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Sample records for acid precipitation provisions

  1. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G

    1955-01-01

    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  2. Acid precipitation literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H M; Andersen, B; Andersson, G; Hov, Oe; Kucera, V; Moseholm, L

    1986-01-01

    There is an increasing number of publications on acid deposition and related phenomena. Interest in these topics has also been reflected in a considerable number of meetings and conferences in this field. The largest of these in 1985 was the ''International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation'' (Muskoka, Ontario). Most work so far has been carried out in North America and Europe. There is, however, an increasing interest in obtaining a better picture of sensitive areas and possible acidification in other parts of the world. Anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions have been estimated to be (in TgSyr/sup -1/): 2.4 (Africa), 4.1 (South America), 0.7 (Ocenia), and 18.3 (Asia). The largest increase during the last decade has been in Asia. Based on Studies of precipitation in remote areas it has been suggested that the natural background concentration for sulphate in many areas should be about 6 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/. A new study of sulphate and nitrate in Greenland snow showed that both ions increased by a factor of about 2 from 1895 to 1978. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at Norwegian rural sites show a decreasing trend since late 1970s, while concentrations of sulphate in air show no clear trend. More reliable models for transformation, transport and deposition of chemicals are being developed, including three-dimensional grid models to describe episodes of elevated pollution levels lasting for a few days. Model calculations indicate that control of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is much more efficient in reducing the ozone level in southern Scandinavia in episodes influenced by long-range transported pollutants than NO/sub x/ control of combined NO/sub x/ and HC control. 36 refs. (EG).

  3. Acid precipitation and forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C O; Cowling, E B

    1977-04-01

    Effects of acidic precipitation on forest vegetation may be classified as being either direct or indirect. Among the most important direct effects are damage to protective cuticular layers, interference with normal functioning of guard cells, poisoning of plant cells after diffusion of acidic substances through stomata or cuticle and interference with reproductive processes. Indirect effects include accelerated leaching of substances from foliar organs, increased susceptibility to drought and other environmental stress factors, and alteration of symbiotic associations and host-parasite interactions. The potential importance of nutrient uptake through foliage and the need to understand atmosphere-plant-soil interactions are stressed.

  4. Acid precipitation; an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Denise A.; Evans, Margaret L.

    1984-01-01

    This collection of 1660 bibliographies references on the causes and environmental effects of acidic atmospheric deposition was compiled from computerized literature searches of earth-science and chemistry data bases. Categories of information are (1) atmospheric chemistry (gases and aerosols), (2) precipitation chemistry, (3) transport and deposition (wet and dry), (4) aquatic environments (biological and hydrological), (5) terrestrial environments, (6) effects on materials and structures, (7) air and precipitation monitoring and data collection, and (8) modeling studies. References date from the late 1800 's through December 1981. The bibliography includes short summaries of most documents. Omitted are unpublished manuscripts, publications in press, master 's theses and doctoral dissertations, newspaper articles, and book reviews. Coauthors and subject indexes are included. (USGS)

  5. Acid precipitation in Europe and Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, Valter

    2000-01-01

    The article surveys acid precipitation problems in the region, discusses the sources, the pollutant composition and distribution, the work with the RAINS models as well as the organisation of and the results of joint incentives in the region. The acidification problems in China and some of the Norwegian participation efforts are reviewed. The author points out that much of the acidic precipitation and the environmental problems in Eurasia are due to the use of coal rich in sulphur, that the energy and environmental policies differs throughout the region because of differences in ecology and development levels and that Asia is far more heterogeneous than Europe as to the conditions for co-ordinated efforts against acid precipitation. The differences in economy, geopolitical situation, environmental policies etc. are larger than in Europe and a considerable international effort will be required in order to succeed. Should the regional model RAINS-Asia be used as basis for further co-ordinated efforts on acid precipitation thorough evaluations on costs and advantages are needed. The conditions and need for modelling as basis for international agreements between Asiatic countries are not the same as in Europe. Finally international development organisations have and will continue to play an important part in the work for reducing acid precipitation in Asia. The Asiatic countries may also greatly benefit in the battle against acid precipitation from the experiences of the industrialised countries. However, Asiatic countries will have to meet the major costs of emission reduction themselves. The main question is what emphasis will be put on the long term environmental profits and on the need for rapid economic growth of materially impoverished people. Other development directions than those used by the industrialised countries, seems to be needed

  6. Experimental observations of boric acid precipitation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaghetto, R., E-mail: r.vaghetto@tamu.edu; Childs, M., E-mail: masonchilds@tamu.edu; Jones, P., E-mail: pgjones87@tamu.edu; Lee, S., E-mail: sayalee@tamu.edu; Kee, E., E-mail: erniekee@gmail.com; Hassan, Y.A., E-mail: y-hassan@tamu.edu

    2017-02-15

    During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Light Water Reactors (LWR), borated water is injected into the core through the safety injection system. The continuous vaporization of the water from the core may increase the concentration of boric acid in the core that, under certain conditions may reach the solubility limit and precipitate. This includes scenarios where the liquid water supply to the core is affected by possible blockages due to debris accumulation. Questions have been raised on the effects of the precipitate in the core on the flow behavior, including the possibility of additional blockages produced by precipitate accumulation. A simple experimental facility was constructed to perform experimental observations of the behavior of borated water under the combined effects of the boiling and the boric acid precipitation (BAP). The facility consists of a transparent polycarbonate vertical pipe where forty-five heated rods have been installed to supply the power to the water to reach the saturation temperature, and maintain a desired boil-off rate. The layout and geometry of the experimental apparatus were conceived to emulate a simplified core of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Experimental observations have been conducted under two different conditions. Preliminary tests were conducted to observe the behavior of the water and the boric acid precipitate during a boil-off scenario without borated water addition (decreasing water level). During the main test runs, borated water was constantly injected from the top of the test section to maintain a constant mixture level in the test section. Both tests assumed no flow from the bottom of the test section which may be the case of PWR LOCA scenarios in presence of debris-generated core blockage. The observations performed with a set of cameras installed around the test section showed interesting effects of the vapor bubbles on the boric acid precipitate migration and accumulation in the test section. The

  7. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  8. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  9. Precipitation behavior of uranium in multicomponent solution by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Lee, W.K.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study on the precipitation of uranium by oxalic acid was carried out in a multicomponent solution. The precipitation method is usually applied to the treatment of radioactive waste and the recovery of uranium from a uranium-scrap contaminated with impurities. In these cases, the problem is how to increase the precipitation yield of target element and to prevent impurities from coprecipitation. The multicomponent solution in the present experiment was prepared by dissolving U, Nd, Cs and Sr in nitric acid. The effects of concentrations of oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on the precipitation yield and purity of uranium were observed. As results of the study, the maximum precipitation yield of uranium is revealed to be about 96.5% and the relative precipitation ratio of Nd, Cs and Sr versus uranium are discussed at the condition of the maximum precipitation yield of uranium, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Precipitation of humic acid with divalent ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Peder Raj; Mikkelsen, Lene Haugaard; Keiding, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    and Ba2+. The phase diagram model can not account for the observed precipitation in region III and However, in region IV the HA appears to posses colloidal properties, which is supported by precipitation taking place at a constant zeta-potential -21mV with the same amount of added barium ion regardless...

  11. Properties of precipitates formed during ammonization of extractional phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharova, B.S.; Komissarova, L.N.; Naumov, S.V.; Traskin, V.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Dimensions of precipitated rare-earth phosphate particles -(0.1 μm)- are near the boundary of colloidal system sedimentation stability range at neutralization of extraction phosphoric acid. Thus, formation of multiple aggregates of colloidal particles results in immediate sedimentation of the precipitate. Processes occurring within the system may be described using second order reaction equation. Average efficient size of precipitates grows at reduction of reaction mixture pH. About 30% of rare-earth elements and yttrium in the extraction phosphoric acid is extracted from it; concentration of rare-earth elements, yttrium and scandium in precipitate is maximum 2 mass. %

  12. Acid Precipitation Awareness Curriculum Materials in the Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1983-01-01

    Provides an outline of course content for acid precipitation and two acid rain activities (introduction to pH and effects of acid rain on an organism). Information for obtaining 20 additional activities as well as an information packet containing booklets, pamphlets, and articles are also provided. (JN)

  13. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahoranta, Sarita H; Kokko, Marika E; Papirio, Stefano; Özkaya, Bestamin; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of acidic solution containing 5g/L of Fe(II) and 10mg/L of As(III) was studied in a system consisting of a biological fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) for iron oxidation, and a gravity settler for iron precipitation and separation of the ferric precipitates. At pH 3.0 and FBR retention time of 5.7h, 96-98% of the added Fe(II) precipitated (99.1% of which was jarosite). The highest iron oxidation and precipitation rates were 1070 and 28mg/L/h, respectively, and were achieved at pH 3.0. Subsequently, the effect of pH on arsenic removal through sorption and/or co-precipitation was examined by gradually decreasing solution pH from 3.0 to 1.6 (feed pH). At pH 3.0, 2.4 and 1.6, the highest arsenic removal efficiencies obtained were 99.5%, 80.1% and 7.1%, respectively. As the system had ferric precipitates in excess, decreased arsenic removal was likely due to reduced co-precipitation at pHremoves iron and arsenic from acidic solutions, indicating potential for mining wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acidic precipitation, Vol. 1: Case studies. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriano, D.C.; Havas, M. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume of the subseries Acidic precipitation emphasizes some of the classical interactions between acidic deposition and ecological effects. It covers the cycling, behavior, and effects of acidic components in nature. Included are the effects of acidic deposition on soil chemistry, soil solution chemistry, aquatic chemistry, forest productivity, and fish populations. Several major ecological consequences, such as a decline in forest productivity, soil and water acidification, depletion of fish populations, and slower litter decomposition are highlighted. A chapter is devoted to the comparative biogeochemistry of aluminum, encompassing several ecosystems in North America and Europe. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  15. Tracing of salicylic acid additive during precipitation of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharati Misra, U.; Gopala Krishna, K.; Narasimha Murty, B.; Yadav, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental study carried out to know whether the salicylic acid used as an additive during the precipitation of zirconium using ammonium hydroxide solution goes into the filtrate, remains in the hydrated zirconia or gets distributed between the both under the ambient conditions of precipitation. Keeping its simplicity and amenability to adopt on a routine basis, spectrophotometric method has been chosen for the purpose among the many methods available and the problems associated in determining salicylic acid in the presence of zirconium and the medial measures to circumvent the same have been brought out in detail. (author)

  16. Acidic precipitation: considerations for an air-quality standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Stensland, G.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Francis, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Acidic precipitation, wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greatern than 2.5 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ is a significant air pollution problem in the United States. The chief anions accounting for the hydrogen ions in rainfall are nitrate and sulfate. Agricultural systems are more likely to derive net nutritional benefits from increasing inputs of acidic rain than are forest systems when soils alone are considered. Agricultural soils may benefit because of the high N and S requirements of agricultural plants. Detrimental effects to forest soils may result if atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs significantly add to or exceed H/sup +/ production by soils. Acidification of fresh waters of southern Scandinavia, southwestern Scotland, southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States is caused by acid deposition. Areas of these regions in which this acidification occurs have in common, highly acidic precipitation with volume weighted mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations of 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ or higher and slow weathering granitic or precambrian bedrock with thin soils deficient in minerals which would provide buffer capacity. Biological effects of acidification of fresh waters are detectable below pH 6.0. As lake and stream pH levels decrease below pH. 6.0, many species of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates are progressively eliminated. Generally, fisheries are impacted below pH 5.0 and are completely destroyed below pH 4.8. There are few studies that document effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation to establish an air quality standard. It must be demonstrated that current levels of precipitation acidity alone significantly injure terrestrial vegetation. In terms of documented damanges, current research indicates that establishing a standard for precipitation for the volume weighted annual H/sup +/ concentration at 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ may protect the most sensitive areas from permanent lake acidification.

  17. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahoranta, Sarita H., E-mail: sarita.ahoranta@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kokko, Marika E., E-mail: marika.kokko@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Papirio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.papirio@unicas.it [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Özkaya, Bestamin, E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus 34220, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Puhakka, Jaakko A., E-mail: jaakko.puhakka@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Continuous and rapid arsenic removal with biogenic jarosite was achieved at pH 3.0. • Arsenic removal was inefficient below pH 2.4 due to reduced Fe–As co-precipitation. • As(V) had better sorption characteristics than As(III). • Biogenic jarosite adsorbed arsenic more effectively than synthetic jarosite. - Abstract: Treatment of acidic solution containing 5 g/L of Fe(II) and 10 mg/L of As(III) was studied in a system consisting of a biological fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) for iron oxidation, and a gravity settler for iron precipitation and separation of the ferric precipitates. At pH 3.0 and FBR retention time of 5.7 h, 96–98% of the added Fe(II) precipitated (99.1% of which was jarosite). The highest iron oxidation and precipitation rates were 1070 and 28 mg/L/h, respectively, and were achieved at pH 3.0. Subsequently, the effect of pH on arsenic removal through sorption and/or co-precipitation was examined by gradually decreasing solution pH from 3.0 to 1.6 (feed pH). At pH 3.0, 2.4 and 1.6, the highest arsenic removal efficiencies obtained were 99.5%, 80.1% and 7.1%, respectively. As the system had ferric precipitates in excess, decreased arsenic removal was likely due to reduced co-precipitation at pH < 2.4. As(III) was partially oxidized to As(V) in the system. In shake flask experiments, As(V) sorbed onto jarosite better than As(III). Moreover, the sorption capacity of biogenic jarosite was significantly higher than that of synthetic jarosite. The developed bioprocess simultaneously and efficiently removes iron and arsenic from acidic solutions, indicating potential for mining wastewater treatment.

  18. Third generation capture system: precipitating amino acid solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Misiak, K.; Ham, L. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This work summarises the results of the design of novel separation processes for CO2 removal from flue gas based on precipitating amino acid solvents. The processes here described (DECAB, DECAB Plus and pH-swing) use a combination of enhanced CO2 absorption (based on the Le Chatelier’s principle)

  19. Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation wa...

  20. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements

  1. Impact of acid precipitation on freshwater ecosystems in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R F; Dale, T; Gjessing, E T; Hendrey, G R; Henriksen, A; J Hannesen, M; Muniz, I P

    1975-01-01

    Precipitation in southern Norway contains large amounts of H/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and NO/sub 3//sup -/ ions, along with heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. These pollutants are transported over long distances to Scandinavia and are deposited in precipitation and dry-fallout. Large areas of southern Norway have been adversely affected by acid precipitation. The pH of many lakes is below 5.0 and sulfate, rather than bicarbonate, is the major anion. Lakes in these areas are particularly vulnerable to acid precipitation because their watersheds are underlain by highly resistant bedrock with low calcium and magnesium contents. The effects of the increasing acidity of freshwater ecosystems involve interference at every trophic level. Biological surveys indicate that low pH-values inhibit the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter, decrease the species number of phyto- and zooplankton and benthic invertebrates, and promote the growth of benthic mosses. Fish populations have been severely affected - the salmon have been eliminated from many rivers, and hundreds of lakes have lost their sport fisheries.

  2. Ten-year study on acid precipitation nears conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) are discussed. Final results are contained in 26 state of the science reports. Seven of the reports provide information on acid rain and aquatic ecosystems. They describe the current state of acidic surface waters, watershed processes affecting surface water chemistry, historical evidence for surface water acidification, methods for forecasting future changes, and the response of acidic surface water to liming. Six areas of the country were found to be of special interest: southwest Adirondacks, New England, forested areas of the mid-Atlantic highlands, the Atlantic coastal plain, the northern Florida highlands, parts of northeastern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Environmental effects, mitigation efforts and possible legislation are briefly discussed

  3. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium (IV) is only marginally soluble in alkaline solution. Precipitation of plutonium using sodium or potassium hydroxide to neutralize acidic solutions produces a gelatinous solid that is difficult to filter and an endpoint that is difficult to control. If the pH of the solution is too high, additional species precipitate producing an increased volume of solids separated. The use of magnesium oxide as a reagent has advantages. It is added as a solid (volume of liquid waste produced is minimized), the pH is self-limiting (pH does not exceed about 8.5), and the solids precipitated are more granular (larger particle size) than those produced using KOH or NaOH. Following precipitation, the raffinate is expected to meet criteria for disposal to tank farms. The solid will be heated in a furnace to dry it and convert any hydroxide salts to the oxide form. The material will be cooled in a desiccator. The material is expected to meet vault storage criteria

  4. OCHRE PRECIPITATES AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN A MINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV MÁŠA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused to characterize the ochre precipitates and the mine water effluents of some old mine adits and settling pits after mining of polymetallic ores in Slovakia. It was shown that the mine water effluents from two different types of deposits (adits; settling pits have similar composition and represent slightly acidic sulphate water (pH in range 5.60-6.05, sulphate concentration from 1160 to 1905 g.dm-3. The ochreous precipitates were characterized by methods of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and B.E.T. method for measuring the specific surface area and porosity. The dominant phases were ferrihydrite with goethite or goethite with lepidocrocide.

  5. Ochre precipitates and Acid Mine Drainage in a mine environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máša, B.; Pulišová, Petra; Bezdička, Petr; Michalková, E.; Šubrt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 9-14 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810136 Grant - others:Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic(SK) VEGA 1/0529/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : ochre precipitate * Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) * X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) * Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) * specific surface area and porosity Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012

  6. Amphibian recovery after a decrease in acidic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmen, Dag; Finstad, Anders Gravbrøt; Skei, Jon Kristian

    2018-04-01

    We here report the first sign of amphibian recovery after a strong decline due to acidic precipitation over many decades and peaking around 1980-90. In 2010, the pH level of ponds and small lakes in two heavily acidified areas in southwestern Scandinavia (Aust-Agder and Østfold in Norway) had risen significantly at an (arithmetic) average of 0.14 since 1988-89. Parallel with the general rise in pH, amphibians (Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, Bufo bufo, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Triturus cristatus) had become significantly more common: the frequency of amphibian localities rose from 33% to 49% (n = 115), and the average number of amphibian species per locality had risen from 0.51 to 0.88. In two other (reference) areas, one with better buffering capacity (Telemark, n = 21) and the other with much less input of acidic precipitation (Nord-Trøndelag, n = 106), there were no significant changes in pH or amphibians.

  7. Acid precipitation and reproductive success of Ambystoma salamanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pough, R H; Wilson, R E

    1976-01-01

    The two species of mole salamander that occur in the Ithaca, New York, region (Ambystoma maculatum and A. jeffersonianum) breed in temporary ponds that are formed by accumulation of melted snow and spring rains. Water in many of these pools during the breeding season is acid; pH values as low as 3.5 have been measured. In laboratory experiments A. maculatum tolerated pHs from 6 to 10 and had greatest hatching success at pH 7 to 9. Ambystoma Jeffersonianum tolerated pH 4 to 8 and was most successful at pH 5 to 6. Mortality rose abruptly beyond the tolerance limits. The pH optimum shifted upward with increasing temperature for A. jeffersonianum and downward for A. maculatum. Judging from our laboratory studies, the acidity measured in breeding ponds should cause mortality in A. maculatum and permit normal development in A. jeffersonianum. In a four-year study of a large acidic vernal pond, 938 adult A. maculatum produced 486 metamorphosed juveniles (0.52 juvenile/adult), while 686 adult A. jeffersonianum produced 2157 juveniles (3.14 juveniles/adult). Because the effects of acid precipitation on the salamanders' breeding ponds are cumulative from year to year, profound changes in the salamander populations can be anticipated.

  8. Acid precipitation and reproductive success of Ambystoma salamanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pough, F H; Wilson, R E

    1977-03-01

    The two species of mole salamander that occur in the Ithaca, New York, region (Ambystoma maculatum and A. jeffersonianum) breed in temporary ponds that are formed by accumulation of melted snow and spring rains. Water in many of these pools during the breeding season is acid; pH values as low as 3.5 have been measured. In laboratory experiments A. maculatum tolerated pHs from 6 to 10 and had greatest hatching success at pH 7 to 9. Ambystoma jeffersonianum tolerated pH 4 to 8 and was most successful at pH 5 to 6. Mortality rose abruptly beyond the tolerance limits. The pH optimum shifted upward with increasing temperature for A. jeffersonianum and downward for A. maculatum. Judging from our laboratory studies, the acidity measured in breeding ponds should cause mortality in A. maculatum and permit normal development in A. jeffersonianum. In a 4 yr study of a large, acidic vernal pond, 938 adult A. maculatum produced 486 metamorphosed juveniles (0.52 juvenile/adult), while 686 adult A. jeffersonianum produced 2157 juveniles (3.14 juveniles/adult). Because the effects of acid precipitation on the salamanders' breeding ponds are cumulative from year to year, profound changes in the salamander populations can be anticipated.

  9. Crosslinkers of Different Types in Precipitation Polymerization of Acrylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Eshaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crosslinked poly(acrylic acids were prepared using two types of crosslinker by precipitation polymerization method in a binary organic solvent. N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA-330 were used as low-molecular weight and long-chain crosslinkers, respectively. The effect of various types of crosslinkers on polymer characteristics (i.e., gel content, equilibrium swelling, glass transition temperature, and rheological properties was investigated. Maximum amount of viscosity was obtained by using long-chain crosslinker. The Flory-Rehner equation and rubber elasticity theory were used to discuss the network structure of polymer. It was observed that, the glass transition temperature (Tg of the synthesized polymer containing PEGDMA-330 is higher than that of polymer containing MBA. Apparent and rotational viscosity were used to determine the optimal crosslinker type. In addition, the consistencycoefficient (m and flow behavior index (n parameter of Ostwald equation were investigated as well.

  10. Characteristics of a continuous denitration by formic acid - electrolytic trimming of residual acid with accompanying the precipitation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, I. H.

    2003-01-01

    This work has studied the characteristics of destruction of nitric acid and precipitation of several metal ions in a continuous denitration process combining a denitration by formic acid and a residual acid-electrolytic trimming system. The metal ions of Zr, Mo, Fe, and Nd did not affect the electrodes at the step of electrolytic trimming of the residual acid after denitration by formic acid. The Mo ion in electrolytic solution enhanced the generation of nitrite ion during the electrolytic reaction. The mole ratio of formic acid to nitric acid fed into the continuous denitration reactor using formic acid affected much the final acidity, the precipitation yields of metal ions, the precipitate morphology. At the ratio of 1.65, the process had the lowest final acidity of less than 0.1 M, and the precipitation yields of Zr and Mo reached 95% and 83%, respectively as the highest values

  11. Impact of acid precipitation on recreation and tourism in Ontario: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of acid precipitation on fishing opportunities, waterfowl and moose hunting, water contact activities, and the perception of the environment in Ontario are analyzed. Economic effects and future research needs are also estimated and discussed. These questions have been examined by identifying the likely links between acidic precipitation and recreation and tourism, by developing estimates of the importance of aquatic-based recreation and tourism, by describing the current and estimated future effects of acid precipitation. 101 references, 9 figures, 19 tables.

  12. The effect of acid precipitation on tree growth in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles V. Cogbill

    1976-01-01

    Detailed study of the history of forest tree growth by tree-ring analysis is used to assess the effect of acid precipitation. The pattern and historical trends of acid precipitation deposition are compared with growth trends from mature forest stands in New Hampshire and Tennessee. No clear indication of a regional, synchronized decrease in tree growth was found. The...

  13. Long range transport of air pollutants in Europe and acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Nordo

    1976-01-01

    Observations show that pollutants from large emission sources may cause significant air concentrations 500 to 1000 miles away. Very acid precipitation occurs in such periods. The scavenging is often intensified by the topography. Case studies will be presented, with special emphasis on acid precipitation in Scandinavia. Large scale dispersion models have been developed...

  14. Study of precipitation behaviour of Mo and Zr in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Cansheng; Wang Xiaoying; Zhang Chonghai

    1992-01-01

    The precipitation behaviour of Mo and Zr which depends on the concentrations of Mo, Zr, nitric acid and temperature is studied. Precipitation, post-precipitation and ultracentrifugation experiments are made at 100 deg C, 80 deg C, 60 deg C, 40 deg C and room temperatures in the range of 0.6-6.0 mol/1 nitric acid. The experimental feeds are made up of molybdenum labelled with 99 Mo, zirconium labelled with 95 Zr and nitric acid solution. The feed is allowed to stand at constant temperature for some time for the observation of precipitation behaviour. The filtered precipitate and ultracentrifuged liquid is to be measured with HP (Ge)-multichannel analyser in order to determine the content of Mo, Zr and their mole ration in the precipitate and to find out whether there is colloid in the liquid. The results show that the mixed solution of Mo and Zr can produce precipitate and post-precipitate in nitric acid. If the filtrated liquid is allowed to stand for some time, precipitate can be produced again, until the concentration of Mo and Zr in the feed is too low to form precipitate, such as 2.5 x 10 -3 mol/1. If the concentration of nitric acid is less than 4.0 mol/1, the precipitation is produced easily and more precipitate is formed. Precipitation is slower in solutions which are more than 4.0 mol/1 in HNO 3 . The mole-ratio of Mo to Zr in the precipitate is 2 to 1 and it is not dependent on that ratio in the system

  15. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Bayandina, Yu.E.; Toptygina, G.M.; Shepot'ko, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In 2 S 3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  16. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  17. Acidic precipitation. Volume 4: Soils, aquatic processes, and lake acidification. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Acidic precipitation and its effects have been the focus of intense research for over two decades. Recently, research has focused on a greater understanding of dose-response relationships between atmospheric loading of acidifying material and lake acidity. This volume of the subseries Acidic Precipitation emphasizes acid neutralizing processes and the capacity of terrestrial and aquatic systems to assimilate acidifying substances and, conversely, the ability of systems to recover after acid loading diminishes. Eight chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum-Derived Uric Acid Precipitates Induce Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Hoef, Diana L.; Coppens, Isabelle; Holowka, Thomas; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Branch, OraLee; Rodriguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is characterized by cyclical fevers and high levels of inflammation, and while an early inflammatory response contributes to parasite clearance, excessive and persistent inflammation can lead to severe forms of the disease. Here, we show that Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes contain uric acid precipitates in the cytoplasm of the parasitophorous vacuole, which are released when erythrocytes rupture. Uric acid precipitates are highly inflammatory molecules that are considered a danger signal for innate immunity and are the causative agent in gout. We determined that P. falciparum-derived uric acid precipitates induce maturation of human dendritic cells, increasing the expression of cell surface co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86, while decreasing human leukocyte antigen-DR expression. In accordance with this, uric acid accounts for a significant proportion of the total stimulatory activity induced by parasite-infected erythrocytes. Moreover, the identification of uric acid precipitates in P. falciparum- and P. vivax-infected erythrocytes obtained directly from malaria patients underscores the in vivo and clinical relevance of our findings. Altogether, our data implicate uric acid precipitates as a potentially important contributor to the innate immune response to Plasmodium infection and may provide a novel target for adjunct therapies. PMID:23405174

  19. Conceptual design of a novel CO2 capture process based on precipitating amino acid solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Ham, L.V. van der; Linders, M.J.G.; Eggink, E.; Schrama, F.N.H.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid salt based solvents can be used for CO2 removal from flue gas in a conventional absorption-thermal desorption process. Recently, new process concepts have been developed based on the precipitation of the amino acid zwitterion species during the absorption of CO2. In this work, a new

  20. Application of a precipitation method for uranium recovery from abu-zaabal phosphoric acid plant, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-hazek, N.M.T.; Hussein, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Current industrial recovery of uranium from 30% phosphoric acid-produced by the dihydrate process-is based on solvent extraction method. Uranium recovery from concentrated phosphoric acid (45-52% p o5 ) produced by evaporation of the 30% acid or directly produced by the hemihydrate process, by solvent extraction is difficult to apply in practice. In addition to possible contamination of the acid by the organic solvents and/or their deterioration. This paper investigates the possibility of applying a precipitation method (Weterings and Janssen, 1985) for uranium recovery from both low (28% P 2 O 5 ) and high (48% P 2 O 5 ) concentration phosphoric acids produced by abu-zaabal phosphoric acid plant (Abuzaabal fertilizers and chemicals Co., Egypt). The 28% acid produced by H 2 SO 4 dihydrate method and the 48% acid produced by evaporation of the 28% acid The applied precipitation method depends on using NH 4 F as a uranium precipitant from both low and high concentration phosphoric acids in presence of acetone as a dispersing agent. All the relevant factors have been studied

  1. Influence of commercial (Fluka) naphthenic acids on acid volatile sulfide (AVS) production and divalent metal precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Andrew D; Kinley, Ciera M; Rodgers, John H; Friesen, Vanessa; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Haakensen, Monique C

    2016-12-01

    Energy-derived waters containing naphthenic acids (NAs) are complex mixtures often comprising a suite of potentially problematic constituents (e.g. organics, metals, and metalloids) that need treatment prior to beneficial use, including release to receiving aquatic systems. It has previously been suggested that NAs can have biostatic or biocidal properties that could inhibit microbially driven processes (e.g. dissimilatory sulfate reduction) used to transfer or transform metals in passive treatment systems (i.e. constructed wetlands). The overall objective of this study was to measure the effects of a commercially available (Fluka) NA on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), production of sulfides (as acid-volatile sulfides [AVS]), and precipitation of divalent metals (i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn). These endpoints were assessed following 21-d aqueous exposures of NAs using bench-scale reactors. After 21-days, AVS molar concentrations were not statistically different (pAVS production was sufficient in all NA treatments to achieve ∑SEM:AVS AVS) could be used to treat metals occurring in NAs affected waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of feed provisioning prior to digesta sampling on precaecal amino acid digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Wolfgang; Ganzer, Christian; Kluth, Holger; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2018-06-01

    A regression approach was applied to determine the influence of feed provisioning prior to digesta sampling on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility in broiler chickens. Soybean meal was used as an example test ingredient. Five feed-provisioning protocols were investigated, four with restricted provision and one with ad libitum provision. When provision was restricted, feed was provided for 30 min after a withdrawal period of 12 h. Digesta were sampled 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after feeding commenced. A diet containing 300 g maize starch/kg was prepared. Half or all the maize starch was replaced with soybean meal in two other diets. Average pc digestibility of all determined AA in the soybean meal was 86% for the 4 and 6-h protocols and 66% and 60% for the 2 and 1-h protocols, respectively. Average pc AA digestibility of soybean meal was 76% for ad libitum feed provision. Feed provisioning also influenced the determined variance. Variance in digestibility ranked in magnitude 1 h > ad libitum > 2 h > 6 h > 4 h for all AA. Owing to the considerable influence of feed-provisioning protocols found in this study, comparisons of pc AA digestibility between studies applying different protocols prior to digesta sampling must be treated with caution. Digestibility experiments aimed at providing estimates for practical feed formulation should use feed-provisioning procedures similar to those used in practice.

  3. Application of a precipitation method for uranium recovery from Abu-Zaabal phosphoric acid plant, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazek, N.M.T.; Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Current industrial recovery of uranium from 30% phosphoric acid-produced by the dihydrate process-is based on solvent extraction method. Uranium recovery from concentrated phosphoric acid (45-52% P 2 O 5 ) produced by evaporation of the 30% acid or directly produced by the hemihydrate process, by solvent extraction is difficult to apply in practice. In addition to possible contamination of the acid by the organic solvents and/or their deterioration. This paper investigates the possibility of applying a precipitation method (Weterings and Janssen, 1985) for uranium recovery from both low (28% P 2 O 2 ) and high (48% P 2 O 5 ) concentration phosphoric acids produced by abu-Zaabal phosphoric acid plant (abu-Zaabal fertilizers and chemicals Co., Egypt). The 28% acid produced by H 2 SO 4 dihydrate method and the 48% acid produced by evaporation of the 28% acid

  4. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program: 1990 Integrated Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The document, the 'Integrated Assessment,' is a summary of the causes and effects of acidic deposition and a comparison of the costs and effectiveness of alternative emission control scenarios. In developing the 'Integrated Assessment,' it was NAPAP's goal to produce a structured compilation of policy-relevant technical information. The Integrated Assessment is based on findings and data from a series of twenty-seven State-of-Science/Technology Reports (SOS/T) on acidic deposition published by NAPAP in 1990. The scope of the documents includes: (1) emissions, atmospheric processes and deposition; (2) effects on surface waters, forests, agricultural crops, exposed materials, human health, and visibility; and (3) control technologies, future emissions, and effects valuation

  5. Acidic precipitation. Volume 3: Sources, deposition, and canopy interactions. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L.; Norton, S.A. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume emphasizes the atmospheric aspects of acidic precipitation and all that this term has come to include (e.g. toxic gases such as ozone, trace metals, aluminum, and oxides of nitrogen). It progresses from emissions of the precursors of acidic precipitation to their eventual deposition on environmental surfaces. The chapters describe the sources of acidic and basic airborne substances, their interactions in the atmosphere and with rain droplets, and their reactions with other airborne constituents such as aluminum and other metals. Also discussed are the use of metals as tracers of sources of the precursors of acidic precipitation and as tracers of historical deposition rates, the processes controlling the removal of airborne material as dry deposition and deposition interactions with the forest canopy, and past and future trends in atmospheric emissions and options for their abatement.

  6. Co-precipitation of plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pius, I.C.; Noronha, D.M.; Chaudhury, Satyajeet

    2017-01-01

    Co-precipitation of plutonium and americium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate has been investigated for the removal of these long lived α-active nuclides from waste solutions. Effect of concentration of bismuth and oxalic acid on the co-precipitation of Pu(IV) from 3 M HNO_3 has been investigated. Similar experiments were also carried out from 3.75 M HNO_3 on co-precipitation of Am(III) to optimize the conditions of precipitation. Strong co-precipitation of Pu(IV) and Am(III) with bismuth oxalate indicate feasibility of treatment of plutonium and americium bearing waste solutions. (author)

  7. Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, MJAP; Termont, DSML; Lapre, JA; Kleibeuker, JH; Vonk, RJ; VanderMeer, R

    1996-01-01

    Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats, We non

  8. Sustained release of nucleic acids from polymeric nanoparticles using microemulsion precipitation in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Jacobson, Gunilla B; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Holmberg, Krister; Zare, Richard N

    2010-12-21

    A general approach for producing biodegradable nanoparticles for sustained nucleic acid release is presented. The nanoparticles are produced by precipitating a water-in-oil microemulsion in supercritical CO(2). The microemulsion consists of a transfer RNA aqueous solution (water phase), dichloromethane containing poly(l-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (oil phase), the surfactant n-octyl β-D-glucopyranoside, and the cosurfactant n-butanol.

  9. Kinetic study of the precipitation of radioactive elements in the production process of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Mahmoud, Souha

    2009-01-01

    In this engineering study we determined the activities of gamma emitting radionuclides belonging to the families of 238 U , 232 Th and 40K in phosphate, the acid derivatives and gypsum in Tunisian Chemical Group. The most important activities are those of 238 U and 226 Ra, which are located in the phosphate, gypsum and the precipitates formed in the pipes.

  10. Gas Antisolvent Approach for the Precipitation of α -Methoxyphenylacetic Acid – ( R -1-Cyclohexylethylamine Diateromeric Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zodge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of diastereomeric salt precipitation based enantioseparation is the time and solvent requirement of crystallization. In the gas antisolvent (GAS approach, supercritical carbon dioxide is applied as an antisolvent, and the precipitation takes place in a couple of minutes. By setting the process parameters diastereomeric excess, yields, and selectivity can be controlled. Applicability of the process is demonstrated on the resolution of racemic 2-methoxyphenylacetic acid with enantiopure (R-(−-1-cyclohexylethylamine. Diastereomeric excess values over 55 % along with 80 % yields were achieved at optimal conditions in a single step.

  11. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  12. Dissolution of oxalate precipitate and destruction of oxalate ion by hydrogen peroxide in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Ho; Chung, Dong-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Jae-Hyung

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at developing an oxalate precipitation process, which is applicable to a partitioning of long-lived radionuclides from the high-level radioactive liquid waste. In order to achieve this, a study for decomposition-reaction of oxalic acid by hydrogen peroxide was first carried out. The decomposition rates of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid increased with an increase of nitric acid concentration, and especially those decomposition rates steeply increased at more than 2 M HNO 3 . Based on this result, the decomposition kinetics of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid were suggested in this work. Then, the dissolution of oxalate precipitate and the destruction of oxalate ion in the solution were examined. Oxalate precipitates were prepared by adding oxalic acid into a simulated radioactive waste containing 8 metallic elements. The precipitates obtained thereby were dissolved in various nitric acid concentrations and reacted with H 2 O 2 at 90degC. When the oxalates were completely dissolved, most of the oxalates were decomposed by adding H 2 O 2 , but in a slurry state the decomposition yield of the oxalate decreased with an increase of the slurry density in the solution. Such phenomenon was considered to be due to a catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 on a solid surface of oxalate and the decomposition mechanism was explained by a charge transfer from a surface of oxalate solid to H 2 O 2 , producing OH radicals which can destruct H 2 O 2 explosively. Accordingly, the experimental condition for the decomposition of the oxalate precipitates was found to be most favorable at 3 M HNO 3 under the initial concentrations of 0.2 M oxalate and 1 M H 2 O 2 . At 3M HNO 3 , oxalate precipitates could be safely and completely dissolved, and almost decomposed. Additionally, it was observed that the presence of ferric ion in the solution largely affects the decomposition rate of H 2 O 2 . This could be explained by a chain reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric ion in the solution

  13. Activities and results of the terrestrial effects program: acid precipitation in Ontario study (Apios)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzon, S N

    1986-11-01

    Studies on the terrestrial effects of acidic precipitation in Ontario involve determining the effects on soils, crops, forests, lichens, mosses and biogeochemical systems. In the soils program, a baseline study was started in 1980 to establish a reliable and uniform data base for soils across the province, in order to identify future trends. Soil sensitivity criteria are being derived for mapping purposes. Starting in 1982, a complex, sophisticated mobile rain exclusion canopy system was constructed outdoors for controlled acid rain studies to determine the dose-response relationships of field crops. In response to numerous complaints a program was designed to determine the role that acidic precipitation is playing in the decline of sugar maple trees in Ontario. At 8 sites, tree conditions were noted, samples of foliage, bark, roots and soil were collected for chemical analysis, and increment cores and discs (from felled trees) were taken for radial growth patterns. Results from this study indicated that acidic precipitation was an additional stress to insect outbreaks and spring droughts. Intensive surveys have been conducted in selected areas in Ontario to identify the current viability and distribution of common denominator lichens and mosses. Biogeochemical studies are being conducted at four watersheds in Ontario. The different watersheds are located in progressively decreasing atmospheric deposition loadings from east to west across the province. The studies are attempting to document the role of contrasting terrestrial ecosystems in the process of lake acidification by atmospheric deposition. 9 references.

  14. Dose-response functions for effects of acidic precipitation on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J S; Troiano, J J

    1983-01-01

    Research on the effect of sulfuric and nitric acids, as well as other substances, in rain on plant growth has focused on quantifying the relationship between doses of acids in precipitation and plant response. After eight years, there has been no direct demonstration of harmful effects to plants by ambient acidic rain in North America, and there remains considerable uncertainty about the potential risk to cultivated and native plants. Current efforts to describe the relationships between dose of acidity and effects on plants need better experimental approaches if the results are to be more relevant to actual field situations. Mechanistic models that describe the physiological and biochemical basis for effects of acidic rain on plants will be needed to provide confidence in the predictions of plant response. 34 references, 1 figure.

