborne hyperspectral sensing to identify and map individual tree species measure carbon stocks, specifically Aboveground Biomass (AGB and provide an overview of a range of approaches that have been developed and used to map tropical rain forest across a diverse set of conditions and geographic areas. We provided a summary of air and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing measurements relevant to mapping the tropical forest and assess the relative merits and limitations of each. We then provided an overview of modern techniques of mapping the tropical forest based on species discrimination, leaf chlorophyll content, estimating aboveground forest productivity and monitoring forest health. Results: The challenges in hyperspectral Imaging of tropical forests is thrown out to researchers in such field as to come with the latest techniques of image processing and improved mapping resolution leading towards higher precision mapping accuracy. Some research results from an airborne hyperspectral imaging over Bukit Nanas forest reserve was shared implicating high potential of such very high resolution imaging techniques for tropical mixed dipterocarp forest inventory and mapping for species discrimination, aboveground forest productivity, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon mapping. Conclusion/Recommendations: We concluded that while spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing has often been discounted as inadequate for the task, attempts to map with airborne sensors are still insufficient in tropical developing countries like Malaysia. However, we demonstrated this with a case

  9. Salicylic acid induced cysteine protease activity during programmed cell death in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2016-06-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) during biotic stress is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). The aim of this work was to reveal the role of proteolysis and cysteine proteases in the execution of PCD in response of SA. Tomato plants were treated with sublethal (0.1 mM) and lethal (1 mM) SA concentrations through the root system. Treatment with 1 mM SA increased the electrolyte leakage and proteolytic activity and reduced the total protein content of roots after 6 h, while the proteolytic activity did not change in the leaves and in plants exposed to 0.1 mM SA. The expression of the papain-type cysteine protease SlCYP1, the vacuolar processing enzyme SlVPE1 and the tomato metacaspase SlMCA1 was induced within the first three hours in the leaves and after 0.5 h in the roots in the presence of 1 mM SA but the transcript levels did not increase significantly at sublethal SA. The Bax inhibitor-1 (SlBI-1), an antiapoptotic gene was over-expressed in the roots after SA treatments and it proved to be transient in the presence of sublethal SA. Protease inhibitors, SlPI2 and SlLTC were upregulated in the roots by sublethal SA but their expression remained low at 1 mM SA concentration. It is concluded that in contrast to leaves the SA-induced PCD is associated with increased proteolytic activity in the root tissues resulting from a fast up-regulation of specific cysteine proteases and down-regulation of protease inhibitors.

  10. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, F E; Burbridge, R; Killeen, T J

    2000-12-22

    Amazonian rain forest-savanna boundaries are highly sensitive to climatic change and may also play an important role in rain forest speciation. However, their dynamics over millennial time scales are poorly understood. Here, we present late Quaternary pollen records from the southern margin of Amazonia, which show that the humid evergreen rain forests of eastern Bolivia have been expanding southward over the past 3000 years and that their present-day limit represents the southernmost extent of Amazonian rain forest over at least the past 50,000 years. This rain forest expansion is attributed to increased seasonal latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which can in turn be explained by Milankovitch astronomic forcing.

  11. Rain and deicing experiments in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasso, G.

    1983-01-01

    Comments on films of tests simulating rain and ice conditions in a wind tunnel are presented, with the aim of studying efficient methods of overcoming the adverse effects of rain and ice on aircraft. In the experiments, lifesize models and models of the Mirave 4 aircraft were used. The equipment used to simulate rain and ice is described. Different configurations of landing and takeoff under conditions of moderate or heavy rain at variable angles of incidence and of skipping and at velocities varying from 30 to 130 m/sec are reproduced in the wind tunnel. The risks of erosion of supersonic aircraft by the rain during the loitering and approach phases are discussed.

  12. Monitoring Global Precipitation through UCI CHRS's RainMapper App on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P.; Huynh, P.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Water and Development Information for Arid Lands-a Global Network (G-WADI) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks—Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) GeoServer has been developed through a collaboration between the Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and the UNESCO's International Hydrological Program (IHP). G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer provides near real-time high resolution (0.04o, approx 4km) global (60oN - 60oS) satellite precipitation estimated by the PERSIANN-CCS algorithm developed by the scientists at CHRS. The G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer utilizes the open-source MapServer software from the University of Minnesota to provide a user-friendly web-based mapping and visualization of satellite precipitation data. Recent efforts have been made by the scientists at CHRS to provide free on-the-go access to the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data through an application named RainMapper for mobile devices. RainMapper provides visualization of global satellite precipitation of the most recent 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72-hour periods overlaid with various basemaps. RainMapper uses the Google maps application programing interface (API) and embedded global positioning system (GPS) access to better monitor the global precipitation data on mobile devices. Functionalities include using geographical searching with voice recognition technologies make it easy for the user to explore near real-time precipitation in a certain location. RainMapper also allows for conveniently sharing the precipitation information and visualizations with the public through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. RainMapper is available for iOS and Android devices and can be downloaded (free) from the App Store and Google Play. The usefulness of RainMapper was demonstrated through an application in tracking the evolution of the recent Rammasun Typhoon over the

  13. Frequent Rain Observation From Geostationary Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, B.; Gomas Science Team

    The target 3-h observing cycle of GPM will meet requirements from Global NWP and, to a large extent, Regional NWP; and be supportive of VIS/IR-derived rain estimates from geostationary satellites for the purpose of Nowcasting. MW rain observation from geostationary orbit at, say, 15 min intervals, would fully meet Regional NWP requirements and have greatest impact on Nowcasting: but this implies either unprac- tically large antennas or unacceptably coarse resolution. Concepts to overcome this problem have been developed in the US within the study called GEM (Geostationary Microwave Observatory), and now there is in Europe a proposal for a demonstration satellite submitted to ESA as GOMAS (Geostationary Observatory for Microwave Atmospheric Sounding). To overcome the problem of resolution, use of Sub-mm fre- quencies is envisaged: e.g., at 425 GHz, a 10-km resolution at nadir would require a 3-m antenna. The observing principle is based on the use of absorption bands of oxygen (54, 118 and 425 GHz) and of water vapour (183 and 380 GHz). Narrow- bandwidths channels are implemented (for a total of about 40 in the five bands) so as to observe the full profile of temperature and water vapour. Profiles from different bands are differently affected by liquid and ice water of different drop size, and fi- nally by precipitation. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature/humidity profiles, cloud liquid/ice water (total-columns and gross profile) and precipitation rate is in principle possible, and partially demonstrated by several airborne MW/Sub-mm instruments. To transfer this demonstrations in the geostationary orbit, the problem of radiometric sensitivity (additional to that one of the antenna size) has to be solved. With current technology, it is feasible to get sufficient accuracy if scan is limited to about 1/12 of the Earth disk, which is sufficient to abundantly cover Europe, the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic. The imaged area can be moved everywhere within the disk

