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Sample records for acid phenylmethyl eater

  1. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 76 FR 41135 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2- propenoic acid...-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2-methyl- 2- -1... for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-,phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid...

  3. Serum uric acid concentrations in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Schmidt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. RESULTS: In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively. The differences between diet groups were most pronounced in men; vegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329-351 µmol/l, followed by meat eaters (315, 306-324 µmol/l, fish eaters (309, 300-318 µmol/l and vegetarians (303, 294-312 µmol/l. In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234-247 µmol/l than in meat eaters (237, 231-242 µmol/l and lower in vegetarians (230, 224-236 µmol/l and fish eaters (227, 221-233 µmol/l. CONCLUSION: Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid.

  4. Comparative study of N-[(4-methoxyphenyl (morpholin-4-ylmethyl]acetamide (MMPA and N-[morpholin-4-yl(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MPA as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in sulfuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamal Abdul Nasser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two Mannich bases namely, N-[(4-methoxyphenyl(morpholin-4-ylmethyl]acetamide (MMPA and N-[morpholin-4-yl(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MPA were synthesized and their influence on the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M H2SO4 was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The weight loss measurements showed that these inhibitors have excellent inhibiting effect at a concentration of 0.01 M. The inhibitor efficiency was found to depend on both concentration and molecular structure of the inhibitor. Both the compounds have been found to be relatively good inhibitors. Potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the studied inhibitors represent a mixed-type, predominantly cathodic control. An equivalent circuit is suggested based on an analysis of EIS data. The negative value of standard free energy of adsorption in the presence of inhibitor suggests spontaneous adsorption of inhibitors on the mild steel surface. The activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. The Temkin isotherm was found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behavior of the inhibitors. Surface analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM shows a significant morphological improvement on the mild steel surface with the addition of inhibitors. FT-IR spectra revealed the interaction between inhibitor molecules and mild steel surface.

  5. 3-[Chloro(phenylmethyl]-6-methyl-1,2-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kayalvizhi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H12ClNO, is a functionalized 1,2-benzoxazole with a chloro(phenylmethyl substituent. The molecule is V-shaped, the dihedral angle between the mean plane of the 1,2-benzoxazole system [maximum deviation = 0.023 (3 Å for the N atom] and the phenyl ring being 70.33 (14°. There are no hydrogen-bonding interactions in the crystal structure, which is stabilized by van der Waals interactions only.

  6. 2-[(4-tert-Butylanilino(phenylmethyl]cyclohexanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C23H29NO, the cyclohexanone ring has been distorted from the standard chair conformation by the ketone group such that part of the ring is almost flat. The remaining [(4-tert-butylanilino(phenylmethyl] portion of the molecule is in an equatorial position on the cyclohexanone ring. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 81.52 (8°. In the crystal packing, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite one-dimensional chains along the a axis and these chains are stacked down the c axis. The crystal structure is further stabilized by weak C—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  7. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk.

  8. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  9. Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Appleby, Paul N; Mizdrak, Anja; Briggs, Adam D M; Travis, Ruth C; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    The production of animal-based foods is associated with higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than plant-based foods. The objective of this study was to estimate the difference in dietary GHG emissions between self-selected meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Subjects were participants in the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. The diets of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123 fish-eaters and 29,589 meat-eaters aged 20-79 were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Comparable GHG emissions parameters were developed for the underlying food codes using a dataset of GHG emissions for 94 food commodities in the UK, with a weighting for the global warming potential of each component gas. The average GHG emissions associated with a standard 2,000 kcal diet were estimated for all subjects. ANOVA was used to estimate average dietary GHG emissions by diet group adjusted for sex and age. The age-and-sex-adjusted mean (95 % confidence interval) GHG emissions in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents per day (kgCO2e/day) were 7.19 (7.16, 7.22) for high meat-eaters ( > = 100 g/d), 5.63 (5.61, 5.65) for medium meat-eaters (50-99 g/d), 4.67 (4.65, 4.70) for low meat-eaters ( vegans. In conclusion, dietary GHG emissions in self-selected meat-eaters are approximately twice as high as those in vegans. It is likely that reductions in meat consumption would lead to reductions in dietary GHG emissions.

  10. "The Biscuit Eater": Racial Stereotypes, 1939-1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Bernice W.

    1978-01-01

    The story "The Biscuit Eater" and the two films made from it can be used as a paradigm of the image of blacks in works made by whites. However, unlike those of 1940, reviewers of the 1972 Disney film were critical of every racially insensitive nuance, representing progress in racial awareness. (Author/GC)

  11. Perceptions and dietary intake of self-described healthy and unhealthy eaters with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nancy E; Blake, Christine E; Saunders, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine how community-dwelling adults with severe mental illness describe themselves as eaters and how these eating identities relate to dietary intake. Twenty participants completed one in-depth qualitative interview and three 24-h dietary recalls. Two distinct groups were identified; self-described healthy eaters (n = 10) and self-described unhealthy eaters (n = 10). Healthy eaters emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting sweets, three meals a day, overcoming cost concerns, and benefits of healthy eating. Unhealthy eaters emphasized junk foods, fried foods, few fruits and vegetables, cost and household barriers to healthy eating, and concerns about consequences of unhealthy eating. Self-described healthy eaters consumed significantly more vegetables and less kilocalories, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat than self-described unhealthy eaters. Understanding how eating identities relate to dietary intake provides important insights for development of more effective approaches to promote healthy eating in this high risk population.

  12. Animal ethics profiling of vegetarians, vegans and meat-eaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; McKeegan, Dorothy E. F.; Cribbin, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the animal ethical profile of vegetarians, vegans, and meat-eaters. Using questionnaire data collected in 2013 (n = 356), we measured propensity to subscribe to five different po- sitions within animal ethics based on a novel measure of animal ethical stance......), but predominantly the utilitarian position. Propensity to hold animal rights and re- lational views increased with the number of meat products not consumed by meat-eaters. Vegans and vegetarians revealed more consistent animal ethics viewpoints, especially the vegan group which had a very high propen- sity to hold...... an animal rights position. Vegetarians were also inclined to hold the animal rights position, but additionally had a tendency to draw on utilitarian reasoning. Subscription to animal rights views was a defining char- acteristic of vegans regardless of the number of years they had followed the diet, while...

  13. Efforts to overcome vegetarian-induced dissonance among meat eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2014-08-01

    Meat eaters face dissonance whether it results from inconsistency ("I eat meat; I don't like to hurt animals"), aversive consequences ("I eat meat; eating meat harms animals"), or threats to self image ("I eat meat; compassionate people don't hurt animals"). The present work proposes that there are a number of strategies that omnivores adopt to reduce this dissonance including avoidance, dissociation, perceived behavioral change, denial of animal pain, denial of animal mind, pro-meat justifications, reducing perceived choice, and actual behavioral change. The presence of vegetarians was speculated to cause meat eating to be a scrutinized behavior, remind meat eaters of their discomfort, and undermine the effectiveness of these strategies. It was therefore hypothesized that exposure to a description of a vegetarian would lead omnivores to embrace dissonance-reducing strategies. Supporting this hypothesis, participants who read a vignette about a vegetarian denied animal mind more than participants who read about a gluten-free individual. It was also hypothesized that omnivores would be sensitive to individual differences between vegetarians and would demonstrate using dissonance-reducing strategies more when the situation failed to provide cognitions consonant with eating meat or to reduce dissonant cognitions. Four experiments supported this prediction and found that authentic vegetarians, vegetarians freely making the decision to abandon meat, consistent vegetarians, and anticipating moral reproach from vegetarians produced greater endorsement of dissonance-reducing strategies than their counterpart conditions.