  15. Effect of amino acids on the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harouaka, Khadouja; Kubicki, James D.; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2017-12-01

    Stirred gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) precipitation experiments (initial Ωgypsum = 2.4 ± 0.14, duration ≈ 1.0-1.5 h) were conducted in the presence of the amino acids glycine (190 μM), L-alanine (190 μM), D- and L-arginine (45 μM), and L-tyrosine (200 μM) to investigate the effect of simple organic compounds on both the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum. Relative to abiotic controls, glycine, tyrosine, and alanine inhibited precipitation rates by ∼22%, 27%, and 29%, respectively, while L- and D-arginine accelerated crystal growth by ∼8% and 48%, respectively. With the exception of tyrosine, amino acid induced inhibition resulted in fractionation factors (αs-f) associated with precipitation that were no more than 0.3‰ lower than amino acid-free controls. In contrast, the tyrosine and D- and L-arginine experiments had αs-f values associated with precipitation that were similar to the controls. Our experimental results indicate that Ca isotopic fractionation associated with gypsum precipitation is impacted by growth inhibition in the presence of amino acids. Specifically, we propose that the surface-specific binding of amino acids to gypsum can change the equilibrium fractionation factor of the bulk mineral. We investigate the hypothesis that amino acids can influence the growth of gypsum at specific crystal faces via adsorption and that different faces have distinct fractionation factors (αface-fluid). Accordingly, preferential sorption of amino acids at particular faces changes the relative, face-specific mass fluxes of Ca during growth, which influences the bulk isotopic composition of the mineral. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the energetic favorability of glycine sorption onto gypsum crystal faces occurs in the order: (1 1 0) > (0 1 0) > (1 2 0) > (0 1 1), while glycine sorption onto the (-1 1 1) face was found to be energetically unfavorable. Face-specific fractionation factors constrained by

  16. Fractionation of equine antivenom using caprylic acid precipitation in combination with cationic ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raweerith, Rutai; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2003-11-01

    A combined process of caprylic acid (CA) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose was studied as a means to fractionate pepsin-digested horse antivenom F(ab')(2) antibody. In the CA precipitation, the optimal concentration for fractionation of F(ab')(2) from pepsin-digested horse plasma was 2%, in which 89.61% of F(ab')(2) antibody activity was recovered in the supernatant with 1.5-fold purification. A significant amount of pepsin was not precipitated and remained active under these conditions. An analytical cation exchanger Protein-Pak SP 8HR HPLC column was tested to establish optimal conditions for the effective separation of IgG, albumin, pepsin and CA from the F(ab')(2) product. From these results, the supernatant from CA precipitation of pepsin-digested plasma was subjected to a SP-Sepharose column chromatography using a linear salt gradient. With stepwise elution, a peak containing F(ab')(2) antibody could be obtained by elution with 0.25 M NaCl. The total recovery of antibody was 65.56% with 2.91-fold purification, which was higher than that achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This process simultaneously and effectively removed residual pepsin, high molecular weight aggregates and CA in the final F(ab')(2) product, and should be suitable for large-scale fractionation of therapeutic equine antivenoms.

  17. Acid deposition: State of science and technology. Summary report of the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, P.M.; Smith, E.

    1991-09-01

    The twenty-seven State-of-Science and State-of-Technology (SOS/T) Reports, published in 1990 as the definitive scientific and technical synthesis of information obtained during the first decade of the U.S. national Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), are summarized in the document. In most cases, these summaries were the final chapter of the complete SOS/T Report

  18. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Nitric acid adduct formation during crystallization of barium and strontium nitrates and their co-precipitation from nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, N.E.; Zilberman, B.Ya.; Lumpov, A.A.; Koltsova, T.I.; Puzikov, E.A.; Ryabkov, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    The molar solubilities of Ba, Sr and Pb nitrates in nitric acid as a function of total nitrate concentration is presented and described by the mass action law, indicating on formation of the adducts with nitric acid. Precipitates of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 and Sr(NO 3 ) 2 crystallized from nitric acid were studied by ISP OES and IR spectroscopy. The data obtained confirmed formation of metastable adducts with nitric acid. IR and X-ray diffraction studies of the mixed salt systems indicated conversion of the mixed salts into (Ba,Sr)(NO 3 ) 2 solid solution of discrete structure in range of total nitrate ion concentration ∼6 mol/L. (author)

  20. Studies on Pu(IV)/(III)-oxalate precipitation from nitric acid containing high concentration of calcium and fluoride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.K.; Pawar, S.M.; Ghadse, D.R.; Joshi, A.R.; Ramakrishna, V.V.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium (IV)/(III) oxalate precipitation from nitric acid solution, containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions was investigated. It was observed that direct precipitation of Pu (IV) oxalate from nitric acid containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions did not give good decontamination of Pu from calcium and fluoride impurities. However, incorporation of hydroxide precipitation using ammonium hydroxide prior to Pu (IV) oxalate precipitation results into PuO 2 with much less calcium and fluoride impurities. Whereas, good decontamination from calcium and fluoride impurities could be obtained by employing Pu (III) oxalate precipitation directly from nitric acid containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions. A method was also developed to recover Pu from the oxalate waste containing calcium and fluoride ions. (author)

  1. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  2. Detrital processing in streams exposed to acidic precipitation in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, S.K.; Perry, S.A.; Perry, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Continuing high rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States may lead to long-term effects on stream communities, because sensitive catchments are continuing to lose anions and cations. A two-year study of the effects of pH and associated water chemistry variables on detrital processing in three streams with different bedrock geology in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia were investigated. Leaf pack processing rates and macroinvertebrate colonization and microbial biomass (ATP concentration) on the packs in the three stream were compared. It was found that macroinvertebrate and microbial communities differed both among streams that differed in their capacity to buffer the effects of acidic precipitation and among years in the same stream; these differences in biotic communities were not large enough to affect rates of leaf processing between the two years of the study, but they did significantly affect processing rates between acidic and circumneutral streams

  3. pH and its frequency distribution patterns of Acid Precipitation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Moritsugu; Katou, Takunori; Sekiguchi, Kyoichi

    1991-01-01

    The pH data was collected at the 29 stations in Phase-I study of Acid Precipitation Survey over Japan by Japan Environment Agency in terms of frequency distribution patterns. This study was undertaken from April 1984 to March 1988, which was the first survey of acid precipitation over Japan with identical sampling procedures and subsequent chemical analyses. While the annual mean pH at each station ranged from 4.4 to 5.5, the monthly mean varied more widely, from 4.0 to 7.1. Its frequency distribution pattern was obtained for each station, and further grouped into four classes: class I; a mode at the rank of pH 4.5∼4.9, class II; bimodes above and below this pH region, class III; a mode at a higher pH region, class IV; a mode at a lower pH region. The bimodal pattern was suggestive of precipitation with and without incorporation of significant amounts of basic aerosol of anthropogenic origin during descent of rain droplet. The patterns of the stations were also classified on a basis of summer-winter difference into another four classes. Winter pH values were appreciably lower than summer pHs in western parts of Japan and on Japan Sea coast, we attribute the winter pH to probable contribution of acidic pollutants transported by strong winter monsoon from Eurasian Continent. At most stations in northern and eastern Japan, the pH was higher in winter months reflecting more incorporation of basic materials, e.g., NH 4 + and Ca 2+ . (author)

  4. Study of lithium extraction from brine water, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia by the precipitation series of oxalic acid and carbonate sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, Eko; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Mayangsari, W.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium is one of the key elements in the development of batteries for electric car applications. Currently, the resources of the world's lithium are derived from brine water and lithium mineral based on spodumene rock. Indonesia which is located in the area of the ring of fire, has potential brine water resources in some area, such as brine water from Bledug Kuwu, Central Java that used in this research. The purposes of this research are to characterize brine water, Bledug Kuwu and to investigate the influence of chemical solvents on Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B ion precipitation from brine water. This research was done with 2 times the process of chemical precipitation that runs series as follows: 5 liters of brine water were chemically precipitated using 400 ml of 12.43 N oxalic acid and followed by chemical precipitation using 400 mL of 7.07 N sodium carbonate solutions. Evaporation and filtration processes were also done twice in an effort to separate white precipitate and filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed by ICP-OES and white precipitates (salts) were analyzed by SEM, XRD, and XRF. The result shows that oxalate precipitation process extracted 32.24% Al, 23.42% B, 22.43% Ca, 14.26% Fe, 3.21 % K, 9.86% Na and 14.26% Li, the following process by carbonate precipitation process extracted 98.86% Mg, 73% Ca, 22.53% Li, 82.04% Al, 14.38% B, 12.50% K, 2.27% Na. There is 63.21% lithium is not extracted from the series process. The SEM analysis shows that the structure of granules on the precipitated salts by oxalic acid form gentle cubic-shaped solid. In the other hand, oxalate precipitation followed by sodium carbonate has various particle sizes and the shape of crystals is fragments, prism and cube look like magnesium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcite's crystal respectively. This is in accordance with XRD analysis that phases of whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O), disodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), magnesite (MgCO3), calcium lithium aluminum (Al1.19 Ca1Li0.81), dolomite (CaCO3

  5. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Kim, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively

  6. Boronic Acid functionalized core-shell polymer nanoparticles prepared by distillation precipitation polymerization for glycopeptide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Liu, Jianxi; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-07-16

    The boronic acid-functionalized core-shell polymer nanoparticles, poly(N,N-methylenebisacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid)@4-vinylphenylboronic acid (poly(MBA-co-MAA)@VPBA), were successfully synthesized for enriching glycosylated peptides. Such nanoparticles were composed of a hydrophilic polymer core prepared by distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP) and a boronic acid-functionalized shell designed for capturing glycopeptides. Owing to the relatively large amount of residual vinyl groups introduced by DPP on the core surface, the VPBA monomer was coated with high efficiency, working as the shell. Moreover, the overall polymerization route, especially the use of DPP, made the synthesis of nanoparticles facile and time-saving. With the poly(MBA-co-MAA)@VPBA nanoparticles, 18 glycopeptides from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) digest were captured and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis, relative to eight glycopeptides enriched by using commercially available meta-aminophenylboronic acid agarose under the same conditions. When the concentration of the HRP digest was decreased to as low as 5 nmol, glycopeptides could still be selectively isolated by the prepared nanoparticles. Our results demonstrated that the synthetic poly(MBA-co-MAA)@VPBA nanoparticles might be a promising selective enrichment material for glycoproteome analysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  8. Microscopic evaluation of trace metals in cloud droplets in an acid precipitation region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Wang, Yan; Collett, Jeffrey L; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-05-07

    Mass concentrations of soluble trace metals and size, number, and mixing properties of nanometal particles in clouds determine their toxicity to ecosystems. Cloud water was found to be acidic, with a pH of 3.52, at Mt. Lu (elevation 1,165 m) in an acid precipitation region in South China. A combination of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for the first time demonstrates that the soluble metal concentrations and solid metal particle number are surprisingly high in acid clouds at Mt. Lu, where daily concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10 are 18 μg m(-3), 7 μg m(-3), and 22 μg m(-3). The soluble metals in cloudwater with the highest concentrations were zinc (Zn, 200 μg L(-1)), iron (Fe, 88 μg L(-1)), and lead (Pb, 77 μg L(-1)). TEM reveals that 76% of cloud residues include metal particles that range from 50 nm to 1 μm diameter with a median diameter of 250 nm. Four major metal-associated particle types are Pb-rich (35%), fly ash (27%), Fe-rich (23%), and Zn-rich (15%). Elemental mapping shows that minor soluble metals are distributed within sulfates of cloud residues. Emissions of fine metal particles from large, nonferrous industries and coal-fired power plants with tall stacks were transported upward to this high elevation. Our results suggest that the abundant trace metals in clouds aggravate the impacts of acid clouds or associated precipitation on the ecosystem and human health.

  9. Design of Test Facility to Evaluate Boric Acid Precipitation Following a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong-Kwan; Song, Yong-Jae [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The U.S.NRC has identified a concern that debris associated with generic safety issue (GSI) - 191 may affect the potential precipitation of boric acid due to one or more of the following phenomena: - Reducing mass transport (i.e. mixing) between the core and the lower plenum (should debris accumulate at the core inlet) - Reduced lower plenum volume (should debris settle in the lower plenum), and, - Increased potential for boric acid precipitation (BAP) in the core (should debris accumulate in suspension in the core) To address these BAP issues, KHNP is planning to conduct validation tests by constructing a BAP test facility. This paper describes the design of test facility to evaluate BAP following a LOCA. The design of BAP test facility has been developed by KHNP. To design the test facility, test requirements and success criteria were established, and scaling analysis of power-to-volume method, Ishii-Kataoka method, and hierarchical two-tiered method were investigated. The test section is composed of two fuel assemblies with half of full of prototypic FA height. All the fuel rods are heated by the electric power supplier. The BAP tests in the presence of debris, buffering agents, and boron will be performed following the test matrix.

  10. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of acid deposition in Guangzhou, South China: Comparison with precipitation in other major Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Deyin; Xu Yigang; Peng Pingan; Zhang Huihuang; Lan Jiangbo

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the origin of acid rains in South China, we analyzed rainwaters collected from Guangzhou, China, between March 2005 and February 2006. The pH of rainwater collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.22 to 5.87; acid rain represented about 94% of total precipitation during this period. The rainwater was characterized by high concentrations of SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , and NH 4 + . SO 4 2- and NO 3 - , the main precursors of acid rain, were related to the combustion of coal and fertilizer use/traffic emissions, respectively. Ca 2+ and NH 4 + act as neutralizers of acid, accounting for the decoupling between high SO 4 2- concentrations and relatively high pH in the Guangzhou precipitation. The acid rain in Guangzhou is most pronounced during spring and summer. A comparison with acid precipitation in other Chinese cities reveals a decreasing neutralization capacity from north to south, probably related to the role and origin of alkaline bases in precipitation. - A north-to-south decreasing trend in the neutralization capacity of precipitation in China

  11. Comparison of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate/Polylactic Acid and Halloysite/Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PLA nanocomposites with stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC and halloysite natural nanotubes (HNT were prepared by melt extrusion. The crystallization behavior, mechanical properties, thermal dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA, and the morphology of the PCC/PLA, HNT/PLA, and HNT/PCC/PLA composites were discussed. Compared to halloysite nanotubes, PCC nanoparticles showed a better nucleating effect, which decreased both the glass transition and cold crystallization temperatures. The tensile performance of PLA composites showed that the addition of inorganic nanofillers increased Young’s modulus but decreased tensile strength. More interestingly, PLA composites with PCC particles exhibited an effectively increased elongation at break with respect to pure PLA, while HNT/PLA showed a decreased ultimate deformation of composites. DMTA results indicated that PLA composites had a similar storage modulus at temperatures below the glass transition and the addition of nanofillers into PLA caused Tg to shift to lower temperatures by about 3°C. The morphological analysis of fractures surface of PLA nanocomposites showed good dispersion of nanofillers, formation of microvoids, and larger plastic deformation of the PLA matrix when the PCC particles were added, while a strong aggregation was noticed in composites with HNT nanofillers, which has been attributed to a nonoptimal surface coating.

  12. Effects of initial supersaturation on spontaneous precipitation of calcium carbonate in the presence of charged poly-L-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njegić-Dzakula, Branka; Falini, Giuseppe; Brecević, Ljerka; Skoko, Zeljko; Kralj, Damir

    2010-03-15

    Spontaneous precipitation of calcium carbonate was investigated in two precipitation systems: (1) with initial supersaturation lower than that corresponding to the solubility of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), at which vaterite precipitated, and (2) with initial supersaturation higher than that of ACC solubility, at which a mixture of calcite and vaterite was formed. After the addition of an acidic polypeptide, poly-L-glutamic acid (pGlu) or poly-L-aspartic acid (pAsp), into (1) a significant inhibition of nucleation, expressed as an increase in induction time, and growth of vaterite, perceived as a dead zone, was observed. Extent of inhibition decreased in the order: Inh(pAps)>Inh(pGlu)>Inh(pLys). The addition of a polypeptide into (2) caused the inhibition of precipitation and changed the morphology and polymorphic composition of the precipitate; only vaterite appeared at approximately c(pAsp)=3 ppm, c(pGlu)=6 ppm, or c(pLys)=7 ppm. This finding is explained as a consequence of kinetic constraints through the inhibition of calcite nucleation and stronger binding of acidic polypeptide by the calcite surfaces than by the vaterite surfaces. Laboratory precipitation studies using conditions that resemble those in living organism should be run at an initial supersaturation corresponding to the solubility of ACC as a limiting condition. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhart, M.; et al,

    2005-08-01

    Under Title IX of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Congress reauthorized the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) to continue coordinating acid rain research and monitoring, as it had done during the previous decade, and to provide Congress with periodic reports. In particular, Congress asked NAPAP to assess all available data and information to answer two questions: (1) What are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of Title IV? This question addresses the costs and economic impacts of complying with the Acid Rain Program as well as benefit analyses associated with the various human health and welfare effects, including reduced visibility, damages to materials and cultural resources, and effects on ecosystems. (2) What reductions in deposition rates are needed to prevent adverse ecological effects? This complex questions addresses ecological systems and the deposition levels at which they experience harmful effects. The results of the assessment of the effects of Title IV and of the relationship between acid deposition rates and ecological effects were to be reported to Congress quadrennially, beginning with the 1996 report to Congress. The objective of this Report is to address the two main questions posed by Congress and fully communicate the results of the assessment to decision-makers. Given the primary audience, most of this report is not written as a technical document, although information supporting the conclusions is provided along with references.

  14. Prediction and mastering of wine acidity and tartaric precipitations: the Mextar® software tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Devatine

    2002-06-01

    The article describes the theoretical background upon which MEXTAR® has been developed and details the computation procedures associated to the simulation of the operations described above. Iterative processes are used to determine the various parameters enounced above. They aim in particular at the verification of the electroneutrality of the sample. However, at first electroneutrality is rarely verified because the wine chemical analytical determination is never exhaustive. Therefore, we introduce the concept of «vinic acid» to compensate the negative ion deficit of usual wine chemical analytical determination. This «vinic acid» is describe as a diacid with a fixed second dissociation constant (pK2 = 5 and a first dissociation constant determined automatically by MEXTAR®. This enables MEXTAR® to simulate accurately experimental tartaric precipitations for several samples. Thanks to the predicting capacity of MEXTAR®, the correlation between the total polyphenol content (IPT in red wines and the difficulty to stabilise high IPT wine with respect to tartaric salts is confirmed. Finally, malolactic fermentations are also well simulated. A validation of MEXTAR® for the acid addition or removal has yet to be done when reliable experimental data are available.

  15. Pretreating dogwood seedlings with simulated acidic precipitation increases dogwood anthracnose symptoms in greenhouse-laboratory trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L.; Knighten, J. (USDA Forest Service, Resistance Screening Center, Asheville, NC (United States)); Berrange, P.; Lawton, K.A. (USDA Forest Service, Center for Forest Environmental Studies, Dry Branch, GA (United States)); Britton, K.O. (USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Athens, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose is the most damaging disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) in a large part of the tree's natural range. It is caused by Discula destructiva infection. Previous attempts to inoculate C. florida to produce anthracnose symptoms have met with limited success except when the leaves were pretreated with acidic water, suggesting that acidic precipitation may predispose dogwoods to the disease. This hypothesis was tested in two greenhouse-laboratory studies in which year-old C. florida seedlings were randomly assigned to four treatments of simulated rain (pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5) in 1989 and 1990. After 10 applications over a 42-d period, the seedlings were moved to a temperature-controlled laboratory, placed in plastic bags, humidified, and sprayed with a spore suspension of five D. destructiva isolates. About 30 d layter, the seedlings were examined for the percentage of leaves exhibiting anthracnose symptoms and disease severity on affected leaves. Both trials showed that as the acidity of the simulated rain increased, the incidence and severity of anthracnose leaf symptoms increased. The 1989 study included a soil lime treatment that showed the same trend but the overall occurrence and severity of symptoms was higher. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Determination of trifluoroacetic acid in 1996--1997 precipitation and surface waters in California and Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wujcik, C.E.; Cahill, T.M.; Seiber, J.N. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1999-05-15

    The atmospheric degradation of three chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compounds, namely HFC-134a, HCFC-123, and HCFC-124, results in the formation of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Concentrations of TFA were determined in precipitation and surface water samples collected in California and Nevada during 1996--1997. Terminal lake systems were found to have concentrations 4--13 times higher than their calculated yearly inputs, providing evidence for accumulation. The results support dry deposition as the primary contributor of TFA to surface waters in arid and semiarid environments. Precipitation samples obtained from three different locations contained 20.7--1530 ng/L with significantly higher concentrations in fogwater over rainwater. Elevated levels of TFA were observed for rainwater collected in Nevada over those collected in California, indicating continual uptake and concentration as clouds move from a semiarid to arid climate. Thus several mechanisms exist, including evaporative concentration, vapor-liquid phase partitioning, lowered washout volumes of atmospheric deposition water, and dry deposition, which may lead to elevated concentrations of TFA in atmospheric and surface waters above levels expected from usual rainfall washout.

  17. Acid Rain Examination and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Precipitation in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saeedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in metropolitan cities like Tehran. Rain and snow, as natural events, may dissolve and absorb contaminants of the air and direct them onto the land or surface waters which become polluted. In the present study, precipitation samples were collected from an urbanized area of Tehran. They were analyzed for NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, pH, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Al. We demonstrate that snow samples were often more polluted and had lower pH than those from the rain, possibly as an effect of adsorption capability of snow flakes. Volume weighted average concentrations were calculated and compared with some other studies. Results revealed that Tehran's precipitations are much more polluted than those reported from other metropolitan cities. Cluster analysis revealed that studied parameters such as metals and acidity originated from the same sources, such as fuel combustion in residential and transportation sectors of Tehran.

  18. A simple procedure for preparing chitin oligomers through acetone precipitation after hydrolysis in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazami, Nao; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Mizutani, Daisuke; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Wakita, Satoshi; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao; Sugahara, Yasusato

    2015-11-05

    Chitin oligomers are of interest because of their numerous biologically relevant properties. To prepare chitin oligomers containing 4-6 GlcNAc units [(GlcNAc)4-6], α- and β-chitin were hydrolyzed with concentrated hydrochloric acid at 40 °C. The reactant was mixed with acetone to recover the acetone-insoluble material, and (GlcNAc)4-6 was efficiently recovered after subsequent water extraction. Composition analysis using gel permeation chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that (GlcNAc)4-6 could be isolated from the acetone-insoluble material with recoveries of approximately 17% and 21% from the starting α-chitin and β-chitin, respectively. The acetone precipitation method is highly useful for recovering chitin oligomers from the acid hydrolysate of chitin. The changes in the molecular size and higher-order structure of chitin during the course of hydrolysis were also analyzed, and a model that explains the process of oligomer accumulation is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. First studies on a new concept for amino acid provision through B. subtilis in situ valine production in young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J.V.; Canibe, N.; Nielsen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation of crystalline amino acids is common in diets for piglets. The purpose of the present experiment was to conduct a study on an alternative amino acid provision by means of feeding piglets spores of a B. subtilis strain known to overproduce Val when cultured in vitro. Seventeen...... acid concentrations in digesta and mucosa of the small intestine. However, the Val concentration in plasma of the portal and jugular veins and the urea concentration in plasma of the jugular vein were higher when piglets were fed the +Val diet. The Val:Lys of 0.63:1 was clearly below the requirement...

  20. Phosphate recovery through struvite-family crystals precipitated in the presence of citric acid: mineralogical phase and morphology evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perwitasari, D S; Edahwati, L; Sutiyono, S; Muryanto, S; Jamari, J; Bayuseno, A P

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation strategy of struvite-family crystals is presented in this paper to recover phosphate and potassium from a synthetic wastewater in the presence of citric acid at elevated temperature. The crystal-forming solutions were prepared from crystals of MgCl 2 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 with a molar ratio of 1:1:1 for Mg +2 , [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], and the citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 ) was prepared (1.00 and 20.00 ppm) from citric acid crystals. The Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction pattern confirmed a mixed product of struvite, struvite-(K), and newberyite crystallized at 30°C in the absence of citric acid. In the presence of citric acid at 30° and 40°C, an abundance of struvite and struvite-(K) were observed. A minute impurity of sylvite and potassium peroxide was unexpectedly found in certain precipitates. The crystal solids have irregular flake-shaped morphology, as shown by scanning electron microscopy micrograph. All parameters (citric acid, temperature, pH, Mg/P, and N/P) were deliberately arranged to control struvite-family crystals precipitation.

  1. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  2. Recovery of Vanadium from H2SO4-HF Acidic Leaching Solution of Black Shale by Solvent Extraction and Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of vanadium from sulfuric and hydrofluoric mixed acid solutions generated by the direct leaching of black shale was investigated using solvent extraction and precipitation methods. The process consisted of reduction, solvent extraction, and stripping, followed by precipitation and calcination to yield vanadium pentoxide. The influence of various operating parameters on the extraction and recovery of vanadium was studied. Vanadium (IV was selectively extracted using a mixture of 10% (v/v di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and 5% (v/v tri-n-butylphosphate in sulfonated kerosene. Using six extraction and five stripping stages, the extraction efficiency for vanadium was 96.7% and the stripping efficiency was 99.7%. V2O5 with a purity of 99.52% was obtained by oxidation of the loaded strip solution and precipitation of ammonium polyvanadate at pH 1.8 to 2.2, followed by calcination of the dried precipitate at 550 °C for 2 h. It was concluded that the combination of solvent extraction and precipitation is an efficient method for the recovery of vanadium from a multi-element leach solution generated from black shale.

  3. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia provision on blood sugar level, cholesterols, and uric acid of Etawa Crossbreed Goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Hurip

    2018-05-01

    Previous research on male white rat with provision of Eurycoma longifolia until the 3rd days has increased significantly on the formation of final spermatid from spermatozoon, and testosterone, and increase activity of pituitary cell producing the LH hormone. However, these researches yet studied on possibility of side effects caused by provision of Eurycoma longifolia for 6 days on male EC goat. The research aims to measure the effect of Eurycoma longifolia on the levels of: 1). Blood sugar, 2). Cholesterols, and 3). Uric acid of Male Etawa Crossbreed (EC) goat. This research was conducted through two treatment groups, namely : 1). Control group (provision of aquadest) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days, 2) Eurycoma longifolia group with a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight (bb) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days. Measurements on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid level were conducted in the 1st, 2nd and 6th days. The obtained data were analyzed using Duncan test with confidence level by 95% (α=0,05) comparing the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid measured from the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days with the same compound level measured from the Eurycoma longifolia treatment group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. The result obtained there were no significant changes on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid levels between all Eurycoma longifolia treatment groups compared to the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. Thus, the Eurycoma longifolia provision until in the 6th day did not provide any negative side effects and can be applied in the Etawa crossbreed goat farm.

  4. The Role of Poly(Aspartic Acid) in the Precipitation of Calcium Phosphate in Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaert, Bram; Beniash, Elia; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2013-12-28

    Many questions remain regarding the formation of ultrathin hydroxapatite (HAP) crystals within the confines of collagen fibrils of bones. These structures form through the interplay of the collagen matrix and non-collagenous proteins, and in vitro mineralization studies employing poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) as a mimic of the non-collagenous proteins have generated mineralized fibrils with structures comparable to their biogenic counterparts. In this article, we employ the nanoscale cylindrical pores perforating track-etch filtration membranes to investigate the role of PAsp in controlling the infiltration and crystallization of calcium phosphate (CaP) within confined volumes. Oriented polycrystalline HAP and non-oriented octacalcium phosphate (OCP) rods precipitated within the membrane pores via an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursor, where PAsp increased the proportion of OCP rods. Further, ACP crystallized faster within the membranes than in bulk solution when PAsp was present, suggesting that PAsp inhibits crystallization in solution, but promotes it when bound to a substrate. Finally, in contrast to the collagen system, PAsp reduced the yield of intra-membrane mineral and failed to enhance infiltration. This suggests that a specific interaction between the collagen matrix and ACP/PAsp precursor particles drives effective infiltration. Thus, while orientation of HAP crystals can be achieved by confinement alone, the chemistry of the collagen matrix is necessary for efficient mineralisation with CaP.

  5. Oxidative Precipitation of Manganese from Acid Mine Drainage by Potassium Permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regeane M. Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidative precipitation by potassium permanganate is a widely recognised process for manganese removal, research dealing with highly contaminated acid mine drainage (AMD has yet to be performed. The present study investigated the efficiency of KMnO4 in removing manganese from AMD effluents. Samples of AMD that originated from inactive uranium mine in Brazil were chemically characterised and treated by KMnO4 at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. Analyses by Raman spectroscopy and geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code were employed to assess solid phases. Results indicated that the manganese was rapidly oxidised by KMnO4 in a process enhanced at higher pH. The greatest removal, that is, 99%, occurred at pH 7.0, when treated waters presented manganese levels as low as 1.0 mg/L, the limit established by the Brazilian legislation. Birnessite (MnO2, hausmannite (Mn3O4, and manganite (MnOOH were detected by Raman spectroscopy. These phases were consistently identified by the geochemical model, which also predicted phases containing iron, uranium, manganese, and aluminium during the correction of the pH as well as bixbyite (Mn2O3, nsutite (MnO2, pyrolusite (MnO2, and fluorite (CaF2 following the KMnO4 addition.

  6. Geological and hydrochemical sensitivity of the eastern United States to acid precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R.; Galloway, J.N.; Norton, S.A.; Schofield, C.L.; Shaffer, P.W.; Burns, D.A.

    1980-03-01

    A new analysis of bedrock geology maps of the eastern US constitutes a simple model for predicting areas which might be impacted by acid precipitation and it allows much greater resolution for detecting sensitivity than has previously been available for the region. Map accuracy has been verified by examining current alkalinities and pH's of waters in several test states, including Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Virginia and North Carolina. In regions predicted to be highly sensitive, alkalinities in upstream sites were generally low. Many areas of the eastern US are pinpointed in which some of the surface waters, especially upstream reaches, may be sensitive to acidification. Pre-1970 data were compared to post-1975 data, revealing marked declines in both alkalinity and pH of sensitive waters of two states tested, North Carolina, where pH and alkalinity have decreased in 80% of 38 streams and New Hampshire, where pH in 90% of 49 streams and lakes has decreased since 1949. These sites are predicted to be sensitive by the geological map on the basis of their earlier alkalinity values. The map is to be improved by the addition of a soils component.

  7. On the Relation between Natural and Enforced Syneresis of Acidic Precipitated Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wilhelm

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Silica in industrial production processes is precipitated by mixing an acid and an inorganic precursor. In this aqueous solution, silica particles form due to a polymerization reaction and agglomeration and, finally, build a gel. Thereafter, the reaction continues, and the gel network shrinks with the expulsion of the enclosed pore liquid. This slow process is known as “natural syneresis” and strongly affects the product properties, such as the agglomerate size, specific surface or porosity of the silica produced. In order to investigate the influence of process parameters, such as temperature, pH or ionic strength, on the shrinkage in shorter time-scales, we propose an acceleration of this process and define it as “enforced syneresis”. The acceleration is performed by applying a mechanical external force to the gel by means of a plunger and measuring the shrinkage behavior under these conditions. Thereby, the conceptual idea is the prediction of the shrinkage due to natural syneresis based on the results of enforced syneresis. We are now able to predict the natural syneresis behavior from enforced syneresis data by the development of a correlative model. Using this prediction model, we can show the influence of temperature on the maximum shrinkage and on its rate in a significantly shorter time of about 12 h instead of several days.

  8. Removal of palladium precipitate from a simulated high-level radioactive liquid waste by reduction by ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Ho; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Choi, Cheong Song

    1998-01-01

    A study of the selective removal of Palladium from a simulated solution of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) was carried out. The simulated solution contained 7 representative elements (Pd 2+ , Cs + , Sr 2+ , Fe 3+ , MoO 2 2+ , Ru 4+ , and Nd 3+ ) typical of HLLW, ascorbic acid was added to the solution at room temperature. Pd 2+ in the simulated solution was easily reduced to Pd metal by the ascorbic acid and then the metal precipitate could be removed from the solution, whereas other elements remained mainly in solution. When the resulting Pd metal was left in solution, it was reoxidized to Pb 2+ ion and redissolved in a nitric acid medium. The oxidation rate of Pd 2+ depended on the presence of a transition metal such as ferric ion, and was also in proportion to the concentration of nitric acid and in inverse proportion to the concentration of ascrobic acid. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of Lignin Precipitated From The Soda Black Liquor of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers by Various Mineral Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N Mohamad Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch was directly isolated by various mineral acids i.e. sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and nitric acid at three levels of concentration (20% v/v, 60%v/v and concentrated. A comparison study was performed through physicochemical properties and structural features using FT-IR, UV, 13C-NMR and nitrobenzene oxidation. The FT-IR results showed that there is no significant difference between the main structures of the lignin isolated by various acids. However, low concentration of phosphoric acid is preferable because of its highest yield. The S: V: H ratio of 7-15:6-11:1 as evaluated by the nitrobenzene oxidation procedure suggests that soda lignin can be classified as belonging to either the cereal straw on grass type. The UV results indicate that phosphoric acid consistently gave the highest absorbance value among the four acids tested in this study regardless of its concentration level. The C13-FTNMR spectra, suggest that the lignin structure is independent of the type of acid used for precipitation.

  10. The Effect of Double Crosslinker on Precipitation Polymerization of Poly(acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Es-haghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked poly(acrylic acids were prepared by dual cross-linkers via precipitation polymerization method in a binary organic solvent. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA-400 as a long-chain cross-linker and di(trimethylol propane tetraacrylate (DTMPTA as multifunctional cross-linker were used. PEGDA-400 was utilized to increase thickening properties and DTMPTA was used to improve the gel strength. The dual cross-linkers effect on the sample features (i.e., equilibrium swelling, thickening properties and rheological properties was investigated. Maximum amount of swelling was obtained by a high percentage of long-chain cross-linker. The apparent viscosity of the microgels was measured to determine their thickening properties for aqueous media. Maximum viscosity occurred at DT25-PE75 which was dependent on the type of cross-linkers in the polymer structure. The Flory-Rehner equation (from swelling ratio data and rubber elasticity theory (from rheometry data were used to discuss the network structure of the polymer. Increasing density of the network was shown by a sample containing high percentage of a four-functional cross-linker. The rheological properties of the cross-linked polymers were measured to determine storage modulus (strength network. The rheological behaviors demonstrated that the synthesized polymer containing a high amount of four-functional cross-linker had higher storage modulus (G′ than other samples. In addition the consistency coefficient (m and flow behavior index (n parameters of Ostwald equation were investigated as well. As a result, n values in each sample were found to be smaller than 1 and these results were fitted clearly with the pseudoplastic model. Apparent and rotational viscosities were used to determine the optimal cross-linker type (synthesized sample contained a high percentage of long-chain cross-linker.

  11. The production of rare earth elements group via tributyl phosphate extraction and precipitation stripping using oxalic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Jorjani, Esmaeil; Shahbazi, Malek

    2016-01-01

    In this study, solvent extraction and precipitation stripping were used to produce rare earth elements (REEs). Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was used to extract yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium from an aqueous solution produced by nitric acid leaching of apatite concentrate. In the extraction stage, the effects of TBP concentration, pH, contact time, temperature, and phase ratio were investigated. The results show that about 95%, 90%, 87% and 80% of neodymium, cerium, lanthanum, and yttri...

  12. Development and Preliminary Assessment of Hemoperfusion Cartridge with Tannic Acid for Toxic Proteins' Precipitation: An In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Miwa Hanai Yoshida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP is one of the extracorporeal removal techniques that are used to remove toxins from the body. CHP generally is considered the preferred method for extracorporeal extraction of several toxins—toxins that are adsorbed by activated charcoal. Assessments of the tannic acid's protective effects on ophidian poisoning are associated with the toxic proteins' precipitation by tannic acid. The challenge in treating a snakebite lies in removing the injected poison with minimal damage to blood constituent proteins. An alternative is CHP, and this investigation proposed to develop a column for hemoperfuser cartridge, combining charcoal granules trapped between layers of polymeric material conjugated to tannic acid, using an in vitro model scaled to the Wistar rat, which can be tested in an animal model. The cartridge was evaluated using the 22 full factorial design, in duplicate, as a method to study the effects of granulated-charcoal size and tannic acid concentration on the hematologic profile (platelet and leukocyte counts and biochemical profile (total serum protein and albumin dosages of sheep blood. The results demonstrate that charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge: (1 decreases the serum in sheep blood volume, as consequence, (2 increases the serum proteins' concentration, and (iii exerts slight influence on albumin. The inclusion of tannic acid in hemoperfuser column precipitates some of serum proteins and albumin, decreasing their concentrations in the plasma serum. In conclusion, based on these effects we can suggest the use of 0.02 g tannic acid concentration and 8–20 mesh granulated charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge for precipitating toxic proteins from snake venoms.

  13. Removal of chromophore in enzymatic hydrolysis by acid precipitation to improve the quality of xylo-oligosaccharides from corn stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Hai; Zhang, Jie; Qu, Yong-Shui; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    As the most representative functional sugar, the application areas and market demands of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) have been expanding year by year. Owing to the complex structure of corn stalk (CS), XOS obtained from CS are accompanied by problems such as low purity and high color value, which degrade the product. To improve the quality of XOS from CS, the enzymatic hydrolysis was precipitated by acid; then, the ethanol elution concentration was systematically investigated after optimizing the adsorption conditions. The results showed that the purity of XOS was increased to 87.28% from 67.31%, and the color value was decreased to 1050 from 4682 when the acid precipitation pH was 2. On the basis of acid precipitation, if the corresponding optimal conditions of XOS adsorption and elution were used, the highest purity of XOS was 97.87% obtained, with the lowest color value, 780, which reached the standard of the commercial XOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The production of rare earth elements group via tributyl phosphate extraction and precipitation stripping using oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Jorjani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solvent extraction and precipitation stripping were used to produce rare earth elements (REEs. Tributyl phosphate (TBP was used to extract yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium from an aqueous solution produced by nitric acid leaching of apatite concentrate. In the extraction stage, the effects of TBP concentration, pH, contact time, temperature, and phase ratio were investigated. The results show that about 95%, 90%, 87% and 80% of neodymium, cerium, lanthanum, and yttrium, respectively, can be extracted in optimum conditions of extraction. Hot, deionized water was used to scrub the impurities from the loaded organic phase. The results showed that three stages of scrubbing with a phase ratio (Va/Vo of five removed about 80%, 30%, 27%, and 15% of Ca, Mg, Fe, and P, respectively, from loaded TBP, while less than 9% of total REEs was lost. The effects on precipitation stripping of oxalic acid concentration, contact time, and phase ratio were investigated. The results showed that precipitation stripping is a viable alternative to traditional acid stripping in the REEs production process. Mixed REEs oxide with an assay of about 90% can be achieved as a final product.

  15. Oleic-acid-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyergyek, Sašo; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of oleic-acid-coated CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles from an aqueous solution. ► During the co-precipitation of Co 2+ /Fe 3+ single-phase spinel forms. ► During the co-precipitation of Co 2+ /Fe 2+ , feroxyhyte forms in addition to spinel. ► Oleic acid increases the spinel formation temperature and limits particle growth. ► Colloidal suspensions of ferrimagnetic CoFe 2 O 4 were prepared. - Abstract: Oleic-acid-coated CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal synthesis. The coprecipitation of the nanoparticles was achieved by the rapid addition of a strong base to an aqueous solution of cations in the presence of the oleic acid surfactant, or without this additive. The nanoparticles were also synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of suspensions of the precipitates, coprecipitated at room temperature in the presence of the oleic acid, or without it. The influence of the synthesis conditions, such as the valence state of the iron cation in the starting aqueous solution, the temperature of the treatment and the presence of oleic acid, on the particles size was systematically studied. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that, although spinel forms at room temperature, a substantial amount of Co was incorporated within the secondary, feroxyhyte-like phase when the iron cation was in the 2+ state. In contrast, when iron was in the 3+ state, the spinel forms at elevated temperatures of approximately 60 °C. The presence of the oleic acid further increased the formation temperature for the stoichiometric spinel. Moreover, the oleic acid impeded the particles’ growth and enabled the preparation of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles in non-polar organic solvents. The nanoparticles’ size was successfully controlled by the temperature of the synthesis in the region where superparamagnetism

  16. TCA precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins is commonly used to concentrate protein samples or remove contaminants, including salts and detergents, prior to downstream applications such as SDS-PAGE or 2D-gels. TCA precipitation denatures the protein, so it should not be used if the protein must remain in its folded state (e.g., if you want to measure a biochemical activity of the protein). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  18. Metal transport and remobilisation in a basin affected by acid mine drainage: the role of ochreous amorphous precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consani, Sirio; Carbone, Cristina; Dinelli, Enrico; Balić-Žunić, Tonci; Cutroneo, Laura; Capello, Marco; Salviulo, Gabriella; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Metal-polluted mine waters represent a major threat to the quality of waters and sediments in a downstream basin. At the confluence between acidic mine waters and the unpolluted waters of the Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, North-West Italy), the massive formation of an ochreous amorphous precipitate takes place. This precipitate forms a soft blanket that covers the torrent bed and can be observed down to its mouth in the sea. The aim of this work is to evaluate the dispersion of metals in the Gromolo Torrent basin from the abandoned Cu-Fe sulphide mine of Libiola to the Ligurian Sea and to assess the metal remobilisation from the amorphous precipitates. The mineralogy of the superficial sediments collected in the torrent bed and the concentrations of different elements of environmental concern (Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, and Sb) were therefore analysed. The results showed that the precipitates contain high concentration of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn, significantly modifying the bulk chemistry of the Gromolo Torrent sediments. In order to evaluate the possible remobilisation of ecotoxic elements from the amorphous precipitates, bulk leaching tests were performed with both deionised and seawater. Bulk leaching tests with deionised water mobilised primarily high Pb amounts, but also relatively high concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn are released in the leachate. In seawater tests, Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn were released in smaller amounts, while other elements like Mn, Cd, Co, and Ni increased in the released fraction. Pb was still strongly released as in deionised water experiments. The results show that the interaction of precipitates and seawater can remobilise high concentrations of metals, thus affecting the surrounding environment.