  14. Alleviative Effect and Its Evaluation of LaCl3 Treatment on Acid Rain Stresses for Capsicum Seed Germination%LaCl3对辣椒种子酸雨胁迫的缓解效应及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边才苗; 王锦文

    2011-01-01

    Alleviative effects of LaCl3 on acid rain (AR) stresses for capsicum seed were analyzed using two evaluation systems. The results showed that the damage of AR (pH 3.5, 3.0 and 2.0) were alleviatedby treating the seeds with LaCl3 solution ( 10 mg·L-1 ).The alleviative effects were 14.48%, 19.24%,15.14% and 13.48% as a relative rate of vigor index. However, the vigor index in seeds treated with LaCl3 and AR (pH 3.5 and 3.0 ) was significantly higher than with only AR as its increment. Meanwhile, the destructions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) reduced notably, and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced at pH ≤ 2.5; whereas these indexes did not change obviously at pH ≥ 3.0. This indicated that LaCl3 probably alleviated AR damage by improving the seed resistance at pH ≤2.5 and the seed tolerance at pH ≥3.0. The growth index was an indirect indicator of the resistance, so should not be used as main evaluation system. The activate oxygen metabolic indices had their threshold values, but should be evaluated based on possibility which the index felt within its threshold value range. This method just gave an approximate threshold values, but could show inner causes for improving growth of crop species.%采用两种评价系统分析了镧对酸雨胁迫下辣椒种子萌发的影响.结果表明,经10 mg·L-1的LaCl3浸种,可显著缓解酸雨(pH 3.5,3.0,2.5和2.0)对辣椒种子的伤害,以活力指数的增幅为标准,缓解能力依次为14.48%,19.24%,15.14%和13.48%;以指标值的增量为标准,只有pH 3.5和3.0时显著提高.同时,镧处理可提高酸雨胁迫下超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化酶的活性,减少丙二醛的积累,在pH≤2.5时,与酸雨处理差异显著,而pH≥3.0时没有明显变化,说明镧处理分别提高种子的抗性和耐受性.基于生长指标是间接的抗逆性指标,不宜作为评价的主体.活性氧代谢指标都有一个阈值,可依据

  15. Generation and transcriptional programming of intestinal dendritic cells: essential role of retinoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, R.; Bscheider, M; Lahl, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    programs, and suppressing proinflammatory nuclear factor-κB-dependent gene expression. Thus, RA is required for transcriptional programming and maturation of intestinal cDC, and with GM-CSF and Flt3L provides a minimal environment for in vitro generation of intestinal cDC1- and cDC2-like cDC from...

  16. Quality control of rain data used for urban runoff systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H. K.; Rosenørn, S.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    for collection and quality control of rain data from a network of tipping bucket rain gauges in Denmark carried out by the Danish Meteorological Institute. During rain, the RIMCO gauge counts the number of tips teach of 0.2 mm of precipitation) every minute, The quality control of the rain data includes...... an automatic and a manual bit marking, where the automatic control basically is pointing out minutes with extreme intensities. In the manual control, the maximum intensities as well as the daily totals of precipitation are inspected, using weather charts, intensity plots and precipitation sums of nearby...... Hellmann gauges. Shortcomings and improvements of the quality control are discussed. Although, it is possible to improve the efficiency of the quality control, long term corrections will always be necessary. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Memoirs of a Survivor: Masuji Ibuse's Black Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Messent

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the motif of survival in Masuji Ibuse's Hiroshima novel Black Rain (1969). It explores narrative technique, figurative language, voice and tone, and the gap between thought and feeling, to show how the novel achieves its artistic effects.

  18. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Rain Fall, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Rain Fall data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not been...

  19. Rain Lõhmus toob mängu kupeldaja / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Investeerimispanga Lõhmus, Haavel & Viisemann (LHV) nõukogu esimees on seotud teleäriga ja püüab käivitada uut telekanalit. Vt. samas: Rain Lõhmus vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad LHVga seotud skandaali mõju panga tegevusele ja käimasolevatele äriasjadele. Lisa: Rain Lõhmus. Vt. samas: Mida Lõhmus teleärist teab?

  20. Rain waves-wind waves interaction application to scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharif, C.; Giovanangeli, J. P.; Bliven, L.

    1989-01-01

    Modulation of a rain wave pattern by longer waves has been studied. An analytical model taking into account capillarity effects and obliquity of short waves has been developed. Modulation rates in wave number and amplitude have been computed. Experiments were carried out in a wave tank. First results agree with theoretical models, but higher values of modulation rates are measured. These results could be taken into account for understanding the radar response from the sea surface during rain.

  1. Sampling errors in satellite estimates of tropical rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcconnell, Alan; North, Gerald R.

    1987-01-01

    The GATE rainfall data set is used in a statistical study to estimate the sampling errors that might be expected for the type of snapshot sampling that a low earth-orbiting satellite makes. For averages over the entire 400-km square and for the duration of several weeks, strong evidence is found that sampling errors less than 10 percent can be expected in contributions from each of four rain rate categories which individually account for about one quarter of the total rain.

  2. The Extension of the RAINS Model to Greenhouse Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.; AMANN, M; Berglund, C; J. Cofala; Hoeglund-Isaksson, L.; Heyes, C.; MECHLER R.; Tohka, A.; W. Schoepp; Winiwarter, W.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, offering a cost-effective potential for simultaneous improvements for both traditional air pollution problems as well as climate change. A methodology has been developed to extend the RAINS integrated assessment model to explore synergies and trade-offs between the control of greenhouse gases and air pollution. With this extension, the RAINS model allows now the assessment of emission control costs for the six gr...