  14. The control dilemma in eating behavior: influence of temptation cues in restrained versus unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Extremera, Natalio

    2011-11-01

    The present research explored the effects of pre-exposure to temptation primes and dieting primes on food intake, goal accessibility and explicit automatic evaluations of food-enjoyment and dieting goals among restrained and unrestrained eaters. Participants (n= 166) were randomly assigned to three conditions: food-cue, dieting, or control, in which they were exposed to incidental presentation of gourmet, fashion or geographic magazines, respectively. Words related to the goals of dieting and/or food- enjoyment were presented in a computer decision task following the incidental presentation of gourmet, dieting, and geographic magazine photographs. The computer task and the presentation of food were counterbalanced. Participants' food intake was assessed in a taste-rating task. Restrained eaters ate more than did unrestrained eaters across the three conditions. Restrained eaters who were exposed to food cues ate more than did restrained eaters in the control condition and they evaluated the goal of dieting more negatively compared to restrained eaters in the other two conditions. These findings were inconsistent with 'Counteractive Self-Control Theory' but consistent with previous studies on the effects of food-cue exposure in restrained eaters.

  15. A Systematic Review of Carrion Eaters' Adaptations to Avoid Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Rangchi, Tiana N; Briggs, Tiandra; De Andrade, Fabrine Souza; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara

    2017-02-13

    Species that scavenge on dead animals are exposed to enhanced disease risks. Eight hypotheses have been suggested to explain how scavengers avoid becoming sick from their diet. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and found correlative support for four of the eight hypotheses but limited evidence of systematic studies of the hypotheses. We found no support that using urine to sterilize carcasses, having bald heads, eating rapidly, or food-washing behavior reduced disease risk in carrion eaters. With the exception of food washing, none of these hypotheses have been properly evaluated as an adaptation to avoid sickness from carrion. There is some support for having a specialized microbiome, having enhanced immunologic defenses, avoiding rotten food, and maintaining a low gastric pH to eliminate pathogens. Specialized immunologic defenses and having a low pH have the most support, but the diversity of mechanisms suggests that there is a great opportunity for even more detailed study. Increased knowledge in these mechanisms may provide biomimetic insights to help combat foodborne illnesses and enhance health.

  16. Are fish eaters healthier and do they consume less health-care resources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Sørensen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Regular dietary intake of fish is associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, and may improve general well-being. If fish eaters are healthier, they may use fewer health-care resources. The present study aimed to describe the reported intake...... of fish and fish products in a Danish general population, and to investigate whether fish consumption is associated with generic measures of self-reported health and consumption of health-care resources. Design: Data on eating patterns and health status for 3422 Danish adults were obtained by telephone...... interview in the Funen County Health Survey. These data were merged with individual-level register data on health-care utilisation. Survey respondents were categorised into those consuming fish at least once weekly (fish eaters) and those consuming fish less frequently (non-fish eaters). Results: People who...

  17. Profiling healthy eaters: determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.; Bouwman, L.; Hiddink, G.J.; Aarts, N.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's sa

  18. Psychosocial stressor effects on cortisol and ghrelin in emotional and non-emotional eaters: influence of anger and shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-09-01

    Food consumption in stressful situations vary as a function of individual difference factors (e.g., emotional vs. non-emotional eating), and may be related to hormonal responses elicited by the stressful event. These hormonal responses may be tied to specific emotions elicited by the stressful event. The present investigation examined the emotional and hormonal (cortisol, ghrelin) responses of high and low emotional eaters following a laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Women (n=48) either high or low in emotional eating status were tested in a TSST or served as controls during which blood samples were taken for analysis of cortisol and ghrelin, both of which have been implicated in eating and in response to stressors. The TSST promoted elevated cortisol levels, being somewhat more pronounced in emotional than in non-emotional eaters. Both shame and anger were provoked by the TSST, and although both these emotions were correlated with cortisol levels, only anger significantly mediated the relationship between the stressor and cortisol levels. As well, baseline ghrelin levels in low emotional eaters exceeded that of high emotional eaters, and increased moderately in response to the stressor situation, irrespective of emotional eating status. Interestingly, when provided with food, ghrelin levels declined in the non-emotional eaters, but not in emotional eaters. The possibility is offered that the lack of a decline of ghrelin in emotional eaters may sustain eating in these individuals.

  19. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  20. The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Davey, Gwyneth K; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rinaldi, Sabina; Key, Timothy J

    2002-11-01

    The lower rates of some cancers in Asian countries than in Western countries may be partly because of diet, although the mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether a plant-based (vegan) diet is associated with a lower circulating level of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) compared with a meat-eating or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet among 292 British women, ages 20-70 years. The mean serum IGF-I concentration was 13% lower in 92 vegan women compared with 99 meat-eaters and 101 vegetarians (P = 0.0006). The mean concentrations of both serum IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-2 were 20-40% higher in vegan women compared with meat-eaters and vegetarians (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0008 for IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, respectively). There were no significant differences in IGFBP-3, C-peptide, or sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations between the diet groups. Intake of protein rich in essential amino acids was positively associated with serum IGF-I (Pearson partial correlation coefficient; r = 0.27; P diet groups. These data suggest that a plant-based diet is associated with lower circulating levels of total IGF-I and higher levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2.

  1. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters.

  2. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions.

  3. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently.

  4. Picky Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Each day quality child care programs strive to provide for the nutritional well being of their children. Staff thoughtfully prepare menus that target balanced diets and address caloric needs. Careful consideration to nutritional value and safety guides the process of selecting and preparing food. The outcome is appealing, developmentally…

  5. A nudge in a healthier direction: How environmental cues help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Aline E; Stöckli, Sabrina; Brunner, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use. Therefore, two laboratory studies were conducted. They examined the Giacometti sculptures' effects on unhealthy and healthy food intake (Study 1) and on the completion of weight- and health-related fragmented words (Study 2). Study 1 indicated that the sculptures are weight-related by showing that they reduced food intake independent of food healthiness. Furthermore, the "Giacometti effect" was moderated by restrained eating. Restrained eaters, who are known for their weight-control goal, ate less after having been exposed to the thin sculptures. The results of Study 2 pointed in the same direction. Restrained eaters completed more weight-related words after being exposed to the sculptures. Overall, these studies suggest that the thin sculptures are primarily weight-related cues and particularly helpful for restrained eaters. Environmental weight-control cues such as the Giacometti sculptures could act as a counterforce to our obesogenic environment and help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal. In this way, they could nudge food decisions in a healthier direction.

  6. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n = 703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices.

  7. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions.

  8. Flight Modes in Migrating European Bee-Eaters: Heart Rate May Indicate Low Metabolic Rate during Soaring and Gliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Wikelski, Martin; McCue, Marshall D.; Pinshow, Berry; Nathan, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Background Many avian species soar and glide over land. Evidence from large birds (mb>0.9 kg) suggests that soaring-gliding is considerably cheaper in terms of energy than flapping flight, and costs about two to three times the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Yet, soaring-gliding is considered unfavorable for small birds because migration speed in small birds during soaring-gliding is believed to be lower than that of flapping flight. Nevertheless, several small bird species routinely soar and glide. Methodology/Principal Findings To estimate the energetic cost of soaring-gliding flight in small birds, we measured heart beat frequencies of free-ranging migrating European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster, mb∼55 g) using radio telemetry, and established the relationship between heart beat frequency and metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry) in the laboratory. Heart beat frequency during sustained soaring-gliding was 2.2 to 2.5 times lower than during flapping flight, but similar to, and not significantly different from, that measured in resting birds. We estimated that soaring-gliding metabolic rate of European bee-eaters is about twice their basal metabolic rate (BMR), which is similar to the value estimated in the black-browed albatross Thalassarche (previously Diomedea) melanophrys, mb∼4 kg). We found that soaring-gliding migration speed is not significantly different from flapping migration speed. Conclusions/Significance We found no evidence that soaring-gliding speed is slower than flapping flight in bee-eaters, contradicting earlier estimates that implied a migration speed penalty for using soaring-gliding rather than flapping flight. Moreover, we suggest that small birds soar and glide during migration, breeding, dispersal, and other stages in their annual cycle because it may entail a low energy cost of transport. We propose that the energy cost of soaring-gliding may be proportional to BMR regardless of bird size, as theoretically deduced by earlier studies

  9. 2-[Anilino(phenylmethyl]cycloheptanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Büyükgüngör

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H23NO, the cycloheptanone ring adopts a twist-chair conformation, with the aminomethyl substituent in an equatorial position. The relative configuration of the two stereocenters is R,R. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along [100].