  19. Lanthanide-alkali double sulfate precipitation from strong sulfuric acid NiMH battery waste leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porvali, Antti; Wilson, Benjamin P; Lundström, Mari

    2018-01-01

    In NiMH battery leaching, rare earth element (REE) precipitation from sulfate media is often reported as being a result of increasing pH of the pregnant leach solution (PLS). Here we demonstrate that this precipitation is a phenomenon that depends on both Na + and SO 4 2- concentrations and not solely on pH. A two-stage leaching for industrially crushed NiMH waste is performed: The first stage consists of H 2 SO 4 leaching (2 M H 2 SO 4 , L/S = 10.4, V = 104 ml, T = 30 °C) and the second stage of H 2 O leaching (V = 100 ml, T = 25 °C). Moreover, precipitation experiments are separately performed as a function of added Na 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 4 . During the precipitation, higher than stoichiometric quantities of Na to REE are utilized and this increase in both precipitation reagent concentrations results in an improved double sulfate precipitation efficiency. The best REE precipitation efficiencies (98-99%) - achieved by increasing concentrations of H 2 SO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 by 1.59 M and 0.35 M, respectively - results in a 21.8 times Na (as Na 2 SO 4 ) and 58.3 times SO 4 change in stoichiometric ratio to REE. Results strongly indicate a straightforward approach for REE recovery from NiMH battery waste without the need to increase the pH of PLS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocabulary of acid precipitation and air pollution. Terminology bulletin 175. Vocabulaire des precipitations acides et de la pollution atmospherique. Bulletin de terminologie 175

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, D

    1988-01-01

    This English-French vocabulary includes about 600 concepts on acid rain as well as general air pollution terminology. A large number of official names and their abbreviations have also been incorporated into the dictionary. The vocabulary is arranged alphabeticaly into a series of terminology files, each of which begins with a main entry in English and French. The main entry represents those terms selected as being of superior terminological quality. The main entry may be followed by sub-entries, which are synonyms, and may also be followed by a definition, an example of usage, a defining context, or a terminological observation. Sub-entries are in the same alphabetical sequence as the main entries, and refer the reader to the main entry. An index of French terms is also included. 243 refs.

  1. Carbonate precipitation under bulk acidic conditions as a potential biosignature for searching life on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Preston, Louisa J.; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Izawa, Matthew R.M.; Huang, L.; Southam, Gordon; Banerjee, Neil R.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Flemming, Roberta; Gómez-Ortíz, David; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo; Darby Dyar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of carbonate minerals in ancient Martian rocks have been interpreted as evidence for the former presence of circumneutral solutions optimal for carbonate precipitation. Sampling from surface and subsurface regions of the low-pH system of Río Tinto has shown, unexpectedly, that

  2. Study on the Key Technology of High Purity Strontium Titanate Powder Synthesized from Oxalic Acid Co-sediment Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Yingjie; Niu, Wei; Tang, Jian; Ding, Shuang; Li, Meiyang

    2017-09-01

    Oxalate coprecipitation is applied in this paper, high purity titanium tetrachloride, and after the purification of strontium chloride, match with a certain concentration of solution, oxalate and strontium chloride and titanium tetrachloride in 1.005:1.000 make strontium titanium mixture ratio, slowly under 60°C to join in oxalic acid solution, aging around 4 h, get oxygen titanium strontium oxalate (SrTiO(C2O4)2 • 4H2 ) precipitation, after washing, drying and other process made oxygen titanium strontium oxalate powder.

  3. Dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in basalts due to reactions with carbonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakiya, Shreya; Adam, Ludmila; Esteban, Lionel; Rowe, Michael C.; Shane, Phil

    2017-06-01

    One of the leading hydrothermal alteration processes in volcanic environments is when rock-forming minerals with high concentrations of iron, magnesium, and calcium react with CO2 and water to form carbonate minerals. This is used to the advantage of geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Here we experimentally investigate how mineral carbonation processes alter the rock microstructure due to CO2-water-rock interactions. In order to characterize these changes, CO2-water-rock alteration in Auckland Volcanic Field young basalts (less than 0.3 Ma) is studied before and after a 140 day reaction period. We investigate how whole core basalts with similar geochemistry but different porosity, permeability, pore geometry, and volcanic glass content alter due to CO2-water-rock reactions. Ankerite and aluminosilicate minerals precipitate as secondary phases in the pore space. However, rock dissolution mechanisms are found to dominate this secondary mineral precipitation resulting in an increase in porosity and decrease in rigidity of all samples. The basalt with the highest initial porosity and volcanic glass volume shows the most secondary mineral precipitation. At the same time, this sample exhibits the greatest increase in porosity and permeability, and a decrease in rock rigidity post reaction. For the measured samples, we observe a correlation between volcanic glass volume and rock porosity increase due to rock-fluid reactions. We believe this study can help understand the dynamic rock-fluid interactions when monitoring field scale CO2 sequestration projects in basalts.

  4. Effects of acid precipitation on embryonic mortality of Ambystoma salamanders in the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R P

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of increased embryonic mortality of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum concomitant with breeding pond acidification from acid rainfall in the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts analyzes the pH and chemistry of rain and pond water and monitored embryonic mortality in 1976 and 1977. Although acid rain continues to occur in the area and Ambystoma breeding ponds are acidic, the average pH of six ponds dropped from 5.62 to 5.10 during the study. Pond pH decreased up to 0.75 pH units following heavy rainfall. Despite this, embryonic mortality of spotted and Jefferson salamanders was low, and no significant correlation between pond pH and percent embryonic mortality was found. The size of present populations and the embryonic acid tolerance exhibited by the salamander indicate that acid rain has not had an effect in this location. 22 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Generation of dose-response relationships to assess the effects of acidity in precipitation on growth and productivity of vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed with several plant species in natural environments as well in a greenhouse and/or tissue culture facilities to establish dose-response functions of plant responses to simulated acidic rain in order to determine environmental risk assessments to ambient levels of acidic rain. Response functions of foliar injury, biomass of leaves and seed of soybean and pinto beans, root yields of radishes and garden beets, and reproduction of bracken fern are considered. The dose-response function of soybean seed yields with the hydrogen ion concentration of simulated acidic rainfalls was expressed by the equation y = 21.06-1.01 log x where y = seed yield in grams per plant and x = the hydrogen concentration if μeq l -1 . The correlation coefficient of this relationship was -0.90. A similar dose-response function was generated for percent fertilization of ferns in a forest understory. When percent fertilization is plotted on logarithmic scale with hydrogen ion concentration of the simulated rain solution, the Y intercept is 51.18, slope -0.041 with a correlation coefficient of -0.98. Other dose-response functions were generated that assist in a general knowledge as to which plant species and which physiological processes are most impacted by acidic precipitation. Some responses did not produce convenient dose-response relationships. In such cases the responses may be altered by other environmental factors or there may be no differences among treatment means

  6. Antisolvent Precipitation for the Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Spheres as Highly Effective Solid Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cheng Chao; Dou, Jian; Chen, Luwei; Lin, Jianyi; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a low-cost reaction protocol to synthesize mesoporous Nb 2O 5-based solid acid catalysts with external shape control. In the synthesis, monodisperse glycolated niobium oxide spheres (GNOS) were prepared by means of a simple antisolvent precipitation approach and subsequently converted to mesoporous niobium oxide spheres (MNOS) with a large surface area of 312m 2g -1 by means of the hydrothermal treatment. The antisolvent acetone used to obtain GNOS was recovered through distillation at high purity. The obtained mesoporous MNOS were functionalized further with sulfate anions at different temperatures or incorporated with tungstophosphoric acid to obtain recyclable solid acid catalysts. These MNOS-based catalysts showed excellent performance in a wide range of acid-catalyzed reactions, such as Friedel-Crafts alkylation, esterification, and hydrolysis of acetates. As they are monodisperse spheres with diameters in the submicrometer range, the catalysts can be easily separated and reused. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Antisolvent Precipitation for the Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Spheres as Highly Effective Solid Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cheng Chao

    2012-03-20

    We have developed a low-cost reaction protocol to synthesize mesoporous Nb 2O 5-based solid acid catalysts with external shape control. In the synthesis, monodisperse glycolated niobium oxide spheres (GNOS) were prepared by means of a simple antisolvent precipitation approach and subsequently converted to mesoporous niobium oxide spheres (MNOS) with a large surface area of 312m 2g -1 by means of the hydrothermal treatment. The antisolvent acetone used to obtain GNOS was recovered through distillation at high purity. The obtained mesoporous MNOS were functionalized further with sulfate anions at different temperatures or incorporated with tungstophosphoric acid to obtain recyclable solid acid catalysts. These MNOS-based catalysts showed excellent performance in a wide range of acid-catalyzed reactions, such as Friedel-Crafts alkylation, esterification, and hydrolysis of acetates. As they are monodisperse spheres with diameters in the submicrometer range, the catalysts can be easily separated and reused. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Complete covalent structure of statherin, a tyrosine-rich acidic peptide which inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation from human parotid saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, D H; Hay, D I

    1977-03-10

    The complete amino acid sequence of human salivary statherin, a peptide which strongly inhibits precipitation from supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions, and therefore stabilizes supersaturated saliva, has been determined. The NH2-terminal half of this Mr=5380 (43 amino acids) polypeptide was determined by automated Edman degradations (liquid phase) on native statherin. The peptide was digested separately with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Staphylococcus aureus protease, and the resulting peptides were purified by gel filtration. Manual Edman degradations on purified peptide fragments yielded peptides that completed the amino acid sequence through the penultimate COOH-terminal residue. These analyses, together with carboxypeptidase digestion of native statherin and of peptide fragments of statherin, established the complete sequence of the molecule. The 2 serine residues (positions 2 and 3) in statherin were identified as phosphoserine. The amino acid sequence of human salivary statherin is striking in a number of ways. The NH2-terminal one-third is highly polar and includes three polar dipeptides: H2PO3-Ser-Ser-H2PO3-Arg-Arg-, and Glu-Glu-. The COOH-terminal two-thirds of the molecule is hydrophobic, containing several repeating dipeptides: four of -Gn-Pro-, three of -Tyr-Gln-, two of -Gly-Tyr-, two of-Gln-Tyr-, and two of the tetrapeptide sequence -Pro-Tyr-Gln-Pro-. Unusual cleavage sites in the statherin sequence obtained with chymotrypsin and S. aureus protease were also noted.

  9. Synthesis of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Martínez, D. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil (UANL), Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martínez-de la Cruz, A., E-mail: azael70@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); López-Cuéllar, E. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ► WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ► WO{sub 3} can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H{sub 42}N{sub 10}O{sub 42}W{sub 12}·xH{sub 2}O):citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO{sub 3}, the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UV–vis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 °C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  10. Synthesis of WO3 nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, D.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A.; López-Cuéllar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► WO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ► WO 3 photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ► WO 3 can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H 42 N 10 O 42 W 12 ·xH 2 O):citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 ). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO 3 at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO 3 , the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO 3 obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UV–vis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 °C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO 3 photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  11. Complying with Clean Air Act acid rain provisions: A case history of required air quality analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComb, G.G. Jr.; Naperkoski, G.J.; Rogers, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Clean Air Act Amendments being considered by Congress require SO 2 emissions reductions from numerous large power generation sources nationwide. As currently written, these amendments also require that the affected sources must continue to comply with all provisions of the existing Clean Air Act while achieving the required reductions. United Engineers and Constructors is presently assisting utilities in the evaluation of compliance options for units totaling over 18,000 MW. The methods of achieving compliance with the probable requirements of the Act most often include the retrofit installation of SO 2 scrubbers. A study designed to determine permitting issues and the scope of air quality analyses required to demonstrate the regulatory acceptability of installation of wet scrubbing systems has been completed for units totaling a portion of the above-referenced 18,000 MW. The study results show that, under certain commonly occurring circumstances, there is a risk of creating National Ambient Air Quality Standards contraventions for SO 2 and NO 2 when scrubbers are installed at an existing facility. Any such contraventions subject the plant to state and/or federal enforcement actions. In addition, installation of materials handling equipment for lime stone can trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration requirements as a major modification. This paper is divided into two major areas. The first deals with the air quality regulatory requirements imposed upon installation of pollution control equipment. The first section is further sub-divided into two sections: one covering requirements emanating from the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments and its implementing regulations and the other the regulatory requirements of the new Clean Air Act Amendments. This section on regulatory requirements provides background information for the understanding of the second major section of the paper which gives the results of the hypothetical case study

  12. Effects of organic solvents on hyaluronic acid nanoparticles obtained by precipitation and chemical crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicudo, Rafaela Costa Souza; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a hydrophilic mucopolysaccharide composed of alternating units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. It is used in many medical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications, as sponges, films, or particle formulations. Hyaluronic acid nanoparticles can be synthesized free of oil and surfactants by nanoprecipitation in organic solvents, followed by chemical crosslinking. The organic solvent plays an important role in particles size and structure. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of acetone, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol on the synthesis and physico-chemical properties of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles. Particles were crosslinked with adipic hydrazide and chloride carbodiimide under controlled conditions. The nanoparticles obtained with all three studied solvents were moderately electrostatically stable. Experiments with acetone produced the smallest particle size (120.44 nm) and polydispersity (0.27). The size and polydispersity of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles correlated with the surface tension between water and the organic solvents, not with the thermodynamic affinity of water for the organic solvents.

  13. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, C R; Macías, F; Pérez-López, R

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  14. Determination of elemental impurities in phosphoric acid by INAA employing a novel method of phosphate precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Amsil, H.; Kučera, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, APR (2015), s. 157-162 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumental neutron activation analysis * phosphoric acid * elemental impurities * isothermal distillation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  15. Determination of elemental impurities in phosphoric acid by INAA employing a novel method of phosphate precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Amsil, H.; Kučera, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, AUG (2014), s. 3455 ISSN 1588-2780 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumental neutron activation analysis * phosphoric acid * elemental impurities * isothermal distillation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  16. Effect of Surface Precipitate on the Crevice Corrosion in HYBRID and Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Jung, J. Y.; Won, H. J.; Kim, S. B.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Park, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the crevice corrosion for Inconel-600 and 304SS in OA solution according to the change in pH. The evaluation of the crevice corrosion with the chemical thermodynamic analysis identified the effect of the residual chemicals such as iron-oxalate and nickeloxalate to the crevice corrosion behavior. Test results were compared with those of HYBRID (HYdrizine Base Reductive metal Ion Decontamination). The crevice corrosion properties of 304 SS and Inconel-600 in HYBRID and oxalic acid solution were evaluated. In case of oxalic acid solution, the corrosion rate on 304SS was rapidly increased with a pH decrease of around 2, but there was no increase in the corrosion rate on Inconel-600

  17. Eliminating radium from uranium mill acid effluent with barium chloride-sodium carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiayuan

    1998-01-01

    The eliminating radium procedure, barium chloride-sodium carbonate-sand filtering, being used, radium can be eliminated to 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L order of magnitude from uranium mill acid effluents which contain 3.7 Bq/L Ra and pH 6∼9 when Ba 2+ is added by 3∼5 mg per litre, Na 2 CO 3 5mg. The radium elimination rate is more than 90%

  18. Biology and chemistry of three Pennsylvania lakes: responses to acid precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradt, P.T.; Dudley, J.L.; Berg, M.B.; Barrasso, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The biology and chemistry of three northeastern Pennsylvania lakes was studied from summer 1981 through summer 1983 to evaluate lakes with different sensitivities to acidification. At the acidified lake there were fewer phytoplankton and zooplankton species than at the moderately sensitive lakes. The most numerous plankton species in all three lakes are reportedly acid tolerant. Among the benthic macro-invertebrates (BMI) there were more acid tolerant Chironomidae at the acidified lake, but more acid intolerant Ephemeroptera and Mollusca and a higher wet weight at the least sensitive lake. There were no differences among the lakes' BMI mean total numbers or mean number of taxa. The fish community at the acidified lake was dominated by stunted Lepomis gibbosus, but L. machrochirous were most abundant in the other lakes. Principal component analysis suggested a shift in all three lakes over the sampling period toward combined lower pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, Ca and Mg and higher Al and Mn. Such chemical changes have been associated with acidification. The rate and extent of acidification appeared to be controlled by geological and hydrological characteristics of the drainage basins. 38 refs.

  19. Biology and chemistry of tree Pennsylvania lakes: responses to acid precipitation. [Lepomis gibbosus; Lepomis machrochirous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradt, P.T.; Dudley, J.L.; Berg, M.B.; Barrasso, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The biology and chemistry of three northeastern Pennsylvania lakes was studied from summer 1981 through summer 1983 to evaluate lakes with different sensitivities to acidification. At the acidifies lake (total alkalinity par. delta 0.0 ..mu..eq L/sup -1/) there were fewer phytoplankton and zooplankton species than at the moderately sensitive lakes. The most numerous plankton species in all three lakes are reportedly acid tolerant. Among the benthic macro- invertebrates (BMI) there were more acid tolerant Chironomidae at the acidified lake, but more acid intolerant Ephemeroptera and Mollusca and a higher wet weight at the least sensitive lake. There were no differences among the lakes' BMI mean total numbers or mean number of taxa. The fish community at the acidified lake was dominated by stunted Lepomis gibbosus, but L. machrochirous were most abundant in the other lakes. Principal component analysis suggested a shift in all three lakes over the sampling period toward combined lower pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, Ca, and Mg and higher Al and Mn. Such chemical changes have been associated with acidification. The rate and extent of acidification appeared to be controlled by geological and hydrological characteristics of the drainage basins.

  20. Effects of simulated acid precipitation and liming on pine litter decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishac, Y.Z.; Hovland, J.

    1976-01-01

    The decomposition of withered lodgepole pine needles (Pinus contorta douglas) has been studied in a laboratory experiment. The needles were picked from trees that have been irrigated with simulated acid rain at pH 5.6 or 3.0. The soil beneath some of the trees was limed. The decomposition of the needles increased with temperature and incubation period. Liming of the soil retarded the decomposition of the needles that have been given rain at pH 3, while irrigation with 50 mm of water per month at pH 3 increased the decomposition compared with 25 mm/month. When needles were incubated in dilute sulphuric acid, the decomposition was reduced at pH 1.8 compared to the decomposition at pH 3.5. At pH 1.0 no decomposition occurred. Fungi were isolated from the needles. The different treatments did not seem to affect the composition of the fungal flora of the needles. The fungi were tested for their ability to decompose cellulose. The four most active cellulose decomposeres were Trichoderma harzianum, Coniothyrium sp., Cladosporium macrocarpum, and a sterile white mycelium. T. harzianum seemed to be more tolerant to acid conditions than the other fungi.

  1. Ultra-Small Fatty Acid-Stabilized Magnetite Nanocolloids Synthesized by In Situ Hydrolytic Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheireddine El-Boubbou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, fast, large-scale, and cost-effective preparation of uniform controlled magnetic nanoparticles remains a major hurdle on the way towards magnetically targeted applications at realistic technical conditions. Herein, we present a unique one-pot approach that relies on simple basic hydrolytic in situ coprecipitation of inexpensive metal salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+ compartmentalized by stabilizing fatty acids and aided by the presence of alkylamines. The synthesis was performed at relatively low temperatures (~80°C without the use of high-boiling point solvents and elevated temperatures. This method allowed for the production of ultra-small, colloidal, and hydrophobically stabilized magnetite metal oxide nanoparticles readily dispersed in organic solvents. The results reveal that the obtained magnetite nanoparticles exhibit narrow size distributions, good monodispersities, high saturation magnetizations, and excellent colloidal stabilities. When the [fatty acid] : [Fe] ratio was varied, control over nanoparticle diameters within the range of 2–10 nm was achieved. The amount of fatty acid and alkylamine used during the reaction proved critical in governing morphology, dispersity, uniformity, and colloidal stability. Upon exchange with water-soluble polymers, the ultra-small sized particles become biologically relevant, with great promise for theranostic applications as imaging and magnetically targeted delivery vehicles.

  2. Comparative study on precipitation methods of yellow-cake from acid leachate of rock phosphate and Its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abow Slama, E. H. Y.

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried-out to leach uranium from rock phosphate using sulphuric acid in presences of potassium chlorate as an oxidant and to investigate the relative purity of different forms of yellow cakes produced with ammonia ((NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 ), magnesia (UO 3 .xH 2 O) and sodium hydroxide (Na 2 U 2 O 7 ) as precipitants, as well as purification of the products with TBP extraction and matching its impurity levels with specification of the commercial products. Alpha-particle spectrometry was for used for determination of activity concentration of uranium isotopes (''2''3''4U and ''2''3''8U) in rock phosphate, resulting green phosphoric acid solution, and in different forms of the yellow cake from which the equivalent mass concentration of uranium was deduced. Likewise, AAS was used for determination of impurities (Pb, Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu). On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in the rock phosphate was 1468±979 Bq/Kg (119.38±79.66 ppm), and 711±252 Bq/L (57.85±20.46 ppm) in the resulting green solution with corresponding percent of dissolution amounting to 48% which is considered low indicating that the experimental conditions (i.e. dissolution container, temperature, PH, retention time) were not optimal. However, the isotopic ratio (''2''3''4U, ''2''3''8U) in all stages of hydrometallurgical process was not much different from unity indicating lack of fractionation. Crude yellow cakes (hydrate uranium trioxide, ammonium diuranate and sodium diuranate) were precipitated from the green solutions prior to separation of iron and once after iron separation. Although, iron was tested using bipyridine and SCN, it was found in all types of crude samples analyzed this might be attributed to either the quality of the reagent used or inhibition of Fe present in the solution by stronger complexing agent. Uranium mass concentration in crude yellow cakes precipitated before iron separation was found following the order: UO 3 .xH 2 O

  3. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests

  4. Evidence for acid-precipitation-induced trends in stream chemistry at hydrologic bench-mark stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.

    1983-01-01

    Ten- to 15-year water-quality records from a network of headwater sampling stations show small declines in stream sulfate concentrations at stations in the northeastern quarter of the Nation and small increases in sulfate at most southeastern and western sites. The regional pattern of stream sulfate trends is similar to that reported for trends in S02 emissions to the atmosphere during the same period. Trends in the ratio of alkalinity to total major cation concentrations at the stations follow an inverse pattern of small increases in the Northeast and small, but widespread decreases elsewhere. The undeveloped nature of the sampled basins and the magnitude and direction of observed changes in relation to SO2 emissions support the hypothesis that the observed patterns in water quality trends reflect regional changes in the rates of acid deposition.

  5. A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two—Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yanfang; Chai, Wencui; Han, Guihong; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Jiongtian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated process for the stepwise disposal of red mud was proposed. • Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing was the second step. • The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined. • The extracting of metals in concentrated H 2 SO 4 was controlled by diffusion reactions. • [Hbet][Tf 2 N] was an effective precipitating reagent with its coordination mechanism. - Abstract: The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti 4+ , Al 3+ and Fe 3+ , and the mechanism of selectively Fe 3+ removal using [Hbet][Tf 2 N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti 4+ , Al 3+ and Fe 3+ in concentrated H 2 SO 4 is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti 4+ is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al 3+ and Fe 3+ leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf 2 N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti 4+ , whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al 3+ recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti 4+ is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al 3+ recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti 4+ of 15.5 g/L, Al 3+ of 30.4 g/L and Fe 3+ of 0.48 g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation.

  6. Estimating of precursors and behavior of acid precipitation wet and dry, in the north of Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lozada, Hector; Natal, Angelica; Esquivel, Antolinez; Diaz Alvarez, Cristian Julian

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of pH of the wet deposition were made in the north sector of Bogota, in two manual stations located to the East (Sans Facon) and to the West (Agustiniano Norte) of the northern highway, which served as the axis of the studied area, with an approximated extension of 54 km 2 . By means of an algorithm based on the model CORINAIR, the emissions of the precursors of acid rain were obtained: NOx (7665 T/y) and SO 2 (109 T/y). Between December 2002 and April 2003, 35 rain events were evaluated and it was found that 70% of the 17 rain water samples in the eastern sector and 83% of the 18 ones in the western sector, as viewed from the northern highway, show a pH smaller than 5.6, considered to be the natural value of the pH in rain. In the settled dust, to the west of the highway, the pH reached a value of 7.47, that to the east reached 7.78, while along monitoring lines the pH ranged between 5.71 and 6.70

  7. An Optimized Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Qinchuan Cattle Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Containing High Proportion of Marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruijie; Adoligbe, Camus; Jiang, Bijie; Zhao, Xianlin; Gui, Linsheng; Qu, Kaixing; Wu, Sen; Zan, Linsen

    2015-01-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) proteomics provides a novel opportunity to reveal the molecular mechanism behind intramuscular fat deposition. Unfortunately, the vast amounts of lipids and nucleic acids in this tissue hampered LD proteomics analysis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation is a widely used method to remove contaminants from protein samples. However, the high speed centrifugation employed in this method produces hard precipitates, which restrict contaminant elimination and protein re-dissolution. To address the problem, the centrifugation precipitates were first grinded with a glass tissue grinder and then washed with 90% acetone (TCA/acetone-G-W) in the present study. According to our result, the treatment for solid precipitate facilitated non-protein contaminant removal and protein re-dissolution, ultimately improving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Additionally, we also evaluated the effect of sample drying on 2-DE profile as well as protein yield. It was found that 30 min air-drying did not result in significant protein loss, but reduced horizontal streaking and smearing on 2-DE gel compared to 10 min. In summary, we developed an optimized TCA/acetone precipitation method for protein extraction of LD, in which the modifications improved the effectiveness of TCA/acetone method.

  8. Biologically-induced precipitation of sphalerite-wurtzite nanoparticles by sulfate-reducing bacteria: implications for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Julio; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José M; Martins, Mónica; Costa, M Clara; Olías, Manuel; Cerón, Juan C; Tucoulou, Rémi

    2012-04-15

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-μm-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-μ-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecularly imprinted microspheres and nanoparticles prepared using precipitation polymerisation method for selective extraction of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Sushma; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the preparation of gallic acid (GA) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the precipitation polymerisation and highlights the effect of porogen on particle size and specific molecular recognition properties. MIP, M-100 prepared in the porogen acetonitrile and MIP, M-75 prepared in a mixture of acetonitrile-toluene (75:25 v/v), resulted in the formation of microspheres with approximately 4μm particle size and surface area of 96.73m(2)g(-1) and nanoparticles (0.8-1000nm) and a surface area of 345.9m(2)g(-1), respectively. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm study revealed that M-75 has comparatively higher number of binding sites which are homogenous and has higher affinity for GA. The MIPs selectively recognised GA in presence of its structural analogues. Pure GA with percent recovery of 75 (±1.6) and 83.4 (±2.2) was obtained from the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis by M-100 and M-75, respectively and hot water at 60°C served as the eluting solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of surface water chemistry to reduced levels of acid precipitation: Comparison of trends in two regions of New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; McHale, M.R.; Driscoll, C.T.; Roy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In light of recent reductions in sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions mandated by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, temporal trends and trend coherence in precipitation (1984-2001 and 1992-2001) and surface water chemistry (1992-2001) were determined in two of the most acid-sensitive regions of North America, i.e. the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Precipitation chemistry data from six sites located near these regions showed decreasing sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and base cation (CB) concentrations and increasing pH during 1984-2001, but few significant trends during 1992-2001. Data from five Catskill streams and 12 Adirondack lakes showed decreasing trends in SO42- concentrations at all sites, and decreasing trends in NO3-, CB, and H+ concentrations and increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon at most sites. In contrast, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC increased significantly at only about half the Adirondack lakes and in one of the Catskill streams. Flow correction prior to trend analysis did not change any trend directions and had little effect on SO42- trends, but it caused several significant non-flow-corrected trends in NO3- and ANC to become non-significant, suggesting that trend results for flow-sensitive constituents are affected by flow-related climate variation. SO42- concentrations showed high temporal coherence in precipitation, surface waters, and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, reflecting a strong link between S emissions, precipitation SO42- concentrations, and the processes that affect S cycling within these regions. NO3- and H+ concentrations and ANC generally showed weak coherence, especially in surface waters and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, indicating that variation in local-scale processes driven by factors such as climate are affecting trends in acid-base chemistry in these two regions. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Selective Precipitation of Thorium lodate from a Tartaric Acid-Hydrogen Peroxide Medium Application to Rapid Spectrophotometric Determination of Thorium in Silicate Rocks and in Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.

    1957-01-01

    This paper presents a selective iodate separation of thorium from nitric acid medium containing d-tartaric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is prevented by the use of 8quinolinol. A few micrograms of thorium are separated sufficiently clean from 30 mg. of such oxides as cerium, zirconium, titanium, niobium, tantalum, scandium, or iron with one iodate precipitation to allow an accurate determination of thorium with the thoronmesotartaric acid spectrophotometric method. The method is successful for the determination of 0.001% or more of thorium dioxide in silicate rocks and for 0.01% or more in black sand, monazite, thorite, thorianite, eschynite, euxenite, and zircon.

  12. Behaviour of the pH adjustment, Ion exchange and concentrate precipitation stages in the acid leaching of uranium phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Aguilar, J.; Uriarte Hueda, A.

    1962-01-01

    The uranium recovery from acid leach solutions of uranium-phosphate ores has been studied. Relations have been found between the solution characteristics and the results obtained at different stages of the process. The following data can thus be predicted: solids to remove and uranium recovery in the pH adjustment stage, uranium capacity of the resin, more suitable eluating agent, elution velocity and uranium concentration in the eluate in the ion exchange stage, and composition of the concentrate produced by direct precipitation of the eluate in the concentrate precipitation stage. (Author) 8 refs

  13. Study on uranium loss during 'Iron-Gypsum Cake' precipitation from acid leach liquor of Jaduguda ore using factorially designed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amrita; Yadav, Manoj; Chatterjee, Ankur; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acid leaching process for uranium recovery from ore often generates considerable amounts of impurities into the solution. It is a challenge to separate the non-valuable impurities as manageable and stable waste products for final disposal, without losing the valuable constituents. The main impurities that come with the leach liquor are iron and sulfate. Their removal is essential for meeting the iron requirement in leaching circuit and also for making the effluent suitable for recycle. Factorial design analysis was applied to study of process variables for precipitation of iron and sulphate from leach liquor with composition using CaO as precipitation reagent

  14. Synthesis of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles with the co-precipitation of iron ions in the presence of aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pušnik, Klementina; Goršak, Tanja [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drofenik, Miha [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing demand for the production of large quantities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Amino acids are one possible type of inexpensive, nontoxic, and biocompatible molecules that can be used as the surfactants for the preparation of stable suspensions. This preparation can be conducted in a simple, one-step process based on the co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions in the presence of the amino acid. However, the presence of this amino acid changes the mechanism of the magnetic nanoparticles' formation. In this investigation we analyzed the influence of aspartic amino acid (Asp) on the formation of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation. The process of the nanoparticles’ formation was followed using a combination of TEM, x-ray diffractometry, magnetic measurements, in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis, and compared with the formation of nanoparticles without the Asp. The Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe{sup 3+} ions, which impedes the formation of the intermediate iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of the final magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Slower reaction kinetics can lead to the formation of nonmagnetic secondary phases. The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles can be dispersed to form relatively concentrated aqueous suspensions displaying a good colloidal stability at an increased pH. - Highlights: • Co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions in the presence of aspartic amino acid (Asp). • Through analysis of nanoparticle formation mechanism. • Presence of Asp changes the mechanism of the nanoparticles’ formation. • Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe{sup 3+} ions. • Asp impedes the formation of iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of iron-oxide nanoparticles. • The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles form stable aqueous suspensions.

  15. Synthesis of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles with the co-precipitation of iron ions in the presence of aspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pušnik, Klementina; Goršak, Tanja; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing demand for the production of large quantities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Amino acids are one possible type of inexpensive, nontoxic, and biocompatible molecules that can be used as the surfactants for the preparation of stable suspensions. This preparation can be conducted in a simple, one-step process based on the co-precipitation of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ ions in the presence of the amino acid. However, the presence of this amino acid changes the mechanism of the magnetic nanoparticles' formation. In this investigation we analyzed the influence of aspartic amino acid (Asp) on the formation of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation. The process of the nanoparticles’ formation was followed using a combination of TEM, x-ray diffractometry, magnetic measurements, in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis, and compared with the formation of nanoparticles without the Asp. The Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe 3+ ions, which impedes the formation of the intermediate iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of the final magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Slower reaction kinetics can lead to the formation of nonmagnetic secondary phases. The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles can be dispersed to form relatively concentrated aqueous suspensions displaying a good colloidal stability at an increased pH. - Highlights: • Co-precipitation of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ ions in the presence of aspartic amino acid (Asp). • Through analysis of nanoparticle formation mechanism. • Presence of Asp changes the mechanism of the nanoparticles’ formation. • Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe 3+ ions. • Asp impedes the formation of iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of iron-oxide nanoparticles. • The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles form stable aqueous suspensions.

  16. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  17. Separation and Precipitation of Nickel from Acidic Sulfate Leaching Solution of Molybdenum-Nickel Black Shale by Potassium Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhigan; Wei, Chang; Fan, Gang; Li, Xingbin; Li, Minting; Li, Cunxiong

    2018-02-01

    Nickel was separated and precipitated with potassium nickel sulfate hexahydrate [K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O] from acidic sulfate solution, a leach solution from molybdenum-nickel black shale. The effects of the potassium sulfate (K2SO4) concentration, crystallization temperature, solution pH, and crystallization time on nickel(II) recovery and iron(III) precipitation were investigated, revealing that nickel and iron were separated effectively. The optimum parameters were K2SO4 concentration of 200 g/L, crystallization temperature of 10°C, solution pH of 0.5, and crystallization time of 24 h. Under these conditions, 97.6% nickel(II) was recovered as K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals while only 2.0% of the total iron(III) was precipitated. After recrystallization, 98.4% pure K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals were obtained in the solids. The mother liquor was purified by hydrolysis-precipitation followed by cooling, and more than 99.0% K2SO4 could be crystallized. A process flowsheet was developed to separate iron(III) and nickel(II) from acidic-sulfate solution.

  18. Mathematical modeling of the formation of sedimentary acid precipitation in the atmosphere in view of the evaporation of moisture from their surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdyakov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numeric simulation of the formation of sedimentary acid precipitation in the atmosphere taking into account the evaporation of moisture from their surfaces. It is established that the joint condensation of vapors of sulfuric anhydride and water vapor, given the flow of solar energy and the evaporation process significantly slows the growth of drops. The possibility of achieving the underlying surface by the formed sediments is analyzed.

  19. PRECIPITATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-07-15

    An lmprovement in the separation of protactinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. 1t covers the use of lead dioxide and tin dioxide as carrier precipitates for the protactinium. In carrying out the process, divalent lead or divalent tin is addcd to the solution and oxidized, causing formation of a carrier precipitate of lead dioxide or stannic oxide, respectively.

  20. A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two—Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanfang; Chai, Wencui; Han, Guihong, E-mail: guihong-han@hotmail.com; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Jiongtian

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • An integrated process for the stepwise disposal of red mud was proposed. • Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing was the second step. • The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined. • The extracting of metals in concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was controlled by diffusion reactions. • [Hbet][Tf{sub 2}N] was an effective precipitating reagent with its coordination mechanism. - Abstract: The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti{sup 4+}, Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+}, and the mechanism of selectively Fe{sup 3+} removal using [Hbet][Tf{sub 2}N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti{sup 4+}, Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} in concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti{sup 4+} is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf{sub 2}N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti{sup 4+}, whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al{sup 3+} recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti{sup 4+} is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al{sup 3+} recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti{sup 4+} of 15.5 g/L, Al{sup 3+} of 30.4 g/L and Fe{sup 3+} of 0.48 g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation.

  1. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from defatted soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, S.M.; Stuart, M.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Forbes, R.M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The bioavailability of 65Zn from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate was evaluated in rats. Weanling rats were fed marginally zinc-deficient diets, providing 8 ppm zinc from one of these three soy products, for 7 days. The rats then received a radioactively labeled test meal, identical in composition to the previous diet except that the soy product was either intrinsically or extrinsically labeled with 65Zn. After the test meal the rats were again fed diets the same as those consumed prior to the test meal. Whole-body retention of 65Zn at 24 hours and 12 days as well as 65Zn retained in tibias of rats given meals containing neutralized concentrate-based meals was significantly lower than for rats given meals containing the soy flour or acid-precipitated concentrate. In addition, retention of 65Zn from the extrinsically labeled acid-precipitated concentrate-based meal was significantly higher than from the same product intrinsically labeled. These findings confirm the results of previous feeding studies from which it was suggested that neutralization of soy protein concentrates reduces zinc bioavailability to the rat. In addition, the results are taken to suggest that experimental conditions may influence the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for zinc

  2. Synthesis of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles with the co-precipitation of iron ions in the presence of aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušnik, Klementina; Goršak, Tanja; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing demand for the production of large quantities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Amino acids are one possible type of inexpensive, nontoxic, and biocompatible molecules that can be used as the surfactants for the preparation of stable suspensions. This preparation can be conducted in a simple, one-step process based on the co-precipitation of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions in the presence of the amino acid. However, the presence of this amino acid changes the mechanism of the magnetic nanoparticles' formation. In this investigation we analyzed the influence of aspartic amino acid (Asp) on the formation of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation. The process of the nanoparticles' formation was followed using a combination of TEM, x-ray diffractometry, magnetic measurements, in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis, and compared with the formation of nanoparticles without the Asp. The Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe3+ ions, which impedes the formation of the intermediate iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of the final magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Slower reaction kinetics can lead to the formation of nonmagnetic secondary phases. The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles can be dispersed to form relatively concentrated aqueous suspensions displaying a good colloidal stability at an increased pH.

  3. A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two--Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanfang; Chai, Wencui; Han, Guihong; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Jiongtian

    2016-04-15

    The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+), and the mechanism of selectively Fe(3+) removal using [Hbet][Tf2N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) in concentrated H2SO4 is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti(4+) is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al(3+) and Fe(3+) leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf2N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti(4+), whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al(3+) recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti(4+) is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al(3+) recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti(4+) of 15.5g/L, Al(3+) of 30.4g/L and Fe(3+) of 0.48g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of Se(IV) Co-precipitation with Ferrihydrite at Acidic and Alkaline Conditions and Its Behavior during Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francisco, Paul Clarence M.; Sato, Tsutomu; Otake, Tsubasa

    2018-01-01

    in nanopore and defect structures. These results demonstrate a potential long-term immobilization pathway for Se(IV) even after phase transformation. This work presents one of the first direct insights on Se(IV) co-precipitation and its behavior in response to iron phase transformations.......Understanding the form of Se(IV) co-precipitated with ferrihydrite and its subsequent behavior during phase transformation is critical to predicting its long-term fate in a range of natural and engineered settings. In this work, Se(IV)-ferrihydrite co-precipitates formed at different pH were......, Se(IV) was removed dominantly as a ferric selenite-like phase intimately associated with ferrihydrite, while at pH 10, it was mostly present as a surface species on ferrihydrite. Similarly, the behavior of Se(IV) and the extent of its retention during phase transformation varied with pH. At pH 5, Se...