  3. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallard Simonette R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. Methods A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Results Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d. If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37% of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d. Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed

  4. Responses of Growth and Physiological Features,Photosynthetic Function in Overexpression and Inhibition of Expression of Transgenic Tobacco Plants with 2-Cys Prx to the Simulated Acid Rain%过表达和抑制表达2-Cys Prx 基因烟草的生长、生理特性和叶片光合功能对模拟酸雨的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代欣; 张秀丽; 胡举伟; 孙广玉

    2016-01-01

    The overexpression and inhibition of expression of transgenic tobacco plant with 2-Cys Prx (Longjiang 91 1 ),non transgenic tobacco were chosen to investigate the effects of simulated acid rain on their growth,physiological features and photosynthesis.The results showed that simulated acid rain at pH 4.0 had no sig-nificant effects on the plant height,leaf area and specific leaf weight,but at pH 2.5,the plant height of overexpres-sion and inhibition of expression of transgenic tobacco plant with 2-Cys Prx reduced significantly,With the pH value of the simulated acid rain decreased,chlorophyll content,nitrate reductase activity,soluble protein content,superox-ide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activity,net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),transpira-tion rate(Tr),the actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(ΦPSⅡ ),photochemical quenching coefficient(qP),po-tential photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv /Fo)and cell membrane stability index decreased,the non-photochemi-cal quenching(qN)and hydrogen peroxide content increased,but at the same pH value,these above-mentioned in-dexes of overexpression of transgenic tobacco plant with 2-Cys Prx were better than inhibition of expression of trans-genic tobacco plant with 2-Cys Prx and non transgenic tobacco plant.The results suggest that enhanced expression of 2-Cys Prx in tobacco plant can promote the capability of tobacco against acid rain,the capability of utilizing nitrate nitro-gen,and remove of excess H2 O2 while APX activity decreases,and enhance the photosynthetic capability of tobacco.%为揭示2-Cys Peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prx)基因在烟草龙江911抗逆中的功能,以过表达2-Cys Prx 基因烟草、抑制表达2-Cys Prx 基因烟草和非转基因烟草幼苗为试材,研究了不同 pH 值的模拟酸雨对其生长指标、叶片生理生化特性和叶片光合生理的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,pH 值4.0的模拟酸雨对3种基因型烟草的株高、叶面

  5. Multifractal analysis of African monsoon rain fields, taking into account the zero rain-rate problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, S.; de Montera, L.; Barthès, L.; Mallet, C.

    2010-07-01

    SummaryNonlinear rain dynamics, due to strong coupling with turbulence, can be described by stochastic scale invariant (such as multifractal) models. In this study, attention is focused on the three-parameter fractionally integrated flux (FIF), based on the universal multifractal (UM) model developed by Schertzer and Lovejoy (1987). Multifractal analysis techniques were applied to experimental radar data measured during the African monsoon multidisciplinary analysis (AMMA) campaign, during the summer of 2006. The non-conservation parameter H, which has often been estimated at 0, was found to be more likely close to 0.4, meaning that rain is not a conserved cascade. Moreover, it is shown that the presence of numerous zero values in the data has an influence, which has until now been underestimated, but should in fact be accounted for. UM parameters are therefore estimated from the full dataset, and then only from maps in which almost all pixels have a non-zero value. Significant differences were found, attributed to on-off intermittency, and their role was checked by means of simulations. Finally, these results are compared with those previously based on time series, and collected by a co-localized disdrometer. The sets of parameters obtained in the spatial and time domains are found to be quite close to each other, contrary to most results published in the literature. This generally reported incoherency is believed to result mainly from the influence of on-off intermittency, whose effects are stronger for time series than for selected radar maps.

  6. Rain, Rain, Go Away, Come Again Another Day. Weather Preferences of Summer Tourists in Mountain Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Steiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate are important factors for travel decision-making and overall tourist satisfaction. As central motivators for destination choice, they directly and indirectly influence demand patterns and can be a resource and limitation for tourism at the same time. In this paper, results of an in-situ survey of mountain summer tourists (n = 733 in the Alps in Southern Germany are presented. Respondents rated ‘rain’ as the most important aspect of weather during their holiday. During a 7-day holiday, 2.1 days of continuous rain are accepted, and 3.1 days of days with thunderstorms. The ideal temperature range is between 21 and 25 °C, thus lying 4–7 degrees lower than for beach tourism. Temperatures below 15 °C and above 30 °C are perceived as unacceptable. Statistically significant differences were found for several tourist types: Older tourists are more sensitive to heat, tourists with sports activities are more tolerant to cool temperatures, first-time visitors are more sensitive to rain and families with children prefer higher temperatures. From the results, some implications for mountain destinations arise: mountain destinations could be promoted as a heat refuge, and attracting sports tourists might be a promising way to reduce weather sensitivity; however, some variety of well-promoted weather independent attractions seems to be mandatory.

  7. Suppression of warm rain by aerosols in rain-shadow areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konwar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft observations of clouds and aerosols were conducted during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX executed by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology over the Indian subcontinent during the period of May–September 2009. Existence of aerosol layer with large concentrations of cloud drop condensation nuclei extended up to heights of 4 to 5 km was observed over the rain shadow areas to the east of the Western Ghats over central India. The thick aerosol layers were observed to suppress the formation of warm rain in convective clouds up to heights of about 7 km, where mixed phase precipitation formed. This prevented clouds that did not exceed this height from precipitating significantly. This might invigorate the very deep clouds on expense of the smaller clouds. The aerosol radiative effects are suspected to decrease the surface heating and hence the available energy for propelling the convection. The net effect of the aerosols on the rainfall amounts is unknown due to the complexity of the effect, but it is suspected to be detrimental in an area where the rainfall is critical to the livelihood of the inhabitants. This requires continuation of this research.