  10. Migration by soaring or flapping: numerical atmospheric simulations reveal that turbulence kinetic energy dictates bee-eater flight mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Wikelski, Martin; Avissar, Roni; Mahrer, Yitzhak; Nathan, Ran

    2011-11-22

    Aerial migrants commonly face atmospheric dynamics that may affect their movement and behaviour. Specifically, bird flight mode has been suggested to depend on convective updraught availability and tailwind assistance. However, this has not been tested thus far since both bird tracks and meteorological conditions are difficult to measure in detail throughout extended migratory flyways. Here, we applied, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive numerical atmospheric simulations by mean of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study how meteorological processes affect the flight behaviour of migrating birds. We followed European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) over southern Israel using radio telemetry and contrasted bird flight mode (flapping, soaring-gliding or mixed flight) against explanatory meteorological variables estimated by RAMS simulations at a spatial grid resolution of 250 × 250 m(2). We found that temperature and especially turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) determine bee-eater flight mode, whereas, unexpectedly, no effect of tailwind assistance was found. TKE during soaring-gliding was significantly higher and distinct from TKE during flapping. We propose that applying detailed atmospheric simulations over extended migratory flyways can elucidate the highly dynamic behaviour of air-borne organisms, help predict the abundance and distribution of migrating birds, and aid in mitigating hazardous implications of bird migration.

  11. Migration by soaring or flapping: numerical atmospheric simulations reveal that turbulence kinetic energy dictates bee-eater flight mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Wikelski, Martin; Avissar, Roni; Mahrer, Yitzhak; Nathan, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Aerial migrants commonly face atmospheric dynamics that may affect their movement and behaviour. Specifically, bird flight mode has been suggested to depend on convective updraught availability and tailwind assistance. However, this has not been tested thus far since both bird tracks and meteorological conditions are difficult to measure in detail throughout extended migratory flyways. Here, we applied, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive numerical atmospheric simulations by mean of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study how meteorological processes affect the flight behaviour of migrating birds. We followed European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) over southern Israel using radio telemetry and contrasted bird flight mode (flapping, soaring–gliding or mixed flight) against explanatory meteorological variables estimated by RAMS simulations at a spatial grid resolution of 250 × 250 m2. We found that temperature and especially turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) determine bee-eater flight mode, whereas, unexpectedly, no effect of tailwind assistance was found. TKE during soaring–gliding was significantly higher and distinct from TKE during flapping. We propose that applying detailed atmospheric simulations over extended migratory flyways can elucidate the highly dynamic behaviour of air-borne organisms, help predict the abundance and distribution of migrating birds, and aid in mitigating hazardous implications of bird migration. PMID:21471116

  12. Determinants of between-year burrow re-occupation in a colony of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Vera; Bastian, Hans-Valentin; Bastian, Anita; Schmoll, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Re-occupation of existing nesting burrows in the European bee-eater Merops apiaster has only rarely - and if so mostly anecdotically - been documented in the literature record, although such behavior would substantially save time and energy. In this study, we quantify burrow re-occupation in a German colony over a period of eleven years and identify ecological variables determining reuse probability. Of 179 recorded broods, 54% took place in a reused burrow and the overall probability that one of 75 individually recognized burrows would be reused in a given subsequent year was estimated as 26.4%. This indicates that between-year burrow reuse is a common behavior in the study colony which contrasts with findings from studies in other colonies. Furthermore, burrow re-occupation probability declined highly significantly with increasing age of the breeding wall. Statistical separation of within- and between-burrow effects of the age of the breeding wall revealed that a decline in re-occupation probability with individual burrow age was responsible for this and not a selective disappearance of burrows with high re-occupation probability over time. Limited duty cycles of individual burrows may be caused by accumulating detritus or decreasing stability with increasing burrow age. Alternatively, burrow fidelity may presuppose pair fidelity which may also explain the observed restricted burrow reuse duty cycles. A consequent next step would be to extend our within-colony approach to other colonies and compare the ecological circumstances under which bee-eaters reuse breeding burrows.

  13. Ecological and evolutionary conditions for fruit abortion to regulate pollinating seed-eaters and increase plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Coevolved mutualisms, such as those between senita cacti, yuccas, and their respective obligate pollinators, benefit both species involved in the interaction. However, in these pollination mutualisms the pollinator's larvae impose a cost on plants through consumption of developing seeds and fruit. The effects of pollinators on benefits and costs are expected to vary with the abundance of pollinators, because large population sizes result in more eggs and larval seed-eaters. Here, we develop the hypothesis that fruit abortion, which is common in yucca, senita, and plants in general, could in some cases have the function of limiting pollinator abundance and, thereby, increasing fruit production. Using a general steady-state model of fruit production and pollinator dynamics, we demonstrate that plants involved in pollinating seed-eater mutualisms can increase their fecundity by randomly aborting fruit. We show that the ecological conditions under which fruit abortion can improve plants fecundity are not unusual. They are best met when the plant is long-lived, the population dynamics of the pollinator are much faster than those of the plant, the loss of one fruit via abortion kills a larva that would have the expectation of destroying more than one fruit through its future egg laying as an adult moth, and the effects of fruit abortion on pollinator abundance are spatially localized. We then use the approach of adaptive dynamics to find conditions under which a fruit abortion strategy based on regulating the pollinator population could feasibly evolve in this type of plant–pollinator interaction.

  14. Skipping breakfast reduces energy intake and physical activity in healthy women who are habitual breakfast eaters: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yonekura, Satomi; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-03-09

    Many epidemiological studies indicate a positive relationship between skipping breakfast (SB) and obesity. However, it is unclear whether SB affects energy intake and physical activity during the day. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of SB on energy intake and physical activity under free-living conditions. The present study used a randomized, crossover trial design comparing eating breakfast (EB) and SB days. Twenty lean, healthy women 21-25years old who were habitual breakfast eaters (≥5daysperweek) took part in this study. On EB days, participants were provided a standard breakfast (542kcal). The meals and physical activity after breakfast were under free-living conditions. The meals consisted of foods available at supermarkets, restaurants, and convenience stores. Dietary intake was evaluated by adding values from food labels. Physical activity was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Energy intake at lunch was significantly increased after SB compared with EB (+131±188kcal; p=0.0057). Total energy intake per day was significantly lower after SB compared with EB (-262±428kcal, p=0.013). Physical activity energy expenditure was slightly lower after SB compared with EB (-41±75kcal in the morning, p=0.024; -56±129kcalperday, p=0.064). Step counts and time spent physically active over the whole day were not significantly different between conditions. Skipping breakfast reduced energy intake during the day and morning physical activity in healthy women who were habitual breakfast eaters. The decreased energy expenditure related to physical activity after SB did not exceed the decreased energy intake.

  15. Inspiration or deflation? Feeling similar or dissimilar to slim and plus-size models affects self-evaluation of restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papies, Esther K; Nicolaije, Kim A H

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined the effect of perceiving images of slim and plus-size models on restrained eaters' self-evaluation. While previous research has found that such images can lead to either inspiration or deflation, we argue that these inconsistencies can be explained by differences in perceived similarity with the presented model. The results of two studies (ns=52 and 99) confirmed this and revealed that restrained eaters with high (low) perceived similarity to the model showed more positive (negative) self-evaluations when they viewed a slim model, compared to a plus-size model. In addition, Study 2 showed that inducing in participants a similarities mindset led to more positive self-evaluations after viewing a slim compared to a plus-size model, but only among restrained eaters with a relatively high BMI. These results are discussed in the context of research on social comparison processes and with regard to interventions for protection against the possible detrimental effects of media images.