  5. Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Are More Resistant Than Denitrifiers to Seasonal Precipitation Changes in an Acidic Subtropical Forest Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal precipitation changes are increasingly severe in subtropical areas. However, the responses of soil nitrogen (N cycle and its associated functional microorganisms to such precipitation changes remain unclear. In this study, two projected precipitation patterns were manipulated: intensifying the dry-season drought (DD and extending the dry-season duration (ED but increasing the wet-season storms following the DD and ED treatment period. The effects of these two contrasting precipitation patterns on soil net N transformation rates and functional gene abundances were quantitatively assessed through a resistance index. Results showed that the resistance index of functional microbial abundance (-0.03 ± 0.08 was much lower than that of the net N transformation rate (0.55 ± 0.02 throughout the experiment, indicating that microbial abundance was more responsive to precipitation changes compared with the N transformation rate. Spring drought under the ED treatment significantly increased the abundances of both nitrifying (amoA and denitrifying genes (nirK, nirS, and nosZ, while changes in these gene abundances overlapped largely with control treatment during droughts in the dry season. Interestingly, the resistance index of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA amoA abundance was significantly higher than that of the denitrifying gene abundances, suggesting that AOA were more resistant to the precipitation changes. This was attributed to the stronger environmental adaptability and higher resource utilization efficiency of the AOA community, as indicated by the lack of correlations between AOA gene abundance and environmental factors [i.e., soil water content, ammonium (NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon concentrations] during the experiment.

  6. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  7. Optimization of precipitation conditions of thorium oxalate precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    Thorium precipitation in the form of difficultly soluble oxalate has been investigated. The equation binding the concentration of metal with the nitric acid in the initial solution and quantity of a precipitator necessary for minimization of desired product losses is derived. The graphical solution of this equation for a case, when the oxalic acid with 0.78 mol/l concentration is the precipitator, is presented

  8. Preparation of porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) superabsorbent by solvent precipitation and its application as a hemostatic wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu, E-mail: cylsy@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Yong [School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Fengju [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Meng, Weiwei; Yang, Xinlin [School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Peng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Jiang, Jianxin [State Key Laboratory of Trauma Burns and Combined Injury, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Tan, Huimin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zheng, Yongfa [Guangdong Fuyang Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Heyuan, Guangdong 517000 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The volume phase transition of a hydrogel initiated by shrinking may result in complex patterns on its surface. Based on this unique property of hydrogel, we have developed a novel solvent precipitation method to prepare a kind of novel superabsorbent polymers with excellent hemostatic properties. A porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) (CMCTS-g-PAA) superabsorbent polymer was prepared by precipitating CMCTS-g-PAA hydrogel with ethanol. Its potential application in hemostatic wound dressing was investigated. The results indicate that the modified superabsorbent polymer is non-cytotoxic. It showed a high swelling capacity and better hemostatic performance in the treatments of hemorrhage model of ear artery, arteria cruralis and spleen of the New Zealand white rabbit than the unmodified polymer and other commonly used clinic wound dressings. The hemostatic mechanism of the porous CMCTS-g-PAA polymer was also discussed. - Highlights: • The novel solvent precipitation method was developed to prepare the porous superabsorbent polymer. • The swelling rate was promoted and the harmful residual monomer was leached after modification. • The modified polymer showed good biological safety. • It showed good hemostasis to arterial hemorrhage model of the animal. • The hemostatic mechanism of the modified superabsorbent polymer was discussed.

  9. ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 1. METAL PRECIPITATION FOR RECOVERY AND RECYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewater...

  10. New composite materials prepared by calcium phosphate precipitation in chitosan/collagen/hyaluronic acid sponge cross-linked by EDC/NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, B; Sionkowska, A; Kozlowska, J; Osyczka, A M

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, fabrication of composite materials based on biopolymers is a rising field due to potential for bone repair and tissue engineering application. Blending of different biopolymers and incorporation of inorganic particles in the blend can lead to new materials with improved physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this work 3D porous structures called scaffolds based on chitosan, collagen and hyaluronic acid were obtained through the lyophilization process. Scaffolds were cross-linked by EDC/NHS. Infrared spectra for the materials were made, the percentage of swelling, scaffolds porosity and density, mechanical parameters, thermal stability were studied. Moreover, the scaffolds were used as matrixes for the calcium phosphate in situ precipitation. SEM images were taken and EDX analysis was carried out for calcium and phosphorous content determination in the scaffold. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells was examined on obtained scaffolds. The results showed that the properties of 3D composites cross-linked by EDC/NHS were altered after the addition of 1, 2 and 5% hyaluronic acid. Mechanical parameters, thermal stability and porosity of scaffolds were improved. Moreover, calcium and phosphorous were found in each kind of scaffold. SEM images showed that the precipitation was homogeneously carried in the whole volume of samples. Attachment of SaOS-2 cells to all modified materials was better compared to unmodified control and proliferation of these cells was markedly increased on scaffolds with precipitated calcium phosphate. Obtained materials can provide the support useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc and nickel removal in limestone based treatment of acid mine drainage: The relative role of adsorption and co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Andrew; Wildeman, Thomas; Figueroa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Limestone treatment of mining impacted water was simulated in batch reactors. • Zinc and nickel removals were quantified/characterized with a sequential extraction. • Removals were described with a surface complexation and a surface precipitation model. • Extraction/modeling results imply mechanisms beyond adsorption dominate metal removal. - Abstract: Mining influenced water may contain high metal and sulfate loads, and have low pH (acid mine drainage). Removal of these metals prior to environmental discharge is critical to maintain ecosystem vitality. Limestone based passive treatment systems are commonly used for pH neutralization. The same conditions that lead to pH neutralization may also remove a substantial amount of metals from solution, but the connection between treatment conditions and metal removal are not well understood. In this study, zinc and nickel removals are quantified in batch reactor simulated limestone treatment of acid mine drainage. The resulting solid phase is characterized with a sequential extraction procedure, and the removals are interpreted using surface complexation and surface precipitation models. Zinc and nickel removals are closely linked to the initial iron concentration in the mine water, but are also affected by pH, alkalinity, calcium and sulfate concentrations. The surface complexation model was based on literature descriptions of hydrous ferric oxide. In order to obtain a sufficient fit to the data, the surface site density was increased to an unrealistically high value. Uptake data was also fit to an existing surface precipitation model. The values used are similar to those found in previous studies. Both models indicate that adsorption is not the dominant removal process in the treatment system. Using adsorption only models will generally underpredict metal removals within limestone based treatment systems

  12. Study of molybdenum (VI) complexation and precipitation by zirconium (IV) in strongly acid medium. Application to nuclear spent fuel dissolution; Etude de la complexation et de la precipitation du molybdene (VI) par le zirconium (IV) en milieu tres acide. Application a la dissolution du combustible nucleaire irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E

    1999-07-01

    These last years the formation of solid deposits has been observed in the dissolution workshops of the La Hague plant. A sample of the solid was withdrawn for expertise: molybdenum and zirconium are the two major components of the solid, identified as zirconium molybdate. This thesis consisted in the approach of the mechanisms in solution liable to induce precipitate formation. After a bibliographical overview on the chemistry of Mo(VI) in highly acidic solution, this system was studied by absorption spectrophotometry in perchloric medium. The implication of two major forms of Mo(VI) in a dimerization equilibrium was confirmed by this way and by {sup 95}Mo NMR. The principal parameters governing this equilibrium were identified. It is thus shown that the molybdenum dimerization reaction is exothermic. Disturbance of the Mo(VI) system in highly acidic solution by Zr(IV) was also studied. In a restricted experimental field, for which 'conventional' exploitation methodologies had to be adapted to the system, a main complex of stoichiometry 1:1 between Mo(VI) and Zr(IV) was found. The precipitation study of Mo(VI) by Zr(IV) under conditions close to those of the dissolution medium of nuclear spent fuel was undertaken. The main parameters which control precipitation kinetics were identified. The results obtained reveal that precipitation is controlled by a single macroscopic process and therefore can be described by a single equation. The solid obtained is composed of only one phase presenting a Mo:Zr non-stoichiometry when compared to the theoretical formula ZrMo{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2},2H{sub 2}O. At last, on the basis of the research results, a descriptive mechanism of the system is proposed in which intervenes a 1:1 intermediate complex, much more soluble than a probable 2:1 precipitation precursor. (author)

  13. A study of selective precipitation techniques used to recover refined iron oxide pigments for the production of paint from a synthetic acid mine drainage solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.; Kney, A.D.; Carley, T.L.

    2017-01-01

    New resource recovery methods of acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment aim to reduce waste by extracting iron contaminants in usable forms, specifically iron oxides as industrial inorganic pigments, which can be marketed and sold to subsidize treatment costs. In this study, iron oxide pigments of varying colors and properties were recovered from a synthetic AMD solution through a stepwise selective precipitation process using oxidation, pH adjustment, and filtration. Chemical and physical design variables within the process, such as alkaline addition rate, reaction temperature, drying duration, and target pH, were altered and observed for their effects on iron oxide morphology as a means of reducing—or even eliminating—the need for refining after synthesis. Resulting iron oxide pigment powders were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and visually evaluated for color and coating ability. Drying duration resulted in increased redness in paint streaks and enhanced crystallinity, as amorphous phases of iron oxide transformed into hematite. Alkaline addition rate showed no effect on the crystallinity of the powders and no consistent effect on color. Conversely, increasing reaction temperature darkened the color of pigments and increased surface area of pigment particles (thus improving coating ability) without changing the crystallinity of the samples. Iron oxides precipitated at pH 3 displayed the highest purity and possessed a distinct yellow color suggestive of jarosite, while other paint streaks darkened in color as trace metal impurities increased. The choice to use lower pH for higher quality iron oxides comes with the compromise of reduced iron recovery efficiency. Manganese and nickel did not begin to precipitate out of solution up to pH 7 and thus require increased pH neutralization in the field if natural AMD is found to contain those metals. All pigments developed in this study were found to be adequate for use as

  14. Speciation and precipitation of heavy metals in high-metal and high-acid mine waters from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, Nuno; Bobos, Iuliu; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    Acid mine waters (AMW) collected during high- and low-flow water conditions from the Lousal, Aljustrel, and São Domingos mining areas (Iberian Pyrite Belt) were physicochemically analyzed. Speciation calculation using PHREEQC code confirms the predominance of Me n+ and Me-SO 4 species in AMW samples. Higher concentration of sulfate species (Me-SO 4 ) than free ion species (Me n+ , i.e., Al, Fe, and Pb) were found, whereas opposite behavior is verified for Mg, Cu, and Zn. A high mobility of Zn than Cu and Pb was identified. The sulfate species distribution shows that Fe 3+ -SO 4 2- , SO 4 2- , HSO 4 - , Al-SO 4 , MgSO 4 0 , and CaSO 4 0 are the dominant species, in agreement with the simple and mixed metal sulfates and oxy-hydroxysulphates precipitated from AMW. The saturation indices (SI) of melanterite and epsomite show a positive correlation with Cu and Zn concentrations in AMW, which are frequently retained in simple metal sulfates. Lead is well correlated with jarosite and alunite (at least in very acid conditions) than with simple metal sulfates. The Pb for K substitution in jarosite occurs as increasing Pb concentration in solution. Lead mobility is also controlled by anglesite precipitation (a fairly insoluble sulfate), where a positive correlation was ascertained when the SI approaches equilibrium. The zeta potential of AMW decreased as pH increased due to colloidal particles aggregation, where water species change from SO 4 2- to OH - species during acid to alkaline conditions, respectively. The AMW samples were supersaturated in schwertmannite and goethite, confirmed by the Me n+ -SO 4 , Me n+ -Fe-O-OH, or Me n+ -S-O-Fe-O complexes identified by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The ATR-IR spectrum of an AMW sample with pH 3.5 (sample L1) shows well-defined vibration plans attributed to SO 4 tetrahedron bonded with Fe-(oxy)hydroxides and the Me n+ sorbed by either SO 4 or Fe-(oxy)hydroxides. For samples with lower pH values (p

  15. Photodegradation of Acid Black 1 and Removing Heavy Metals from the Water by an Inorganic Nanocomposite Synthesized via Simple Co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Mohammadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, PbS/ZnS/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method. The effect of Zn2+/Pb2+ mole ratio was investigated on the product size and morphology. The products were characterized via scanning electron microscopy to obtain product size and morphology. The optical properties of the nanocomposites were studied by ultra violet-visible spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the product was examine by decomposition of acid black 1 as dye. To investigation of the effect of as synthesized nanocomposite on the water treatment, the influences of the nanocomposite to remove heavy ions was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the synthesized nanocomposite has well optical properties, photocatalytic and water treatment activities.

  16. Precipitation and measurements of precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, F.H.; Bruin, H.A.R. de; Attmannspacher, W.; Harrold, T.W.; Kraijenhoff van de Leur, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In Western Europe, precipitation is normal phenomenon; it is of importance to all aspects of society, particularly to agriculture, in cattle breeding and, of course, it is a subject of hydrological research. Precipitation is an essential part in the hydrological cycle. How disastrous local

  17. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  18. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  19. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  20. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING AN IODATE PRECIPITATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1960-02-23

    A method is given for separating plutonium from lanthanum in a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process for the recovery of plutonium values from an aqueous solution. The carrier precipitation process includes the steps of forming a lanthanum fluoride precipi- . tate, thereby carrying plutonium out of solution, metathesizing the fluoride precipitate to a hydroxide precipitate, and then dissolving the hydroxide precipitate in nitric acid. In accordance with the invention, the nitric acid solution, which contains plutonium and lanthanum, is made 0.05 to 0.15 molar in potassium iodate. thereby precipitating plutonium as plutonous iodate and the plutonous iodate is separated from the lanthanum- containing supernatant solution.

  1. Acid precipitation studies in Colorado and Wyoming: interim report of surveys of montane amphibians and water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Stolzenburg, William; Bury, R. Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Acid deposition may be detrimental or stressful to native populations of wildlife. Because many species of amphibians breed in shallow ponds created by spring rains or melting snow, they may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of acidification. From 1986 to 1988, we surveyed 105 locations in the central Rocky Mountains where amphibians had been recorded previously, and we found that two species of amphibians had experiences major losses. We found the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) at only 4 of 33 (12%) historically known localities, and the boreal toad (Bufo boreas) was present at 10 of 59 (17%) known localities. Three other species have not suffered region-wide declines. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) were present at 45% and 69% of known localities respectively, and were observed at several localities were they had not been recorded previously. Chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) suffered a catastrophic decline in population size in one population monitored since 1961, but regionally, this species was observed in 36 of 56 (64%) known localities and in another 19 localities where there were no previous records. Complete water chemistry was recorded for 41 localities, and pH was measured at 110 sites in total. Acid neutralizing capacity, pH, specific conductivity, and cation concentrations were negatively correlated with elevation. However, in mountain ponds and lakes, pH was rarely less than 6.0 during the amphibian breeding season. We tested the tolerance of embryos of the four species of frogs to low pH. The LC50 pH was 4.8 for chorus frogs, 4.4-4.7 for leopard frogs, 4.4-4.5 for boreal toads, and 4.2-4.3 for wood frogs. Survival of wood frog embryos declined when exposed to aluminum concentrations of 100 µg/L or greater, but boreal toad embryos survived exposure to aluminum concentrations of 400 µg/L. Acid deposition does not appear to be a major factor in the decline of leopard frogs and boreal toads

  2. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U. S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A. (US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1992-06-01

    Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried limestone and marble have been exposed to the environment to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Erosion due to grain loss did not seem to be influenced by rainfall acidity, but may be influenced by dry deposition of sulphur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions suggest that around 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in 'clean' rain. 17 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Extraction of polysaccharide from fruits of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst using acid precipitation method and its physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshal Ashok; Gavasane, Amit Jagannath; Choudhary, Pritam Dinesh

    2018-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to isolate and characterize polysaccharide from fruits of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. (Family Boraginaceae). Polysaccharide was isolated by using 1% Hydrochloric acid solution. The isolated polysaccharide was tested for physicochemical characteristics such as solubility, pH (1% w/w in water), swelling capacity, loss on drying, ash value, bulk and tapped density, Carr's capacity, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. Also isolated polysaccharide was characterized by Differential scanning colorimeter (DSC), Estimation of total sugar content, Rheological study and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The isolated mucilage showed positive results for Molisch's test and negative for Ruthenium red test which indicated presence of carbohydrate and gum. The result of physicochemical characteristics reveals that isolated Cordia dichotoma polysaccharide possesses good flow properties. The total polysaccharide content of Cordia dichotoma polymer isolate was found to be 86.24% (w/w). From this study it can be concluded that the polysaccharide isolated from Cordia dichotoma fruits has the required properties and could be used as an excipient for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  5. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone — experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M.; Reimann, Karl J.; Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30° to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ˜ 15 to ˜ 30 μm yr -1 for marble, and from ˜ 25 to ˜ 45 μm yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ˜ 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ˜ 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ("clean rain"). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30° from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60° or 85°. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at

  6. Precipitation Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although weather, including its role in the water cycle, is included in most elementary science programs, any further examination of raindrops and snowflakes is rare. Together rain and snow make up most of the precipitation that replenishes Earth's life-sustaining fresh water supply. When viewed individually, raindrops and snowflakes are quite…

  7. Catabolic fate of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A-Produced, acid precipitable polymeric lignin upon incubation with ligninolytic Streptomyces species and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pometto, A.L. III; Crawford, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Degradation of ground and hot-water-extracted corn stover (Zea mays) lignocellulose by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A generates a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate termed acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL). The further catabolism of T7A-APPL by S. viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii75Vi2 was followed for 3 weeks. APPL catabolism by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was followed in stationary cultures in a low-nitrogen medium containing 1% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.05% (wt/vol) T7A-APPL. Metabolism of the APPL was followed by turbidometric assay (600 nm) and by direct measurement of APPL recoverable from the medium. Accumulation and disappearance of soluble low-molecular-weight products of APPL catabolism were followed by gas-liquid chromatography and by high-pressure liquid chromatography, utilizing a diode array detector. Mineralization of a [ 14 C-lignin]APPL was also followed. The percent 14 C recovered as 14 CO 2 , 14 C-APPL, 14 C-labeled water-soluble products, and cell mass-associated radioactivity, were determined for each microorganism after 1 and 3 weeks of incubation in bubbler tube cultures at 37 0 C. P. chrysosporium evolved the most 14 CO 2 , and S. viridosporus gave the greatest decrease in recoverable 14 C-APPL. The results show that S. badius was not able to significantly degrade the APPL, while the other microorganisms demonstrated various APPL-degrading abilities

  8. 40 CFR 434.63 - Effluent limitations for precipitation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations for precipitation... SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.63 Effluent limitations for precipitation... discharge or increase in the volume of a discharge caused by precipitation within any 24 hour period less...

  9. Acidic precipitation and forest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Olof Tamm; Ellis B. Cowling

    1976-01-01

    Most plants can take up nutrients from the atmosphere as well as from the soil solution. This capacity is especially important in natural ecosystems such as forests and bogs where nutrients from other sources are scarce and where fertilization is not a normal management procedure. Trees develop very large canopies of leaves and branches that extend high into the air....

  10. Kinetics of cadmium hydroxide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.W.; Marani, D.; Luo, B.; Swenson, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results on the kinetics of Cd(OH)/sub 2/ precipitation, both in the absence and the presence of citric acid as an inhibiting agent. Batch and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) precipitation studies are performed by mixing equal volumes of NaOH and Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions, in order to avoid localized supersaturation conditions. The rate of metal removal from the soluble phase is calculated from the mass balance for the CSTR precipitation tests. In addition, precipitation kinetics are studied in terms of nucleation and crystal growth rates, by means of a particle counter that allows a population balance analysis for the precipitation reactor at steady state conditions

  11. Kinetic and analytical study on precipitation reactions with 110AgNO3 of some di(β-chloroethyl)amine derivatives and hydrochlorides with esters of N-(p-aminobenzoyl)-L-aspartic acid as carriers from dimethylformamide - water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al.; Sunel, V.; Ghimiciu, L.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of precipitation reactions with 110 AgNO 3 of some di(β-chloroethyl) amine derivates and hydrochlorides with esters of N-(p-aminobenzoyl)-L-aspartic acid as carriers in dimethylformamide-water mixture, were studied. The rate constants of these reactions were of the order of 10 -4 lxmol -1 xmin -1 . The concentrations of the corresponding hydrochloride solutions were measured by radiometric titration with 110 AgNO 3 solution of given concentration. (author)

  12. Influence of phosphates when uranium in solutions obtained by attacking Forez with sulfuric acid is precipitated by the action of lime; Influence des phosphates, lors de la precipitation par la chaux, de l'uranium contenu dans les solutions d'attaque sulfurique du Forez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brebec, G

    1959-03-01

    Influence of phosphates when uranium in solutions obtained by attacking Forez with sulfuric acid is precipitated by the action of lime was studied. Most of the phosphates were eliminated in the form of ferric phosphates without noticeable losses of uranium: for this it is only necessary to add sufficient ferric sulfate to the solution to be treated so that [Po{sub 4}{sup 3-}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] {approx} 0,4. In these conditions, the preparation of a calcium concentrate rich in uranium takes place in two stages. The first is neutralization at pH 2,7 to 2,8 with elimination of phosphates, sulfates and iron; the second is precipitation of the concentrate at pH 6,5. (author) [French] Nous avons reussi a eliminer la majeure partie des phosphates sous forme de phosphates ferriques, sans pertes sensibles d'uranium. Pour cela, il suffit d'ajouter a la solution a traiter, du sulfate ferrique en quantite telle que: (Po{sub 4}{sup 3-}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] {approx} 0,4. Dans ces conditions, la preparation du concentre calcique, riche en uranium, s'effectue normalement en deux temps: 1) preneutralisation a pH 2,7-2,8: elimination des sulfates, phosphates et fer; 2) precipitation du concentre a pH 6,5. (auteur)

  13. The characteristics changes of pH and EC of atmospheric precipitation and analysis on the source of acid rain in the source area of the Yangtze River from 2010 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong-Jie, Li; Song, Ling-Ling; Jing-zhu, Ma; Li, Yong-ge

    2017-05-01

    Through the analysis of pH value, EC, precipitation and wind speed of 402 precipitation samples in the source region of the Yangtze River from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015, especially for the analysis of the 14 acid rain events. The results showed that: the acid rain in the source region of the Yangtze River was mainly affected by the southwest monsoon and the westerly circulation. The occurrence of acid rain mainly controlled by industrial pollution and other pollutants coming from India and other surrounding areas. And the other cause was that because of the Qinghai Tibet highway and the Qinghai Tibet railway, there were a lot of cars coming and going. And there were people in the summer to plateau tourism increased year by year, and more for self-driving travelling. This added additional pollutants (automobile exhaust) for the source of the Yangtze River. During the period of sampling, the variation range of pH value was from 4.0 to 8.57, with the mean was 6.37. And the range of EC was from 5.2 to 124.4 μs/cm, the average was 27.59 μs/cm. The order of conductivity in the four seasons was Spring > Winter > Summer > Autumn. And the order of pH in four seasons was Summer > Spring = Winter > Autumn. The results are also helpful for further understanding the acid rain in the Tibetan Plateau and providing scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of acid rain.

  14. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li 2 CO 3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H 2 SO 4 , and the cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-05-08

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index ( SPI ), standardized soil water content index ( SSWI ), and standardized streamflow index ( SSI ). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI 12 than SPI 12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to

  16. Continuous precipitation process of plutonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.

    1967-03-01

    This work concerns the continuous precipitation process of plutonium oxalate. Investigations about the solubility of different valence states in nitric-oxalic and in nitric-sulfuric-oxalic medium lead to select the precipitation process of tetravalent plutonium oxalate. Settling velocity and granulometry of tetravalent oxalate plutonium have been studied with variation of several precipitation parameters such as: temperature, acidity, excess of oxalic acid and aging time. Then are given test results of some laboratory continuous apparatus. Conditions of operation with adopted tubular apparatus are defined in conclusion. A flow-sheet is given for a process at industrial scale. (author) [fr

  17. Human plasma-derived immunoglobulin G fractionated by an aqueous two-phase system, caprylic acid precipitation, and membrane chromatography has a high purity level and is free of detectable in vitro thrombogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M; Segura, Á; Wu, Y-W; Herrera, M; Chou, M-L; Villalta, M; León, G; Burnouf, T

    2015-02-01

    Instituto Clodomiro Picado has developed an immunoglobulin G (IgG) plasma fractionation process combining a polyethylene glycol/phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), caprylic acid precipitation and anion-exchange membrane chromatography. We evaluated the purity and in vitro thrombogenicity of such IgG, in line with current international requirements. Contributions of the different production steps to reduce thrombogenicity were assessed at 0·2 l-scale, and then the methodology was scaled-up to a 10 l-scale and final products (n = 3) were analysed. Purity, immunoglobulin composition, and subclass distribution were determined by electrophoretic and immunochemical methods. The in vitro thrombogenic potential was determined by a thrombin generation assay (TGA) using a Technothrombin fluorogenic substrate. Prekallikrein activator (PKA), plasmin, factor Xa, thrombin and thrombin-like activities were assessed using S-2302, S-2251, S-2222, S-2238 and S-2288 chromogenic substrates, respectively, and FXI by an ELISA. The thrombogenicity markers were reduced mostly during the ATPS step and were found to segregate mostly into the discarded liquid upper phase. The caprylic acid precipitation eliminated the residual procoagulant activity. The IgG preparations made from the 10 l-batches contained 100% gamma proteins, low residual IgA and undetectable IgM. The IgG subclass distribution was not substantially affected by the process. TGA and amidolytic activities revealed an undetectable in vitro thrombogenic risk and the absence of proteolytic enzymes in the final product. Fractionating human plasma by an ATPS combined with caprylic acid and membrane chromatography resulted in an IgG preparation of high purity and free of a detectable in vitro thrombogenic risk. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Actinides in intermediate-level liquid waste: removal by oxalic acid precipitation followed by cement incorporation and characterization of the final product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokelund, H.; Lebrun, M.; Ougier, M.; de Caritat de Peruzzis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the conditions for the provision of an alpha free waste form (non-TRU waste with 5000) and adequate (70) DF-values were found for americium and for plutonium, respectively, with calcium as the preferred carrier. No difference between simulated and genuine ILLW was found. The final cement product was investigated by measurements of its mechanical and chemical properties. The compressive strength was evaluated as functions of the ageing time and the salt content of the waste incorporated. Furthermore, the change of porosity of the product and its resistance to water leaching were tested. The study was carried out on both simulated and genuine ILLW samples. The use of microsilica as an additive to the cement gave significant improvements in the performance of the matrix: the compressive strength was increased and, more pronounced, the leachability was decreased by up to 50%. No detrimental effects of oxalates on the cement matrix were found

  19. Critical load of acid precipitations. Mapping of Italian regions; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, R.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level O method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The results show that the sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions. These areas are in the north-east of Italy, in Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel rapporto vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura, riferita agli ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi critici e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stokholm Environment Institute; a questo metodo semi-quantitativo sono state apportate alcune modifiche per meglio adattarlo alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Dall'analisi dei risultati ottenuti, si evince come la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide. Tali aree sono localizzate nell'Italia nord-orientale, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  20. Targeted toxicological screening for acidic, neutral and basic substances in postmortem and antemortem whole blood using simple protein precipitation and UPLC-HR-TOF-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telving, Rasmus; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    2016-01-01

    -HR-TOF-MS was achieved in one injection. This method covered basic substances, substances traditionally analyzed in negative ESI (e.g., salicylic acid), small highly polar substances such as beta- and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB and GHB, respectively) and highly non-polar substances such as amiodarone. The new method......A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral...... was performed on spiked whole blood samples and authentic postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples. For most of the basic drugs, the established cut-off limits were very low, ranging from 0.25ng/g to 50ng/g. The established cut-off limits for most neutral and acidic drugs, were in the range from 50ng...

  1. Modelled Precipitation Over Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the annual total precipitation from 1985 to 1999 and monthly total precipitation from January 1985 to December 1999. The data is derived from...

  2. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  3. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  4. Uranium peroxide precipitate drying temperature relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.; Dyck, B., E-mail: chick_rodgers@cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is in the process of revitalizing the mill at its Key Lake operation in northern Saskatchewan. The current Key Lake process employs ammonia stripping and ammonia precipitation. As part of the revitalization, the company is considering installing strong acid stripping in solvent extraction as used at its Rabbit Lake operation. This change would lead to using hydrogen peroxide for uranium precipitation. As part of the process evaluation, tests were carried out to study how changes in the temperature of an indirect fired dryer affected the properties of uranium peroxide [yellowcake] precipitate. This paper discusses the results of the test work, including the relationships between drying temperature and the following: (author)

  5. The use of dielectric spectroscopy for the characterisation of the precipitation of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic-acid) with divalent barium ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Vittrup; Keiding, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The use of dielectric spectroscopy as a monitor for coagulation processes was investigated. Hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic-acid) polymers were used as model macromolecules and coagulated with barium ions. The coagulation process was quantified using a photometric dispersion analyser, thereby...... serving as a point of reference for the dielectric spectroscopy. It was found that the hydrophobic modification increased the dosage of barium needed to obtain complete coagulation, whereas the dosage required to initiate coagulation was lowered. The coagulation of the polymer samples caused...... the relaxation time of the measured dielectric dispersion to increase, and this parameter was found to be a good indicator of the formation of polymer aggregates. The magnitude of the dielectric dispersion decreased as a function of barium dosage, but when coagulation was initiated an increase was observed...

  6. Precipitation of plutonium oxalate from homogeneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Pius, I.C.; Subbarao, M.; Chinnusamy, A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 92-98% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of the compound indicate its composition as Pu(Csub(2)Osub(4))sub(2).6Hsub(2)O. Data are obtained on the solubility of the oxalate in nitric acid and in mixtures of nitric acid and oxalic acid of varying concentrations. Green PuOsub(2) obtained by calcination of the oxalate has specifications within the recommended values for trace foreign substances such as chlorine, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen. (author)

  7. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  8. Cerium oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    1987-02-01

    Cerium, a nonradioactive, common stand-in for plutonium in development work, has been used to simulate several plutonium precipitation processes at the Savannah River Laboratory. There are similarities between the plutonium trifluoride and the cerium oxalate precipitations in particle size and extent of plating, but not particle morphology. The equilibrium solubility, precipitation kinetics, particle size, extent of plating, and dissolution characteristics of cerium oxalate have been investigated. Interpretations of particle size and plating based on precipitation kinetics (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  10. Optimization of the conditions for the precipitation of thorium oxalate. II. Minimization of the product losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, E.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The precipitation of thorium as a poorly soluble oxalate was investigated. An equation relating the concentrations of the metal and nitric acid in the initial solution and the amount of precipitant required to minimize the product losses was derived. A graphical solution of the equation is presented for the case where the precipitant is oxalic acid at a concentration of 0.78 M

  11. Inhibition of calcium phosphate precipitation under environmentally-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Harris, Willie G.; Josan, Manohardeep S.; Nair, Vimala D.

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of Ca phosphates plays an important role in controlling P activity and availability in environmental systems. The purpose of this study was to determine inhibitory effects on Ca phosphate precipitation by Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , humic acid, oxalic acid, biogenic Si, and Si-rich soil clay commonly found in soils, sediments, and waste streams. Precipitation rates were determined by measuring decrease of P concentration in solutions during the first 60 min; and precipitated solid phases identified using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Poorly-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP: Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH) formed in control solutions over the experiment period of 24 h, following a second-order dependence on P concentration. Humic acid and Mg 2+ significantly inhibited formation of HAP, allowing formation of a more soluble amorphous Ca phosphate phase (ACP), and thus reducing the precipitation rate constants by 94-96%. Inhibition caused by Mg 2+ results from its incorporation into Ca phosphate precipitates, preventing formation of a well-crystalline phase. Humic acid likely suppressed Ca phosphate precipitation by adsorbing onto the newly-formed nuclei. Presence of oxalic acid resulted in almost complete inhibition of HAP precipitation due to preemptive Ca-oxalate formation. Carbonate substituted for phosphate, decreasing the crystallinity of HAP and thus reducing precipitation rate constant by 44%. Sulfate and Si-rich solids had less impact on formation of HAP; while they reduced precipitation in the early stage, they did not differ from the control after 24 h. Results indicate that components (e.g., Mg 2+ , humic acid) producing relatively soluble ACP are more likely to reduce P stability and precipitation rate of Ca phosphate in soils and sediments than are components (e.g., SO 4 2- , Si) that have less effect on the crystallinity

  12. Behaviour of the pH adjustment, Ion exchange and concentrate precipitation stages in the acid leaching of uranium phosphate ores; Tratamiento de disoluciones de lixiviacion de minerales de uranio en presencia de fosfatos. Comportamiento en las etapas de ajuste de PH, cambio de ion y precipitacion de concentrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Aguilar, J; Uriarte Hueda, A

    1962-07-01

    The uranium recovery from acid leach solutions of uranium-phosphate ores has been studied. Relations have been found between the solution characteristics and the results obtained at different stages of the process. The following data can thus be predicted: solids to remove and uranium recovery in the pH adjustment stage, uranium capacity of the resin, more suitable eluating agent, elution velocity and uranium concentration in the eluate in the ion exchange stage, and composition of the concentrate produced by direct precipitation of the eluate in the concentrate precipitation stage. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Caracterização de concentrado protéico de folhas de mandioca obtido por precipitação com calor e ácido Characterization of cassava leaf protein concentrate obtained by heat and acid precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Fátima Modesti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de mandioca apresentam um teor elevado de proteínas, todavia sua digestibilidade é baixa. A produção de concentrado protéico de folhas de mandioca (CPFM permite a utilização das proteínas das folhas com um reduzido teor de fibras e melhor qualidade protéica. Neste trabalho, analisaram-se características químicas de CPFM obtidos por diferentes formas de precipitação, com calor e com ácido. Os CPFM praticamente não apresentaram diferenças na composição centesimal. O nível de proteína dos CPFM aumentou 57,72% em comparação ao da farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM. Os rendimentos de extração das proteínas também foram semelhantes para os CPFM. O teor de Fe dos CPFM foi mais elevado quando comparado com o da FFM. A FFM apresentou absorção de água e de óleo mais elevada que os CPFM, mas, entre os tipos de CPFM, os resultados foram semelhantes. A mínima solubilidade de nitrogênio da FFM e dos CPFM foi observada em pH entre 3 e 5. Verificou-se que a FFM apresentou uma capacidade de formação e estabilidade de espuma mais elevada que os CPFM. Tanto a FFM quanto os CPFM não apresentaram boa estabilidade de emulsão.Cassava leaves have a high content of protein of low digestibility. The production of cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC enables cassava leaf protein to be used with a reduced fiber content and better protein quality. This work involved an investigation of the chemical characteristics of CLPC produced by different forms of precipitation, using heat and acid. No significant differences were found in the centesimal composition of the CLPC. The protein content in CLPC was 57.72% higher than in cassava leaf flour (CLF. Both types of CLPC precipitation also yielded similar protein concentrations. The CLPC Fe content was higher than that of the CLF. The CLF presented higher water and oil absorption than did CLPC, although the CLPC extracted by the two methods showed similar results. The lowest nitrogen

  14. Continuous precipitation process of plutonium salts; Procede continu de precipitation des sels de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    This work concerns the continuous precipitation process of plutonium oxalate. Investigations about the solubility of different valence states in nitric-oxalic and in nitric-sulfuric-oxalic medium lead to select the precipitation process of tetravalent plutonium oxalate. Settling velocity and granulometry of tetravalent oxalate plutonium have been studied with variation of several precipitation parameters such as: temperature, acidity, excess of oxalic acid and aging time. Then are given test results of some laboratory continuous apparatus. Conditions of operation with adopted tubular apparatus are defined in conclusion. A flow-sheet is given for a process at industrial scale. (author) [French] Cette etude porte sur la precipitation continue de l'oxalate de plutonium. L'etude de la solubilite des differentes valences du plutonium dans des milieux acides nitrique-oxalique, puis nitrique-sulfurique-oxalique conduit a choisir la precipitation de l'oxalate de plutonium tetravalent. L'etude porte ensuite sur la sedimentation et la granulometrie de l'oxalate de Pu{sup 4+} obtenue en faisant varier differents parametres de la precipitation : la temperature, l'acidite, l'exces oxalique et le temps de murissement. La derniere partie traite des resultats obtenus avec plusieurs types d'appareils continus essayes au laboratoire. En conclusion sont donnees les conditions de marche de l'appareil tubulaire adopte, ainsi qu'une extrapolation a l'echelle industrielle sous forme d'un flow-sheet. (auteur)

  15. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  16. Precipitates in irradiated Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitates in high-burnup (>20 MWd/kg U) Zircaloy spent-fuel cladding discharged from commercial boiling- and pressurized-water reactors have been characterized by TEM-HVEM. Three classes of primary precipitates were observed in the irradiated Zircaloys: Zr 3 O (2 to 6 nm), cubic-ZrO 2 (greater than or equal to 10 nm), and delta-hydride (35 to 100 nm). The former two precipitations appears to be irradiation induced in nature. Zr(Fe/sub x/Cr/sub 1-x/) 2 and Zr 2 (Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 1-x/) intermetallics, which are the primary precipitates in unirradiated Zircaloys, were largely dissolved after the high burnup. It seems, therefore, that the influence of the size and distribution of the intermetallics on the corrosion behavior may be quite different for the irradiated Zircaloys

  17. WPA Precipitation Tabulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly precipitation data tabulated under the Work Projects Administration (WPA), a New Deal program created to reduce unemployment during the Great Depression....

  18. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  19. The Frontier Between Adsorption and Precipitation of Polyacrylic Acid on Calcium Carbonate Frontière entre adsorption et précipitation de l'acide polyacrylique sur le carbonate de calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabane B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of polymers on mineral surfaces allowing colloidal stability have widespread applications in industrial processes. The binding mechanism has been quite well described on oxide surfaces. Mainly in terms of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between charged sites and polymer segments. This phenomenon has been modelized and the influence of pH. Ionic strentgh, and molecular weight can be calculated or predicted. In the case of sparingly soluble substrates such as BaSO4, CaCO3 or CaSO4, several problems arise : the difficulty for the identification of surface sites and the interference of ions coming from the material's solubility. In the case of calcite, the solubility imposes dissolved calcium ions in solution which could complex the polyelectrolyte and reduce its solubility. For that purpose, we have measured the binding energy using microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements have shown that the adsorption enthalpy is weakly enclothermic: about + 2 kj/mol. Interestingly, this value is very closed to that of calcium complexation with PANa. It is suggested that the driving force for adsorption is the net gain in entropy of the system. The microcalorimetric adsorption isotherm does not show any evidence for a strongly exothermic interaction between positive edges and negative segment of the polyion. Practically, in most cases, adsorption of polymers is calculated from the decrease of its concentration in the solution after separation of the solid by centrifugation. This procedure does not discriminate therefore between real adsorption and phase separation. To answer the question, we have performed adsorption experiments using a dialysis membrane to separate the solid particles from the solution. It has been established that in some circumstances, depending on the relative amount of calcite, calcium ions and polyelectrolyte, precipitation takes place rather than adsorption. This is especially the case at low polymer

  20. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Lin, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Centrifugal precipitation chromatography separates analytes according their solubility in ammonium sulfate (AS) solution and other precipitants. The separation column is made from a pair of long spiral channels partitioned with a semipermeable membrane. In a typical separation, concentrated ammonium sulfate is eluted through one channel while water is eluted through the other channel in the opposite direction. The countercurrent process forms an exponential AS concentration gradient through the water channel. Consequently, protein samples injected into the water channel is subjected to a steadily increasing AS concentration and at the critical AS concentration they are precipitated and deposited in the channel bed by the centrifugal force. Then the chromatographic separation is started by gradually reducing the AS concentration in the AS channel which lowers the AS gradient concentration in the water channel. This results in dissolution of deposited proteins which are again precipitated at an advanced critical point as they move through the channel. Consequently, proteins repeat precipitation and dissolution through a long channel and finally eluted out from the column in the order of their solubility in the AS solution. The present method has been successfully applied to a number of analytes including human serum proteins, recombinant ketosteroid isomerase, carotenoid cleavage enzymes, plasmid DNA, polysaccharide, polymerized pigments, PEG-protein conjugates, etc. The method is capable to single out the target species of proteins by affinity ligand or immunoaffinity separation. PMID:19541553

  1. Investigation of Neptunium Precipitator Cleanout Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Oxalate precipitation followed by filtration is used to prepare plutonium oxalate. Historically, plutonium oxalate has tended to accumulate in the precipitation tanks. These solids are periodically removed by flushing with concentrated (64 percent) nitric acid. The same precipitation tanks will now be used in the processing of neptunium. Literature values indicate that neptunium oxalate may not be as soluble as plutonium oxalate in nitric acid. Although a wide variety of options is available to improve neptunium oxalate solubility for precipitator flushing, most of these options are not practical for use. Many of these options require the use of incompatible or difficult to handle chemicals. Other options would require expensive equipment modifications or are likely to lead to product contamination. Based on review of literature and experimental results, the two best options for flushing the precipitator are (1) 64 percent nitric acid and (2) addition of sodium permanganate follow ed by sodium nitrite. Nitric acid is the easiest option to implement. It is already used in the facility and will not lead to product contamination. Experimental results indicate that neptunium oxalate can be dissolved in concentrated nitric acid (64 percent) at 60 degree C to a concentration of 2.6 to 5.6 grams of Np/liter after at least three hours of heating. A lower concentration (1.1 grams of Np/liter) was measured at 60 degree C after less than two hours of heating. These concentrations are acceptable for flushing if precipitator holdup is low (approximately 100-250 grams), but a second method is required for effective flushing if precipitator holdup is high (approximately 2 kilograms). The most effective method for obtaining higher neptunium concentrations is the use of sodium permanganate followed by the addition of sodium nitrite. There is concern that residual manganese from these flushes could impact product purity. Gas generation during permanganate addition is also a concern

  2. Parametric study on co-precipitation of U/Th in MOX fuel of AHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, S.K.; Swaroopa Lakshmi, Y.; Nath, Baidurjya; Setty, D.S.; Kalyana Krishnan, G.; Saibaba, N.