  8. Improved Gradation for Rain Garden of Low Impact Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra; Chang, Fu-Ming

    2016-04-01

    With rapid urban and economic development, living standard improves in urban areas but urban ecological environments deteriorate rapidly. Urban waterlogging and flooding have become a serious problem for urban water security. As urbanization continues, sustainability is the key to balance between urban development and healthy environment. Rain garden is recommended to be one of the best ways to reduce urban pollutants. It not only diminishes runoff flooding but also purify water in the urban area. The studies on rain gardens are mainly about how to incorporate rain garden to purify water quality, but lack of researches on runoff control. This project focuses on rain garden under Low Impact Development using indoor laboratory to test and quantify the water holding capacities of two different Taiwan indigenous rain garden plants, Taiwan Cyclosorus and Sour Grass. The results show that the water holding capacity of Sour Grass (10%-37%) is better than that of Taiwan Cyclosorus (6.8%-17.3%). The results could be a helpful reference for Low Impact Development in urban flood prevention and urban planning. Keywords: Low Impact Development; rain garden; indoor laboratory experiments; water holding capacity; porosity

  9. Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN Sakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major shortcoming of microwave transmission. As a subtropical country, Bangladesh is one of the highest rainy areas of the world. Thus, designing a terrestrial microwave link is a serious challenge to the engineers. In this paper, the annual rain rate and monthly variation of rate are predicted for different percentage of time of the year from the measured rainfall data. Using ITU rain model for terrestrial microwave communication, the rain attenuation is predicted for five major cities of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna. It is found that rain attenuation is the most severe in Sylhet and least in Rajshahi. The attenuation is estimated for different frequency and polarization. A horizontally polarized signal encounters 15% more rain attenuation than that of vertically polarized signal. It is also found that attenuation in Rajshahi is about 20% lesser than that in Sylhet. Thus, the horizontally polarized transmission in Rajshahi experiences about 5% less attenuation than the vertically polarized transmission in Sylhet.

  10. On validation of the rain climatic zone designations for Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiyemi, O. O.; Ibiyemi, T. S.; Ojo, J. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, validation of rain climatic zone classifications for Nigeria is presented based on global radio-climatic models by the International Telecommunication Union-Radiocommunication (ITU-R) and Crane. Rain rate estimates deduced from several ground-based measurements and those earlier estimated from the precipitation index on the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM) were employed for the validation exercise. Although earlier classifications indicated that Nigeria falls into zones P, Q, N, and K for the ITU-R designations, and zones E and H for Crane's climatic zone designations, the results however confirmed that the rain climatic zones across Nigeria can only be classified into four, namely P, Q, M, and N for the ITU-R designations, while the designations by Crane exhibited only three zones, namely E, G, and H. The ITU-R classification was found to be more suitable for planning microwave and millimeter wave links across Nigeria. The research outcomes are vital in boosting the confidence level of system designers in using the ITU-R designations as presented in the map developed for the rain zone designations for estimating the attenuation induced by rain along satellite and terrestrial microwave links over Nigeria.

  11. Nutritional models of foetal programming and nutrigenomic and epigenomic dysregulations of fatty acid metabolism in the liver and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Elakoum, Rania; Ziegler, Olivier; Coelho, David; Feigerlova, Eva; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria

    2014-05-01

    Barker's concept of 'foetal programming' proposes that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predicts complex metabolic diseases through relationships that may be further modified by the postnatal environment. Dietary restriction and deficit in methyl donors, folate, vitamin B12, and choline are used as experimental conditions of foetal programming as they lead to IUGR and decreased birth weight. Overfeeding and deficit in methyl donors increase central fat mass and lead to a dramatic increase of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in offspring. Conversely, supplementing the mothers under protein restriction with folic acid reverses metabolic and epigenomic phenotypes of offspring. High-fat diet or methyl donor deficiency (MDD) during pregnancy and lactation produce liver steatosis and myocardium hypertrophy that result from increased import of FFA and impaired fatty acid β-oxidation, respectively. The underlying molecular mechanisms show dysregulations related with similar decreased expression and activity of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and hyperacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). High-fat diet and overfeeding impair AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of PGC-1α, while MDD decreases PGC-1α methylation through decreased expression of PRMT1 and cellular level of S-adenosyl methionine. The visceral manifestations of metabolic syndrome are under the influence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in overnourished animal models. These mechanisms should also deserve attention in the foetal programming effects of MDD since vitamin B12 influences ER stress through impaired SIRT1 deacetylation of HSF1. Taken together, similarities and synergies of high-fat diet and MDD suggest, therefore, considering their consecutive or contemporary influence in the mechanisms of complex metabolic diseases.

  12. Genetically programmed expression of proteins containing the unnatural amino acid phenylselenocysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangyun; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-09-07

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the unnatural amino acid phenylselenocysteine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, polynucleotides encoding the novel synthetase molecules, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid phenylselenocysteine and translation systems. The invention further provides methods for producing modified proteins (e.g., lipidated proteins) through targeted modification of the phenylselenocysteine residue in a protein.

  13. Ozone sensitivity in hybrid poplar correlates with insensitivity to both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J R; Creelman, R A; Eshita, S M; Seskar, M; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-06-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

  14. Computer programming for nucleic acid studies. II. Total chemical shifts calculation of all protons of double-stranded helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessner-Prettre, C; Ribas Prado, F; Pullman, B; Kan, L; Kast, J R; Ts'o, P O

    1981-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program called SHIFTS is described. Through SHIFTS, one can calculate the NMR chemical shifts of the proton resonances of single and double-stranded nucleic acids of known sequences and of predetermined conformations. The program can handle RNA and DNA for an arbitrary sequence of a set of 4 out of the 6 base types A,U,G,C,I and T. Data files for the geometrical parameters are available for A-, A'-, B-, D- and S-conformations. The positions of all the atoms are calculated using a modified version of the SEQ program [1]. Then, based on this defined geometry three chemical shift effects exerted by the atoms of the neighboring nucleotides on the protons of each monomeric unit are calculated separately: the ring current shielding effect: the local atomic magnetic susceptibility effect (including both diamagnetic and paramagnetic terms); and the polarization or electric field effect. Results of the program are compared with experimental results for a gamma (ApApGpCpUpU) 2 helical duplex and with calculated results on this same helix based on model building of A'-form and B-form and on graphical procedure for evaluating the ring current effects.

  15. An Experimental Evaluation of Programed Instruction as One of Two Review Techniques for Two-Year College Students Concerned with Solving Acid-Base Chemical Equilibrium Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Jared Bear

    The major purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a programed instructional unit for a first year college chemistry course. The topic of the unit was the categorization and solution of acid-base equilibria problems. The experimental programed instruction text was used by 41 students and the fifth edition of Schaum's Theory and Problems of…

  16. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant cost model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost analysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant includes two parts: a method for estimation of system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost estimation. A FORTRAN computer has been developed for this cost analysis.