  16. Apocalyptic souls: the existential (anti hero metaphor in the Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater, Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Vasconcelos Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, I drew a correlation between Søren Kierkegaard’s (1813-1855 existentialist theory and apocalyptic representations in the Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater, Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes video games (Konami Computer Entertainment Japan, Kojima Productions, 2004, 2010 and 2014. In this successful franchise, the game’s main character, ‘Snake’ personifies ‘the knight of infinite resignation,’ the ‘tragic hero’ in ‘the infinite movement’ towards the achievement of ‘higher causes’. Also, Snake’s mentor ‘The Boss’, who sacrifices herself in order to reconcile the world from its 1960’s Cold War antagonism would represent another Kierkegaard notion called ‘the knight of faith’, who believes in his/her faith (the cause above all things. Such character traits enrich both gameplay and game narrative and the overall experience by introducing philosophical inquiries to the player. The methodology utilized was a free-form semiotic framework with emphasis on the symbolic representations along with Kierkegaard’s existentialism and other philosophical constructs as well.

  17. Image-Based Navigation for the SnowEater Robot Using a Low-Resolution USB Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rivas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a navigation method for the snow-removal robot called SnowEater. The robot is designed to work autonomously within small areas (around 30 m2 or less following line segment paths. The line segment paths are laid out so as much snow as possible can be cleared from an area. Navigation is accomplished by using an onboard low-resolution USB camera and a small marker located in the area to be cleared. Low-resolution cameras allow only limited localization and present significant errors. However, these errors can be overcome by using an efficient navigation algorithm to exploit the merits of these cameras. For stable robust autonomous snow removal using this limited information, the most reliable data are selected and the travel paths are controlled. The navigation paths are a set of radially arranged line segments emanating from a marker placed in the environment area to be cleared, in a place where it is not covered by snow. With this method, by using a low-resolution camera (640 × 480 pixels and a small marker (100 × 100 mm, the robot covered the testing area following line segments. For a reference angle of 4.5° between line paths, the average results are: 4° for motion on hard floor and 4.8° for motion on compacted snow. The main contribution of this study is the design of a path-following control algorithm capable of absorbing the errors generated by a low-cost camera.

  18. Typology of eaters based on conventional and organic food consumption: results from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Touvier, Mathilde; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Limited information is available on large-scale populations regarding the socio-demographic and nutrient profiles and eating behaviour of consumers, taking into account both organic and conventional foods. The aims of this study were to draw up a typology of consumers according to their eating habits, based both on their dietary patterns and the mode of food production, and to outline their socio-demographic, behavioural and nutritional characteristics. Data were collected from 28 245 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary information was obtained using a 264-item, semi-quantitative, organic FFQ. To identify clusters of consumers, principal component analysis was applied on sixteen conventional and sixteen organic food groups followed by a clustering procedure. The following five clusters of consumers were identified: (1) a cluster characterised by low energy intake, low consumption of organic food and high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes; (2) a cluster of big eaters of conventional foods with high intakes of SFA and cholesterol; (3) a cluster with high consumption of organic food and relatively adequate nutritional diet quality; (4) a group with a high percentage of organic food consumers, 14 % of which were either vegetarians or vegans, who exhibited a high nutritional diet quality and a low prevalence of inadequate intakes of most vitamins except B12; and (5) a group of moderate organic food consumers with a particularly high intake of proteins and alcohol and a poor nutritional diet quality. These findings may have implications for future aetiological studies investigating the potential impact of organic food consumption.

  19. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating.

  20. Diethyl [(4-nitrobenzamido(phenylmethyl]phosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wei Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H21N2O6P, the dihedral angle between the benzene and phenyl rings is 85.1 (2°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...O(=P hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with graph-set notation R22(10. One of the ethyl groups is disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancies 0.746 (11 and 0.254 (11.

  1. 1-[Morpholino(phenylmethyl]-2-naphthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Min Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H21NO2, which was synthesized by the one-pot reaction of 2-naphthol, morpholine and benzaldehyde. The dihedral angles between the naphthalene ring systems and the benzene rings are 84.03 (7 and 75.76 (8° in the two molecules and an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond occurs in each independent molecule.

  2. Management-Related Traffic as a Stressor Eliciting Parental Care in a Roadside-Nesting Bird: The European Bee-Eater Merops apiaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Julio; Abaurrea, Teresa; D'Amico, Marcello; Barcellona, Francesca; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto; Carrete, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Traffic is often acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity, but its effects have been mostly studied on roads subjected to high traffic intensity. The impact of lower traffic intensity such as those affecting protected areas is generally neglected, but conservation-oriented activities entailing motorized traffic could paradoxically transform suitable habitats into ecological traps. Here we questioned whether roadside-nesting bee-eaters Merops apiaster perceived low traffic intensity as a stressor eliciting risk-avoidance behaviors (alarm calls and flock flushes) and reducing parental care. Comparisons were established within Doñana National Park (Spain), between birds exposed to either negligible traffic (ca. 0-10 vehicles per day) or low traffic intensity (ca. 10-90 vehicles per day) associated to management and research activities. The frequencies of alarm calls and flock flushes were greater in areas of higher traffic intensity, which resulted in direct mortality at moderate vehicle speeds (≤ 40 km/h). Parental feeding rates paralleled changes in traffic intensity, but contrary to our predictions. Indeed, feeding rates were highest in traffic-exposed nests, during working days and traffic rush-hours. Traffic-avoidance responses were systematic and likely involved costs (energy expenditure and mortality), but vehicle transit positively influenced the reproductive performance of bee-eaters through an increase of nestling feeding rates. Because the expected outcome of traffic on individual performance can be opposed when responses are monitored during mating (i.e. negative effect by increase of alarm calls and flock flushes) or nestling-feeding period (i.e. at least short-term positive effect by increase of nestling feeding rates), caution should be taken before inferring fitness consequences only from isolated behaviors or specific life history stages.

  3. Preproghrelin gene polymorphisms in obese Japanese women. Minor homozygotes are light eaters, do not prefer protein or fat, and apparently have a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Jun; Yamada, Kouichi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Morita, Akemi; Aiba, Naomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2013-04-01

    Preproghrelin gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms are possible predisposing factors to obesity and other metabolic syndromes. To study the correlation between genotypes and obesity, we recruited 117 obese Japanese women (BMI, 25.0-41.1; average, 31.1). Minor homozygotes for five preproghrelin gene polymorphisms, namely, -1500C>G (rs3755777), -1062G>C (rs26311), -994C>T (rs26312) (promoter region), Leu72Met (rs696217) (exon 2), and +3056T>C (rs2075356) (intron 2), had high values of total and visceral fat areas, waist circumference, and BMI, indicating significant correlation of the polymorphisms with obesity and fat metabolism. Here, we studied the relationship between the genotypes and dietary tendency. Self-administered Diet History Questionnaire showed that total food intake, sugar, and dairy product intake were low in +3056C/C women. Their energy, protein, fat, and meat intake was also low. Energy balance calculation showed considerably reduced fat and protein consumption. Dietary habits were surveyed using Sakata's Questionnaire on Eating Behavior. Of the genotypes, -1062C/C women showed low scores for "motivation for eating" and "eating because of stress or something else." Thus, surprisingly, it was revealed that minor homozygotes for preproghrelin gene polymorphisms were light eaters, did not prefer fat or protein, and apparently had a poor appetite, although they were predisposed to obesity.