    2015-01-01

    During manufacturing of Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) pellets for Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR-LEU), around 30% rejected MOX pellets are generated in every cycle. These rejected MOX pellets are dissolved in nitric acid for recovery of U/Th. The recovered U/Th is recycled for production of MOX pellets. MOX pellets of varying compositions are used in AHWR fuel. Dissolution of MOX pellets in nitric acid is a challenging task because of its low surface area and longer dissolution times. High normal nitric acid is used in order to increase rate of dissolution, which in turn results in generation of high free acidity solution which influences the precipitation characteristics of Uranium (VI) by oxalic acid. Oxalic acid precipitation helps in generation of nitric acid which can be used for dissolution there by effectively facilitating nil effluent generation. Precipitation by oxalic acid unlike ammonia has advantage of zero liquid effluent discharge by complete recycle of oxalate filtrate to dissolution section. In the present work, the effect of various parameters like free acidity, residence time, concentration of oxalic acid, initial concentration of uranium and thorium etc. on the precipitation of U(VI) and Th(IV) in nitrate media by oxalic acid was carried out. The precipitated powder was subjected to various morphological evaluations like particle size etc. Study of various parameters on the co-precipitation of uranium and thorium by oxalic acid was carried out. It was observed that complete precipitation (> 99.9%) of thorium as oxalate does not depend on free acidity range (1- 6 N). Excess oxalic acid is not required for complete precipitation of thorium oxalate. The precipitation of uranyl oxalate varies with initial free acidity of solution. Uranyl oxalate precipitation does not take place at and above 5 N of free acidity

  3. Microbially Induced Precipitation of Gold(0) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yu; Kang, Serku; Park, Bitna; Kim, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize gold nanoparticles by biomineralization using metal-reducing bacteria and to characterize their mineralogical properties. The metal-reducing bacteria were able to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) with organic fatty acids as electron donors, as indicated by the color change of the culture solution from colorless gold ions to black precipitates at 25 degrees C. XRD, SEM- and TEM-EDS analyses of the precipitates showed that Au(0) was precipitated and formed at either the cell membrane or extracellularly. The Au(0) nanoparticles were about 200 nm in size and ball-shaped. Biomineralization for elemental Au(0) nanoparticle synthesis may be useful for the recovery of natural gold in natural environments.

  4. Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PREC data set is an analysis of monthly precipitation constructed on a 2.5(o)lat/lon grid over the global for the period from 1948 to the present. The land...

  5. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  6. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  7. Magnetite precipitation and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, A.; Garside, J.; Ivens, R.

    1988-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) precipitation was investigated as a possible alternative treatment process to the conventional ferric hydroxide for removal of actinides from radioactive effluents. This offered the possibility of improved dewatering of filtered residues. Whilst a poor quality magnetite could be produced from deoxygenated ferrous/ferric solutions, all attempts to prepare magnetite from effluent simulates were unsuccessful. The failure was attributed to the presence of high nitrate and other interfering ions. (author)

  8. Design provisions for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Design provisions for safety of nuclear power plants are based on a well balanced concept: the public is protected against a release of radioactive material by multiple barriers. These barriers are protected according to a 'defence-in-depth' principle. The reactor safety concept is primarily aimed at the prevention of accidents, especially fuel damage. Additionally, measures for consequence limitation are provided in order to prevent a severe release of radioactivity to the environment. However, it is difficult to judge the overall effectiveness of such devices. In a comprehensive safety analysis it has to be shown that the protection systems and safeguards work with sufficient reliability in the event of an accident. For the reliability assessment deterministic criteria (single failure, redundancy, fail-safe, demand for diversity) play an important role. Increasing efforts have been made to assess reliability quantitatively by means of probabilistic methods. It is now usual to perform reliability analyses of essential systems of nuclear power plants in the course of licensing procedures. As an additional level of emergency measures for a further reduction of hazards a reasonable amount of accident information has to be transferred. Operational experience may be considered as an important feedback to the design of plant safety features. Operator training has to include, besides skill in performing of operating procedures, the training of a flexible response to different accident situations. Experience has shown that the design provisions for safety could prevent dangerous release of the radioactive material to the environment after an accident has occurred. For future developments of reactor safety, extensive analyses of operating experience are of great importance. The main goal should be to enhance the reliability of measures for accident prevention, which prevent the core from meltdown or other damages

  9. Precipitation in partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the substructure of partially stabilized ZrO 2 (PSZ) samples, i.e., 2-phase systems containing both cubic and monoclinic modifications of zirconia, after various heat treatments. Monoclinic ZrO 2 exists as (1) isolated grains within the polycrystalline aggregate (a grain- boundary phase) and (2) small plate-like particles within cubic grains. These intragranular precipitates are believed to contribute to the useful properties of PSZ via a form of precipitation hardening. These precipitates initially form as tetragonal ZrO 2 , with a habit plane parallel to the brace 100 brace matrix planes. The orientation relations between the tetragonal precipitates and the cubic matrix are brace 100 brace/sub matrix/ 2 parallel brace 100 brace /sub precipitate/ or (001)/sub precipitate/ and broken bracket 100 broken bracket/sub matrix/ 2 parallel broken bracket 100 broken bracket/sub precipitate/ or [001]/sub precipitate/. (U.S.)

  10. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  11. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  12. Hybrid resource provisioning for clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Graham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Flexible resource provisioning, the assignment of virtual machines (VMs) to physical machine, is a key requirement for cloud computing. To achieve 'provisioning elasticity', the cloud needs to manage its available resources on demand. A-priori, static, VM provisioning introduces no runtime overhead but fails to deal with unanticipated changes in resource demands. Dynamic provisioning addresses this problem but introduces runtime overhead. To reduce VM management overhead so more useful work can be done and to also avoid sub-optimal provisioning we propose a hybrid approach that combines static and dynamic provisioning. The idea is to adapt a good initial static placement of VMs in response to evolving load characteristics, using live migration, as long as the overhead of doing so is low and the effectiveness is high. When this is no longer so, we trigger a revised static placement. (Thus, we are essentially applying local multi-objective optimization to tune a global optimization with reduced overhead.) This approach requires a complicated migration decision algorithm based on current and predicted:future workloads, power consumptions and memory usage in the host machines as well as network burst characteristics for the various possible VM multiplexings (combinations of VMs on a host). A further challenge is to identify those characteristics of the dynamic provisioning that should trigger static re-provisioning.

  13. Characterisation of Suspension Precipitated Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, P K; Swain, P.K.; Patnaik, S.C

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known biomaterial for coating on femoral implants, filling of dental cavity and scaffold for tissue replacement. Hydroxyapatite possess limited load bearing capacity due to their brittleness. In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders was prepared by dissolving calcium oxide in phosphoric acid, followed by addition of ammonia liquor in a beaker. The prepared solution was stirred by using magnetic stirrer operated at temperature of 80°C for an hour. This leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite precipitate. The precipitate was dried in oven for overnight at 100°C. The dried agglomerated precipitate was calcined at 800°C in conventional furnace for an hour. The influence of calcium oxide concentration and pH on the resulting precipitates was studied using BET, XRD and SEM. As result, a well-defined sub-rounded morphology of powders size of ∼41 nm was obtained with a salt concentration of 0.02 M. Finally, it can be concluded that small changes in the reaction conditions led to large changes in final size, shape and degree of aggregation of the hydroxyapatite particles. (paper)

  14. A novel electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Minkang; Wang, Liqian; Lin, Zhigui

    2013-01-01

    ESP (Electrostatic Precipitation) has been widely used in the mining, building materials, metallurgy and power industries. Dust particles or other harmful particles from the airstream can be precipitated by ESP with great collecting efficiency. Because of its' large size, high cost and energy consumption, the scope of application of ESP has been limited to a certain extent. By means of the theory of electrostatics and fluid dynamics, a corona assembly with a self-cleaning function and a threshold voltage automatic tracking technology has been developed and used in ESP. It is indicated that compared with conventional ESP, the electric field length has been reduced to 1/10 of the original, the current density on the collecting electrode increased 3-5 times at the maximum, the approach speed of dust particles in the electric field towards the collecting electrode is 4 times that in conventional ESP and the electric field wind speed may be enhanced by 2-3 times the original. Under the premise of ESP having a high efficiency of dust removal, equipment volume may be actually reduced to 1/5 to 1/10 of the original volume and energy consumption may be reduced by more than 50%.

  15. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  16. Organic influences on inorganic patterns of diffusion-controlled precipitation in gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Petruska, John

    2010-06-01

    The well-known AgNO 3/K 2CrO 4 reaction-diffusion system produces periodic bands of silver chromate precipitate in gelatin, but only randomly oriented crystals in agarose gel. We show that comparable bands can be produced in agarose gel by adding small amounts of simple organic acids (e.g., acetic acid, N-acetyl glycine, and N-acetyl alanine) that suppress crystal growth and promote formation of rounded particles of precipitate. These results indicate that α-carboxyl groups of amino acids or short peptides in gelatin under mildly acidic conditions can induce periodic band patterns in diffusion-controlled silver chromate precipitates.

  17. Two-stage precipitation of plutonium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Plutonium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments identified the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which was based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter that can be used to control particle characteristics

  18. Effective Assimilation of Global Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, G.; Kalnay, E.; Miyoshi, T.; Huffman, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Assimilating precipitation observations by modifying the moisture and sometimes temperature profiles has been shown successful in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed precipitation, but only while the assimilation is taking place. After the forecast start, the model tends to "forget" the assimilation changes and lose their extra skill after few forecast hours. This suggests that this approach is not an efficient way to modify the potential vorticity field, since this is the variable that the model would remember. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is used to effectively change the potential vorticity field by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights. In addition to using an EnKF, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are proposed to solve the problems related to the highly non-Gaussian nature of the precipitation variable: a) transform precipitation into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution, and b) only assimilate precipitation at the location where some ensemble members have positive precipitation. The idea is first tested by the observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using SPEEDY, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When the global precipitation is assimilated in addition to conventional rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium range forecasts are significantly improved as compared to only having rawinsonde observations. The improvement is much reduced when only modifying the moisture field with the same approach, which shows the importance of the error covariance between precipitation and all other model variables. The effect of precipitation assimilation is larger in the Southern Hemisphere than that in the Northern Hemisphere because the Northern Hemisphere analyses are already accurate as a result of denser rawinsonde stations. Assimilation of precipitation using a more comprehensive

  19. Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic precipitator remains on of the most cost effective means of controlling the emission of particulates from most industrial processes. This book will be of interest to both users and suppliers of electrostatic precipitators as well as advanced students on environmental based courses. The author identifies the physical and engineering basis for the development of electrical equipment for electrostatic precipitators and thoroughly explores the technological factors which optimize the efficiency of the precipitator and hence minimize emissions, as well as future developments in th

  20. Inducing mineral precipitation in groundwater by addition of phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace elements from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. The success of engineered precipitation schemes depends on the particular phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for phosphate mineral precipitation rely on stimulation of native microbial populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 mL-1 added to the precipitation medium. In addition, we tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM. Results The general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the study conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium phosphate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxylapatite (HAP within one week. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of the experiments the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as Rietveld structure refinement using x-ray diffraction data indicated that the presence of organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in an increasing a and decreasing c lattice parameter, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the solids was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results suggest that the minerals formed initially during an engineered precipitation application for trace element sequestration may not be the ones that control long-term immobilization of the contaminants. In

  1. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... fish hatchery area. (e) Each person shall comply with the provisions of any special notices governing...

  2. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.H.; Kim, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, the photochemical decomposition mechanism of oxalates in the presence of nitric acid was elucidated by experimental work. The decomposition of oxalates was proved to be dominated by the reaction with hydroxyl radical generated from the nitric acid, rather than with nitrite ion also formed from nitrate ion. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was found to be 0.003 M/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  3. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Hyung Yoo; Eung-Ho Kim

    1999-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, some experimental work of photochemical decomposition of oxalate was carried out to prove its feasibility as a step of partitioning process. The decomposition of oxalic acid in the presence of nitric acid was performed in advance in order to understand the mechanistic behaviour of oxalate destruction, and then the decomposition of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was examined. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate was found as 0.003 mole/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 63.11150 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What General Provisions apply to this... Area Sources Other Requirements and Information § 63.11150 What General Provisions apply to this... a gas cleaning system controlling PM and to a sulfuric acid plant in accordance with § 63.11148(a)(2...

  5. Improving precipitation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeways, Ian

    2004-09-01

    Although rainfall has been measured for centuries scientifically and in isolated brief episodes over millennia for agriculture, it is still not measured adequately even today for climatology, water resources, and other precise applications. This paper outlines the history of raingauges, their errors, and describes the field testing over 3 years of a first guess design for an aerodynamic rain collector proposed by Folland in 1988. Although shown to have aerodynamic advantage over a standard 5 gauge, the new rain collector was found to suffer from outsplash in heavy rain. To study this problem, and to derive general basic design rules for aerodynamic gauges, its performance was investigated in turbulent, real-world conditions rather than in the controlled and simplified environment of a wind tunnel or mathematical model as in the past. To do this, video records were made using thread tracers to indicate the path of the wind, giving new insight into the complex flow of natural wind around and within raingauges. A new design resulted, and 2 years of field testing have shown that the new gauge has good aerodynamic and evaporative characteristics and minimal outsplash, offering the potential for improved precipitation measurement.

  6. CEOS precipitation constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Oki, Riko

    2007-10-01

    The outcomes of the 19th Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Plenary held in London in November 2005, recognized that the CEOS Implementation Plan for Space-Based Observations for Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) should: - identify the supply of space-based observations required to satisfy the requirements expressed by the 10-year implementation plan for GEOSS; and - propose an innovative process whereby the many disparate types of Earth observing programs funded by CEOS Member agencies might contribute to the supply of the required observations. The CEOS Task Force charged with drafting the CEOS Implementation Plan for Space-Based Observations for GEOSS focused its early efforts on the creation of a 'new planning process' which would satisfy the various criteria demanded by member space agencies, and which would hopefully encourage a new phase of specificity and focus in the multi-lateral co-operation efforts undertaken by space agencies under the CEOS umbrella - resulting in improved engagement of all CEOS Members and real implementation results. The CEOS Constellations is the title given to this new process, and four pilot studies have been initiated in order to pioneer and test the concept. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were selected as the lead agencies for the study of the development of a CEOS Precipitation Constellation with the support of other CEOS space agency and user community participants. The goals, approach, and anticipated outcomes for the study will be discussed.

  7. Precipitation in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  8. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  9. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A + + B – → C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm

  10. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    -profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy......The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  11. Models of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the framework of Le Grand (2003, 2010) to encompass responsiveness, and the main argument is that the combination of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision potentially has serious implications for responsiveness across service areas. Although...... research on employee motivation thrives, especially in the public service motivation (PSM) literature, few studies have investigated user capacity empirically, and we know little about the combination of PSM, user capacity and models of service provision. Analyzing four central service areas (day care......, schools, hospitals, and universities), we find variations in both user capacity and PSM. Taking this variation as a point of departure we discuss what implications different combinations of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision may have for responsiveness....

  12. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  13. Fundamental chemistry of precipitation and mineral scale formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2005-01-01

    The mineral scale that deposits in digesters and bleach plants is formed by a chemical precipitation process. As such, it is accurately described or modeled using the solubility product equilibrium constant. Although solubility product identifies the primary conditions that need to be met for a scale problem to exist, the acid base equilibria of the scaling anions...

  14. On the Precipitation and Precipitation Change in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Wendler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alaska observes very large differences in precipitation throughout the state; southeast Alaska experiences consistently wet conditions, while northern Arctic Alaska observes very dry conditions. The maximum mean annual precipitation of 5727 mm is observed in the southeastern panhandle at Little Port Arthur, while the minimum of 92 mm occurs on the North Slope at Kuparuk. Besides explaining these large differences due to geographic and orographic location, we discuss the changes in precipitation with time. Analyzing the 18 first-order National Weather Service stations, we found that the total average precipitation in the state increased by 17% over the last 67 years. The observed changes in precipitation are furthermore discussed as a function of the observed temperature increase of 2.1 °C, the mean temperature change of the 18 stations over the same period. This observed warming of Alaska is about three times the magnitude of the mean global warming and allows the air to hold more water vapor. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, which has a strong influence on both the temperature and precipitation in Alaska.

  15. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  16. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its emphasis...

  17. Studies on gadolinium precipitation in moderator system of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Akhilesh C.; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rufus, A.L.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium is used in the moderator system of many Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for start-up, shut-down and reactivity control during operation. It is very much essential to maintain gadolinium concentration in the system as desired. It has been reported that gadolinium gets precipitated in as oxalate in carbonated water under the influence of γ-radiation. Hence, studies were carried out to investigate the effect of dose, presence of other metal ions and metal surfaces on the precipitation of gadolinium. The results showed that the amount of carboxylic acids viz., formic acid and oxalic acid, formed due to radiolysis is dependent on the dose and that the curve passes though a maxima. Gadolinium is added in higher concentration in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. So, experiments with high concentration of gadolinium were also carried out. Ultra pure water saturated with high purity CO 2 containing gadolinium and desired ion/surface was irradiated with γ-radiation from 60 Co source at 25°C to doses ranging from 2.5-16.6 Mrad. At lower doses, formation of carboxylic acids takes place but as the dose increases, decomposition of these acids starts and hence the concentration Vs dose passes through a maximum. It was found that precipitation of gadolinium as oxalate occurred at lower doses. At higher doses, it was seen that pH of the solution decreases and hence solubility of gadolinium oxalate increases. It was also observed that the amount of gadolinium precipitated varied linearly with the initial concentration of gadolinium varying from 2 ppm to 20 ppm. While for gadolinium concentration from 20 ppm to 400 ppm, gadolinium in particulate form was observed. The amount of carboxylic acids formed depends on the nature of cations present in solution. It was found that the amount of oxalic acid formed in the case of gadolinium was more than that formed in the case of sodium. Presence of metal oxides such as ZrO 2 formed over zircoloy surfaces was found to

  18. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors

  19. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  20. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  1. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  2. Hourly and Daily Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Precipitation reports submitted on many form types, including tabular and autographic charts. Reports are almost exclusively from the US Cooperative Observer Network.

  3. Evaluation of Coupled Precipitator Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The offline testing of the Coupled Precipitator Two (CP-2) has been completed. The tests were conducted and are documented. The tests were conducted at an offline test rack near the Drain Tube Test Stand facility in 672-T

  4. 75 FR 15777 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Basic Provisions; and Various Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...

  5. Seasonal variations of ochreous precipitates in mine effluents in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Carlson, Liisa; Raeisaenen, Marja-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Ochreous precipitate and water samples were collected from the surroundings of seven closed sulphide mines in Finland. In the Hammaslahti Zn-Cu-Au mine, Otravaara pyrite mine and Paroistenjaervi Cu-W-As mine, the collection was repeated in different seasons to study mineralogical and geochemical variations of precipitates. The sampling was done in 1999-2002 from the ditches and drainage ponds of the tailings and waste rock piles that are susceptible to seasonal changes. Mineralogy of the precipitates was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), and precipitate geochemistry was examined by selective extractions. Schwertmannite (Fe 8 O 8 (OH) 6 SO 4 ) was the most typical Fe hydroxide mineral found. Goethite was almost as common as schwertmannite, was often poorly ordered, and contained up to 10 wt.% of SO 4 . Goethite and schwertmannite were commonly found as mixtures, and they occurred in similar pH and SO 4 concentrations. Ferrihydrite (nominally Fe 5 HO 8 . 4H 2 O) was typically found in areas not influenced by acid mine drainage, and also in acid mine waters with high organic matter or As content. Jarosite (KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 ) was found only in one site. In addition, some gypsum (CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O) and aluminous sulphate precipitates (presumably basaluminite, Al 4 (SO 4 )(OH) 10 . 5H 2 O) were identified. Selective extractions showed that acid extracts Fe tot /S tot -ratios of schwertmannite and goethite samples were similar, but the ratio of oxalate-extractable to total Fe, Fe ox /Fe tot , of goethite samples were lower than those of the schwertmannite samples. Only Al, Si and As were bound to precipitates in substantial amounts, up to several wt.%. In schwertmannites and goethites, Al, Cu, Co, Mn and Zn were mostly structural, substituting for Fe in an Fe oxyhydroxide structure or bound to surface adsorption sites in pores limited by diffusion. In ferrihydrites, heavy metals were also partly bound in adsorbed form dissolving in

  6. Bereavement Care Provision in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Murphy, Irene; Keegan, Orla

    2015-01-01

    The Bereavement Care Taskforce of the EAPC has conducted a survey on bereavement care service provision in Europe. Mai-Britt Guldin, Irene Murphy, Orla Keegan, Barbara Monroe, Maria Antonia Lacasta Reverte and Inger Benkel report on the results. One of the key findings is that not all palliative...

  7. Biotic Iron Precipitation in Sand Filtration Systems by Gallionella ferruginea: Morphology and content of Exopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Charlotte

    conditions for principally biotic or abiotic iron precipitation is not well defined. An rH2 greater than 14 e.g. corresponding to an Eh a little above zero at slightly acidic pH is stated to be the best condition for biotic iron precipitation (Degremont, 1991). Abiotic iron precipitation is performed at a p...... are built with the purpose of biotic iron precipitation in order to reduce frequency of backwashing filtration systems. This is possibly due to the fact that biologically precipitated iron has a much denser structure than the corresponding abiotic precipitates (Søgaard et al. 2000). Both kinds of iron......-Peskir J. (2000) Conditions and rates of biotic and abiotic iron precipitation in selected Danish freshwater plants and microscopic analysis of precipitate morphology. Water Research, 34, 10, 2675-2682 Søgaard E.G., Aruna R., Abraham-Peskir, J. and Bender Koch, C. (2001) Conditions for iron precipitation...

  8. Statin precipitated lactic acidosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, R; Reynolds, T M; Saweirs, W

    2004-09-01

    An 82 year old woman was admitted with worsening dyspnoea. Arterial blood gases were taken on air and revealed a pH of 7.39, with a partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of 1.2 kPa, pO2 of 19.3 kPa, HCO3 of 13.8 mmol/litre, and base excess of -16.3 mmol/litre: a compensated metabolic acidosis with hyperventilation induced hypocapnia, which is known to be a feature of lactic acidosis. There was also an increased anion gap ((Na140 + K4.0) - (Cl 106 + HCO3 13.8) = 24.2 mEq/litre (reference range, 7-16)), consistent with unmeasured cation. Lactate was measured and found to be raised at 3.33 mmol/litre (reference range, 0.9-1.7). After exclusion of common causes of lactic acidosis Atorvastatin was stopped and her acid-base balance returned to normal. Subsequently, thiamine was also shown to be deficient. The acidosis was thought to have been the result of a mitochondrial defect caused by a deficiency of two cofactors, namely: ubiquinone (as a result of inhibition by statin) and thiamine (as a result of dietary deficiency).

  9. Influence of chemical composition of precipitation on migration of radioactive caesium in natural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thørring, H.; Skuterud, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of the chemical composition of precipitation on radiocaesium mobility in natural soil. This was done through column studies. Three types of precipitation regimes were studied, representing a natural range found in Norway: Acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); precipitation rich in marine cations (highly oceanic coastal areas); and low concentrations of sea salts (slightly continental inland areas). After 50 weeks and a total precipitation supply of ∼10 000 L m −2 per column, results indicate that acidic precipitation increased the mobility of 134 Cs added during the experiment. However, depth distribution of already present Chernobyl fallout 137 Cs was not significantly affected by the chemical composition of precipitation. - Highlights: • Mobility of freshly added Cs-134 was higher in soil receiving acidic precipitation. • Depth penetration of Cs-134 was higher in soil profiles with a thicker humus layer. • Depth distribution of Chernobyl Cs-137 was not affected by precipitation type

  10. Thermal behaviour of natural and synthetic iron precipitates from mine drainage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulišová, Petra; Máša, B.; Michalková, E.; Večerníková, Eva; Maříková, Monika; Bezdička, Petr; Murafa, Nataliya; Šubrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2014), s. 625-632 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12SK155 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Thermogravimetry * Differential thermal analysis * X-ray diffraction analysis * Acid mine drainage * Iron precipitates * Precipitation with urea Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2014

  11. The precipitation and effect of nano nitrides in HSLC steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The existing forms of N and Al in HSLC (high strength low carbon) steel produced by TSCR (thin slab casting and rolling process), the precipitation thermodynamics and kinetics of AlN, and its effects on structure and mechanical property are studied. The experimental results show that only a small quantity of nitrogen is com- bined into AlN in HSLC steel produced by TSCR and most of the nitrogen in steel is still free nitrogen. Aluminum-nitride is mainly precipitated during the period of slow air cooling after coiling, but not during rolling and water cooling. The acid-soluble aluminum has no obvious effect on the grain size and mechanical property of HSLC steel produced by TSCR whose acid-soluble aluminum content is 0.005%―0.043%. The precipitation of AlN is not the main cause of grain refinement of HSLC steel produced by TSCR, nor is AlN the dominating precipitate that has precipitation strengthening effect. The nano nitrides are not pure AlN, but have complex compositions.

  12. Development of precipitator of fluid film type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yupu

    1987-01-01

    The precipitator of fluid film type is developed for the determination of fuel element cladding failure of water-cooled reactor. It integrates the scrubber, precipitator and detector. The jet of element cooling water automatically circulates carrier gas and the flow water film transfers precipitates onto the surface of centre electrode. Three different types are designed. On the special test loop, the uranium sample pellets of simulating cladding failure is measured. The sensitivity of precipitators, saturated precipitation voltage, incremental speed of signal, speed of driving out precipitates and the contents of the precipitates are determined. The test shows that the precipitators are highly sensitive, reliable, cheap and easy to operate

  13. Satellite-Based Precipitation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Of the possible sources of precipitation data, those based on satellites provide the greatest spatial coverage. There is a wide selection of datasets, algorithms, and versions from which to choose, which can be confusing to non-specialists wishing to use the data. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) maintains tables of the major publicly available, long-term, quasi-global precipitation data sets (http://www.isac.cnr.it/ ipwg/data/datasets.html), and this talk briefly reviews the various categories. As examples, NASA provides two sets of quasi-global precipitation data sets: the older Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and current Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). Both provide near-real-time and post-real-time products that are uniformly gridded in space and time. The TMPA products are 3-hourly 0.25°x0.25° on the latitude band 50°N-S for about 16 years, while the IMERG products are half-hourly 0.1°x0.1° on 60°N-S for over 3 years (with plans to go to 16+ years in Spring 2018). In addition to the precipitation estimates, each data set provides fields of other variables, such as the satellite sensor providing estimates and estimated random error. The discussion concludes with advice about determining suitability for use, the necessity of being clear about product names and versions, and the need for continued support for satellite- and surface-based observation.

  14. The precipitation of double fluoride salts of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, C. W.A.

    1963-02-15

    Bench-scale kinetic tests were conducted to study the reduction and precipitation reactions involved in the preparation of ammonium uranous fluoride from high-purity uranyl nitrate solutions. Sulphur dioxide and formic acid were used to form the active reducing agent, nascent hyposulphite ion. The reduction was affected in the presence of ammonium fluoride, resulting in the precipitation of the highly insoluble double salt. It was found that uranium was precipituted at a constant rate throughout the progress of the reaction. It is postulated that the reducing agent was continuously regenerated, and that this reaction was rate controlling. As a result of this study, a reaction mechanism is proposed. (auth)

  15. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  16. Measurement of precipitation using lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot

    2013-04-01

    Austria's alpine foothill aquifers contain important drinking water resources, but are also used intensively for agricultural production. These groundwater bodies are generally recharged by infiltrating precipitation. A sustainable water resources management of these aquifers requires quantifying real evapotranspiration (ET), groundwater recharge (GR), precipitation (P) and soil water storage change (ΔS). While GR and ΔS can be directly measured by weighable lysimeters and P by separate precipitation gauges, ET is determined by solving the climatic water balance ET = P GR ± ΔS. According to WMO (2008) measurement of rainfall is strongly influenced by precipitation gauge errors. Most significant errors result from wind loss, wetting loss, evaporation loss, and due to in- and out-splashing of water. Measuring errors can be reduced by a larger area of the measuring gaugés surface and positioning the collecting vessel at ground level. Modern weighable lysimeters commonly have a surface of 1 m², are integrated into their typical surroundings of vegetation cover (to avoid oasis effects) and allow scaling the mass change of monolithic soil columns in high measuring accuracy (0.01 mm water equivalent) and high temporal resolution. Thus, also precipitation can be quantified by measuring the positive mass changes of the lysimeter. According to Meissner et al. (2007) also dew, fog and rime can be determined by means of highly precise weighable lysimeters. Furthermore, measuring precipitation using lysimeters avoid common measuring errors (WMO 2008) at point scale. Though, this method implicates external effects (background noise, influence of vegetation and wind) which affect the mass time series. While the background noise of the weighing is rather well known and can be filtered out of the mass time series, the influence of wind, which blows through the vegetation and affects measured lysimeter mass, cannot be corrected easily since there is no clear relation between

  17. Precipitation process for supernate decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    A precipitation and adsorption process has been developed to remove cesium, strontium, and plutonium from water-soluble, high-level radioactive waste. An existing waste tank serves as the reaction vessel and the process begins with the addition of a solution of sodium tetraphenylborate and a slurry of sodium titanate to the contained waste salt solution. Sodium tetraphenylborate precipitates the cesium and sodium titanate adsorbs the strontium and plutonium. The precipitate/adsorbate is then separated from the decontaminated salt solution by crossflow filtration. This new process offers significant capital savings over an earlier ion exchange process for salt decontamination. Chemical and small-scale engineering studies with actual waste are reported. The effect of many variables on the decontamination factors and filter performance are defined

  18. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs

  19. A new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Zeng Yijun; Li Shangyuan; Kong Guiying

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation, thus solving a series of problems for precipitating uranium with traditional double precipitation. The new technique can not only remove ferric ions and sulfate radicals but also make solid-liquid separation easy, utilize effectively the sulfuric acid produced in ferric ions precipitation process, and increase uranium concentration of leaching liquor. To take it as producing yellow cake will save investment, simplify operation, and cut down the consumption of raw materials and energies. It is more competitive than ion-exchange or solvent extraction in the process of extracting-purifying and preparing yellow cake

  20. Radar-Derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Based on Precipitation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. Tropical vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs are first determined from multiple VPRs. Upon identifying a tropical VPR, the event can be further classified as either tropical-stratiform or tropical-convective rainfall by a fuzzy logic (FL algorithm. Based on the precipitation-type fields, the reflectivity values are converted into rainfall rate using a Z-R relationship. In order to evaluate the performance of this rainfall classification scheme, three experiments were conducted using three months of data and two study cases. In Experiment I, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D default Z-R relationship was applied. In Experiment II, the precipitation regime was separated into convective and stratiform rainfall using the FL algorithm, and corresponding Z-R relationships were used. In Experiment III, the precipitation regime was separated into convective, stratiform, and tropical rainfall, and the corresponding Z-R relationships were applied. The results show that the rainfall rates obtained from all three experiments match closely with the gauge observations, although Experiment II could solve the underestimation, when compared to Experiment I. Experiment III significantly reduced this underestimation and generated the most accurate radar estimates of rain rate among the three experiments.

  1. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  2. The characterisation of precipitated magnetites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, D.F.; Segal, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    Methods are described for the preparation of magnetite by precipitation from aqueous solutions of iron(II) and iron(III) salts. The magnetites have been characterised by transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy has also been used to characterise precipitated magnetites and a comparison of the spectra has been made with those obtained from nickel ferrite and hydrated ferric oxides. The hydrothermal stability of magnetite at 573 K has also been investigated. This work is relevant to corrosion processes that can occur in the water coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. (author)

  3. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  4. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process

  5. 24 CFR 201.16 - Default provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default provision. 201.16 Section... PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.16 Default provision. The... default by the borrower. ...

  6. Effect of Aqueous Media on the Recovery of Scandium by Selective Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengi Yagmurlu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a novel precipitation method for scandium (Sc concentrate refining from bauxite residue leachates and the effect of aqueous media on this triple-stage successive precipitation process. The precipitation pattern and the precipitation behavior of the constituent elements was investigated using different precipitation agents in three major mineral acid media, namely, H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl in a comparative manner. Experimental investigations showed behavioral similarities between HNO3 and HCl media, while H2SO4 media was different from them because of the nature of the formed complexes. NH4OH was found to be the best precipitation agent in every leaching media to remove Fe(III with low Sc co-precipitation. To limit Sc loss from the system, Fe(III removal was divided into two steps, leading to more than 90% of Fe(III removal at the end of the process. Phosphate concentrates were produced in the final step of the precipitation process with dibasic phosphates which have a strong affinity towards Sc. Concentrates containing more than 50% of ScPO4 were produced in each case from the solutions after Fe(III removal, as described. A flow diagram of the selective precipitation process is proposed for these three mineral acid media with their characteristic parameters.

  7. Synchrotron X-ray induced solution precipitation of nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H J; Hwu, Y; Tsai, W L

    2003-01-01

    By irradiating a solution in electroless Ni deposition using synchrotron X-rays, Ni composite was found to nucleate homogeneously and eventually precipitate in the form of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles precipitated is rather uniform (100-300 nm depending on the applied temperature). By the addition of an organic acid, well-dispersed nanoparticles could be effectively deposited on glass substrate. The hydrated electrons (e sub a sub q sup -), products of radiolysis of water molecules by synchrotron X-rays, may be responsible for the effective reduction of the metal ions, resulting in homogeneous nucleation and nanoparticle formation. Our results suggest that synchrotron X-ray can be used to induce solution precipitation of nanoparticles and therefore lead to a new method of producing nanostructured particles and coating.

  8. Precipitation kinetics of a continuous precipitator, with application to the precipitation of ammonium polyuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    A mathematical model describing the kinetics of continuous precipitation was developed which accounts for crystal nucleation, crystal growth, primary coagulation, and secondary coagulation. Population density distributions, average particle sizes, dominant particle sizes, and suspension density fractions of the crystallites, primary agglomerates, and secondary agglomerates leaving the continuous precipitator can be determined. This kinetic model was applied to the continuous precipitation of ammonium polyuranate, which consists of: (1) elementary crystals, (2) clusters or primary coagulated particles, and (3) agglomerates or secondary coagulated particles. The crystallites are thin, submicron, hexagonal platelets. The clusters had an upper size limit of about 7 μ in diameter and contained numerous small voids (less than 0.3 μm) due to the packing of the crystallites. The agglomerates had an upper size limit of about 40 μm in diameter and contained large voids (approximately 1 μm). The particle size distribution and particle structure of the ammonium polyuranate precipitate can be controlled through proper regulation of the precipitation conditions. The ratio of clusters to agglomerates can be best controlled through the uranium concentration, and the cohesiveness or internal bonding strength of the particles can be controlled with the ammonium to uranium reacting feed mole ratio. These two conditions, in conjunction with the residence time, will determine the nucleation rates, growth rates, and size distributions of the particles leaving the continuous precipitator. With proper control of these physical particle characteristics, the use of pore formers, ball-milling, and powder blending can probably be eliminated from the nuclear fuel fabrication process, substantially reducing the cost

  9. Precipitation kinetics of a continuous precipitator, with application to the precipitation of ammonium polyuranate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    A mathematical model describing the kinetics of continuous precipitation was developed which accounts for crystal nucleation, crystal growth, primary coagulation, and secondary coagulation. Population density distributions, average particle sizes, dominant particle sizes, and suspension density fractions of the crystallites, primary agglomerates, and secondary agglomerates leaving the continuous precipitator can be determined. This kinetic model was applied to the continuous precipitation of ammonium polyuranate, which consists of: (1) elementary crystals, (2) clusters or primary coagulated particles, and (3) agglomerates or secondary coagulated particles. The crystallites are thin, submicron, hexagonal platelets. The clusters had an upper size limit of about 7 ..mu.. in diameter and contained numerous small voids (less than 0.3 ..mu..m) due to the packing of the crystallites. The agglomerates had an upper size limit of about 40 ..mu..m in diameter and contained large voids (approximately 1 ..mu..m). The particle size distribution and particle structure of the ammonium polyuranate precipitate can be controlled through proper regulation of the precipitation conditions. The ratio of clusters to agglomerates can be best controlled through the uranium concentration, and the cohesiveness or internal bonding strength of the particles can be controlled with the ammonium to uranium reacting feed mole ratio. These two conditions, in conjunction with the residence time, will determine the nucleation rates, growth rates, and size distributions of the particles leaving the continuous precipitator. With proper control of these physical particle characteristics, the use of pore formers, ball-milling, and powder blending can probably be eliminated from the nuclear fuel fabrication process, substantially reducing the cost.

  10. Uranium precipitation with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Although hydrogen peroxide precipitation of uranium continues to be used primarily as means of producing a high purity yellowcake, it has also become an important process due to its superior physical properties. Processing costs such as filtering, drying and/or calcining and drumming, can be reduced. 5 refs

  11. Tritium Level in Romanian Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Bogdan, D.; Soare, A. [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotope Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Duliu, O. G. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)

    2013-07-15

    Romania is one of the countries that has no station included in GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) on its territory. This paper presents results regarding the tritium concentration in precipitation for the period 1999-2009. The precipitation fell at the Institute for cryogenic and Isotope technologies (geographical coordinates: altitude 237 m, latitude 45{sup o}02'07' N, longitude 24{sup o}17'03' E) an was collected both individually and as a composite average of each month. It was individually measured and the average was calculated and compared with the tritium concentration measured in the composite sample. tritium concentration levels ranged from 9.9 {+-} 2.1 TU for 2004 and 13.7 {+-} 2.2 TU for 2009. Comparing the arithmetic mean values with the weighted mean for the period of observation, it was noticed that the higher absolute values of the weighted means were constant. It was found that for the calculated monthly average for the period of observation (1999-2009), the months with the maximum tritium concentration are the same as the months with the maximum amount of precipitation. This behaviour is typical for the monitored location. (author)

  12. Waste and Simulant Precipitation Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, W.V.

    2000-01-01

    As Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have studied methods of preparing high-level waste for vitrification in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), questions have arisen with regard to the formation of insoluble waste precipitates at inopportune times. One option for decontamination of the SRS waste streams employs the use of an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Testing of the process during FY 1999 identified problems associated with the formation of precipitates during cesium sorption tests using CST. These precipitates may, under some circumstances, obstruct the pores of the CST particles and, hence, interfere with the sorption process. In addition, earlier results from the DWPF recycle stream compatibility testing have shown that leaching occurs from the CST when it is stored at 80 C in a high-pH environment. Evidence was established that some level of components of the CST, such as silica, was leached from the CST. This report describes the results of equilibrium modeling and precipitation studies associated with the overall stability of the waste streams, CST component leaching, and the presence of minor components in the waste streams

  13. Rheology of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, I.D.; Martin, H.D.; McLain, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obtained in this study was applied in the design of slurry pumps, transfer pumps, transfer lines, and vessel agitation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and other High Level Waste treatment projects. The precipitate slurry behaves as a Bingham plastic. The yield stress is directly proportional to the concentration of insoluble solids over the range of concentrations studied. The consistency is also a linear function of insoluble solids over the same concentration range. Neither the yield stress nor the consistency was observed to be affected by the presence of the soluble solids. Temperature effects on flow properties of the slurry were also examined: the yield stress is inversely proportional to temperature, but the consistency of the slurry is independent of temperature. No significant time-dependent effects were found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radke, L.F.; Eltgroth, M.W.; Hobbs, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the results of precipitation scavenging measurements of particles in the atmosphere and in plumes which were obtained using an airborne measuring system. Attention is given to the so-called 'Greenfield gap' and collection efficiencies for submicron particles

  15. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...... basic formula. We also take the new approach further by deriving an intuitive formula for the optimal level of public goods, without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation has a role to play, as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants...