  17. Maternal protein and folic acid intake during gestation does not program leptin transcription or serum concentration in rat progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa

    2012-04-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation influences the development of the fetus, thereby determining its phenotype, including nutrient metabolism, appetite, and feeding behavior. The control of appetite is a very complex process and can be modulated by orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators such as leptin, which is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin transcription and secretion are regulated by numerous factors, nutrition being one of them. The present study was designed to test whether maternal nutrition can permanently affect leptin gene transcription and leptin serum concentration in rat progeny. Moreover, we analyzed whether leptin expression and secretion in response to high-fat postweaning feeding depends on the maternal diet during gestation. Pregnant rats were fed either a normal protein, normal folic acid diet (the AIN-93 diet); a protein-restricted, normal folic acid diet; a protein-restricted, folic acid-supplemented diet; or a normal protein, folic acid-supplemented diet. After weaning, the progeny was fed either the AIN-93 diet or a high-fat diet. Neither maternal nutrition nor the postweaning diet significantly affected Lep transcription. High-fat feeding after weaning was associated with higher serum leptin concentration, but the reaction of an organism to the fat content of the diet was not determined by maternal nutrition during gestation. There was no correlation between Lep mRNA level and serum leptin concentration. Global DNA methylation in adipose tissue was about 30% higher in rats fed postnatally the high-fat diet (P folic acid content in the maternal diet had no significant programming effect on Lep transcription and serum leptin concentration in the rats.

  18. Scattering by Artificial Wind and Rain Roughened Water Surfaces at Oblique Incidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craeye, C.; Sobieski, P. W.; Bliven, L. F.

    1997-01-01

    Rain affects wind retrievals from scatterometric measurements of the sea surface. To depict the additional roughness caused by rain on a wind driven surface, we use a ring-wave spectral model. This enables us to analyse the rain effect on K(u) band scatterometric observations from two laboratory experiments. Calculations based on the small perturbation method provide good simulation of scattering measurements for the rain-only case, whereas for combined wind and rain cases, the boundary perturbation method is appropriate.

  19. Observation of fluorscent particles in rain water using Laser scanning microscope

    OpenAIRE

    古池, 聖生; 鈴木, 款

    1997-01-01

    Rain water contains various insoluble particles. Detection and observation of in-soluble organic particles in rain water with a fluorescence microscope has been studied. A laser scanning microscope was used for observation of fluorescent particles. Rain water was collected from July 1996 to December 1996 in Shizuoka, and 17 rain water samples were collected. Fluorescent particles in rain water were characterized as organic matter using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope. It was fo...

  20. Computer programming for nucleic acid studies. III. Calculated ultraviolet absorption spectra of protected oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, L; Kettell, R W; Miller, P S

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called UV. FOR was written in FORTRAN. This program primarily utilizes the digitized UV absorption spectra of 8 protected deoxyribonucleosides in 95% ethanol solution to compose the UV spectrum of a oligodeoxynucleotide of any sequence. Both calculated and observed UV spectra of 2 protected oligodeoxynucleotides are carefully compared. The results show that the calculated UV spectrum is virtually identical to the observed spectrum. Thus, the calculated spectra provide rapid confirmation of oligonucleotide compositions during the course of oligonucleotide synthesis by the phosphotriester method.

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  2. Acid precipitation--a new study from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.N.B.

    1981-07-16

    Public concern over acid rain has nowhere been more evident than in Norway, where in the mountainous regions of the south, an accelerating decline in fish stocks has led to the extinction of fish populations in an area over 13,000 km/sup 2/, with severe problems over another 20,000 km/sup 2/. This has stimulated the establishment of a major Norwegian interdisciplinary research program into the biological effects of acid precipitation, which has recently terminated after 8 years. The numerous reports published on the findings of the project have now been summarized in ''Acid precipitation - effects on forest and fish'', by Overrein, Seip, and Tollan. This summary report is briefly discussed and reviewed. (JMT)

  3. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  4. Physical and Chemical Components of Cuba’s Rain: Effects on Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Préndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the physical and chemical components of rain affecting air quality in Cuba. Samples were obtained from pollution monitoring stations throughout Cuba. Different chemical analyses including elements and ions were conducted. Meteorological data was also included for the analysis. Results show that the pH was slightly basic for most stations, except those of the eastern region which exhibit pH values below 5.6. The major anthropogenic sources of ions are the burning of fossil fuel by power plants, cement factories, and nickel-processing industries and the burning of biomass through poor agricultural practices. The western region exhibited increased concentrations of NO3- and SO42- during the dry season, most likely due to the long-range transport of pollutants from the northeastern United States as well as local pollutants. Marine aerosols clearly influence Cuba’s rain. Only a small fraction of the potentially acidic ions contributes to the free acidity of Cuba’s rainwater, mainly due to the neutralizing capacity of some ions such as Cl-, Na+, Ca+2, and NH4+. The implementation of abatement techniques for SO2 and NOX and some elements emissions from major stationary sources will be an effective measure to improve air quality in Cuba.

  5. Modeling and monitoring avalanches caused by rain-on-snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, S.; Marshall, H. P.; Trisca, G. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Nicholson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Direct-action avalanches occur during large storm cycles in mountainous regions, when stresses on the snowpack increase rapidly due to the load of new snow and outpace snow strengthening due to compaction. If temperatures rise above freezing during the storm and snowfall turns to rain, the near-surface snow undergoes rapid densification caused by the introduction of liquid water. This shock to the snowpack, if stability is near critical, can cause widespread immediate avalanching due to the large induced strain rates in the slab, followed by secondary delayed avalanches due to both the increased load as well as water percolation to the depth of a weak layer. We use the semi-empirical SNOow Slope Stability model (SNOSS) to estimate the evolution of stability prior to large avalanches during rain-on-snow events on Highway 21 north of Boise, Idaho. We have continuously monitored avalanche activity using arrays of infrasound sensors in the avalanche-prone section of HW21 near Stanley, in collaboration with the Idaho Transportation Department's avalanche forecasting program. The autonomous infrasound avalanche monitoring system provides accurate timing of avalanche events, in addition to capturing avalanche dynamics during some major releases adjacent to the array. Due to the remote location and low winter traffic volume, the highway is typically closed for multiple days during major avalanche cycles. Many major avalanches typically release naturally and reach the road, but due the complex terrain and poor visibility, manual observations are often not possible until several days later. Since most avalanche programs typically use explosives on a regular basis to control slope stability, the infrasound record of avalanche activity we have recorded on HW21 provides a unique opportunity to study large naturally triggered avalanches. We use a first-order physically based stability model to estimate the importance of precipitation phase, amount, and rate during major rain