  4. A brisk walk, compared with being sedentary, reduces attentional bias and chocolate cravings among regular chocolate eaters with different body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2013-12-01

    Poor self-regulation of high energy snacking has been linked to weight gain. Physical activity can acutely reduce chocolate consumption and cravings but the effects on attentional bias (AB) are unknown. The study aimed to test the effects of exercise among normal and overweight/obese individuals during temporary and longer abstinence. Participants were 20 normal and 21 overweight regular female chocolate eaters (after 24 h abstinence), and 17 females (after ≥1 week abstinence during Lent). They were randomly assigned to engage in 15 min brisk walking or rest, on separate days. AB was assessed using an adapted dot probe task pre and post-treatment at each session, with chocolate/neutral paired images presented for 200 ms (initial AB; IAB) or 1000 ms (maintained AB; MAB). Chocolate craving was assessed pre, during, immediately after, and 5 min and 10 min after treatment, using a 0-100 visual analogue score. Three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that there was no significant interaction effect between group (i.e., BMI status, or abstinence status) and condition × time for craving and AB to chocolate cues. Fully repeated 2-way ANOVAS revealed a significant condition × time interaction for IAB (F(1,57)=6.39) and chocolate craving (F(2.34,133.19)=14.44). After exercise IAB (t(57)=2.78, p<0.01) was significantly lower than after the rest condition. Craving was significantly lower than the rest condition at all assessments post-baseline. A short bout of physical activity reduces cravings and AB to chocolate cues, relative to control, irrespective of BMI or abstinence period.

  5. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  6. Validation of a questionnaire on emotional eating for use in cases of obesity: the Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ Validación de un cuestionario de comedores emocionales para uso en casos de obesidad: Cuestionario de Comedor Emocional (CCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garaulet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotions have a powerful effect on our choice of food and eating habits. It has been found that in some people there is relationship between eating, emotions and the increased energy intake. This relationship should be measurable to better understand how food is used to deal with certain mood states and how these emotions affect the effectiveness of weight loss programs. Objective: To develop and analyze the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire on emotional eating for obesity easy to apply in clinical practice. Subjects and methods: A ten-item questionnaire called Emotional-Eater-Questionnaire (EEQ was developed and administered to a total of 354 subjects (body mass index, 31 ± 5, aged 39 ± 12, who were subjected to a weight-reduction program. The questionnaire was specifically designed for obesity. Analysis of the internal structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity with Mindful-Eater-Questionnaire (MEQ were conducted. Results: After principal components analysis, the questionnaire was classified in three different dimensions that explained 60% of the total variance: Disinhibition, Type-of-food and Guilt. Internal consistency showed that Cronbach's alpha was 0.773 for the "Dishinibition" subscale, 0.656 for the "Type of food" subscale and 0.612 for the "Guilt" subscale. The test-retest stability was r = 0.70. The data showed that the percentage of agreement between the EEQ and the MEQ was around 70% with a Kappa index of 0.40; P Introducción: Las emociones tienen un poderoso efecto sobre la elección de alimentos y los hábitos alimentarios. Existe una relación entre comer, emociones y el aumento del aporte calórico. Esta relación debería ser medible para comprender mejor cómo utilizamos los alimentos en determinados estados de ánimo y cómo las emociones afectan a la eficacia de los programas de pérdida de peso. Objetivo: Desarrollar y analizar las características psicom

  7. 7-[(Morpholin-4-yl(phenylmethyl]quinolin-8-ol

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    A. Crochet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H20N2O2, the quinoline ring system makes dihedral angles of 81.05 (4 and 61.16 (5° with the mean planes of the benzene and morpholine rings, respectively; the mean planes of the latter two rings make a dihedral angle of 83.59 (4°. In the crystal, pairs of O—H...N hydrogen bonds link neighbouring molecules related by a twofold rotation axis, generating R22(10 motifs.

  8. 7-Methoxy-1-{[(Z-3-nitrophenylimino](phenylmethyl}-2-naphthol

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    Atsushi Nagasawa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H18N2O4, the phenyl and benzene rings are both oriented almost perpendicular to the naphthalene ring system at dihedral angles of 70.97 (5 and 84.64 (5°. The former rings make a dihedral angle of 87.15 (6°. The molecule has a Z configuration about the C=N bond. In the crystal, molecules are connected by a pair of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the hydroxy and the nitro group, forming centrosymmetric dimers. Intermolecular C—H...O interactions also occur.

  9. Disinhibition or Reinhibition?The Effect of Media Image on Restrained Eaters'Actual Food Intake%抑制解除还是再抑制:媒体形象对限制性饮食者进食的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹新红; 陈红; 杜捷; 陈丽澧; 高笑; 王洋

    2015-01-01

    In the present experiment ,normal‐weight female students (N=66) were divided into successful restraint eaters and unsuccessful restraint eaters and exposed to a 30‐min movie clip featuring beautiful girls .After the end of the movie ,the participants were asked to complete several questionnaires about the manipulation checks and their actual food intake during movie‐watching was examined afterwards .An in‐teraction was found between screen size and restrained eating on actual food intake .Successful restraint eaters tended to eat less in the normal size condition compared to the average model condition ,w hereas un‐successful restraint eaters ate more in the thin model condition compared to the broad size condition .The findings suggested that successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters responded differentially w hen exposed to the thin model on the television .Future experimental studies on restricted eating should employ varied methodological strategies to elucidate the neural bases related to processing body size cues and fully identi‐fy the associated cognitive mechanisms .%主要考察了媒体形象对成功的限制性饮食者和失败的限制性饮食者进食行为的影响。通过控制屏幕比例来操纵媒体中人物的体形,考察了66名女性大学生在瘦体形条件下和正常体形条件下进食量的差异。结果表明,接触媒体中的瘦形象导致失败的限制性饮食者的过量进食行为;相反则导致了成功的限制性饮食者的抑制性进食行为。结果说明媒体形象对成功的限制性饮食者和失败的限制性饮食者饮食行为的影响是有差异的,解释了已有研究之间的不一致。

  10. Group dialectical behavior therapy adapted for obese emotional eaters: a pilot study Terapia dialéctico-compartimental grupal adaptada para el tratamiento "comedores emocionales" obesos: un estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Roosen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED. This study pilots the effectiveness of group DBT for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters receiving 20 group psychotherapy sessions of DBT adapted for emotional eating were assessed at end-of-treatment and 6 month follow-up for reductions in eating psychopathology and weight maintenance. DBT resulted in significant reductions in emotional eating and other markers of eating psychopathology at the end-of-treatment that were maintained at follow-up. The drop-out rate was very low, with only 1 participant dropping from treatment. Thirty-three (94% of the sample provided data at every assessment point. Of these, 80% achieved either weight reduction or weight maintenance after treatment and throughout the follow-up period. The effect size for weight reduction was small. This pilot study demonstrates group DBT targeting emotional eating in the obese to be a highly acceptable and effective intervention for reducing eating related psychopathology at both at end-of-treatment and during follow-up. The ability of DBT to limit the upward trajectory of weight gain in obese patients with high degrees of emotional eating suggests that DBT may also help limit the increase or even prevent onset of obesity related morbidity in these patients.La Terapia Dialéctico-Conductual (TDC es una terapia eficaz para el tratamiento del trastorno por atracón (TA. Este estudio piloto pretende estudiar la eficacia de la TDC grupal para la reducción de psicopatologia alimentaria y el logro el mantenimiento del peso, para obesos "comedores emocionales". Treinta y cinco obesos "comedores emocionales" de ambos sexos fueron evaluados al final del tratamiento y en seguimiento a los seis meses en psicopatología alimentaria y reducción de peso tras recibir 20 sesiones de TDC en

  11. Structure-based design, synthesis, molecular docking, and biological activities of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl propanoic acid derivatives as dual mechanism drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 2-(3-benzoyl phenylpropanohydroxamic acid (2 and 2-{3-[(hydroxyimino(phenylmethyl]phenyl}propanoic acid (3 were synthesized from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen as dual-mechanism drugs. Materials and Methods: Structures of the synthesized compounds were established by IR, 1 H NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Both compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw edema model and in vitro antitumor activity against 60 human tumor cell lines. Flexible ligand docking studies were performed with different matrix metalloproteinases and cyclooxygenases to gain an insight into the structural preferences for their inhibition. Results: Compound (2 proved out to be more potent than ketoprofen in rat paw edema model. Both compounds showed moderate anticancer activity ranging from 1% to 23% inhibition of growth in 38 cell lines of 8 tumor subpanels at 10 μM concentration in a single dose experiment. Hydroxamic acid analogue was found to be more potent than ketoximic analogue in terms of its antitumor activity. Conclusion: Analysis of docking results together with experimental findings provide a good explanation for the biological activities associated with synthesized compounds which may be fruitful in designing dual-target-directed drugs that may inhibit cyclooxygenases and MMPs for the treatment of cancer.