  16. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  17. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  18. Particle precipitation in connection with KOH etching of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Christensen, Carsten; Pedersen, Casper

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show that the precipi......This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show...... that the precipitation is independent of KOH etching time, but that the amount of deposited material varies with dopant type and dopant concentration. The experiments also suggest that the precipitation occurs when the silicon wafers are removed from the KOH etching solution and not during the etching procedure. When...... not removed, the iron oxide particles cause etch pits on the Si surface when later processed and exposed to phosphoric acid. It has been found that the particles can be removed in an HCl solution, but not completely in an H2SO4- H2O2 solution. The paper discusses the involved precipitation mechanism in terms...

  19. The Fractionation and Enrichment of La Content by Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyanti; Purwani, MV

    2007-01-01

    The fractionation and enrichment of La content by precipitation have been done. The feed was La hydroxide by product of monazite sand. La hydroxide was diluted in HNO 3 and was precipitated with ammonia. For to obtain La, diluent was precipitated at pH 8 and the filtrate was precipitated with oxalic acid. The precipitant of La concentrated was more rich than the feed. This process was done continue and fractionally. The best yield of enrichment of La was obtained at dilution of 25 gram La Hydroxide in 20 ml HNO 3 . The efficient degree of fractionation was XV. The average weight of La concentrate was obtained at every fraction was 1 gram. The total sum weight from fraction I until fraction XV 13.5 grams. The average of La content was 48%, average fractionation efficiency of La for every step of fractionation was 48 %. Total efficiency all process was 100%. The average ratio of La/Nd was 2 and the ratio of La/Ce almost infinite. Before processed La/Ce was 7.86, and after process increase to 26.92 - to approach ∞. Before processed ratio of La/Nd was 2.79, after processed increased to 4.4 - to approach ∞. (author)

  20. Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rait, R.; Trumm, D.; Pope, J.; Craw, D.; Newman, N.; MacKenzie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast coal mines with As-contaminated water from an historic gold ore processing site near Reefton. Precipitates were collected from distinctly different settings, an active acid mine drainage treatment plant at Stockton mine and the neutralisation/oxidation zone of acid mine drainage discharge at the abandoned Blackball Coal Mine. The two mine sites produce precipitates with different compositions and mineralogy. Arsenic adsorption onto precipitates from each site was determined in batch and column tests under laboratory conditions. Batch experiments indicate As adsorption occurs rapidly during the first 5 h and reaches equilibrium after 24 h. At equilibrium, and for a dosing ratio of 50 g of precipitate per litre of water, As concentrations decreased from 99 mg/L to 0.0080 mg/L with precipitates from Stockton and to 0.0017 mg/L with precipitates from Blackball. Arsenic adsorption capacity is up to 12 mg/g on precipitates from Stockton sludge and 74 mg/g on precipitates from Blackball. The Blackball precipitate adsorbs more As than precipitates from Stockton which is probably due to the higher Fe oxide content but pH and surface structure could also play a role. The column experiment confirmed that adsorption of As from a continuous waste stream onto these precipitates is possible, and that passive remediation using this waste product mixed with gravel to enhance permeability could be a viable approach at As-contaminated mine sites. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Isotopic composition of past precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.W.D.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of stable isotopes in precipitation provides critical quantitative information about the global water cycle. The first PAGES/IAEA ISOMAP workshop was held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, 24-26 August 1998, which gathered 32 participants. The presentation and discussions demonstrated that a high level of sophistication already exists in the development of transfer functions between measured parameters and precipitation, as a result of the extensive use of water isotope tracers in paleo-environmental investigations, but a major challenge facing both producers and users of paleo-isotope data is the effective management of data and meta-data, to permit ready retrieval of raw and inferred data for comparison and reinterpretation. This will be in important goal of future ISOMAP activities. The critical need for more paleo-data from low latitudes was clearly recognized

  2. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  3. Precipitation processes in implanted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is a nonequilibrium process. It is possible to implant materials with impurities to concentration levels which exceed the solid solubilities. The return of the system to thermodynamic equilibrium is often accomplished by precipitation of the implanted species or a compound involving atoms of both the host and the implanted species. This may involve long time scales when taking place at room temperature or it may take place during the implantation

  4. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  5. Phase characterization of precipitated zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzov, S.; Ponahlo, J.; Lengauer, C.L.; Beran, A.

    1994-01-01

    The phase compositions of undoped and europium-doped zirconia samples, obtained by precipitation and thermal treatment from 350 to 1,000 C, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature stabilization of tetragonal zirconia is mainly controlled by the presence of anion additives, such as ammonium chloride. The influences of the crystallite size is less important. Cathodoluminescence spectra show a structural similarity between tetragonal and amorphous zirconia

  6. Organic acids as analytical reagent: Part 1. Estimation of zirconium by gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, C.S.; Singh, A.K.; Kumar, Ashok

    1975-01-01

    Gallic acid has been found to be a selective reagent for the estimation of zirconium. The acid gives crystalline precipitate at pH of 4.8. The precipitate is ignited and weighed as ZrO 2 . Cations like Ca +2 , Ba +2 , Sr +2 , Mn +2 , Co +2 , Ni +2 , Fe +3 do not interfere in the estimation. (author)

  7. Precipitation Sedimentation and Advection in GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R.; Tallapragada, V.

    2016-12-01

    Zhao and Carr microphysics scheme as implemented in the NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) predicts only the total cloud condensate (cloud water or ice). The precipitation generated in the column fall to the ground instantly. This mean precipitation sedimentation and advection are not considered. As resolution increases the lack of the two physical processes creates problems. The slowly falling precipitation (snow) falls to the wrong surface grid box, which may have led to the observed spotty-precipitation pattern. To solve the problem two prognositic variables, snow and rain, are added. Addition of the two precipitation variable allows their advection. The corresponding sedimentation process are also added. In this study we examine the effect of precipitation advection and sedimentation on the precipitation pattern, associated precipitation skills and clouds.

  8. U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data is digital data set DSI-3260, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This is precipitation data. The primary source...

  9. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  10. Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The precipitation data is 0.2 degree gridded monthly precipitation data based upon monthly rain data from Peru and Bolivia and daily rain data from Brazil....

  11. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. ... applied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainy ... 2015). As a result, such irregularities in precipitation,. i.e., droughts and floods can affect the ... (January–December), years and decades.

  12. Sintesa Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) dari Cangkang Kerang Darah (Anadara Granosa) dengan Variasi Ukuran Partikel dan Waktu Karbonasi

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Lucy; Amri, Amun; Zultiniar, Zultiniar; Yelmida, Yelmida

    2015-01-01

    Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) is a product of the processing of natural materials containing calcium carbonate resulting from the precipitation process with high purity. Bloodcockle shell can be used as a source of calcium for precipitated Calcium Carbonate. The purpose of this study to produce PCC of waste shells blood with carbonation method and determine the particle size of the PCC and the best carbonation time. Synthesis performed using carbonation method by adding nitric acid to ...

  13. Trends of two decadal precipitation chemistry in a subtropical rainforest in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Te; Wang, Chiao-Ping; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Wang, Lih-Jih; Liu, Chiung-Pin; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2017-12-15

    Long-term monitoring of precipitation chemistry provides a great opportunity to examine the evolution of air pollutant emissions and effectiveness of air pollution control measures. We evaluated the characteristics and trends of precipitation chemistry at both annual and seasonal scales based on the records of 1994-2013 at Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northeastern Taiwan. The results showed that 77% of the weekly precipitation had pHprecipitation pH and the difference between [SO 4 2 - +NO 3 - ] and [Ca 2+ +NH 4 + ], not just [SO 4 2 - +NO 3 - ], suggesting that precipitation acidity was not solely determined by acidic pollutants but by the balance between acidic pollutants and base cations. We also found temporal decreases of Ca 2+ and NH 4 + concentrations in precipitation which contributed to the low acid neutralization capacity of precipitation. Annual deposition of NO 3 - and SO 4 2- was 23 and 55kgha -1 yr -1 , which is much higher than most forest sites in the industrialized countries suggesting that acid deposition is still a major environmental issue in Taiwan. Annual deposition of NH 4 + , Ca 2+ and NO 3 - showed significant decreasing trends during the 20-year period, which was mostly due to the decreases in the summer deposition associated with air pollution mitigation strategies. Winter deposition showed no decreasing patterns for the same period. The high contribution to annual acid deposition from autumn-winter and spring rains (50%) associated with northeast monsoon implies that long-range transport of anthropogenic emissions from East Asia played a key role on acid depositions at FEF and possibly many areas in the region. Therefore, intergovernmental cooperation is urgently needed to effectively mitigate the threat of acid deposition in East Asia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  15. Effective assimilation of global precipitation: simulation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yuan Lien

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Past attempts to assimilate precipitation by nudging or variational methods have succeeded in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed values. However, the model forecasts tend to lose their additional skill after a few forecast hours. In this study, a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF is used to effectively assimilate precipitation by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights in the analysis. In addition, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are found to alleviate the problems related to the non-Gaussianity of the precipitation variable: (a transform the precipitation variable into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution (an approach that could also be used in the assimilation of other non-Gaussian observations and (b only assimilate precipitation at the location where at least some ensemble members have precipitation. Unlike many current approaches, both positive and zero rain observations are assimilated effectively. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs are conducted using the Simplified Parametrisations, primitivE-Equation DYnamics (SPEEDY model, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When uniformly and globally distributed observations of precipitation are assimilated in addition to rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium-range forecasts of all model variables, including precipitation, are significantly improved as compared to only assimilating rawinsonde observations. The effect of precipitation assimilation on the analyses is retained on the medium-range forecasts and is larger in the Southern Hemisphere (SH than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH because the NH analyses are already made more accurate by the denser rawinsonde stations. These improvements are much reduced when only the moisture field is modified by the precipitation observations. Both the Gaussian transformation and

  16. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  17. Radiation Induced Precipitation in Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solly, B

    1964-02-15

    Foils of iron have been neutron-irradiated in the Swedish re- search reactor R2 to integrated doses in the range 10{sup 17} - 10{sup 19} nvt (> 1 MeV) and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Features have been observed having diffraction contrast similar to that of the prismatic dislocation loops formed in f.c.c. metals by the collapse of point-defect clusters. The features have been shown to be due to precipitation of impurities at radiation damage centres in the iron matrix.

  18. Recent Developments on Discontinuous Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The discontinuous precipitation (DP belongs to a group of diffusive solid state phase transformations during which the formation of a new phase is heterogeneous and limited to a migrating reaction front (RF. The use of analytical electron microscopy provided reliable information that there is no differences in the diffusion rate at the stationary grain boundary and moving RF of DP reaction. On the other hand, the use of “in situ” transmission electron microscopy observations indicated the importance of stop-go motion or oscillatory movement of the RF.

  19. Radiation Induced Precipitation in Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solly, B.

    1964-02-01

    Foils of iron have been neutron-irradiated in the Swedish re- search reactor R2 to integrated doses in the range 10 17 - 10 19 nvt (> 1 MeV) and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Features have been observed having diffraction contrast similar to that of the prismatic dislocation loops formed in f.c.c. metals by the collapse of point-defect clusters. The features have been shown to be due to precipitation of impurities at radiation damage centres in the iron matrix

  20. Precipitation of uranium concentrates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa Filho, O.; Teixeira, L.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study on the precipitation of uranyl peroxide (UO 4 x H 2 O) has been carried out in a laboratory scale. The objective was to assess the possibility of the peroxide route as an alternative to a conventional ammonium diuranate process. A factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, precipitation pH and H 2 O 2 /UO 2 2+ ratio upon the process. The responses were measured in terms of: efficiency of U precipitation, content of U in the precipitates, and distribution of impurities in the precipitates. (Author) [pt

  1. 78 FR 18960 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC586 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  2. The Contribution of Extreme Precipitation to the Total Precipitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Using daily precipitation data from weather stations in China, the variations in the contribution of extreme precipitation to the total precipitation are analyzed. It is found that extreme precipitation accounts for approximately one third of the total precipitation based on the overall mean for China. Over the past half century, extreme precipitation has played a dominant role in the year-to-year variability of the total precipitation. On the decadal time scale, the extreme precipitation makes different contributions to the wetting and drying regions of China. The wetting trends of particular regions are mainly attributed to increases in extreme precipitation; in contrast, the drying trends of other regions are mainly due to decreases in non-extreme precipitation.

  3. Estimating Tropical Cyclone Precipitation from Station Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fumin; WANG Yongmei; WANG Xiaoling; LI Weijing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an objective technique for estimating the tropical cyclone (TC) precipitation from station observations is proposed. Based on a comparison between the Original Objective Method (OOM) and the Expert Subjective Method (ESM), the Objective Synoptic Analysis Technique (OSAT) for partitioning TC precipitation was developed by analyzing the western North Pacific (WNP) TC historical track and the daily precipitation datasets. Being an objective way of the ESM, OSAT overcomes the main problems in OOM,by changing two fixed parameters in OOM, the thresholds for the distance of the absolute TC precipitation (D0) and the TC size (D1), into variable parameters.Case verification for OSAT was also carried out by applying CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique) daily precipitation measurements, which is NOAA's combined satellite precipitation measurement system. This indicates that OSAT is capable of distinguishing simultaneous TC precipitation rain-belts from those associated with different TCs or with middle-latitude weather systems.

  4. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muske, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements

  5. Microbially-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ser Ku; Roh, Yul

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of carbonate minerals using microorganisms (Wu Do-1) enriched from rhodoliths. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that Wu Do-1 mainly contained Proteus mirabilis. The pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.3 over the first 4 days of incubation due to microbial oxidation of organic acids, after which it increased to 7.8 over the remaining incubation period. XRD analysis showed that the precipitates were Mg-rich cal- cite (MgxCa(1-x)CO3), whereas no precipitates were formed without the addition of Wu Do-1 in D-1 medium. SEM-EDS analyses showed that the Mg-rich calcite had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of Ca, Si and Mg with an extracelluar polymeric substance (EPS). In addition, TEM-EDS analyses revealed they were hexagon in shape, 500-700 nm in size, and composed of Ca, Mg, C, and O. These results indicated that Wu Do-1 induced precipitation of Mg-rich calcite on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Ca and/or Mg ions. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate nanoparticles may play an important role in metal and carbon biogeochemistry, as well as in carbon sequestration in natural environments.

  6. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Frandsen, Cathrine; Wallace, Adam F.

    2016-01-01

    to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 ... occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process....

  7. Soil Effects Mediate Interaction of Dogwood Anthracnose and Acidic Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Berrang; Erika Mavity

    1998-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Discula destructiva Redlin. It was first reported in 1976 (Byther et al., 1979), and spread rapidly throughout the range of the Pacific dogwood(Cornus nuttallii Audubon) on the west coast. The disease was found in 1978 in New York, and swept through the eastern flowering dogwood (...

  8. Methods for the sodium cooled fast reactor fire safety provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, B.V.; Dergachev, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of fire safety provision on NPPs with sodium cooled fast reactor are under discussion. Methods of sodium leak localization, measures eliminating sodium flaring up during leaks and main means of sodium fire extinguishing are considered. An extinguishing of sodium flaring up is performed by means of sodium temperatUre decrease and by limitation of hydrogen access to the flaring up surface. A conclusion is made that the most effective methods of extinguishing are the following: self-extinguishing (due to hydrogen burning out in a limiting volume); extinguishing by a gas mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid (initial filling and blowing of rooms during sodium flaring up); extinguishing by special powders

  9. 9 CFR 93.916 - Special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions. 93.916 Section 93... § 93.916 Special provisions. (a) Slaughter. Live VHS-regulated fish from VHS-regulated regions may be... establishment discharges its waste water to a municipal sewage system that includes waste water disinfection...

  10. 48 CFR 11.107 - Solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision. 11... transaction-based reporting method to report its use of voluntary consensus standards to the National... Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities”). Use of the provision...

  11. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  12. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions. 63.9 Section 63.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following...

  13. 22 CFR 226.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.48 Contract provisions. The...

  14. 30 CFR 847.2 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 847.2 Section 847.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... court of competent jurisdiction enters a judgment against or convicts a person under these provisions...

  15. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provision. 931.9 Section 931.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply...

  16. 12 CFR 1261.2 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 1261.2 Section 1261.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.2 General provisions. (a...

  17. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  18. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) maintenance provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was designed with maintainability as a primary parameter, and facilities and provisions were designed into the plant to accommodate the maintenance function. This paper describes the FFTF and its systems. Special maintenance equipment and facilities for performing maintenance on radioactive components are discussed. Maintenance provisions designed into the plant to enhance maintainability are also described

  19. Energy provision under Obama administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, J. [IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The new bill before the Senate, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, allows for an additional amount for 'Fossil Energy Research and Development' of $4.6 billion, to be available until 30 September 2010 and that $2 billion of that is available for one or more near zero emissions power plant(s). Two further provisions allow for an additional $1 billion for the Department's Clean Coal Power Initiative Round III and a further $1.5 billion for a competitive solicitations for projects that demonstrate carbon capture from industrial sources. Awards for such projects may include plant efficiency improvements for integration with carbon capture technology. The press seems to be divided whether this money will help revive the FutureGen project. The financial commitment should help the G8 achieve its objective of seeing 20 CCS demonstration projects around the world by 2020. An economic stimulus package proposed by the incoming Barack Obama administration include $150 billion to be spent over 10 years to spur next generation biofuels, plug in hybrid vehicles, a new digital electrical grid and new low emission coal plants. The proposal is intended to create jobs and address critical infrastructure in the US.

  20. The effect of a local source on the composition of precipitation in south-central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Boyce; Samuel S. Butcher

    1976-01-01

    Bulk precipitation samples were collected from ten sites in south-central Maine during the period 18 June to 30 September 1974. Data from the chemical analyses of the precipitation were used to determine regional deposition patterns of the ionic constituents. Acidic pH values ranging from 3.8 to 5.0 are characteristic of the region, but relatively alkaline pH values of...

  1. Centrifugal washing and recovery as an improved method for obtaining lignin precipitated from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes centrifugal recovery as an improved method for collection of lignin isolated from black liquor obtained from a South African kraft mill. Precipitation of lignin was achieved by utilising 6 M sulphuric acid. Recovery...

  2. Wet milling versus co-precipitation in magnetite ferrofluid preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almásy László

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various uses of ferrofluids for technical applications continuously raise the interest in improvement and optimization of preparation methods. This paper deals with preparation of finely granulated magnetite particles coated with oleic acid in hydrocarbon suspensions following either chemical co-precipitation from iron salt precursors or wet milling of micron size magnetite powder with the goal to compare the benefits and disadvantages of each method. Microstructural measurements showed that both methods gave similar magnetite particle size of 10-15 nm. Higher saturation magnetization was achieved for the wet-milled magnetite suspension compared to relatively rapid co-precipitation synthesis. Different efficacies of ferrophase incorporation into kerosene could be related to the different mechanisms of oleic acid bonding to nanoparticle surface. The comparative data show that wet milling represents a practicable alternative to the traditional co-precipitation since despite of longer processing time, chemicals impact on environment can be avoided as well as the remnant water in the final product.

  3. Precipitation of iron (III) using magnesium oxide in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban-Bocardo, P. A.; Ferreira-Rocha, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    A process for iron (III) removal by hydroxide precipitation from and acid synthetic inorganic effluent using magnesium oxide as an alternative precipitant agent in a fluidized bed was developed. An acid synthetic inorganic effluent containing 100 and 200 mg/l of ferric ions (pH=1.0) was continuously fed up to the acrylic column (30 cm high and 2 cm diameter) during 180 minutes. Magnesium oxide pulp (3% v/v) was injected at the beginning of the experiment in order to allow the iron hydroxides precipitation. The concentration and pH profiles agreed in their curves, while the pH profile rose,the concentration profile decreased and a high percentage of iron removal /higher to 99%) was reached. Extremely low iron concentrations have been reached, thus permitting to attend to the environmental standard of 10.0 mg/l for discharge of effluent containing ferric ions established by the law DN 10/86 of COPAM (Conselho de Politica Ambiental do Estado de Minas Gerais-Brazil). (Author)

  4. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik

    2014-04-29

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  5. Removal of sulfamic acid from plutonium sulfamate--sulfamic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium metal can be readily dissolved in aqueous solutions of sulfamic acid. When the plutonium sulfamate--sulfamic acid solutions are added to normal purex process streams, the sulfamate ion is oxidized by addition of sodium nitrite. This generates sodium sulfate which must be stored as radioactive waste. When recovery of ingrown 241 Am or storage of the dissolved plutonium must be considered, the sulfamate ion poses major and undesirable precipitation problems in the process streams. The present studies show that 40 to 80% of the sulfamate present in the dissolver solutions can be removed by precipitation as sulfamic acid by the addition of concentrated nitric acid. Addition of 64% nitric acid allows precipitation of 40 to 50% of the sulfamate; addition of 72% nitric acid allows precipitation of 50 to 60% of the sulfamate. If the solutions are chilled, additional sulfamic acid will precipitate. If the solutions are chilled to -10 0 C, about 70 to 80% of the orginal sulfamic acid in the dissolver will precipitate. A single, low-volume wash of the sulfamic acid crystals with concentrated nitric acid will decontaminate the crystals to a plutonium content of 5 dis/(min-gram)

  6. A simple and effective method for detecting precipitated proteins in MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikane, Hiroyuki; Watabe, Masahiko; Nakaki, Toshio

    2018-04-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has developed rapidly into an essential analytical tool for the life sciences. Cinnamic acid derivatives are generally employed in routine molecular weight determinations of intact proteins using MALDI-TOF MS. However, a protein of interest may precipitate when mixed with matrix solution, perhaps preventing MS detection. We herein provide a simple approach to enable the MS detection of such precipitated protein species by means of a "direct deposition method" -- loading the precipitant directly onto the sample plate. It is thus expected to improve routine MS analysis of intact proteins. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Characterization of the precipitates formed during the denitration of simulated HRLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.; Popovic, S.

    1989-01-01

    The denitration of several chemical compositions of simulated highly radioactive liquid waste (HRLW) was performed using formic acid as reducing agent. Precipitates formed during the denitration of simulated HRLW were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Goethite and amorphous fractions were the principal phases in these precipitates. It was found that the chemical composition of HRLW and the experimental conditions of denitration had more influence on the crystal formation and the particle size than on the phase composition of the precipitates. (author) 27 refs.; 6 figs.; 6 tabs

  8. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  9. Precipitation and Hardening in Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries. Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening.

  10. Cs separation from nitric acid solutions of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.; Pieronczyk, W.; Strnad, J.; Feldmaier, F.

    1989-01-01

    It was the objective of this study to selectively separate active caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from acid radioactive waste solutions (especially MAW and HAWC). The following 'strategy' was designed for a separation process: synthesis of reagents which are acid-resistant and selective for caesium; precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by filtration or centrifugation or precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by flotation; caesium separation by liquid-liquid extraction. As precipitating agents, sodium tetraphenylborate (kalignost) and several of its fluorine derivatives were examined. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Plutonium peroxide precipitation: review and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing the HNO 3 concentration decreases the filtration time but increases the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. A compromise was therefore necessary. If a minimum plutonium concentration is required in the filtrate, the acidity could be lowered to 1.9M with an approximate doubling in the filtration time. The H 2 O 2 concentration has little effect on filtration time. However, the higher the H 2 O 2 concentration, the less plutonium lost to the filtrate. Concentrations higher than the 22 moles/mole Pu recommended (at least up to 30 molar which was the highest investigated) would be beneficial if reagent costs are not excessive and production capacity exists for destroying the excess H 2 O 2 in the filtrate. Although the effect is not large, filtration time is shorter and the plutonium concentration in the filtrate is lower if metallic impurities are present. The slowest rate of H 2 O 2 addition investigated gives a plutonium peroxide precipitate with the fastest filtration time. The rate of addition has very little effect on the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. The temperature has little effect on the filtration time. 14 0 C is recommended since decomposition of H 2 O 2 would be slower at 14 0 C than at 22 0 C (min. Pu content in the filtrate). The effect of digestion time on both the filtration time and the plutonium content in the filtrate is minor, so the shortest digestion time investigated is recommended

  12. Polyamide 6/clay membranes: effect of precipitation bath in morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rodholfo da S.B.; Pereira, Caio H. do O; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Lira, Helio L.

    2015-01-01

    Polyamide 6 membranes and their nanocomposites with 5% clay were obtained by the phase inversion method and the precipitation was made in distilled water bath and also in the mixture of solvent and distilled water. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD and membranes by SEM. By XRD analysis, it was found that the obtained nanocomposite presents a structure probably exfoliated and / or partially exfoliated, it was also possible to observe the presence of two characteristic peaks (α and γ) of the polyamide 6 phases. In the SEM micrographs it was seen that the presence of clay promote alterations in morphology, size and distribution of pores. The presence of acid in the precipitation bath leads to a significant decrease in the filter layer, but also an increase in the quantity of pore size. (author)

  13. Three-decade changes in chemical composition of precipitation in Guangzhou city, southern China: has precipitation recovered from acidification following sulphur dioxide emission control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunting Fang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined if precipitation had recovered from acidification in Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China, and if sulphur deposition in precipitation had decreased, and to what extent if yes, following abatement strategies in sulphur dioxide (SO2 emission and energy use implemented since 2001. SO2 emissions were decreasing steadily since 2001, but a marked recovery of precipitation acidity occurred only since 2005; precipitation pH values decreased from 4.65 in 2001 to 4.34 in 2005 and then increased to 5.08 in 2010, while in the same period acid rain (pH<5.6 frequency increased from 70% to 81% and then decreased to 48%. During this period, the change in pH value and sulphate concentration more reflected the patterns of SO2 emission at provincial and national scales than at the local scale, suggesting that precipitation chemical composition was largely controlled by the emissions of pollutants from surrounding areas of the study city. Since 2001, sulphate deposition in precipitation decreased significantly (by 40% but nitrogen deposition remained unaltered. More importantly, the current sulphur (43 kg S ha−1 yr−1 as sulphate and nitrogen depositions (35 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as ammonium plus nitrate in 2010 were still among the highest in China. These results highlight the fact that ambient sulphur and nitrogen deposition still pose a threat to the health of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation may become more acidified in the future because the deposition of alkaline dusts containing calcium is also likely to decrease with stricter SO2 emission control policy and reduced construction activities. Additionally, we recommend that a reduction of emissions of nitrogen and chlorine bearing pollutants is urgently required for complete control on acid deposition.

  14. Stochastic Reconstruction and Interpolation of Precipitation Fields Using Combined Information of Commercial Microwave Links and Rain Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haese, B.; Hörning, S.; Chwala, C.; Bárdossy, A.; Schalge, B.; Kunstmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the reconstruction and interpolation of precipitation fields, we present the application of a stochastic approach called Random Mixing. Generated fields are based on a data set consisting of rain gauge observations and path-averaged rain rates estimated using Commercial Microwave Link (CML) derived information. Precipitation fields are received as linear combination of unconditional spatial random fields, where the spatial dependence structure is described by copulas. The weights of the linear combination are optimized such that the observations and the spatial structure of the precipitation observations are reproduced. The innovation of the approach is that this strategy enables the simulation of ensembles of precipitation fields of any size. Each ensemble member is in concordance with the observed path-averaged CML derived rain rates and additionally reflects the observed rainfall variability along the CML paths. The ensemble spread allows additionally an estimation of the uncertainty of the reconstructed precipitation fields. The method is demonstrated both for a synthetic data set and a real-world data set in South Germany. While the synthetic example allows an evaluation against a known reference, the second example demonstrates the applicability for real-world observations. Generated precipitation fields of both examples reproduce the spatial precipitation pattern in good quality. A performance evaluation of Random Mixing compared to Ordinary Kriging demonstrates an improvement of the reconstruction of the observed spatial variability. Random Mixing is concluded to be a beneficial new approach for the provision of precipitation fields and ensembles of them, in particular when different measurement types are combined.

  15. Forced normalisation precipitated by lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Béla

    2005-10-01

    To report two patients with lamotrigine-induced forced normalization (FN). Evaluation of the patient files, EEG, and video-EEG records, with special reference to the parallel clinical and EEG changes before, during, and after FN. This is the first documented report of lamotrigine-induced FN. The two epileptic patients (one of them was a 10-year-old girl) were successfully treated with lamotrigine. Their seizures ceased and interictal epileptiform events disappeared from the EEG record. Simultaneously, the patients displayed de novo occurrence of psychopathologic manifestations and disturbed behaviour. Reduction of the daily dose of LTG led to disappearance of the psychopathological symptoms and reappearance of the spikes but not the seizures. Lamotrigine may precipitate FN in adults and children. Analysis of the cases showed that lamotrigine-induced FN is a dose-dependent phenomenon and can be treated by reduction of the daily dose of the drug.

  16. Effects of different oxyanions in solution on the precipitation of jarosite at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeongkyoo, Kim

    2018-04-09

    The effects of five different oxyanions, AsO 4 , SeO 3 , SeO 4 , MoO 4 , and CrO 4 , on the precipitation of jarosite at room temperature were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. Different amounts (2, 5, and 10 mol%) of oxyanions in the starting solution and different aging times (1 h-40 days) were used for the experiment. In the initial stage, only the amorphous phase appears for all samples. With increasing aging time, jarosite and jarosite with oxyanions start precipitating at room temperature with different precipitation rates and crystallinities. Jarosite with AsO 4 shows the lowest precipitation rate and lowest crystallinity. With increasing amounts of oxyanions, the crystallization rate decreases, especially for jarosite with AsO 4 . The jarosite samples with CrO 4 and SeO 4 show the fastest precipitation and highest crystallinities. For the jarosite samples with a low precipitation rate and low crystallinity, the amorphous phase contains high concentrations of oxyanions, probably because of the fast precipitation of the amorphous iron oxyanion phase; however, the phase with fast jarosite precipitation contains fewer oxyanions. The results show that coprecipitation of jarosite can play a more important role in controlling the behavior of CrO 4 than AsO 4 in acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of bovine gallbladder mucin and calcium-binding protein: effects on calcium phosphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdhal, N H; Ostrow, J D; Koehler, R; Niu, N; Groen, A K; Veis, A; Nunes, D P; Offner, G D

    1995-11-01

    Gallstones consist of calcium salts and cholesterol crystals, arrayed on a matrix of gallbladder mucin (GBM), and regulatory proteins like calcium-binding protein (CBP). To determine if interactions between CBP and GBM follow a biomineralization scheme, their mutual binding and effects on CaHPO4 precipitation were studied. Binding of CBP to GBM was assessed by inhibition of the fluorescence of the complex of GBM with bis-1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acid (bis-ANS). The effects of the proteins on precipitation of CaHPO4 were assessed by nephelometry and gravimetry. Precipitates were analyzed for calcium, phosphate, and protein. CBP and bis-ANS competitively displaced each other from 30 binding sites on mucin, with a 1:1 stoichiometry and similar affinity. The rate of precipitation of CaHPO4 was retarded by mucin and CBP. Precipitate mass was unaffected by GBM alone but decreased with the addition of CBP. Complexing CBP with GBM abolished or moderated this latter effect, altered precipitate morphology, and changed the stoichiometric ratios of Ca to PO4 in the precipitates from 1:1 to 3:2. Mucin and CBP were incorporated into the precipitates. These studies suggest that the formation of calcium-containing gallstones is a biomineralization process regulated by both GBM and CBP.

  18. CalWater 2 - Precipitation, Aerosols, and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L. R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Waliser, D. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Emerging research has identified two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States. These phenomena include the role of (1) atmospheric rivers (ARs) in delivering much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and (2) aerosols—from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents—and their modulating effects on western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes the science objectives and strategies to address gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. Observations are proposed for multiple winter seasons as part of a 5-year broad interagency vision referred to as CalWater 2 to address these science gaps (http://esrl.noaa.gov/psd/calwater). In January-February 2015, a field campaign has been planned consisting of a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data in near-shore regions of California and in the eastern Pacific. In close coordination with NOAA, DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is also contributing air and shipborne facilities for ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment), a DOE-sponsored study complementing CalWater 2. Ground-based measurements from NOAA's HydroMeteorological Testbed (HMT) network in California and aerosol chemical instrumentation at Bodega Bay, California have been designed to add important near surface-level context for the

  19. Experimental study of diffuse auroral precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouaia, K.

    1983-01-01

    First chapter is devoted to low energy electron precipitation in the evening sector of the auroral magnetosphere, during quiet and disturbed magnetic periods. Four subjects are studied in detail: the latitude distribution of the varied auroral forms and their relations to external magnetosphere; the time coefficients related to precipitations, the form and the dynamic of the diffuse precipitation equatorial frontier; the precipitation effect on the ionosphere concentration. The last part of the chapter shows that the plasma convection in the magnetosphere, associated to wave-particle interactions near the equatorial accounts for the principal characteristics of the evening sector diffuse electronic precipitations. The second chapter deals with subauroral precipitations of low energy ions, after the magnetospheric substorms, in the high latitude regions of the morning sector [fr

  20. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  1. Precipitation variability increases in a warmer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G; Knutti, Reto; Lehner, Flavio; Deser, Clara; Sanderson, Benjamin M

    2017-12-21

    Understanding changes in precipitation variability is essential for a complete explanation of the hydrologic cycle's response to warming and its impacts. While changes in mean and extreme precipitation have been studied intensively, precipitation variability has received less attention, despite its theoretical and practical importance. Here, we show that precipitation variability in most climate models increases over a majority of global land area in response to warming (66% of land has a robust increase in variability of seasonal-mean precipitation). Comparing recent decades to RCP8.5 projections for the end of the 21 st century, we find that in the global, multi-model mean, precipitation variability increases 3-4% K -1 globally, 4-5% K -1 over land and 2-4% K -1 over ocean, and is remarkably robust on a range of timescales from daily to decadal. Precipitation variability increases by at least as much as mean precipitation and less than moisture and extreme precipitation for most models, regions, and timescales. We interpret this as being related to an increase in moisture which is partially mitigated by weakening circulation. We show that changes in observed daily variability in station data are consistent with increased variability.

  2. Polyfluorinated and perfluorinated chemicals in precipitation and runoff from cities across eastern and central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijie; Zhou, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-three polychlorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water phase and particulate matters of 19 precipitation samples (18 snow samples and 1 rain sample) from different cities across eastern and central China collected in February 2010. The PFCs in samples of 9e precipitation events during more than half a year at 1 site in Tianjin and 6 successive samples during 1 precipitation event were measured to elucidate the change of PFC in precipitation. In addition, PFCs in 3 runoffs at different kinds of sites in Tianjin were compared with those in the corresponding precipitation. The results showed that the particulate matters separated from the precipitation contained undetectable PFCs. The total PFC concentration ranged between 4.7 and 152 ng L(-1) in water phase of the precipitation samples, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being detected at all of the sampling sites and the dominant PFC at most of the sampling sites. Some potential precursors of environmentally concerned PFCs and their degradation intermediates were measured simultaneously, among which 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 8:2 FTUCA, and  × (3, 4, 5, 7):3 acid [F(CF(2))xCH(2)CH(2)COOH] were measured for the first time in Chinese precipitations; however, their concentrations were all lower than the limits of detection except that 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA could be detected in 3 and 8 precipitation samples, respectively. No clear seasonal variation in PFC concentrations in precipitation was observed during half a year; however, a relatively greater average concentration of total PFCs was observed during winter and summer compared with spring. The concentration of individual PFCs showed an obvious descending trend in the successive samples of the precipitation event. PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid in runoffs collected from different sites showed the following similar pattern-gas station > highway > university campus-whereas the other

  3. Improvements on heap leaching process for a refractory uranium ore and yellow cake precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianke

    2013-01-01

    Some problems such as formed harden matrix, ore heap compaction, poor permeability, and agglomeration of absorption resin occur during extracting uranium from a refractory uranium ore by heap leaching process. After some measures were taken, i.e. spraying a new ore heap by low concentration acid, two or more ore heaps in series leaching, turning ores in ore heap, the permeability was improved, acid consumption was reduced. Through precipitate circulation and aging, the yellow cake slurry in amorphous or microlite form was transformed to crystal precipitate, thus uranium content in yellow cake was improved, and water content in yellow cake was lowered with good economic benefits. (author)

  4. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: A synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Koerner, Sally E; Hoover, David L; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M; Cahill, James; Collins, Scott L; Evans, Sarah; Gilgen, Anna K; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T; Smith, Melinda D; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R; Yahdjian, Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-10-01

    Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased interannual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses and the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change, and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change

  5. Properties of Extreme Precipitation and Their Uncertainties in 3-year GPM Precipitation Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Liu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme high precipitation rates are often related to flash floods and have devastating impacts on human society and the environments. To better understand these rare events, 3-year Precipitation Features (PFs) are defined by grouping the contiguous areas with nonzero near-surface precipitation derived using Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ku band Precipitation Radar (KuPR). The properties of PFs with extreme precipitation rates greater than 20, 50, 100 mm/hr, such as the geographical distribution, volumetric precipitation contribution, seasonal and diurnal variations, are examined. In addition to the large seasonal and regional variations, the rare extreme precipitation rates often have a larger contribution to the local total precipitation. Extreme precipitation rates occur more often over land than over ocean. The challenges in the retrieval of extreme precipitation might be from the attenuation correction and large uncertainties in the Z-R relationships from near-surface radar reflectivity to precipitation rates. These potential uncertainties are examined by using collocated ground based radar reflectivity and precipitation retrievals.

  6. 28 CFR 16.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.1 Section 16.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION... administration of the Department of Justice. ...

  7. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers: The Medical ... and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is ... the rights guaranteed to the professionals when they appear before the Tribunal.

  8. 48 CFR 225.7605 - Solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel... accordance with 225.7604, use the provision at 252.225-7031, Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel, in all...

  9. The dilemma of an acidic sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion of studies detailing the damaging effects of acid precipitation in North America and Europe is followed by a commentary on the controversial political and economic issues associated with forestalling deterioration of the environment. A comprehensive bibliography is included

  10. Outsourcing, public Input provision and policy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns public input provision as an instrument for redistribution under international outsourcing by using a model-economy comprising two countries, North and South, where firms in the North may outsource part of their low-skilled labor intensive production to the South. We consider two interrelated issues: (i) the incentives for each country to modify the provision of public input goods in response to international outsourcing, and (ii) whether international outsourcing justifie...

  11. Obligatory provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloosters, W.

    2008-01-01

    To cover the expenses associated with decommissioning and disposal of their nuclear power plants, German nuclear power plant operators set aside a total of more than EUR 30 billion and entered the respective provisions into their balance sheets. One point of eminent importance in this regard is the question whether these provisions are adequate in amount and permitted under accounting and tax laws. The other point to be considered is whether the funds will be available reliably if and when needed. Against the backdrop of these issues, the practice and importance of making these provisions are described. This is followed by an outline of the basic accounting and taxation aspects. It is seen that obligations under public law can be the basis of financial provisions only if there is a obligation sufficiently concrete in terms of time and object. The following examination of applicable obligations under the Atomic Energy Act incumbent upon nuclear power plant operators with regard to decommissioning and disposal results in the finding that such obligations are only partly regulated in the Atomic Energy Act, and that specifications in terms of time and purpose are insufficient. If the national practice of making financial provisions is to be put on a reliable basis, it is recommended to express the law on decommissioning and its mode of financing in more concrete terms in the Atomic Energy Act. In addition to unequivocal decommissioning and disposal obligations, the Atomic Energy Act should also incorporate regulations about financial provisions for decomissioning which are in need of more precise language. The present practice of making provisions is characterized by the risk that the funds necessary for planned decommissioning and disposal may not be available when needed. It is against this background that possible solutions reducing that risk are discussed. A recommendation is expressed to establish a public fund for decommissioning and disposal to which the

  12. Some observations of the pH of precipitation elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, H

    1954-01-01

    A year of observations of pH values of individual rain drops and snowflakes near Boston, Mass., showed acidic values ranging from 3 to 5.5 with a mean value of 4. There was no systematic relation between pH and the duration of rainfall. Drizzle and light rain had the lowest values, heavy rain and solid precipitation had the highest. There is a tendency for smaller drops to have lower values of pH than the larger ones. Measurements of dew and frost showed also a range from 3 to 5.5 with a mean value of 4.3.