  6. Role of mitochondria in programmed cell death mediated by arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiyong; Zhou, Yunhua; Zhu, Mingjiang; Hou, Sarina; Li, Zi; Zhong, Huiqin; Lu, Jianhong; Meng, Tao; Wang, Junhong; Xia, Lin; Xu, Yue; Wu, Yuncheng

    2013-05-01

    Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids from cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 are important lipid mediators involved in numerous homeostatic and pathophysiological processes. Most eicosanoids act primarily on their respective cell surface G-protein coupled receptors to elicit downstream signaling in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Emerging evidence indicates that these hormones are also critical in apoptosis in a cell/tissue specific manner. In this review, we summarize the formation of eicosanoids and their roles as mediators in apoptosis, specifically on the roles of mitochondria in mediating these events and the signaling pathways involved. The biological relevance of eicosanoid-mediated apoptosis is also discussed.

  7. New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the extraordinary biology of the microorganisms from the mysterious red rain of Kerala, India. These chemosynthetic organisms grow optimally at an extreme high temperature of 300 degrees C in hydrothermal conditions and can metabolize inorganic and organic compounds including hydrocarbons. Stages found in their life cycle show reproduction by a special multiple fission process and the red cells found in the red rain are identified as the resting spores of these microbes. While these extreme hyperthermophiles contain proteins, our study shows the absence of DNA in these organisms, indicating a new primitive domain of life with alternate thermostable genetics. This new biology proves our earlier hypothesis that these microbes are of extraterrestrial origin and also supports our earlier argument that the mysterious red rain of Kerala is due to the cometary delivery of the red spores into the stratosphere above Kerala.

  8. Statistical Prediction of Heavy Rain in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at the development of a statistical model for forecasting heavy rain in South Korea. For the 3-hour weather forecast system, the 10 km× 10 km area-mean amount of rainfall at 6 stations (Seoul, Daejeon, Gangreung, Gwangju, Busan, and Jeju) in South Korea are used. And the corresponding 45 synoptic factors generated by the numerical model are used as potential predictors. Four statistical forecast models (linear regression model, logistic regression model, neural network model and decision tree model) for the occurrence of heavy rain are based on the model output statistics (MOS) method. They are separately estimated by the same training data. The thresholds are considered to forecast the occurrence of heavy rain because the distribution of estimated values that are generated by each model is too skewed.The results of four models are compared via Heidke skill scores. As a result, the logistic regression model is recommended.

  9. Experimental wind-driven rain erosion study on agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; Brings, Christine; Fister, Wolfgang; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2014-05-01

    Wind is potentially capable to considerably increase soil erosion by rain drops. In contrast to laboratory experiments, in-situ experiments enable the measurement of soil erosion by wind and rain including the reactions of relatively intact soil surfaces and a complete body of soil. The Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator of Trier University was applied on winter cereal fields to measure rain erosion on agricultural areas with and without the influence of wind. The test areas are situated near Pamplona, Navarre and recognized to be representative for large parts of northern Spain concerning soil, land use and climate. The soil surfaces on the fields were ploughed and sparsely covered by recently sowed winter cereals. The soil water content was close to saturation due to long lasting rainfall. Runoff was medium to high with runoff-coefficients ranging from 26 to 100%. The eroded material from rainfall simulations ranged from 14.5 to 42.5 g m² / 30min. The eroded material from wind-driven rain ranged from 28.1 to 47.3 g m² / 30 min. Compared to windless rainfall, the wind-driven rain increased erosion of soil material up to 82.2%. In one case, the eroded material decreased by 18.3%. The results indicate a strong influence of wind on rain erosion on recently seeded agricultural soils. Wind influence can be an important aspect for the general assessment of sheet erosion and supports the finding that a neglect of this factor might lead to severe underestimation of soil loss.

  10. Thermal transformation of bioactive caffeic acid on fumed silica seen by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry and quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Tetiana V; Lipkovska, Natalia O; Barvinchenko, Valentyna M; Palyanytsya, Borys B; Kazakova, Olga A; Dudik, Olesia O; Menyhárd, Alfréd; László, Krisztina

    2016-05-15

    Thermochemical studies of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and their surface complexes are important for the pharmaceutical industry, medicine and for the development of technologies of heterogeneous biomass pyrolysis. In this study, structural and thermal transformations of caffeic acid complexes on silica surfaces were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) and quantum chemical methods. Two types of caffeic acid surface complexes are found to form through phenolic or carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions of caffeic acid on silica surface are calculated. The mechanisms of thermal transformations of the caffeic chemisorbed surface complexes are proposed. Thermal decomposition of caffeic acid complex chemisorbed through grafted ester group proceeds via three parallel reactions, producing ketene, vinyl and acetylene derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Immobilization of phenolic acids on the silica surface improves greatly their thermal stability.

  11. Ostwald ripening and the kinetics of rain initiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in cloud physics is understanding the kinetics of the growth of water droplets. It is believed that there exists a 'condensation-coalescence bottleneck' in the growth of intermediate size droplets. Here the Lifshitz-Slezov theory of Ostwald ripening is applied to the kinetics of the growth of rain drops. The analysis shows that kinetic barriers to rain initiation are not significant. It is also shown that Ostwald ripening can greatly enhance the apparent collision efficiency of droplets falling under gravity.

  12. Summer rains in northeast Bangladesh: Onset and triggering mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ssemujju, Musa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on convective triggering mechanisms around the onset of the summer rains in Northeast Bangladesh. We want to understand this rainfall since it has a large impact on the local climate, and because 25.3% of the annual rainfall in Northeast Bangladesh falls in Bangladesh summer (March - May). To do this, we first identified the onset of the summer rains for each year using Sylhet station rainfall data with a 11 mm/day pentad rainfall mean threshold and a 6-...