  12. 北塘凹陷新近系馆陶组的CO2-EATER实验研究%CO2-EATER Model on Guantao Formation of Beitang Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李义曼; 庞忠和; 杨峰田

    2013-01-01

    地热尾水回灌率低是目前中国沉积盆地砂岩储层中-低温地热资源可持续开发利用的瓶颈.基于利用CO2提高地热回灌率,即CO2-EATER(CO2-Enhanced Aquifer Thermal Energy Recovery)概念模式,以黄骅坳陷中部北塘凹陷新近系馆陶组砂岩热储层为例,利用高温高压反应釜实验模拟了反应时间为10d,温度为100℃,压力为10M Pa人工注入CO2条件下,水-岩-CO2相互作用及其对储层水化学组分及矿物组分的改变和对孔隙度及渗透率可能的影响.结果表明,CO2注入后,储层水的pH值从7.7下降到6.3,储层水的HCO3-、Ca、Mg、Na和K等组分显著增加.这是由于CO2溶解于水,形成了酸性环境,储层中长石类矿物和方解石发生溶解而释放出金属阳离子.地层水的δ18OH2O和δ2H H2O分别发生了3.5‰.和3‰.的负漂移,表明人工CO2的注入促进了水-岩反应.X衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)分析结果也证实了长石类矿物的溶解,这对改善储层具有一定意义,也说明CO2-EATER模式可能适合于北塘凹陷新近系馆陶组.

  13. Similarities between Restrained Eaters and Bulimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Audrey J.

    Little is known about the etiology of bulimia. However Polivy and Herman have hypothesized that dieting causes bulimia and that differences between dieters and bulimics are quantitative rather than qualitative. The purpose of this study was to examine these hypotheses and further examine the parallels between bulimics and dieters. Female college…

  14. Non-clinical adolescent girls at risk of eating disorder: under-reporters or restrained eaters? Mujeres adolescentes en riesgo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria, no clínicas: ¿infra-declaran o restringen el consumo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Babio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the plausibility of self-reported energy intake, Goldberg et al proposed a technique to identify the miss-reporters. Subjects: After screening2,967 adolescents by EAT-40 test, 132 at risk of ED and 151 as a control group were studied. Aim: To determine whether subjects at risk of eating disorders that are identified as under reporters can be considered as UR or in turn as restrained eaters. Methods: We determined dietary energy intake, body mass index, body satisfaction, physical activity, psychopathology, dietary restraint factor, weight loss and diagnoses of eating disorders. We applied Goldberg's equations to identify under reporters. Results: 40.9% of girls at risk of eating disorders were identified as under reporters and only 7.3% were in the control group. A total of 64.4% of the Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified were under reporters. The body mass index of under reporters was significantly higher than in the other of subjects regardless of whether they were at risk of eating disorders. Girls at risk of eating disorders and under reporter had significantly lower body satisfaction than other groups. Multiple logistic regressions in all subjects showed that the risk of being UR was associated with an increase in the body mass index, increase in dietary restraint scores and weight loss; whereas, that only the body mass index was associated with the control group. Conclusion: The prevalence of under reporter increases with the severity of the eating disorders several adolescent girls at risk of eating disorder and identified by Goldberg cut-off technique as under reporter may to be restricting their intake and therefore they would not be under reporter.Antecedentes: Para vaidar la ingesta valorada a través de encuestas alimentarias, Goldberg y cols., propusieron ecuaciones para detectar a sujetos que informan mal de su consumo alimentario. Sujetos: Después de realizar un cribado entre 2.967 escolares

  15. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acids . Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. "Nonessential" means that our ... this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps ...

  16. Bats: bird-eaters of feather-eaters? A contribution to debate on great noctule carnivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Chirotteri ornitofagi o mangiatori di penne? Un contributo al dibattito sulla carnivoria della nottola gigante In un recente dibattito sulla carnivoria nella nottola gigante Nyctalus lasiopterus (Schreber, 1780 sono stati sollevati alcuni dubbi sulla possibilità di cattura di piccoli passeriformi. Alcuni autori ipotizzano che la nottola gigante sia condannata, dalla bassa risoluzione del suo impulso ultrasonoro, a catturare erroneamente penne fluttuanti nell'aria. Il presente contributo vuole evidenziare come la specie risulti predare effettivamente piccoli uccelli sebbene occorra approfondire molti degli aspetti legati alla sua ecologia trofica e predatoria.

  17. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of brain targeting L-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Wu; Xiao-Cen Li; Jie Mi; Jing You; Li Hai

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA,vitamin C) exhibits a high concentration in the brain.The transportation of AA in brain is mainly mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2.While L-ascorbic acid C6-O conjugation has been investigated as a tool to enhance brain drug delivery,C5-O conjugation and C5-O & C6-O conjugation as brain targeting tools have not been reported.In this letter,ibuprofen was linked directly to C5-O,C6-O and C5-O & C6-O positions of L-ascorbic acid with eater bonds,providing prodrug 1,2 and 3,respectively,to improve their targeting abilities in the brain.Prodrug 1,2 and 3 were synthesized in facile ways with good yields.And the preliminary evaluation in vivo illustrated that prodrug 2 had a better targeting ability than prodrug 1.Moreover,prodrug 3,whose C5-O & C6-O positions were both modified,had good targeting ability for brain which will provide an important evidence for our further study on C5-O-& C6-O-di-derivatives of L-ascorbic acid.

  18. 7-Methoxy-1-{[(Z-2-nitrophenylimino](phenylmethyl}-2-naphthol chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yonezawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H18N2O4·CHCl3, the phenyl and benzene rings make a dihedral angle of 38.60 (9° and connect in an orientation almost perpendicular to the naphthalene ring system at dihedral angles of 78.73 (8 and 81.20 (7°. The molecule has a Z configuration about the C=N bond. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...N=C hydrogen bonds between the imino moiety and hydroxy groups. Intermolecular C—Cl...C interactions between Cl atoms of the CHCl3 molecule and C atoms of the naphthalene rings are also present [Cl...C = 3.353 (2 and 3.326 (19 Å]. The nitro group and the chloroform solvent molecule are disordered over two positions with site occupancies of 0.884 (4 and 0.116 (4.

  19. Involvement of nitric oxide in the signal transduction of salicylic acid regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effects and the relationship between salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) on Vicia faba L. stomatal movement were studied. The results here showed that exogenous SA and NO induced stomatal closure, 100 μmol/L SA induced a rapid and striking NO increase in the cytosol of guard cells. This phenomenon was largely pre-vented by 200 μmol/L 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimida-zoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), a specific NO scavenger, and 25 μmol/L NG-nitro-L-Arg-methyl eater (L-NAME), an in-hibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells that also inhibits plant NOS. In addition, SA-induced stomatal closure was largely prevented by PTIO and L-NAME. These results provide evidence that guard cells generate NO in response to SA via NOS-like activity, and that such NO production is required for full stomatal closure in response to SA. H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, and nicotinamide, an antago-nist of cADPR production, inhibited the effects of SA- and NO-induced stomatal closure. It suggests that both cGMP and cADPR might mediate the signal transduction of SA and NO-induced stomatal closure.

  20. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking folic acid by itself, or with L-carnitine a compound similar to an amino acid from ... levels. It is not clear if folic acid supplementation reduces hearing loss in people with normal folate ...