  13. Crystallization Kinetics of Precipitating Calcium from Yellow Phosphorus Slag Lixivium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, G. -B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization dynamic parameters of calcium sulphate were determined in the course of the precipitation conversion process of calcium in lixivium. The crystallization dynamic equations of calcium sulphate were achieved by multiple linear regression. The study results indicate that CaSO4 · 2 H2O crystal nucleation-growth kinetics equation in nitric acid leaching liquid of yellow phosphorus slag at room temperature is expressed by B0 = 2.904 · 1011 · G0.83 · MT 0.167.

  14. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  15. Application of citric acid in acid stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhaldi, M.H.; Sarma, H.K. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia); Nasr-el-Din, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate mass transfer during the reaction of citric acid with calcite. The study evaluated the effects of initial acid concentrations, temperature, and disk rotational speed on the effective diffusion coefficient of citric acid. The diffusion coefficient was calculated at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C using various citric acid concentrations. The study indicated that the coefficient was a function of the interactions between calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions. At high acid concentrations, the effects of calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions were significant. The calculated citric acid diffusion coefficients were not comparable with measured effective diffusion coefficients using the rotating disk. At lower initial citric acid concentrations, the effects of both calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions on citric acid diffusivity were minimal. It was concluded that temperature effects on the diffusion coefficient followed Arrhenius law. Activation energy was equal to 37.9 kJ/mol. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  16. Study of Ca-ATMP precipitation in the presence of magnesium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantayakom, V; Fogler, H Scott; de Moraes, F F; Bualuang, M; Chavadej, S; Malakul, P

    2004-03-16

    ATMP (aminotri(methylenephosphonic acid)), a phosphonate scale inhibitor used in the petroleum industry, was used as a model scale inhibitor in this study. One of the goals of this work was to determine the range of conditions under which Mg ions, which are formed in reservoir formations containing dolomite, modulate the formation of Ca-ATMP precipitate as a scale inhibitor. The results revealed that the amount of ATMP precipitated decreased with addition of Mg ions in solution at all values of the solution pH. Furthermore, an increase in both the solution pH and the concentration of the divalent cations in solution resulted in a change of the molar ratio of (Ca + Mg) to ATMP in the precipitates. At a low solution pH (pH 1.5), Mg ions had little effect on the composition of the Ca-ATMP precipitate. However, at higher values of the solution pH (pH 4 and 7), the Ca to ATMP molar ratio in the precipitates decreased with increasing concentration of the Mg. Here it was found that Mg ions replaced Ca ions on available reactive sites of ATMP molecules. These results determined the limits of the Mg ion concentration, which affects the precipitation of Ca-ATMP, Mg-ATMP, and (Ca + Mg)-ATMP. The dissolution of the scale inhibitors was studied using a rotating disk reactor. These experiments showed that the total divalent cation molar ratio (Ca + Mg) to ATMP in the precipitates is the primary factor that controls the rate of dissolution (release) of the phosphonate precipitates. The phosphonate precipitate dissolution rates decreased as the molar ratio of divalent cations to ATMP in the precipitates increased.

  17. Projections of precipitation, air temperature and potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mabouelhaggag

    Precipitation and air temperature records from 6 sites in Rwanda in the period from 1964 to 2010 are used for past/present climate assessment. Future climate projections (2010-2099) based on 3 general circulation models and 2 emission scenarios (A2 and B1) are used for climate projections. Precipitation, air temperature ...

  18. Landscape runoff, precipitation variation and reservoir limnology

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Landscape runoff potential impact on reservoir limnology was indirectly evaluated by assessing the effect of precipitation variation on several water quality parameters, on Anabaena (Cyanophyta) and crustacean zooplankton abundances. The obtained results showed that total phosphorus increased with strong precipitation events whereas water transparency presented an opposite trend. Wet periods followed by long dry periods favored Anabaena dominance, which induced a...

  19. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics

  20. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is ...

  1. CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPHOON PRECIPITATION OVER CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-mei; REN Fu-min; LI Wei-jing; WANG Xiao-ling

    2008-01-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of typhoon precipitation over China are analyzed in this study. The results show that typhoon precipitation covers most of central-eastern China. Typhoon precipitation gradually decreases from the southeastern coastal regions to the northwestern mainland. The maximum annual typhoon precipitation exceeds 700 mm in central-eastern Taiwan and part of Hainan, while the minimum annual typhoon precipitation occurs in parts of Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Sichuan, with values less than 10 mm. Generally, typhoons produce precipitation over China during April - December with a peak in August. The annual typhoon precipitation time series for observation stations are examined for long-term trends. The results show that decreasing trends exist in most of the stations from 1957 to 2004 and are statistically significant in parts of Taiwan, Hainan, coastal Southeast China and southern Northeast China. The anomaly of typhoon precipitation mainly results from that of the general circulation over Asia and the Walker Cell circulation over the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. Typhoon torrential rain is one of the extreme rainfall events in the southeastern coastal regions and parts of central mainland. In these regions, torrential rains are mostly caused by typhoons.

  2. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented precipitation along with heavy falls occurred over many parts of India from 28th February to 2nd March 2015. Many of the stations of northwest and central India received an all time high 24 hr cumulative precipitation of March during this period. Even the national capital, New Delhi, broke all the previous ...

  3. Application of probabilistic precipitation forecasts from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-14

    Feb 14, 2014 ... Application of probabilistic precipitation forecasts from a deterministic model ... aim of this paper is to investigate the increase in the lead-time of flash flood warnings of the SAFFG using probabilistic precipitation forecasts ... The procedure is applied to a real flash flood event and the ensemble-based.

  4. Precipitation of uranium concentrates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa Filho, O.

    1986-12-01

    An experimental study on the (UO 4 .xH 2 ) uranyl peroxide precipitation from a uranium process strip solution is presented. The runs were performed in a batch reactor, in laboratory scale. The main objective was to assess the possibility of the peroxide route as an alternative to a conventional ammonium diuranate process. The chemical composition of process solution was obtained. The experiments were conducted according to a factorial design, aiming to evaluate the effects of initial pH, precipitation pH and H 2 O 2 /UO 2 2+ ratio upon the process. The responses were measured in terms of the efficiency of U precipitation, the content of U in the precipitates and the distribution of impurities in the precipitates. The results indicated that the process works is satisfactory on the studied conditions and depending on conditions, it is possible to achieve levels of U precipitation efficiency greater than 99.9% in reaction times of 2 hours. The precipitates reach grades around 99% U 3 O 8 after calcination (900 0 C) and impurities fall below the limit for penalties established by the ASTM and the Allied Chemical Standards. The precipitates are composed of large aggregates of crystals of 1-4 μm, are fast settling and filtering, and are free-flowing when dry. (Author) [pt

  5. Investigation of Asphaltene Precipitation at Elevated Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lindeloff, Niels; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    In order to obtain quantitative data on the asphaltene precipitation induced by the addition of n-alkane (heptane) at temperatures above the normal boiling point of the precipitant, a high temperature/high pressure filtration apparatus has been constructed. Oil and alkane are mixed...

  6. Salts-based size-selective precipitation: toward mass precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Min; Xu, Shu-Hong; Cui, Yi-Ping

    2010-01-19

    Purification is a necessary step before the application of nanocrystals (NCs), since the excess matter in nanoparticles solution usually causes a disadvantage to their subsequent coupling or assembling with other materials. In this work, a novel salts-based precipitation technique is originally developed for the precipitation and size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs. Simply by addition of salts, NCs can be precipitated from the solution. After decantation of the supernatant solution, the precipitates can be dispersed in water again. By means of adjusting the addition amount of salt, size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs can be achieved. Namely, the NCs with large size are precipitated preferentially, leaving small NCs in solution. Compared with the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, the current one is simpler and more rapid due to the avoidance of condensation and heating manipulations used in the traditional precipitation process. Moreover, the salts-based precipitation technique was generally available for the precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles, no matter if there were semiconductor NCs or metal nanoparticles. Simultaneously, the cost of the current method is also much lower than that of the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, making it applicable for mass purification of aqueous NCs.

  7. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  8. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbois, M.; Desalmand, F.

    1994-01-01

    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: 1) Paleoclimatology, 2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, 3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, 4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, 5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  9. Research of chemical structure of atmospheric precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenyak, D.

    2001-01-01

    The structure of atmospheric precipitation changes in its passing through the air medium. Thus, the atmospheric precipitation is one of the ecological factors, acting regularly. The research of chemical structure of atmospheric precipitation is closely connected with the problems of turnover of elements, with sanitary - ecological conditions of regions, with the matters of agricultural equipment and of salt balance of the soils. In paper the author for the first time represents the data on chemical structure of precipitation in the town. The data of chemical analysis of 18 samples are given. Obtained results permitted, to a certain extent, to determine the mechanisms of formation of atmospheric precipitation in the region investigated and its genesis. (authors)

  10. Formation of copper precipitates in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Christoph; Feick, Henning; McHugo, Scott A.; Mohammed, Amna; Seifert, Winfried; Hieslmair, Henry; Heiser, Thomas; Istratov, Andrei A.; Weber, Eicke R.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of copper precipitates in silicon was studied after high-temperature intentional contamination of p- and n-type FZ and Cz-grown silicon and quench to room temperature. With the Transient Ion Drift (TID) technique on p-type silicon a critical Fermi level position at EC-0.2 eV was found. Only if the Fermi level position, which is determined by the concentrations of the acceptors and the copper donors, surpasses this critical value precipitation takes place. If the Fermi level is below this level the supersaturated interstitial copper diffuses out. An electrostatic precipitation model is introduced that correlates the observed precipitation behavior with the electrical activity of the copper precipitates as detected with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) on n-type and with Minority Carrier Transient Spectroscopy (MCTS) on p-type silicon.

  11. Study of asphaltene precipitation by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Plantier, Frédéric; Bessières, David

    2007-01-01

    Can calorimetry bring new input to the Current understanding of asphaltene precipitation? In this work, two types of precipitation were studied by means of calorimetry: addition of n-heptane into asphaltene solutions and temperature/pressure variations on a recombined live oil. The first series...... of experiments showed that weak forces determine precipitation. Indeed, isothermal titration calorimetry could not detect any clear signal although this technique can detect low-energy transitions such as liquid-liquid equilibrium and rnicellization. The second series of tests proved that precipitation caused...... by T and P variations is exothermic for this system. Furthermore, the temperature-induced precipitation is accompanied by an increase in the apparent thermal expansivity. Therefore, it seems that these two phase transitions exhibit different calorimetric behaviours and they may not be as similar...

  12. Forecasting gastrointestinal precipitation and oral pharmacokinetics of dantrolene in dogs using an in vitro precipitation testing coupled with in silico modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Atsushi; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current research was to determine the precipitation kinetics of dantrolene sodium using canine biorelevant in vitro testing and to model the precipitation kinetics by appropriately coupling the data with an in silico tool adapted for dogs. The precipitation profiles of dantrolene sodium solutions were obtained with the in vitro paddle apparatus at a revolution rate of 50rpm. The in silico prediction tool was designed using STELLA software and the predicted plasma concentration profiles of dantrolene using the in vitro precipitation data were compared with the observed in vivo pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs. The plasma profiles of dantrolene, which served as a model weakly acidic drug which precipitates in the upper gastrointestinal tract, was successfully predicted using the in vitro precipitation testing coupled with the in silico modeling and simulation approach. The approach was subsequently used to forecast the effect of pharmaceutical excipients (HPMC/PG) on the ability of the drug to supersaturate in the gut and the resulting pharmacokinetics. The agreement of the simulated pharmacokinetics with the observed values confirms the ability of canine biorelevant media to predict oral performance of enhanced dosage forms in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  14. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  15. Flood forecasting and uncertainty of precipitation forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobold, Mira; Suselj, Kay

    2004-01-01

    The timely and accurate flood forecasting is essential for the reliable flood warning. The effectiveness of flood warning is dependent on the forecast accuracy of certain physical parameters, such as the peak magnitude of the flood, its timing, location and duration. The conceptual rainfall - runoff models enable the estimation of these parameters and lead to useful operational forecasts. The accurate rainfall is the most important input into hydrological models. The input for the rainfall can be real time rain-gauges data, or weather radar data, or meteorological forecasted precipitation. The torrential nature of streams and fast runoff are characteristic for the most of the Slovenian rivers. Extensive damage is caused almost every year- by rainstorms affecting different regions of Slovenia' The lag time between rainfall and runoff is very short for Slovenian territory and on-line data are used only for now casting. Forecasted precipitations are necessary for hydrological forecast for some days ahead. ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) gives general forecast for several days ahead while more detailed precipitation data with limited area ALADIN/Sl model are available for two days ahead. There is a certain degree of uncertainty using such precipitation forecasts based on meteorological models. The variability of precipitation is very high in Slovenia and the uncertainty of ECMWF predicted precipitation is very large for Slovenian territory. ECMWF model can predict precipitation events correctly, but underestimates amount of precipitation in general The average underestimation is about 60% for Slovenian region. The predictions of limited area ALADIN/Si model up to; 48 hours ahead show greater applicability in hydrological forecasting. The hydrological models are sensitive to precipitation input. The deviation of runoff is much bigger than the rainfall deviation. Runoff to rainfall error fraction is about 1.6. If spatial and time distribution

  16. LC-MS/MS determination of 2-(4-((2-(2S,5R)-2-Cyano-5-ethynyl-1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-oxoethylamino)-4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)-4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (ABT-279) in dog plasma with high-throughput protein precipitation sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joseph; Flick, Jeanette; Reimer, Michael T; Rodila, Ramona; Wang, Perry G; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Qin C; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2007-11-01

    As an effective DPP-IV inhibitor, 2-(4-((2-(2S,5R)-2-Cyano-5-ethynyl-1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-oxoethylamino)-4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)-4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (ABT-279), is an investigational drug candidate under development at Abbott Laboratories for potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. In order to support the development of ABT-279, multiple analytical methods for an accurate, precise and selective concentration determination of ABT-279 in different matrices were developed and validated in accordance with the US Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Bioanalytical Method Validation. The analytical method for ABT-279 in dog plasma was validated in parallel to other validations for ABT-279 determination in different matrices. In order to shorten the sample preparation time and increase method precision, an automated multi-channel liquid handler was used to perform high-throughput protein precipitation and all other liquid transfers. The separation was performed through a Waters YMC ODS-AQ column (2.0 x 150 mm, 5 microm, 120 A) with a mobile phase of 20 mm ammonium acetate in 20% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Data collection started at 2.2 min and continued for 2.0 min. The validated linear dynamic range in dog plasma was between 3.05 and 2033.64 ng/mL using a 50 microL sample volume. The achieved r(2) coefficient of determination from three consecutive runs was between 0.998625 and 0.999085. The mean bias was between -4.1 and 4.3% for all calibration standards including lower limit of quantitation. The mean bias was between -8.0 and 0.4% for the quality control samples. The precision, expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV), was < or =4.1% for all levels of quality control samples. The validation results demonstrated that the high-throughput method was accurate, precise and selective for the determination of ABT-279 in dog plasma. The validated method was also employed to support two toxicology studies. The passing rate was 100% for all 49 runs from

  17. Behavior of arsenic impurity at antimony electric precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.N.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the arsenic impurity electrochemical behavior and it purification from antimony by electric precipitation out of fluoride solutions was studied. For this the arsenic sample with mass 0.003-0.006 g has been irradiated at the WWR-SM nuclear reactor during 3-5 hour in the thermal neutron flux 10 13 n/cm 2 s, after 24 h keeping the sample has being dissolved in the concentrated nitric acid, and then it has been evaporated several times with distillation water addition up to wet precipitation state. It is shown, that arsenic impurity behavior character in the antimony electric precipitation out to fluoride electrolyte depends on the electrolyte content, electrolysis conditions, arsenic valency state in arsenic impurity existence in the five-valency state its joint electric reduction with antimony is practically not observing. In the case the arsenic being in three-valency state, it joint electric reduction with antimony is taking place. In this time the electrolytic antimony contents arsenic impurities less in dozen time than initial material

  18. Participation of the Pennsylvania State University in the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, D.; de Pena, R.G.

    1991-04-01

    The Meteorology Department of the Pennsylvania State University collected precipitation in central Pennsylvania for more than 14 years on behalf of the Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study (MAP3S). The MAP3S protocol, based on the sampling of precipitation from individual meteorological events over a long period of time, has allowed both for the development of a chemical climatology of precipitation in the eastern region of the United States and for a vastly improved understanding of the atmospheric processes responsible for wet acidic deposition. The precipitation chemistry data from the Penn State MAP3S site provide evidence of links to the anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and oxidant precursors. There is now little doubt that the free acidity in the precipitation of the region is due to the presence of unneutralized sulfate in the aqueous phase. In the absence of significant sources of this sulfur species and in view of supplemental enrichment studies, it is concluded that the sulfate enters cloud and rain water primarily through the aqueous-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide emitted into the air within the geographical region of deposition. Within the source region the local abundances of sulfur dioxide often exceed those of the oxidants, so the depositions of sulfate and free acidity tend to be modulated by the availability of the strong oxidants. As a consequence, the deposition of sulfate exhibits a very strong seasonal dependence and little response to changes in the emissions of sulfur dioxide

  19. Nectar and pollen sugars constituting larval provisions of the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee (Megachile rotundata) (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cane , James; Gardner , Dale; Harrison , Philip

    2011-01-01

    International audience; As with most solitary bees, larvae of the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata Fab., eat a diet blended from pollen and nectar of unknown proportions. In this study, we developed protocols to isolate and quantify sugars from larval provision masses. The method removed free amino acids that leach from pollen and confound chromatography, but without autohydrolyzing sucrose. Pollen sugars were a negligible fraction of provision mass sugars. Glucose and fructose c...

  20. Production of mixed oxide fuel for fast reactor irradiation test by co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todokoro, Akio; Masuda, Sumio; Naruki, Kaoru; Kaya, Akira; Koizumi, Masumichi

    1974-01-01

    Studies were made on the production of homogeneous mixed oxide by co-precipitation. Experiments were made on the effects of the addition rate of ammonia water, precipitation temperature, aging time of co-precipitate, and pH value. Plutonium refined by anion exchange was mixed with solution of uranium. The concentration of free acid in the mixed solution was adjusted to 1.5-2.0 M, and the total volume of the solution was made 3.01. The weight of Pu and U in the solution was 100g. The solution was kept at a definite temperature while being stirred. Concentrated ammonia solution was added to the solution at a definite rate. The precipitate thus formed was filtrated after aging, then dried for 24 hours at 100 +- 2 0 C. Dried co-precipitate was calcinated for 1 hr at 550 0 C. The reduction for 4 hours at 800 0 C gave the mixed powder of PuO 2 and UO 2 . After pressing, the powder was sintered for 2 hours at 1700 0 C. The shrinkage ratio decreased as the activity and tap density of the original powder increased. The activity determined by specific surface area increased as the rate of ammonia water addition increased, and as the precipitation temperature rose. Tap density was independent of the rate of addition of ammonia water. The activity of the powder increased and the tap density decreased as the aging time of precipitate increased. (Fukutomi, T.)

  1. Synthesis of amorphous acid iron phosphate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Leret, P.; Fernández, J. F.; Aza, A. H. De; Rodríguez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to precipitate nanoparticles of iron phosphate with acid character has been developed in which the control of pH allows to obtain amorphous nanoparticles. The acid aging of the precipitated amorphous nanoparticles favored the P–O bond strength that contributes to the surface reordering, the surface roughness and the increase of the phosphate acid character. The thermal behavior of the acid iron phosphate nanoparticles has been also studied and the phosphate polymerization at 400 °C produces strong compacts of amorphous nanoparticles with interconnected porosity.

  2. Precipitation of flaky moolooite and its thermal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-yu; Huang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Moolooite particles with flaky morphology were synthesized by mixing dilute solutions of copper nitrate and sodium oxalate in the presence of citric acid. Solution pH value, citric acid concentration, and stirring were found to have large effect on the shape of the precipitated particles. Under the stirring, the radial area of flaky moolooite particles was enlarged and extended to become a thinner and larger flake. This is ascribed to growth promotion caused by the selective absorption of citric ligands onto a particular crystalline surface of the moolooite particles. Flaky shape of the moolooite particles tended to become spherical and disappeared completely when decomposed under an Ar atmosphere, leading to the formation of large porous aggregated particles composed of many tiny nanosized copper crystals.

  3. Precipitation isoscapes for New Zealand: enhanced temporal detail using precipitation-weighted daily climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W Troy; Keller, Elizabeth D; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2016-01-01

    Predictive understanding of precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O in New Zealand faces unique challenges, including high spatial variability in precipitation amounts, alternation between subtropical and sub-Antarctic precipitation sources, and a compressed latitudinal range of 34 to 47 °S. To map the precipitation isotope ratios across New Zealand, three years of integrated monthly precipitation samples were acquired from >50 stations. Conventional mean-annual precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O maps were produced by regressions using geographic and annual climate variables. Incomplete data and short-term variation in climate and precipitation sources limited the utility of this approach. We overcome these difficulties by calculating precipitation-weighted monthly climate parameters using national 5-km-gridded daily climate data. This data plus geographic variables were regressed to predict δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and d-excess at all sites. The procedure yields statistically-valid predictions of the isotope composition of precipitation (long-term average root mean square error (RMSE) for δ(18)O = 0.6 ‰; δ(2)H = 5.5 ‰); and monthly RMSE δ(18)O = 1.9 ‰, δ(2)H = 16 ‰. This approach has substantial benefits for studies that require the isotope composition of precipitation during specific time intervals, and may be further improved by comparison to daily and event-based precipitation samples as well as the use of back-trajectory calculations.

  4. Precipitation behavior and effect of new precipitated β phase in AZ80 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; HAN En-hou; XU Yong-bo; LIU Lu

    2006-01-01

    Granular precipitate that was a new kind of β-Mg17Al12 phase found in aged AZ80 wrought Mg alloy at all aging temperature was studied. The structure and precipitation behavior of this granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitate were studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the granular precipitate on mechanical properties of AZ80 alloy was also studied. The new precipitate that was granular and nucleated both on grain boundaries (GBs) and twin boundaries, has the same crystal structure and lattice parameter as those of the continuous or discontinuous precipitated β-Mg17Al12. And the nucleation and growth of the granular precipitate are faster than those of the other two precipitates at higher temperatures (above 583 K), but are suppressed at lower temperatures (below 423 K). At lower temperatures, the discontinuous β-Mg17Al12 precipitates firstly and the granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitates after aged more than 40 h. The crack is easily nucleated on the phase boundaries of granular phase and matrix because of the weak binding force. As a result, the strength and ductility of AZ80 Mg alloy are decreased by the granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitate.

  5. FIA-FAAS method for tannin determination based on a precipitation reaction with hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Edilene C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FIA-FAAS, was developed for tannin determination in pigeon pea samples, exploring the precipitation reaction between tannins and proteins. Sample extracts obtained by sonication with a 50% (v/v methanol solution were introduced into the system and induced to react with a hemoglobin solution. The precipitate produced was retained on a filter located in the analytical flow. A reversed flow of 1% (w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate solution was used for solubilization of the precipitate from the filter and to conduct the tannin-hemoglobin complex to the FAAS, to quantify the iron ions present in the hemoglobin structure. A tannic acid solution was used to prepare the analytical curve. The proposed method allowed determination of 30 samples per hour, a standard deviation of 9.7% (n=10, and a quantification limit of 0.27 mg L-1 for tannic acid.

  6. Precipitation Climatology on Titan-like Exomoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    The availability of liquid water on the surface on Earth's continents in part relies on the precipitation of water. This implies that the habitability of exomoons has to consider not only the surface temperature and atmospheric pressure for the presence of liquid water, but also the global precipitation climatology. This study explores the sensitivity of the precipitation climatology of Titan-like exomoons to these moons' orbital configuration using a global climate model. The precipitation rate primarily depends on latitude and is sensitive to the planet's obliquity and the moon's rotation rate. On slowly rotating moons the precipitation shifts to higher latitudes as obliquity is increased, whereas on quickly rotating moons the latitudinal distribution does not strongly depend on obliquity. Stellar eclipse can cause a longitudinal variation in the mean surface temperature and surface pressure between the subplanetary and antiplanetary side if the planet's obliquity and the moon's orbital distance are small. In this particular condition the antiplanetary side generally receives more precipitation than the subplanetary side. However, precipitation on exomoons with dense atmospheres generally occurs at any longitude in contrast to tidally locked exoplanets.

  7. Bank loan loss provisions research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Ozili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.

  8. Methods of Services Provision in Slovak Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Sičáková-Beblavá

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of services provision in Slovak towns.  It addresses decision-making concerning selected services provision, based on a transaction cost economic model. The article looks at five types of services from that point of view. These are core services, i.e., services that are provided in most Slovak towns, thereby allowing outcomes of decision-making to be compared, and services which can be outsourced according to transaction cost theory. Findings partially confirm the hypothesis: Slovak towns do outsource, though “insourcing” moderately prevails. However, a comparison of several research studies in the area indicates a trend towards higher outsourcing of such local services provision.  The findings show that public bodies do not always select the most suitable methods of services provision, as suggested by the transaction costs theory (the Brown-Potoski model. This indicates that it is not only economic models that influence decision-making concerning the organization of services provision in the Slovak towns.

  9. Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.A.; Weterings, C.A.

    1983-06-28

    Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid by adding a flocculant to the phosphoric acid, separating out the resultant precipitate and then recovering yttrium and lanthanides from the precipitate. Uranium is recovered from the remaining phosphoric acid.

  10. Inorganic nitrogen in precipitation and atmospheric sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, D H

    1951-01-01

    In an investigation covering 18 months, daily determinations were made of the inorganic nitrogen contained in precipitation and atmospheric sediments collected at Hamilton, Ont. The nitrogen fall for the whole period averaged 5.8 lb. N per acre per year. Sixty-one per cent of the total nitrogen was collected on 25% of the days when precipitation occurred. The balance, occurring on days without precipitation, is attributable solely to the sedimentation of dust. Ammonia nitrogen averaged 56% of the total, but the proportion for individual days varied widely.

  11. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  12. A rapid phospholipase D assay using zirconium precipitation of anionic substrate phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, G.; Hansen, Harald S.; Chapman, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    -acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE)-hydrolyzing PLD activity, which produces two lipophilic products, N-acylethanolamine (NAE) and phosphatidic acid. Therefore, we developed a rapid assay for the routine detection of NAPE-hydrolyzing PLD activity. This assay is based on precipitation of radiolabeled substrate (NAPE) in the presence...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.640 - Special provisions for branded engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for branded engines. 1042.640 Section 1042.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.640 Special provisions for branded engines. The following provisions...

  14. Recent and future extreme precipitation over Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshkvarkova, Olena; Voskresenskaya, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The aim of study is to analyze the parameters of precipitation extremes and inequality over Ukraine in recent climate epoch and their possible changes in the future. Data of observations from 28 hydrometeorological stations over Ukraine and output of GFDL-CM3 model (CMIP5) for XXI century were used in the study. The methods of concentration index (J. Martin-Vide, 2004) for the study of precipitation inequality while the extreme precipitation indices recommended by the ETCCDI - for the frequency of events. Results. Precipitation inequality on the annual and seasonal scales was studied using estimated CI series for 1951-2005. It was found that annual CI ranges vary from 0.58 to 0.64. They increase southward from the north-west (forest zone) and the north-east (forest steppe zone) of Ukraine. CI maxima are located in the coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Annual CI spatial distribution indicates that the contribution of extreme precipitation into annual totals is most significant at the boundary zone between steppe and marine regions. At the same time precipitation pattern at the foothill of Carpathian Mountains is more homogenous. The CI minima (0.54) are typical for the winter season in foothill of Ukrainian Carpathians. The CI maxima reach 0.71 in spring at the steppe zone closed to the Black Sea coast. It should be noted that the greatest ranges of CI maximum and CI minimum deviation are typical for spring. It is associated with patterns of cyclone trajectories in that season. The most territory is characterized by tendency to decrease the contribution of extreme precipitation into the total amount (CI linear trends are predominantly negative in all seasons). Decadal and interdecadal variability of precipitation inequality associated with global processes in ocean-atmosphere system are also studied. It was shown that precipitation inequality over Ukraine on 10 - 15 % stronger in negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and in positive phase

  15. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roel J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2013-01-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an

  16. Content provision and multi-homing

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Armando J. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers pr...

  17. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Tomulić Vehovec

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly explains the methods for eliminating double taxation on income from dividends. Finally, it addresses the changes necessary for accession to the European Union.

  18. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  19. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  20. Differential Precipitation and Solubilization of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barry J; Kinsella, Gemma K

    2017-01-01

    Differential protein precipitation is a rapid and economical step in protein purification and is based on exploiting the inherent physicochemical properties of the polypeptide. Precipitation of recombinant proteins, lysed from the host cell, is commonly used to concentrate the protein of choice before further polishing steps with more selective purification columns (e.g., His-Tag, Size Exclusion, etc.). Recombinant proteins can also precipitate naturally as inclusion bodies due to various influences during overexpression in the host cell. Although this phenomenon permits easier initial separation from native proteins, these inclusion bodies must carefully be differentially solubilized so as to reform functional, correctly folded proteins. Here, appropriate bioinformatics tools to aid in understanding a protein's propensity to aggregate and solubilize are explored as a backdrop for a typical protein extraction, precipitation, and selective resolubilization procedure, based on a recombinantly expressed protein.

  1. Identifying external influences on global precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.

    2013-11-11

    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal-mean distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle (“thermodynamic” changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt (“dynamic” changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes. Whereas existing model experiments are not of sufficient length to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic forcing terms at the 95% confidence level, we present evidence that the observed trends result from human activities.

  2. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  3. An integrated computational tool for precipitation simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, F.; Chen, S.-L.; Zhang, C.; Chang, Y. A.

    2011-07-01

    Computer aided materials design is of increasing interest because the conventional approach solely relying on experimentation is no longer viable within the constraint of available resources. Modeling of microstructure and mechanical properties during precipitation plays a critical role in understanding the behavior of materials and thus accelerating the development of materials. Nevertheless, an integrated computational tool coupling reliable thermodynamic calculation, kinetic simulation, and property prediction of multi-component systems for industrial applications is rarely available. In this regard, we are developing a software package, PanPrecipitation, under the framework of integrated computational materials engineering to simulate precipitation kinetics. It is seamlessly integrated with the thermodynamic calculation engine, PanEngine, to obtain accurate thermodynamic properties and atomic mobility data necessary for precipitation simulation.

  4. Precipitation Reconstruction over Land (PREC/L)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists files of 3 resolutions of monthly averaged precipitation totals. The global analyses are defined by interpolation of gauge observations...

  5. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe......, and that the material in the second precipitation step was often of higher apparent molecular weight anti had an increased overall absorbance coefficient.......In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments...... indicates that in temperature experiments as well as in solvent series experiments the precipitation of heavy asphaltenes affects the following precipitation of lighter asphaltenes. In both cases the mass balance using standard separation techniques cannot be closed, as less material is precipitated...

  6. 12 CFR 714.8 - Are the early payment provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? You are not subject to the early... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are the early payment provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? 714.8 Section 714.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL...

  7. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Mariner

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO 3 -SO 4 -Br-CO 3 -SiO 2 -CO 2 -O 2 -H 2 O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , OH - , H + , HSO 4 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , CaHCO 3 + , MgHCO 3 + , HSiO 3 - , and MgOH + ); (2) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, mineral

  8. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mariner

    2004-11-09

    This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3

  9. Satellite precipitation estimation over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, F.; Gjoka, U.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau are very little known, given the scarcity of reliable and widely distributed ground observation, thus the satellite approach is a valuable choice for large scale precipitation analysis and hydrological cycle studies. However,the satellite perspective undergoes various shortcomings at the different wavelengths used in atmospheric remote sensing. In the microwave spectrum often the high soil emissivity masks or hides the atmospheric signal upwelling from light-moderate precipitation layers, while low and relatively thin precipitating clouds are not well detected in the visible-infrared, because of their low contrast with cold and bright (if snow covered) background. In this work an IR-based, statistical rainfall estimation technique is trained and applied over the Tibetan Plateau hydrological basin to retrive precipitation intensity at different spatial and temporal scales. The technique is based on a simple artificial neural network scheme trained with two supervised training sets assembled for monsoon season and for the rest of the year. For the monsoon season (estimated from June to September), the ground radar precipitation data for few case studies are used to build the training set: four days in summer 2009 are considered. For the rest of the year, CloudSat-CPR derived snowfall rate has been used as reference precipitation data, following the Kulie and Bennartz (2009) algorithm. METEOSAT-7 infrared channels radiance (at 6.7 and 11 micometers) and derived local variability features (such as local standard deviation and local average) are used as input and the actual rainrate is obtained as output for each satellite slot, every 30 minutes on the satellite grid. The satellite rainrate maps for three years (2008-2010) are computed and compared with available global precipitation products (such as C-MORPH and TMPA products) and with other techniques applied to the Plateau area: similarities and differences are

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) L-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2013-10-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will advance the measurement of global precipitation, making possible high spatial resolution precipitation measurements. GPM will provide the first opportunity to calibrate measurements of global precipitation across tropical, mid-latitude, and polar regions. The GPM mission has the following scientific objectives: (1) Advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive remote-sensing techniques; (2) Advance understanding of global water/energy cycle variability and fresh water availability; (3) Improve climate prediction by providing the foundation for better understanding of surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent heat release in the Earth's atmosphere; (4) Advance Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) skills through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous rain rates; and (5) Improve high impact natural hazard (flood/drought, landslide, and hurricane hazard) prediction capabilities. The GPM mission centers on the deployment of a Core Observatory carrying an advanced radar / radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. GPM, jointly led with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), involves a partnership with other international space agencies including the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and others. The GPM Core Observatory is currently being prepared for shipment to Japan for launch. Launch is scheduled for February 2014 from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center on an H-IIA 202 launch vehicle.

  11. Kinetics of niobium carbide precipitation in ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendt, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a NbC precipitation modelling in ferrite. This theoretical study is motivated by the fact it considers a ternary system and focus on the concurrence of two different diffusion mechanisms. An experimental study with TEP, SANS and Vickers micro-hardening measurements allows a description of the NbC precipitation kinetics. The mean radius of the precipitates is characterized by TEM observations. To focus on the nucleation stage, we use the Tomographic Atom Probe that analyses, at an atomistic scale, the position of the solute atoms in the matrix. A first model based on the classical nucleation theory and the diffusion-limited growth describes the precipitation of spherical precipitates. To solve the set of equations, we use a numerical algorithm that furnishes an evaluation of the precipitated fraction, the mean radius and the whole size distribution of the particles. The parameters that are the interface energy, the solubility product and the diffusion coefficients are fitted with the data available in the literature and our experimental results. It allows a satisfactory agreement as regards to the simplicity of the model. Monte Carlo simulations are used to describe the evolution of a ternary alloy Fe-Nb-C on a cubic centred rigid lattice with vacancy and interstitial mechanisms. This is realized with an atomistic description of the atoms jumps and their related frequencies. The model parameters are fitted with phase diagrams and diffusion coefficients. For the sake of simplicity, we consider that the precipitation of NbC is totally coherent and we neglect any elastic strain effect. We can observe different kinetic paths: for low supersaturations, we find an expected precipitation of NbC but for higher supersaturations, the very fast diffusivity of carbon atoms conducts to the nucleation of iron carbide particles. We establish that the occurrence of this second phenomenon depends on the vacancy arrival kinetics and can be related

  12. Precipitation Nowcast using Deep Recurrent Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Asanjan, A.; Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2016-12-01

    An accurate precipitation nowcast (0-6 hours) with a fine temporal and spatial resolution has always been an important prerequisite for flood warning, streamflow prediction and risk management. Most of the popular approaches used for forecasting precipitation can be categorized into two groups. One type of precipitation forecast relies on numerical modeling of the physical dynamics of atmosphere and another is based on empirical and statistical regression models derived by local hydrologists or meteorologists. Given the recent advances in artificial intelligence, in this study a powerful Deep Recurrent Neural Network, termed as Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model, is creatively used to extract the patterns and forecast the spatial and temporal variability of Cloud Top Brightness Temperature (CTBT) observed from GOES satellite. Then, a 0-6 hours precipitation nowcast is produced using a Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) algorithm, in which the CTBT nowcast is used as the PERSIANN algorithm's raw inputs. Two case studies over the continental U.S. have been conducted that demonstrate the improvement of proposed approach as compared to a classical Feed Forward Neural Network and a couple simple regression models. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method are summarized with regard to its capability of pattern recognition through time, handling of vanishing gradient during model learning, and working with sparse data. The studies show that the LSTM model performs better than other methods, and it is able to learn the temporal evolution of the precipitation events through over 1000 time lags. The uniqueness of PERSIANN's algorithm enables an alternative precipitation nowcast approach as demonstrated in this study, in which the CTBT prediction is produced and used as the inputs for generating precipitation nowcast.

  13. IDF-curves for precipitation In Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohymont, Bernard; Demarde, Gaston R.

    2004-01-01

    The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)

  14. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  15. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Nitrogen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E

    1952-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of published data on chemical analysis of atmospheric precipitation to discuss different cycles proposed for inorganic compounds in atmospheric precipitation and, finally, to assess the importance of these compounds from different points of view. Investigations of rainwater with a view to determine atmospheric pollution in industrial areas are mentioned incidentally but no results are detailed.

  16. Scale-up of precipitation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Zauner, R.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis concerns the scale-up of precipitation processes aimed at predicting product particle characteristics. Although precipitation is widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, successful scale-up is difficult due to the absence of a validated methodology. It is found that none of the conventional scale-up criteria reported in the literature (equal power input per unit mass, equal tip speed, equal stirring rate) is capable of predicting the experimentally o...

  17. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Precipitation Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global precipitation time series provides time series charts showing observations of daily precipitation as well as accumulated precipitation compared to normal...

  18. A Survey of Precipitation Data for Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report explores the types of precipitation data available for environmental modeling. Precipitation is the main driver in the hydrological cycle and modelers use this information to understand water quality and water availability. Models use observed precipitation informatio...

  19. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2 2 full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H 2 O 2 concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2 2 full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na 2 S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%

  20. [Characteristics of precipitation pH and conductivity at Mt. Huang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-e; Deng, Xue-liang; Wu, Bi-wen; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Su; Yang, Yuan-jian

    2013-05-01

    To understand the general characteristics of pH distribution and pollution in precipitation at Mt. Huang, statistical analyses were conducted for the routine measurements of pH and conductivity (K) at Mt. Huang during 2006-2011. The results showed that: (1) Over the period of study, the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) precipitation pH varied from 4.81 to 5.57, with precipitation acidity strengthening before 2009 and weakening thereafter. The precipitation acidity showed evident seasonal variations, with the VWM pH lowest in winter (4.78), and highest in summer (5.33). The occurrence frequency of acid rain was 46% , accounting for 45% of total rainfalls and with the most frequent pH falling into weak acid to neutral rain. (2) The annual VWM K varied from 16.91 to 27.84 microS x cm(-1), with no evident trend. As for ions pollution, the precipitation was relatively clean at Mt. Huang, with the most frequent K range being below 15 microS x cm(-1), followed by 15-25 microS x cm(-1). From February 2010 to December 2011, precipitation samples were collected on daily basis for ions analysis, as well as pH and K measurement in lab. Detailed comparisons were conducted between the two sets of pH and K, one set from field measurement and the other from lab measurement. The results indicated: (1) The lab measured pH (K) was highly correlated with the field pH (K); however, the lab pH tended to move towards neutral comparing with the corresponding field pH, and the shift range was closely correlated with the field pH and rainfall. The shift range of K from field to lab was highly correlated with the total ion concentration of precipitation. The field K showed evident negative correlation with the field pH with a correlation coefficient of -0.51. (2) When sampling with nylon-polyethylene bags, the statistics showed smaller bias between two sets of pH, with higher correlation coefficient between two sets of K. Furthermore, the lab K also showed evident negative correlation with

  1. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  2. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  3. Flotation separation of strontium via phosphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Luong H V; Liu, J C

    2017-06-01

    Flotation separation of strontium (Sr) from wastewater via phosphate precipitation was investigated. While 37.33% of Sr precipitated at highly alkaline pH in the absence of PO 4 3- , it completely precipitated as Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 at a molar ratio ([PO 4 3- ]:[Sr 2+ ]) of 0.62 at a lower pH value. The presence of Ca 2+ hindered Sr precipitation, yet it could be overcome by increasing the PO 4 3- dose. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was a better collector for dispersed air flotation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 than cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, or mixed collector systems of SDS and saponin. The highest separation efficiency of 97.5% was achieved at an SDS dose of 40 mg/L. The main mechanism in the precipitate flotation is adsorption of anionic SDS on the positively charged surface of colloidal Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 via electrostatic interaction. SDS enhanced the aggregation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 precipitates as the size increased from 1.65 to 28.0 μm, which was beneficial to separation as well.