  13. Hydrogen peroxide production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the fusaric acid-induced programmed cell death in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Sun, Ling; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Hao, Yu; Zhu, Xiaoping; Liang, Yuancun

    2014-08-15

    Fusaric acid (FA), a non-specific toxin produced mainly by Fusarium spp., can cause programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. The mechanism underlying the FA-induced PCD was not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the roles of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitochondrial function in the FA-induced PCD. Tobacco suspension cells were treated with 100 μM FA and then analyzed for H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial functions. Here we demonstrate that cells undergoing FA-induced PCD exhibited H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and a decrease of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Pre-treatment of tobacco suspension cells with antioxidant ascorbic acid and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium significantly reduced the rate of FA-induced cell death as well as the caspase-3-like protease activity. Moreover, FA treatment of tobacco cells decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content. Oligomycin and cyclosporine A, inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATP synthase and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, respectively, could also reduce the rate of FA-induced cell death significantly. Taken together, the results presented in this paper demonstrate that H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are the crucial events during the FA-induced PCD in tobacco suspension cells.

  14. Light Reflection from Water Surfaces Perturbed by Falling Rain Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesini, Giuseppe; Vannoni, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    An account of peculiar light patterns produced by reflection in a pool under falling rain droplets was recently reported by Molesini and Vannoni (2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 403-11). The mathematical approach, however, only covered the case of a symmetrical location of a light source and the observer's eyes with respect to the vertical of the falling…

  15. Splash : the dispersal of fungal plant pathogens in rain events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat, A.

    2000-01-01

    Models were developed to study splash dispersal of fungal plant pathogens in space and time. The models incorporate the main mechanisms involved in splash dispersal, that is 1. A raindrop hits the thin water film on the crop surface containing spores and spores are dispersed in the splashing rain dr

  16. Prosthesis, Surrogation, and Relation in Arturo Islas's "The Rain God"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, John Alba

    2008-01-01

    This essay seeks to intervene in critical discussions about Arturo Islas's 1984 novel "The Rain God", as well as to suggest the potential for synthesizing discourses heretofore deployed in disparate conversations about disability, sexuality, and ethnicity. I first demonstrate how the novel's queer characters, Miguel Chico and Felix, pose critical…

  17. Canopy dynamics of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The canopy dynamics (i.e. the formation and closure of canopy gaps) of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana are described. The formation of canopy gaps is investigated. The difficulties with gap size measurements are studied, and causes and consequences of treefalls and branchfalls are examined.

  18. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  19. Whether or Not to Run in the Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, Franco

    2012-01-01

    The problem of choosing an optimal strategy for moving in the rain has attracted considerable attention among physicists and other scientists. Taking a novel approach, this paper shows, by studying simple shaped bodies, that the answer depends on the shape and orientation of the moving body and on wind direction and intensity. For different body…

  20. Rain Fade Compensation Alternatives for Ka Band Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.

    1997-01-01

    Future satellite communications systems operating in Ka-band frequency band are subject to degradation produced by the troposphere which is much more severe than those found at lower frequency bands. These impairments include signal absorption by rain, clouds and gases, and amplitude scintillation's arising from refractive index irregularities. For example, rain attenuation at 20 GHz is almost three times that at 11 GHz. Although some of these impairments can be overcome by oversizing the ground station antennas and high power amplifiers, the current trend is using small (less than 20 inches apertures), low-cost ground stations (less than $1000) that can be easily deployed at user premises. As a consequence, most Ka-band systems are expected to employ different forms of fade mitigation that can be implemented relatively easily and at modest cost. The rain fade mitigation approaches are defined by three types of Ka-band communications systems - a low service rate (less than 1.5 Mb/s), a moderate service rate (1.5 to 6 Mb/s) system and a high service rate (greater than 43 Mb/s) system. The ACTS VSAT network, which includes an adaptive rain fade technique, is an example of a moderate service rate.

  1. Rain Forests(高一适用)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    More than 50,000,000 people of the world live in rain forests andmost of them do not hurt the forests theylive in. They eat the fruits that grow onthe trees, but they do not cut them down.They kill animals for food, but they do notdestroy them.

  2. Speciation of 129I in sea, lake and rain waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehto, Jukka; Räty, Tero; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of the very long-lived fission product 129I and stable iodine (127I) in the Baltic Sea and lake and rain waters from Finland, were measured as well as their occurrence as iodide (I−) and iodate (IO3−). The highest concentrations of both 127I and 129I occurred in sea water, on avera...

  3. Mechanics of Interrill Erosion with Wind-Driven Rain (WDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides an evaluation analysis for the performance of the interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for Wind-Driven Rain (WDR) events. The interrill delivery rates (Di) were collected in the wind tunnel rainfall simulator facility of the International Cen...

  4. Observing the formation of flare-driven coronal rain

    CERN Document Server

    Scullion, E; Antolin, P; Wedemeyer, S; Vissers, G; Kontar, E P; Gallagher, P

    2016-01-01

    Flare-driven coronal rain can manifest from rapidly cooled plasma condensations near coronal loop-tops in thermally unstable post-flare arcades. We detect 5 phases that characterise the post-flare decay: heating, evaporation, conductive cooling dominance for ~120 s, radiative / enthalpy cooling dominance for ~4700 s and finally catastrophic cooling occurring within 35-124 s leading to rain strands with s periodicity of 55-70 s. We find an excellent agreement between the observations and model predictions of the dominant cooling timescales and the onset of catastrophic cooling. At the rain formation site we detect co-moving, multi-thermal rain clumps that undergo catastrophic cooling from ~1 MK to ~22000 K. During catastrophic cooling the plasma cools at a maximum rate of 22700 K s-1 in multiple loop-top sources. We calculated the density of the EUV plasma from the DEM of the multi-thermal source employing regularised inversion. Assuming a pressure balance, we estimate the density of the chromospheric componen...

  5. Rain Erosion Behavior of Silicon Dioxide Films Prepared on Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping FENG; Zhengtang LIU; Wenting LIU

    2005-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were prepared on sapphire (α-Al2O3) by radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering in order to in crease both transmission and rain erosion resistant performance of infrared domes of sapphire. Composition and structure of SiO2 films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD),respectively. The transmittance of uncoated and coated sapphire was measured using a Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectrometer. Rain erosion tests of the uncoated and coated sapphire were performed at 211 m/s impact velocity with an exposure time ranging from 1 to 8 min on a whirling arm rig. Results show that the deposited films can greatly increase the transmission of sapphire in mid-wave IR. After rain erosion test, decreases in normalized transmission were less than 1% for designed SiO2 films and the SiO2 coating was strongly bonded to the sapphire substrate. In addition, sapphires coated with SiO2 films had a higher transmittance than uncoated ones after rain erosion.