  1. Picky Eaters: Relating Parental Perceptions in Fruit and Vegetables Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, Harriet S.; Cohen, Sherry; Kempner, Carol; Worobey, John

    Although consuming five servings each day of fruits and vegetables has been designed as a national nutritional goal, there have been few studies of fruit and vegetable intake among 3- to 5-year-olds, even though this age group may benefit from nutrition intervention and education. This study examined the views of 55 Head Start families and 75…

  2. GHz bandwidth noise eater hybrid optical amplifier: design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Gwennaël; Bondu, François; Loas, Goulc'hen; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-07-15

    This Letter describes the design of an optical amplifier system optimized to reduce the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the input signal, and discloses its performance in terms of intensity noise reduction and bandwidth, without phase noise degradation. This polarization-maintaining amplifier is composed of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) cascaded with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The EDFA is sized to feed the SOA with a constant power corresponding to the optimal saturation level for noise reduction, through coherent population oscillations. When properly optimized, such an amplifier provides, simultaneously, 17 dB optical gain, 5.4 dB noise factor, and 20 dB reduction of the input-RIN across a 3 GHz bandwidth, without any electronics feedback loop.

  3. Rock-eating fungi: Ectomycorrhizal fungi are picky eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas; Smits, Mark; Berner, Christoffer; Kram, Pavel; Wallander, Hakan

    2014-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which form mutualistic symbiosis with the roots of most temperate and boreal forest trees, play a key role in the provision of nitrogen and phosphorus to their plant symbionts; they have also been shown to provide potassium and magnesium. Ectomycorhizal hyphae colonize and take up mineral nutrients (including P, K, and Mg) from primary mineral surfaces in the soil. It is poorly understood whether mineral colonization and uptake of nutrients from minerals can increase in accordance with host plant demand for these nutrients, and this question has been difficult to address in field settings. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities are diverse and niche separation according to nutrient uptake and transport to the host is commonly considered one of the major factors maintaining diversity and shaping ectomycorrhizal community composition.We investigated ectomycorrhizal growth, community composition, and mineral colonization in a series of connected Norway spruce forests in the Czech republic. These forests have similar aspect, climate and stand history, but are underlain by different parent materials and are, as a result, limited by different nutrients. The productivity of forests overlying a high amount of serpentinite rock are co-limited by K and P, those growing on primarily granitic rock are limited by Mg, while those on amphibolite are N limited. We assessed the fungal community in both soil and in-growth mesh bags measuring biomarkers, using in-growth assays and performing community analysis with 454 sequencing of the ITS region. In-growth mesh bags were filled with quartz sand and incubated for two growing seasons in the soil. These mesh bags select for ectomycorrhizal hyphae and were either pure quartz sand or amended with ground apatite (Ca and P source), hornblende (Mg source) or biotite (K source). Ectomycorrhizal growth and community composition were most strongly affected by parent material. The phosphorus-limited site had the lowest tree growth but the highest ectomycorrhizal growth. Apatite amendment (a phosphorus source) increased fungal in-growth in the serpentinite sites, but had no effect on the other (not P-limited) sites, while hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal in-growth on any sites. Mineral amendments in the mesh bags had a small but significant effect on fungal community composition; this effect was strongest in apatite-amended bags and on serpentinite sites. Fungal species-specific responses to different mineral amendments were also observed. These results indicate that the parent material from which a soil is formed has a major effect on the soil fungal community, and that ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to the phosphorus limitation of their host trees by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals. In contrast, this response to nutrient limitation does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation.

  4. Top Ten Tips for Dealing with a Picky Eater

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue ...

  5. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  6. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

  7. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  8. Nitric oxide involved in signal transduction of Jasmonic acid-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SHI Wuliang; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Jasmonic acid (JA) are two key signaling molecules involved in many and diverse biological pathways in plants. Growing evidence suggested that NO signaling interacts with JA signaling. In this work, Our experiment showed that NO exists in guard cell of Vicia faba L., and NO is involved in signal transduction of JA- induced stomata closuring: (ⅰ) JA enhances NO synthesis in guard cell; (ⅱ) both JA and NO induced stomatal closure, and had dose response to their effects; (ⅲ) there are synergetic correlation between JA and lower NO concentration in regulation of stomatal movement; (ⅳ) JA-induced stomatal closure was largely prevented by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetrame- thylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), a specific NO scavenger. An inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells, NG-nitro-L-Arg-methyl eater (L-NAME) also inhibits plant NOS, repressing JA-induced NO generation and JA-induced stomatal closure. We presumed that NO mainly comes from NOS after JA treatment.

  9. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  10. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  11. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  12. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage. 10 Do I need folic acid after menopause? Yes. Women who have gone through menopause still need 400 micrograms of folic acid every ... United States: 2003–2006 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 91(1): 231–237. Hamner, H.C., Cogswell, ...

  13. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of the inactive ingredients in mefenamic acid capsules. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the inactive ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  14. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  15. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  16. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  17. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  19. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  20. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  1. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  2. Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H; Velazquez, Hector A; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2007-02-14

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or ΔGacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  3. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  4. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  5. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  6. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  8. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  9. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  10. Folic Acid Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... folic acid 9. A woman should be taking folic acid if she: A is planning a pregnancy B is capable of becoming pregnant, even if ... Answer: D CORRECT: A woman should be taking folic acid if she is planning a pregnancy, is capable of becoming pregnant (even if she ...

  11. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  12. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  13. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  14. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  15. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  16. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Barnathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32 and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19. Finally, the D5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs. This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between D5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

  17. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  18. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-07

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  19. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  20. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  1. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  2. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  3. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  4. Exposure to slim images in mass media: television commercials as reminders of restriction in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; van Strien, T.; Engels, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products in commercials on actual food intake in relation to dietary restraint. Design: An experimental design was used, in which food intake was measured in 124 female students who watched

  5. The 'picky eater': The toddler or preschooler who does not eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Marchand, Valérie; Sauve, Reginald S

    2012-10-01

    The majority of children between one and five years of age who are brought in by their parents for refusing to eat are healthy and have an appetite that is appropriate for their age and growth rate. Unrealistic parental expectations may result in unnecessary concern, and inappropriate threats or punishments may aggravate a child's refusal to eat. A detailed history and general physical examination are necessary to rule out acute and chronic illnesses. A food diary and assessment of parental expectations about eating behaviour should be completed. Where the child's 'refusal' to eat is found to be related to unrealistic expectations, parents should be reassured and counselled about the normal growth and development of children at this age.

  6. An Advanced Smoke-Eater for Post-fire Cabin Atmosphere Cleanup Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a post-fire air purification system that consists of a particulate removal assembly, a sorbent bed to remove the...

  7. Are restrained eaters accurate monitors of their intoxication? Results from a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Laura J; Crowther, Janis H; Olds, R Scott; Smith, Kathryn E; Ridolfi, Danielle R

    2013-04-01

    Brief interventions encourage college students to eat more before drinking to prevent harm (Dimeff et al., 1999), although many women decrease their caloric intake (Giles et al., 2009) and the number of eating episodes (Luce et al., 2012) prior to drinking alcohol. Participants were 37 undergraduate women (24.3% Caucasian) who were recruited from a local bar district in the Midwest. This study examined whether changes in eating after intending to drink interacted with dietary restraint to predict accuracy of one's intoxication. Results indicated that changes in eating significantly moderated the relationship between dietary restraint and accuracy of one's intoxication level. After eating more food before intending to drink, women higher in restraint were more likely to overestimate their intoxication than women lower in restraint. There were no differences between women with high levels and low levels of dietary restraint in the accuracy of their intoxication after eating less food before intending to drink. Future research would benefit from examining interoceptive awareness as a possible mechanism involved in this relationship.