  4. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites; and preciwill come from waste wood available locally requiring minimal energy for recovery and transportation to the site. The applicant is strongly considering the use of a solar preheating unit anium southward as well as to deeper dened al half-lives with experimental ones, over a range of 24 orders of magnitude was obtained. This is a strong argument that the alpha decay could be considered a fission process with very high mass asymmetry and charge density asymmetry

  5. How is climate change impacting precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A.; Houser, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water is an integrating component of the climate, energy and geochemical cycles, regulating biological and ecological activities at all spatial and temporal scales. The most significant climate warming manifestation would be a change in the distribution of precipitation and evaporation, and the exacerbation of extreme hydrologic events. Due to this phenomenon and the fact that precipitation is the most important component of the water cycle, the assumption of its stationarity for water management and engineering design should be examined closely. The precipitation Annual Maximum Series (AMS) over some stations in Virginia based on in situ data were been used as a starting point to examine this important issue. We analyzed the AMS precipitation on NOAA data for the stations close to Fairfax VA, looked for trends in extreme values, and applied our new method of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory based on quadratic forms to address changes in those extreme values and to quantify non-stationarities. It is very important to address the extreme values of precipitation based on several statistical tests to have better understanding of climate change impact on the extreme water cycle events. In our study we compared our results with the conclusion on NOAA atlas 14 Ap.3 which found no sign of precipitation non-stationarity. We then assessed the impact of this uncertainty in IDF curves on the flood map of Fairfax and compared the results with the classic IDF curves.

  6. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-González, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colás, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn 3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  7. Precipitation of ammonium diuranate : a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.S.; Mahadevan, N.; Sankar Das, M.

    1991-01-01

    The precipitation of ammonium diuranate (ADU) forms the first step in the production of UO 2 fuel for reactors, and hence the quality and consistency of the ADU precipitate is very important in industrial operations. An investigation, on the precipitation of ADU, was carried out under conditions similar to those in industrial production, to evaluate the effect of various variables on the consistency and the quality of ADU. The variables studied were concentration of uranium and ammonia, pH, temperature and form of ammonia (gas or solution). The properties studied were the settling rate of the precipitates, surface area of the ADUs and calcined oxides and compositional characteristics of the ADUs. Multifactorial experiments and ruggedness tests were applied to identify the parameters to which the precipitation process is most vulnerable, so that such parameters may be controlled effectively. Besides, the effect and the importance of equilibrium conditions during the precipitation process, on the quality of the final ADU, was also established. The paper presents the results of these studies. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Global Precipitation Responses to Land Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have established that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component in land surface models due to the additional supply of subsurface water. However, impacts of groundwater on the spatial-temporal variability of precipitation have received little attention. Through the coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model (NCAR Community Atmosphere Model + Community Land Model) simulations, this study explores how groundwater representation in the model alters the precipitation spatiotemporal distributions. Results indicate that the effect of groundwater on the amount of precipitation is not globally homogeneous. Lower tropospheric water vapor increases due to the presence of groundwater in the model. The increased water vapor destabilizes the atmosphere and enhances the vertical upward velocity and precipitation in tropical convective regions. Precipitation, therefore, is inhibited in the descending branch of convection. As a result, an asymmetric dipole is produced over tropical land regions along the equator during the summer. This is analogous to the "rich-get-richer" mechanism proposed by previous studies. Moreover, groundwater also increased short-term (seasonal) and long-term (interannual) memory of precipitation for some regions with suitable groundwater table depth and found to be a function of water table depth. Based on the spatial distributions of the one-month-lag autocorrelation coefficients as well as Hurst coefficients, air-land interaction can occur from short (several months) to long (several years) time scales. This study indicates the importance of land hydrological processes in the climate system and the necessity of including the subsurface processes in the global climate models.

  9. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  10. Information provision by regulated public transport companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deborger, Bruno; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between pricing, frequency of service and information provision by public transport firms offering scheduled services, and we do so under various regulatory regimes. The model assumes that users can come to the bus stop or rail station at random or they can plan their trips...

  11. 15 CFR 748.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approval of the Secretary of Commerce or of the Under Secretary for Industry and Security. (d) Electronic... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 748.1 Section 748.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU...

  12. Cloud-based Collaborative Business Services Provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Oliveira, A.I.; Ferrada, F.; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Filipe, J.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of service-enhanced product, representing the association of services to manufactured products, offers an important mechanism for value creation and product differentiation. This is particularly relevant in the case of complex, highly customized and long-life products. Provision of

  13. 28 CFR 105.27 - Miscellaneous provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miscellaneous provisions. 105.27 Section 105.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS... has elected to opt out; or (ii) A participating State that has not yet established a process for...

  14. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion...

  15. 10 CFR 1706.6 - Solicitation provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizational conflicts of interest certificate from any marketing consultants engaged by an offeror in support... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solicitation provisions. 1706.6 Section 1706.6 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.6...

  16. 7 CFR 1956.57 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true General provisions. 1956.57 Section 1956.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, and dower and courtesy rights, and specific...

  17. 20 CFR 718.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions. 718.1 Section 718.1 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND... establish criteria for the techniques to be used to take chest roentgenograms (X-rays) in connection with a...

  18. 15 CFR 301.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 301.1 Section 301.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS...

  19. 7 CFR 226.15 - Institution provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personnel supported by funds provided under this part to support a nonprofit nutrition program for the... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.15...

  20. Mitigating Provider Uncertainty in Service Provision Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; van Moorsel, Aad

    Uncertainty is an inherent property of open, distributed and multiparty systems. The viability of the mutually beneficial relationships which motivate these systems relies on rational decision-making by each constituent party under uncertainty. Service provision in distributed systems is one such relationship. Uncertainty is experienced by the service provider in his ability to deliver a service with selected quality level guarantees due to inherent non-determinism, such as load fluctuations and hardware failures. Statistical estimators utilized to model this non-determinism introduce additional uncertainty through sampling error. Inability of the provider to accurately model and analyze uncertainty in the quality level guarantees can result in the formation of sub-optimal service provision contracts. Emblematic consequences include loss of revenue, inefficient resource utilization and erosion of reputation and consumer trust. We propose a utility model for contract-based service provision to provide a systematic approach to optimal service provision contract formation under uncertainty. Performance prediction methods to enable the derivation of statistical estimators for quality level are introduced, with analysis of their resultant accuracy and cost.

  1. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Non-baseline Products. A manufacturer with total annual sales less than $50 million is not required to... section. (3) Provisions Applicable to Atypical Products. A manufacturer with total annual sales less than... required for aerosol products. EPA will review the submitted information and, at EPA's discretion, may...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.900 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduct blasting operations shall use every reasonable precaution including, but not limited to, visual... alternative provisions may be made which are adequately designed to prevent any premature firing of electric...) Blasting operations in the proximity of overhead power lines, communication lines, utility services, or...

  3. 7 CFR 249.25 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other provisions. 249.25 Section 249.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... (7 U.S.C. 2011, et seq.) and to any other Federal or State food or nutrition assistance program. (b...

  4. National Interference in Local Public Good Provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); K. Staal (Klaas)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a simple model of local public good provision in a country consisting of a large number of heterogeneous regions, each comprising two districts, a city and a village. When districts remain autonomous and local public goods have positive spillover effects on the neighbouring

  5. 36 CFR 62.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 62.9 Section 62.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... governments, or other interested individuals or groups to assist in administering the National Natural...

  6. Music Provision in UK Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Carl; McKnight, Cliff

    2004-01-01

    Public library music provision, as a less traditional role for public libraries, has always caused contention: a vital source of cultural materials within the community though never confirmed to be a core part of library services by the Government. This article concerns itself with a detailed consideration of the decline of music services over the…

  7. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    , the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...

  8. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...

  9. 13 CFR 102.41 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other provisions. 102.41 Section 102.41 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY... the preservation of the constitutional principles of federalism and separation of powers. (d) Medical...

  10. Remote Health Care Provision in Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbould, Louise; Mountain, Gail; Hawley, Mark; Ariss, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A survey was developed to map provision, knowledge, attitudes and views towards videoconferencing in care homes in Yorkshire and The Humber. The survey was sent to 859 care homes, with a 14% response rate. Twelve homes reported using videoconferencing. Non-users appeared skeptical, managers using the system reported improvements in outcomes.

  11. Wheelchair service provision education in academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Fung

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The majority of the educational institutions teach wheelchair education; however, there is great variability in what and how it is taught and evaluated. The results demonstrate the need for more in-depth investigation regarding the integration process of wheelchair education in educational institutions, with the ultimate goal of improving wheelchair service provision worldwide.

  12. 7 CFR 250.53 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the food service management company will ensure that its system of inventory management will not... recipient agency's fixed-price contract with a food service management company. Such provisions must also be... management company must credit the recipient agency for the value of all donated foods received for use in...

  13. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years from the date of award of a capital grant, the grant recipient has withdrawn from the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Program); does not establish the project for which the grant was made...

  14. 20 CFR 332.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or, with respect to a female employee, a calendar day on which, because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions. 332.1 Section 332.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT...

  15. Constitutional provisions regarding juristic persons | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interim Constitution of 1993 and the final Constitution of 1996 contain specific provisions applicable to juristic persons. Juristic persons are also entitled to the fundamental rights contained in the Bill of Rights to the extent that these rights are applicable to them. It must be kept in mind that juristic persons have peculiar ...

  16. 44 CFR 17.625 - Exception provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception provision. 17.625 Section 17.625 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.625 Exception...

  17. 42 CFR 412.200 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating... the prospective payment system for inpatient operating costs. Except as provided in this subpart, the... for § 412.60, which deals with DRG classification and weighting factors, the provisions of subparts D...

  18. 15 CFR 700.70 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.70 Section 700.70 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  19. 15 CFR 700.60 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.60 Section 700.60 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  20. 15 CFR 700.50 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.50 Section 700.50 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  1. 28 CFR 16.40 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.40 Section 16.40 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION..., commission, service, or administration of the Department of Justice. (2) Request for access to a record means...

  2. 7 CFR 760.808 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... harvested production does not exist; (2) The loss is due to an ineligible cause of loss or practices, soil... provisions. (a) For calculations of loss, the participant's existing unit structure will be used as the basis... (2) For NAP covered crops, part 1437 of this title. (b) County average yield for loss calculations...

  3. 31 CFR 25.400 - Loan provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SALES LOANS MADE BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY AND FOREIGN MILITARY SALES LOANS MADE BY THE FEDERAL FINANCING BANK AND GUARANTEED BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY Form of Private Loan § 25... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan provisions. 25.400 Section 25...

  4. 33 CFR 135.405 - Appeal provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal provisions. 135.405 Section 135.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.361 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Introduction. As provided in § 9901.303(a)(2), the provisions of 5 U.S.C. chapter 55, subchapter V, and related... market supplements are treated the same as locality pay under 5 U.S.C. 5304 and are included in computing...

  6. 42 CFR 421.5 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... U.S. Revised Statutes or any other provision of law that requires competitive bidding. (b.... (a) Competitive bidding not required for carriers. CMS may enter into contracts with carriers, or... certain administrative responsibilities that the law imposes. Accordingly, their agreements and contracts...

  7. 31 CFR 281.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 281.9 Section 281.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.9 General...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions... operation of the treatment process or control technique, the owner or operator shall instead comply with the... calibration gas for Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A shall be the single organic HAP representing the...

  9. Advance Provision of Emergency Contraception for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamji, Jehan-Marie; Swartwout, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Emergency contraception is most effective at preventing unintended pregnancy when taken as early as possible following unprotected sexual intercourse. Advance provision of this medication supports more timely and effective use. In the midst of rising teen pregnancy rates, current policies often limit access to emergency contraception for…

  10. Effective removal of coordinated copper from wastewater using a new dithiocarbamate-type supramolecular heavy metal precipitant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fenglian; Zeng, Haiyan; Cai, Qinhong; Qiu, Rongliang; Yu, Jimmy; Xiong, Ya

    2007-11-01

    A new dithiocarbamate-type heavy metal precipitant, sodium 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazinedithiocarbamate (HTDC), was prepared and used to remove coordinated copper from wastewater. In the reported dithiocarbamate-type precipitants, HTDC possesses the highest percentage of the effective functional groups. It could effectively precipitate copper to less than 0.5mgl(-1) from both synthetic and actual industrial wastewater containing CuEDTA in the range of pH 3-9. UV-vis spectral investigation and elemental analysis suggested that the precipitate was a kind of coordination supramolecular compound, [Cu(3)(HTDC)(2)](n). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) indicated that the supramolecular precipitate was non-hazardous and stable in weak acid and alkaline conditions. Tests of an anion exchange resin D231 provided a clue to simultaneously remove excess HTDC and residual CuEDTA in practical process of wastewater treatment.

  11. Study of fallout by precipitation around an oil-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granat, L; Rodhe, H

    1973-01-01

    An investigation into the distribution of deposition by precipitation around an oil-fired power plant on the west coast of Sweden is presented. The measurements cover seven precipitation events during late fall. The samples have been analyzed for sulfur, pH, alkalinity, and sodium. In most precipitation events an additional deposition (above the regional background level) of sulfur and acid has been identified on the leeward side of the source. Compared with the background values, the observed increase was generally less than about 100 percent. As a long-term average the additional deposition of acid by precipitation, due to the power plant, is estimated to be not larger than 10-15 percent within 15 km of the plant. A comparison with emitted quantities shows that 1-6 percent of the sulfur emittted during the precipitation has been deposited within the first 15 km, corresponding to a travel time of 20-60 min. If the comparison is made using the total emission, including the dry periods, this fraction is only a few per mille.

  12. Separation and purification of uranium product from thorium in thorex process by precipitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Mukherjee, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    A sequential precipitation technique is reported for the separation of uranium and thorium present in the uranium product stream of a single cycle 5 per cent TBP Thorex Process. It involves the precipitation of thorium as oxalate in 1M HNO 3 medium at 60-70degC and after filtration, precipitation of uranium as ammonium diuranate at 80-90degC from the oxalate supernatant. This technique has several advantages over the ion-exchange process normally used for treating these products. In order to meet the varying feed conditions, this method has been tested for feeds containing 10 g/1 uranium and 1-50 g/1 thorium in 1-6M HNO 3 . Various parameters like feed acidities, uranium and thorium concentrations, excess oxalic acid concentrations in the oxalate supernatant, precipitation temperatures, precipitate wash volumes etc. have been optimised to obtain more than 99 per cent recovery of thorium and uranium as their oxides with less than 50 ppm uranium losses to ammonium diuranate filtrate. The distribution patterns of different fission products and stainless steel corrosion products during various steps of this procedure have also been studied. For simulating the actual Thorex plant scale operation, experiments have been conducted with 25g and 100g lots of uranium per batch. (author). 6 tabs., 8 figs., 22 refs

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION PRECIPITATION VIDEO IMAGER (PVI) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Video Imager (PVI) GCPEx dataset collected precipitation particle images and drop size distribution data from November 2011...

  14. Future changes of precipitation characteristics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Wu, Y.; Wen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Global warming has the potential to alter the hydrological cycle, with significant impacts on the human society, the environment and ecosystems. This study provides a detailed assessment of potential changes in precipitation characteristics in China using a suite of 12 high-resolution CMIP5 climate models under a medium and a high Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We examine future changes over the entire distribution of precipitation, and identify any shift in the shape and/or scale of the distribution. In addition, we use extreme-value theory to evaluate the change in probability and magnitude for extreme precipitation events. Overall, China is going to experience an increase in total precipitation (by 8% under RCP4.5 and 12% under RCP8.5). This increase is uneven spatially, with more increase in the west and less increase in the east. Precipitation frequency is projected to increase in the west and decrease in the east. Under RCP4.5, the overall precipitation frequency for the entire China remains largely unchanged (0.08%). However, RCP8.5 projects a more significant decrease in frequency for large part of China, resulting in an overall decrease of 2.08%. Precipitation intensity is likely increase more uniformly, with an overall increase of 11% for RCP4.5 and 19% for RCP8.5. Precipitation increases for all parts of the distribution, but the increase is more for higher quantiles, i.e. strong events. The relative contribution of small quantiles is likely to decrease, whereas contribution from heavy events is likely to increase. Extreme precipitation increase at much higher rates than average precipitation, and high rates of increase are expected for more extreme events. 1-year events are likely to increase by 15%, but 20-year events are going to increase by 21% under RCP4.5, 26% and 40% respectively under RCP8.5. The increase of extreme events is likely to be more spatially uniform.

  15. Regional climate scenarios - A study on precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.; Boessing Christensen, O.

    2001-01-01

    A set of nested climate change simulations for the Nordic region and Denmark has been revisited. In the present work we have re-examined the results of CCMB and MBC with special emphasis on precipitation intensity frequencies, in particular the more extreme part of the frequency distribution. It has been demonstrated that the role of extreme precipitation events appears to be more realistically described in a high-resolution model, in terms of numerical agreement as well as seasonal variation. This is mainly due to a better simulation of deep low-pressure systems and mesoscale circulation. Generally, the analysis has confirmed the results from CCMB, but furthermore a resolution effect has been identified which seems essential to the understanding of climate change effects on the extreme end of the precipitation intensity distribution. In order to analyse the role of the model resolution we have aggregated both the nested model data and observational records to the GCM grid from the driving AOGCM. It was found that, in spite of changes in absolute numbers, the seasonal behaviour of decay constants does not change appreciably because of the aggregation. The RCM results show a seasonal behaviour very similar to an observed data set. It is therefore concluded that the GCM has an unrealistic simulation of the dependence of heavy precipitation on climate, as manifested in seasonal variation. In contrast, the regional simulations remain close to observation in this respect. Furthermore, they agree on a conclusion that extreme precipitation generally scales with average precipitation (no significant change in decay constants were detected), but that crucial summer season may be an exception, exhibiting an anomalous increase in heavy precipitation due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. The analysis has only been performed over Denmark due to lack of daily observational data for other regions. It is, however, necessary to extend the work to other areas, for instance

  16. Precipitation and purification of uranium from rock phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbowSlama, E.H.Y.; Sam, A.K.; Etemad Ebraheem

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried-out to leach uranium from rock phosphate using sulphuric acid in the presence of potassium chlorate as an oxidant and to investigate the relative purity of different forms of yellow cakes produced with ammonia, magnesia and sodium hydroxide as precipitants, as well as purification of the products with TBP and matching its impurity levels with specifications of the commercial products. Alpha-particle spectrometry was used for determination of activity concentration of uranium isotopes in rock phosphate, resulting phosphoric acid, and in different forms of the yellow cake. Likewise, atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for determination of impurities. On the average, the equivalent mass concentration of uranium was 119.38 ± 79.66 ppm (rock phosphate) and 57.85 ± 20.46 ppm (phosphoric acid) with corresponding low percent of dissolution (48 %) which is considered low. The isotopic ratio ( 234 U: 238 U) in all stages of hydrometallurgical process was not much different from unity indicating lack of fractionation. Upon comparing the levels of impurities in different form of crude yellow cakes, it was found that the lowest levels were measured in hydrated trioxide (UO 3 ·xH 2 O). This implies that saturated magnesia is least aggressive relative to other precipitants and gives relatively pure crude cake. Therefore, it was used as an index to judge the relative purity of other forms of yellow cakes by taking the respective elemental ratios. The levels of impurities (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb) in the purified yellow cake were found comparable with those specified for commercial products. (author)

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  18. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control the durability of nuclear waste glass is paramount if reliable models are to be constructed so that the glass dissolution rate in a given geological repository can be calculated. Presently, it is agreed that (boro)silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) with higher [H4SiO4] leading to lower dissolution rates. Once the reaction has slowed as a result of the buildup of H4SiO4, another increase in the rate has been observed that corresponds to the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products. However, it has also been observed that the concentration of silica-bearing solution species does not significantly decrease, indicating saturation, while other glass tracer elements concentrations continue to increase, indicating that the glass is still dissolving. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a representative zeolitic silica-bearing alteration product, analcime [Na(AlSi2O6)∙H2O]. To simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix for amorphous silica was substituted for the glass pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix because it has been shown that silicate glasses act as a silica-only solid with respect to kinetic considerations. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. From the simulations we conclude, firstly, that the rate of glass dissolution is dependent on the kinetics of

  19. Modeling winter precipitation over the Juneau Icefield, Alaska, using a linear model of orographic precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Aurora; Hock, Regine; Schuler, Thomas V.; Bieniek, Peter A.; Pelto, Mauri; Aschwanden, Andy

    2018-03-01

    Assessing and modeling precipitation in mountainous areas remains a major challenge in glacier mass balance modeling. Observations are typically scarce and reanalysis data and similar climate products are too coarse to accurately capture orographic effects. Here we use the linear theory of orographic precipitation model (LT model) to downscale winter precipitation from a regional climate model over the Juneau Icefield, one of the largest ice masses in North America (>4000 km2), for the period 1979-2013. The LT model is physically-based yet computationally efficient, combining airflow dynamics and simple cloud microphysics. The resulting 1 km resolution precipitation fields show substantially reduced precipitation on the northeastern portion of the icefield compared to the southwestern side, a pattern that is not well captured in the coarse resolution (20 km) WRF data. Net snow accumulation derived from the LT model precipitation agrees well with point observations across the icefield. To investigate the robustness of the LT model results, we perform a series of sensitivity experiments varying hydrometeor fall speeds, the horizontal resolution of the underlying grid, and the source of the meteorological forcing data. The resulting normalized spatial precipitation pattern is similar for all sensitivity experiments, but local precipitation amounts vary strongly, with greatest sensitivity to variations in snow fall speed. Results indicate that the LT model has great potential to provide improved spatial patterns of winter precipitation for glacier mass balance modeling purposes in complex terrain, but ground observations are necessary to constrain model parameters to match total amounts.

  20. Interannual variation of annual precipitation and urban effect on precipitation in the Beijing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The large scale character of the interannual variation of precipitation and the urban effect on local annual precipitation anomaly are investigated in this paper based on the 1960-2000 annual precipitation observations at 20 stations in the Beijing region. The results show that: the annual precipitation in the Beijing region possesses the large scale variation character with the linear trend of - 1.197/10 yr, which corresponds to a total reduction of 27.82 mm in annual precipitation in the 41 years; the local annual precipitation anomalies (percent of the normal 1960-2000) show a positive center near the urban area, i.e. urban precipitation island (UPI), whose intensity increases with the linear trend of 0. 6621%/10 yr, opposite to the interannual trend of large scale precipitation over the Beijing region; changes in the UPI are also associated with the intensity of synoptic processes of precipitation, and when the synoptic processes are strong (wet years), the intensity of UPI strengthens, while the synoptic processes are weak (dry years), and the UPI disappears in the Beijing region.

  1. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.; Ritchey, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitation of Fe 3 HN 4 H 8 (PO 4 ) 6 is prevented in the second cycle extractor, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing ammonia laden organic solvent stream, from the second cycle stripper, with first cycle raffinate iron stream containing phosphoric acid, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle extractor. (author)

  2. Extraction of rare earth elements from low-grade Bauxite via precipitation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, E.; Nurani, Y.; Bahari, ZJ

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the optimum hydrometallurgical parameters to extract the rare earth elements (REE) from low-grade bauxite through acid leaching and precipitation reaction. REE or lanthanide recovery by a precipitation method with sodium sulphate and sodium phosphate as precipitation agents is reported where the effect of pH and recovery of REE are described. The metal composition of REE in low-grade bauxite after treatment were analyzed by ICP-OES. The total recovery values of REE elements at the first precipitation reaction using sodium sulphate as the precipitation agent at pH 3.5 showed ~68.2% of lanthanum, ~18.9% cerium, and ~7.8% yttrium. Lanthanum was the rare-earth element present at the highest concentration in the low-grade bauxite after the series treatments. An optimum pH of 3.5 for precipitation of rare-earth elements using sodium sulphate was demonstrated where this method is recommended for the extraction of REE elements from low-grade bauxite.

  3. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monegue, R.L.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H + (30.8 % of total), and SO 4 (50.3% of total). H + was positively correlated with SO 4 , suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 microS/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO 4 represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H + was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H + was positively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H + was not directly correlated with precipitation H + , NO 3 , or SO 4 , precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry

  4. Two case studies on NARCCAP precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Grant B.; Cooley, Daniel; Sain, Stephan R.; Bukovsky, Melissa S.; Mearns, Linda O.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce novel methodology to examine the ability of six regional climate models (RCMs) in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) ensemble to simulate past extreme precipitation events seen in the observational record over two different regions and seasons. Our primary objective is to examine the strength of daily correspondence of extreme precipitation events between observations and the output of both the RCMs and the driving reanalysis product. To explore this correspondence, we employ methods from multivariate extreme value theory. These methods require that we account for marginal behavior, and we first model and compare climatological quantities which describe tail behavior of daily precipitation for both the observations and model output before turning attention to quantifying the correspondence of the extreme events. Daily precipitation in a West Coast region of North America is analyzed in two seasons, and it is found that the simulated extreme events from the reanalysis-driven NARCCAP models exhibit strong daily correspondence to extreme events in the observational record. Precipitation over a central region of the United States is examined, and we find some daily correspondence between winter extremes simulated by reanalysis-driven NARCCAP models and those seen in observations, but no such correspondence is found for summer extremes. Furthermore, we find greater discrepancies among the NARCCAP models in the tail characteristics of the distribution of daily summer precipitation over this region than seen in precipitation over the West Coast region. We find that the models which employ spectral nudging exhibit stronger tail dependence to observations in the central region.

  5. Climate change and precipitation: Detecting changes Climate change and precipitation: Detecting changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Boxel, John H

    2001-01-01

    Precipitation is one of the most, if not the most important climate parameter In most studies on climate change the emphasis is on temperature and sea level rise. Often too little attention is given to precipitation. For a large part this is due to the large spatial en temporal variability of precipitation, which makes the detection of changes difficult. This paper describes methods to detect changes in precipitation. In order to arrive at statistically significant changes one must use long time series and spatial averages containing the information from several stations. In the Netherlands the average yearly precipitation increased by 11% during the 20th century .In the temperate latitudes on the Northern Hemisphere (40-60QN) the average increase was about 7% over the 20th century and the globally averaged precipitation increased by about 3%. During the 20th century 38% of the land surface of the earth became wetter, 42% experienced little change (less than 5% change) and 20% became dryer. More important than the average precipitation is the occurrence of extremes. In the Netherlands there is a tendency to more extreme precipitations, whereas the occurrence of relatively dry months has not changed. Also in many other countries increases in heavy precipitation events are observed. All climate models predict a further increase of mean global precipitation if the carbon dioxide concentration doubles. Nevertheless some areas get dryer, others have little change and consequently there are also areas where the increase is much more than the global average. On a regional scale however there are large differences between the models. Climate models do not yet provide adequate information on changes in extreme precipitations

  6. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Novel method for concentrating and drying polymeric nanoparticles: hydrogen bonding coacervate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addio, Suzanne M; Kafka, Concepcion; Akbulut, Mustafa; Beattie, Patrick; Saad, Walid; Herrera, Margarita; Kennedy, Michael T; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2010-04-05

    Nanoparticles have significant potential in therapeutic applications to improve the bioavailability and efficacy of active drug compounds. However, the retention of nanometer sizes during concentrating or drying steps presents a significant problem. We report on a new concentrating and drying process for poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) stabilized nanoparticles, which relies upon the unique pH sensitive hydrogen bonding interaction between PEG and polyacid species. In the hydrogen bonding coacervate precipitation (HBCP) process, PEG protected nanoparticles rapidly aggregate into an easily filterable precipitate upon the addition various polyacids. When the resulting solid is neutralized, the ionization of the acid groups eliminates the hydrogen bonded structure and the approximately 100 nm particles redisperse back to within 10% of their original size when poly(acrylic acid) and citric acid are used and 45% when poly(aspartic acid) is used. While polyacid concentrations of 1-5 wt % were used to form the precipitates, the incorporation of the acid into the PEG layer is approximately 1:1 (acid residue):(ethylene oxide unit) in the final dried precipitate. The redispersion of dried beta-carotene nanoparticles protected with PEG-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) polymers dried by HBCP was compared with the redispersion of particles dried by freeze-drying with sucrose as a cryprotectant, spray freeze-drying, and normal drying. Freeze-drying with 0, 2, and 12 wt % sucrose solutions resulted in size increases of 350%, 50%, and 6%, respectively. Spray freeze-drying resulted in particles with increased sizes of 50%, but no cryoprotectant and only moderate redispersion energy was required. Conventional drying resulted in solids that could not be redispersed back to nanometer size. The new HBCP process offers a promising and efficient way to concentrate or convert nanoparticle dispersions into a stable dry powder form.

  8. A savanna response to precipitation intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S Berry

    Full Text Available As the atmosphere warms, precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense. A three-year experiment in Kruger National Park, South Africa, found that fewer, more intense precipitation events encouraged woody plant encroachment. To test whether or not these treatment responses persisted over time, here, we report results from all five years of that experiment. Grass growth, woody plant growth, total fine root number and area and hydrologic tracer uptake by grasses and woody plants were measured in six treated plots (8 m by 8 m and six control plots. Treatment effects on soil moisture were measured continuously in one treated and one control plot. During the fourth year, increased precipitation intensity treatments continued to decrease water flux in surface soils (0-10 cm, increase water flux in deeper soils (20+ cm, decrease grass growth and increase woody plant growth. Greater root numbers at 20-40 cm and greater woody plant uptake of a hydrological tracer from 45-60 cm suggested that woody plants increased growth by increasing root number and activity (but not root area in deeper soils. During the fifth year, natural precipitation events were large and intense so treatments had little effect on precipitation intensity or plant available water. Consistent with this effective treatment removal, there was no difference in grass or woody growth rates between control and treated plots, although woody plant biomass remained higher in treated than control plots due to treatment effects in the previous four years. Across the five years of this experiment, we found that 1 small increases in precipitation intensity can result in large increases in deep (20-130 cm soil water availability, 2 plant growth responses to precipitation intensity are rapid and disappear quickly, and 3 because woody plants accumulate biomass, occasional increases in precipitation intensity can result in long-term increases in woody plant biomass (i.e., shrub

  9. Removal of arsenate by ferrihydrite via surface complexation and surface precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiuli [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Peng, Changjun; Fu, Dun; Chen, Zheng [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Shen, Liang [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Li, Qingbiao [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Ouyang, Tong, E-mail: yz3t@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang, Yuanpeng, E-mail: wypp@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface complexation and surface precipitation of As on ferrihydrite happen at pH 3–6. • The formation of surface precipitation enhanced As(V) adsorption. • The dissolved Fe{sup 3+} had a good linear relationship with the amount of arsenate re-adsorption. - Abstract: In this study, macroscopic and spectroscopic experimental methods accurately modeled the sorption process of arsenate on ferrihydrite. EXAFS, X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) spectroscopy indicated that the behavior of As(V) adsorption onto ferrihydrite took place mainly via surface complexation and surface precipitation at acidic pH (3.0–6.0), while the surface precipitation was dominated at longer time intervals and higher Fe{sup 3+} concentration. The macroscopic competitive adsorption experiment between arsenate with phosphate indicated two types of adsorption sites existing on the surface of ferrihydrite, i.e., non-exchangeable sites, which are responsible for a rapid surface complex formation; and exchangeable sites for a slow build-up of surface precipitates. In the slow build-up precipitates, the As(V) surface coverage (mmol/g) exhibited a good linear relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.952) with the amount of dissolved Fe{sup 3+}. Three steps are involved during the process of surface precipitation, i.e., (1) an initial uptake of As(V) via surface complexation; (2) re-adsorption of Fe{sup 3+} leaching from ferrihydrite on the surface complex; and (3) As(V) adsorption via surface complexation again and finally forming the surface precipitate.

  10. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  11. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  12. Complex precipitation pathways in multicomponent alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouet, Emmanuel; Nastar, Maylise [Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lae, Ludovic; Deschamps, Alexis [LTPCM/ENSEEG, UMR CNRS 5614, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres (France); Epicier, Thierry [Groupe d' Etudes de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5510, INSA, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Lefebvre, Williams [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Universite de Rouen, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2006-07-01

    One usual way to strengthen a metal is to add alloying elements and to control the size and the density of the precipitates obtained. However, precipitation in multicomponent alloys can take complex pathways depending on the relative diffusivity of solute atoms and on the relative driving forces involved. In Al - Zr - Sc alloys, atomic simulations based on first-principle calculations combined with various complementary experimental approaches working at different scales reveal a strongly inhomogeneous structure of the precipitates: owing to the much faster diffusivity of Sc compared with Zr in the solid solution, and to the absence of Zr and Sc diffusion inside the precipitates, the precipitate core is mostly Sc-rich, whereas the external shell is Zr-rich. This explains previous observations of an enhanced nucleation rate in Al - Zr - Sc alloys compared with binary Al - Sc alloys, along with much higher resistance to Ostwald ripening, two features of the utmost importance in the field of light high-strength materials. (authors)

  13. CALCULATION: PRECIPITATION CHARACTERISITICS FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Ambos

    2000-01-01

    This Calculation is intended to satisfy engineering requirements for maximum 60-minute precipitation amounts for 50 and 100-year return periods at and near Yucca Mountain. This data requirement is documented in the ''Interface Control Document for Support Operations to Surface Facilities Operations Functional and Organizational Interfaces'' (CRWMS M and O 1998a). These developed data will supplement the information on 0.1 hour to 6-hour (in 0.1-hour increments) probable maximum precipitation (PMP) presented in the report, ''Precipitation Design Criteria for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M and O 1998b). The Reference Information Base (RIB) item, Precipitation ''Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (M09902RIB00045 .OOO), was developed based on CRWMS M and O (1998b) and will be supplemented (via revision) with the information developed in this Calculation. The ''Development Plan for the Calculation: Precipitation Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M and O 2000) was prepared in accordance with AP-2.l3Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''. This calculation was developed in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Rev. O/ICN 2

  14. Global Precipitation Measurement. Report 7; Bridging from TRMM to GPM to 3-Hourly Precipitation Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Smith, Eric A.; Adams, W. James (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Historically, multi-decadal measurements of precipitation from surface-based rain gauges have been available over continents. However oceans remained largely unobserved prior to the beginning of the satellite era. Only after the launch of the first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite in 1987 carrying a well-calibrated and multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer called Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) have systematic and accurate precipitation measurements over oceans become available on a regular basis; see Smith et al. (1994, 1998). Recognizing that satellite-based data are a foremost tool for measuring precipitation, NASA initiated a new research program to measure precipitation from space under its Mission to Planet Earth program in the 1990s. As a result, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a collaborative mission between NASA and NASDA, was launched in 1997 to measure tropical and subtropical rain. See Simpson et al. (1996) and Kummerow et al. (2000). Motivated by the success of TRMM, and recognizing the need for more comprehensive global precipitation measurements, NASA and NASDA have now planned a new mission, i.e., the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The primary goal of GPM is to extend TRMM's rainfall time series while making substantial improvements in precipitation observations, specifically in terms of measurement accuracy, sampling frequency, Earth coverage, and spatial resolution. This report addresses four fundamental questions related to the transition from current to future global precipitation observations as denoted by the TRMM and GPM eras, respectively.

  15. DWPF integrated cold runs revised technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    The report defines new precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters for DWPF Chemical runs assuming the precipitate feed simulants to be processed reflect the decision to implement a final wash of the tetraphenylborate slurry before transfer to DWPF (i.e. the Late Wash Facility). Control of the nitrite content of the tetraphenylborate slurry to 0.01M or less has eliminated the need for hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) during hydrolysis. Consequently, the oxidant nitrous oxide will not be generated. However, nitric oxide (NO) is expected to be generated (reaction of formic acid with nitrite) and some fraction of the NO can be expected to be oxidized to nitrogen dioxide. The rate of NO generation with low nitrite feed has not been quantified at this time nor is the extent to which the NO is oxidized to NO 2 known. A mass spectrometer is being installed in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) which will enable the NO generation rate to be defined as well as the extent to which the NO is oxidized to NO 2 . There is some undocumented data available for C 6 H 6 /NO and C 6 H 6 /NO 2 with N 2 as the diluent but no similar data for CO 2 . Development of test data in the required time frame is not possible. However, MOC's will be estimated for benzene/NO/NO 2 /CO 2 gas mixtures (the MOC is expected to be approximately 60% less than for the HAN process). Once these data are obtained, and NO/NO 2 concentration profiles are obtained from PHEF hydrolysis process demonstrations, a flammability control strategy for the DWPF Salt Processing Cell will be developed. Implementation of the HAN process purge strategy upon startup of the SPC with the late wash process would be conservative

  16. Interfacial Precipitation of Phosphate on Hematite and Goethite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption and subsequent precipitation of dissolved phosphates on iron oxides, such as hematite and goethite, is of considerable importance in predicting the bioavailability of phosphates. We used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM to image the kinetic processes of phosphate-bearing solutions interacting with hematite or goethite surfaces. The nucleation of nanoparticles (1.0–4.0 nm in height of iron phosphate (Fe(III-P phases, possibly an amorphous phase at the initial stages, was observed during the dissolution of both hematite and goethite at the earliest crystallization stages. This was followed by a subsequent aggregation stage where larger particles and layered precipitates are formed under different pH values, ionic strengths, and organic additives. Kinetic analysis of the surface nucleation of Fe-P phases in 50 mM NH4H2PO4 at pH 4.5 showed the nucleation rate was greater on goethite than hematite. Enhanced goethite and hematite dissolution in the presence of 10 mM AlCl3 resulted in a rapid increase in Fe-P nucleation rates. A low concentration of citrate promoted the nucleation, whereas nucleation was inhibited at higher concentrations of citrate. By modeling using PHREEQC, calculated saturation indices (SI showed that the three Fe(III-P phases of cacoxenite, tinticite, and strengite may be supersaturated in the reacted solutions. Cacoxenite is predicted to be more thermodynamically favorable in all the phosphate solutions if equilibrium is reached with respect to hematite or goethite, although possibly only amorphous precipitates were observed at the earliest stages. These direct observations at the nanoscale may improve our understanding of phosphate immobilization in iron oxide-rich acid soils.

  17. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift

  18. Sulphate deposition by precipitation into Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R W; Whelpdale, D M

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of sulphate concentration in precipitation from individual snow storms of several hours duration in the western Lake Ontario region indicate that approximately 9-66 mg/M/sub 2/ of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ is being deposited into the lake per storm. This amount is up to several times more than daily average values over long periods found by other workers. Using a mean sulphate concentration of 4 mg/l and an annual accumulation of precipitation of 760 mm, the yearly sulphate deposition by precipitation is about 0.1% of the total mass of sulphate in the lake; however, more significantly, it is of the same order of magnitude as that discharged directly into the lake by industry.

  19. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

  20. Mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The backdrop to this article is provided by the Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007), Section 1 of which is entitled 'Towards a Mutual NHS'. According to Better Health, Better Care (Scottish Government, 2007: 5): 'Mutual organisations are designed to serve their members. They are designed to gather people around a common sense of purpose. They are designed to bring the organisation together in what people often call "co-production."' The aim of this article is to précis the current knowledge of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. In detail, it will: introduce the 'mutual' organisation; offer a historical perspective of mutuality; suggest why healthcare mutuality is important; and briefly, detail the differences in mutual health-care policy in England and Scotland. It is hoped that this analysis will help researchers and practitioners alike appreciate further the philosophy of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. © The Author(s) 2015.