  6. Küberrünnete klassifitseerimine / Rain Ottis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ottis, Rain

    2008-01-01

    NATO Kooperatiivse Küberkaitse Kompetentsikeskuse teadur leitnant Rain Ottis analüüsib kübermaailmas aset leidvate rünnete klassifitseerimise viise. Lisa: Ründaja motivaatorid; Ründe kontekst; Ründaja eesmärk. Diagramm: Kasutajate tegevus Internetis ja Eesti elanikkond 2007. aastal; Interneti kasutajate hulk Eestis 2007. aastal

  7. Lightning-based propagation of convective rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dietrich

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for continuously monitoring convective rain cells. It exploits lightning data from surface networks to propagate rain fields estimated from multi-frequency brightness temperature measurements taken by the AMSU/MHS microwave radiometers onboard NOAA/EUMETSAT low Earth orbiting operational satellites. Specifically, the method allows inferring the development (movement, morphology and intensity of convective rain cells from the spatial and temporal distribution of lightning strokes following any observation by a satellite-borne microwave radiometer. Obviously, this is particularly attractive for real-time operational purposes, due to the sporadic nature of the low Earth orbiting satellite measurements and the continuous availability of ground-based lightning measurements – as is the case in most of the Mediterranean region. A preliminary assessment of the lightning-based rainfall propagation algorithm has been successfully made by using two pairs of consecutive AMSU observations, in conjunction with lightning measurements from the ZEUS network, for two convective events. Specifically, we show that the evolving rain fields, which are estimated by applying the algorithm to the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the first AMSU overpass, show an overall agreement with the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the second AMSU overpass.

  8. Accelerated rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong

    During operation, the fast-moving blades of wind turbines are exposed to continuous impacts with rain droplets, hail, insects, or solid particles. This can lead to erosion of the blades, whereby the electrical efficiency is compromised and expensive repairs may be required. One possible solution...

  9. Plant diversity after rain-forest fires in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Karl August Otto

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades El-Niño-induced fires have caused widespread destruction of forests in East Kalimantan. The 1997-98 fires were the most extensive yet. The post-fire situation was studied in detail by field assessments and high-resolution SAR-images. My results show that rain forests are bett

  10. Rain Tolk : "Jan Uuspõld on asendamatu" / Greta Kaupmees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaupmees, Greta

    2006-01-01

    Kanal 2 saate "TOP 10" naljameeste pingereas platseerus näitleja Jan Uuspõld 4. kohale. Teda iseloomustades pole üks komöödiafilmi "Jan Uuspõld läheb Tartusse" autoreid Rain Tolk kiitusega kitsi

  11. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selecti

  12. The effects of the DASH diet education program with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on metabolic syndrome parameters in elderly women with abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall effects of a tailored Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) nutritional intervention program which included omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, on dietary self-efficacy, dietary knowledge, and dietary behaviors in Korean elderly women with abdominal obesity. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of the program on metabolic syndrome parameters including the antioxidant capacities in these subjects. SUBJ...

  13. Rain-induced subsurface airflow and Lisse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.; Jiao, J.J.; Weeks, E.P.

    2008-01-01

    Water-level increase after rainfall is usually indicative of rainfall recharge to groundwater. This, however, may not be true if the Lisse effect occurs. This effect represents the water-level increase in a well driven by airflow induced by an advancing wetting front during highly intensive rains. The rainwater, which may behave like a low-permeability lid, seals the ground surface so that the air pressure beneath the wetting front is increased because of air compression due to downward movement of the wetting front. A rapid and substantial rise of the water level in the well screened below water table, which bears no relationship to groundwater recharge, can be induced when various factors such as soil properties and the rain-runoff condition combine favorably. A transient, three-dimensional and variably saturated flow model was employed to study the air and groundwater flows in the soil under rain conditions. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to evaluate the reliability of the theory of the Lisse effect presented by Weeks to predict its magnitude in modeled situations that mimic the physical complexity of real aquifers, and to conduct parametric studies on the sensitivity of the water-level rise in the well to soil properties and the rain event. The simulation results reveal that the magnitude of the Lisse effect increases with the ponding depth. Soil permeability plays a key role in generating the Lisse effect. The water-level rise in the well is delayed relative to the air-pressure rise in the unsaturated zone when the soil permeability is low, and the maximum water-level rise is less than the maximum air pressure induced by rain infiltration. The simulation also explores the sensitivity of the Lisse effect to the van Genuchten parameters and the water table depth. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Water's Journey from Rain to Stream in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, Allan; Grip, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) 1965-1974, sponsored by UNESCO, initiated a research effort for coordinating the fragmented branches of hydrology and for understanding and quantifying the hydrologic cycle on various scales, from continents to small catchments. One important part of the Swedish IHD-program was to quantify the terms of the water budget, including detailed data on soil water and groundwater storage dynamics, of several medium sized to small. As an outcome of these studies and subsequent process oriented studies, a new view of the runoff process in forested till soils was developed in the 1970's, stressing the dominating role of groundwater in delivering water to the streams and the usefulness of subdividing catchments into recharge and discharge areas for groundwater for understanding the flowpaths of water. This view contrasted with the general view among the public, and also among professionals within the field and in text books, according to which overland flow is the main process for runoff. With this latter view it would, for instance, not be possible to understand stream water chemistry, which had become an important question in a time of growing environmental concern. In order to decrease the time lag between research results and practice, the Swedish Natural Science Research Council initiated a text book project for presenting the recent results of hydrologic research on stream flow generation applied to Swedish conditions, and in 1985 our book "Water's Journey from Rain to Stream" was published. Founded on the basic principles for water storage and flow in soils, the book gives a general picture of the water flow through the forested till landscape, with separate chapters for recharge and discharge areas. Chemical processes along the flowpaths of water are treated and the book concludes with a few applications to current issues. The book is written in Swedish and the target audience is those working professionally with water and

  15. Attenuation of surface waves due to monsoon rains: A model study for the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The dynamic interaction of intense rain with waves based on momentum exchange is applied to a second generation wave model to predict wave attenuation during monsoon. The scheme takes into account the characteristics of rain and wave parameters...

  16. A Summary of Scatterometer Returns from Water Surfaces Agitated by Rain

    Science.gov (U