  8. Denk je zèlf! Developing a personalised virtual coach for emotional eaters using personas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, A.; Kulyk, O.; Velthuijsen, H.; Gemert-Pijnen, L. van; Strien, T. van

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a fast growing societal threat, causing chronic conditions, physical and psychological health problems, as well as absenteeism and large healthcare costs. Despite numerous attempts to promote physical activity and healthy diet, existing interventions do not focus on often occurring emotio

  9. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  10. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  15. Carbolic acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to. If the person swallowed the carbolic acid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells ... well someone does depends on how much carbolic acid they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better ...

  16. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  17. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We determined the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in a cross-over study with 4 female and 3 male healthy ileo...

  20. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  1. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  2. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  3. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  4. 4-{3-[Hydroxy(phenylmethyl]-5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl}benzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H14N4O3S2, the hydroxy group is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.619 (5 and 0.381 (5. The benzene ring attached to the heterocycle makes a dihedral angle of 86.92 (9° with respect to the best plane through the five-membered ring. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O, N—H...S, N—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds, and N—H...π and C—H...π interactions.

  5. 7,7-[Ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy]-2-[hydroxy(phenylmethyl]bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H22O4, the cyclohexane and cyclohexanone rings adopt normal chair and half-chair conformations, respectively. The dioxolane ring is almost planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.094 (3 Å. In the crystal, molecules are connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming 21 helical chains along the a-axis direction. The chains are further connected by C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  7. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  8. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  9. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  10. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  11. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  12. Folic acid - test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who are ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider how ...

  13. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  14. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? The March of Dimes recommends that all babies ... in behavior Diarrhea, nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and throwing up Drowsiness Fever Fussiness Little appetite ...

  15. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  16. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  17. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  18. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  19. Performance Comparison of New Combinations of Acids with Mud Acid in Sandstone Acidizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Umer Shafiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find the best suitable acid to acidize undamaged low permeable sandstone formation Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50 to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid- Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF-12% HCl. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results analyzed are porosity, permeability, strength, color change and FESEM Analysis. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  20. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  1. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  2. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  3. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  4. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  5. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  6. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  7. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  8. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  9. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

  10. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  11. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  12. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  13. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  14. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  15. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  16. Phenylpyruvic acid in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemans, O.; Vergeer, E.G.

    1960-01-01

    The method of The, Fleury And Vink for the determination of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) in urine is modified by measuring the extinction after the green colour with ferric chloride has faded, and subtracting this extinction from that found initially. More accurate values are obtained and low PPA values

  17. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  18. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  19. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  20. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  1. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  2. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  3. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  4. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  5. Potentiometric determination of peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Malchik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Was proposed two potentiometric methods for determining peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis of sulfuric acid (potentiometric titration method and direct potentiometry, based on its interaction with a known excess of a solution Fe2+.

  6. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  7. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  8. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  9. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  10. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  11. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  12. Autohydrolysis of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, S R; Gray, J S; Montgomery, R

    1999-09-10

    The autohydrolysis of phytic acid at 120 degrees C resulted in the formation of most of the phosphate esters of myo-inositol in varying amounts depending upon the reaction time. Eighteen of the 39 chromatographically distinct myo-inositol mono-, bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphates have been characterized using two different HPLC systems. These myo-inositol phosphates were partially purified by preparative anion-exchange chromatography under acidic and alkaline elution conditions. The combination of these two methods provides a two-tiered chromatographic approach to the rapid and sensitive identification of inositol phosphates in complex mixtures. Identification of the products was confirmed by 1D and 2D (1)H NMR analysis. The analytical procedure was applied to the autohydrolysis of the mixture of inositol phosphates from corn steep water.

  13. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  14. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  15. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  16. Phenolic acids bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The daily intake of phenolic compounds does not necessarily reflect the dose at which they reach the physiological targets in the organisms. The biological activity of phenolic compounds metabolites found in blood, organs and target tissues, as a result of digestive and hepatic activity, may differ from those of the native forms of the substances. This review discusses the absorption and metabolism of phenolic acids, a class of phenolic compounds abundant in food, and the methodologies used f...

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  18. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  19. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  20. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bilska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2 of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  1. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  2. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent birth defects, or take vitamins containing folic acid before pregnancy. [ Read article ] Use of Supplements Containing Folic Acid ... Report has published a new study looking at folic acid use before pregnancy in women who have had a previous pregnancy ...

  3. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  4. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  5. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid fr

  6. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  7. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  8. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  9. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  10. Acidic aerosol in urban air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Miyazaki, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and chemical composition of acidic aerosol in Osaka City were investigated. Samples were collected at five sites in the city from June to September, 1979. Acidic aerosol was determined by the acid-base titration method, sulfate ion by barium chloride turbidimetry, nitrate ion by the xylenol method, and chloride ion by the mercury thiocyanate method. The concentration of acidic aerosol at five sites ranged from 7.7 micrograms per cubic meter to 10.0 micrograms per cubic meter, but mean concentrations in the residential area were slightly higher than those in the industrial area. When acidic aerosol concentrations were compared with concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride ions, a significant correlation was found between acidic aerosol and sulfate ion. The sum of the ion equivalents of the three types showed good correlation with the acidic aerosol equivalent during the whole period.

  11. Amino Acid Catabolism in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Nunes Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-02

    Amino acids have various prominent functions in plants. Besides their usage during protein biosynthesis, they also represent building blocks for several other biosynthesis pathways and play pivotal roles during signaling processes as well as in plant stress response. In general, pool sizes of the 20 amino acids differ strongly and change dynamically depending on the developmental and physiological state of the plant cell. Besides amino acid biosynthesis, which has already been investigated in great detail, the catabolism of amino acids is of central importance for adjusting their pool sizes but so far has drawn much less attention. The degradation of amino acids can also contribute substantially to the energy state of plant cells under certain physiological conditions, e.g. carbon starvation. In this review, we discuss the biological role of amino acid catabolism and summarize current knowledge on amino acid degradation pathways and their regulation in the context of plant cell physiology.

  12. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  13. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  14. Kinetics of wet oxidation of formic acid and acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shende, R.V.; Mahajani, V.V. [Univ. of Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1997-11-01

    Oxidation of lower molecular weight carboxylic acids such as formic, acetic, glyoxalic, and oxalic acids is often the rate-controlling step during wet oxidation (WO) of an aqueous waste stream exhibiting very high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The kinetics of WO of formic acid was studied in the absence and presence of a cupric sulfate as catalyst in the temperature range 150--240 C and oxygen partial pressure range 0.345--1.380 MPa. Wet oxidation of acetic acid was carried out in the presence of cupric sulfate in the temperature range 215--235 C. Homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a very good catalyst for oxidation of formic acid and acetic acid.

  15. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  16. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  17. Japodic Acid, A Novel Aliphatic Acid from Jatropha podagrica Hook

    OpenAIRE

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Gloer, James B.

    2008-01-01

    A new aliphatic acid named japodic acid (1) with a gem-dimethyl cyclopropane ring has been isolated from the roots of Jatropha podagrica. Its structure was established by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. Two other known compounds, erythrinasinate (2) and fraxidin (3) were also isolated from this plant for the first time. Japodic acid showed mild insect growth inhibition activity against Helicoverpa zea (37% growth reduction at 100 ppm). Fraxidin and erythrinasinate exhibited antibac...

  18. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  19. Rotational study of the bimolecule acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther

    2017-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of the acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid bimolecule was measured by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. One conformer, in which fluoroacetic acid is in trans form, has been observed. The rotational transitions are split into two component lines, due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of acetic acid. From these splittings, the corresponding V3 barrier has been determined. The dissociation energy of this complex has been estimated to 66 kJ/mol. An increase of the distance between the two monomers upon the OH → OD substitution (Ubbelohde effect) has been observed.

  20. Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

  1. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn hydrolysis to salicylic acid. With the method for free acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, recovery was 95-98␏or acetylsalicylic acid added to foods and 92-102␏or salicylic acid. Recovery of a...

  2. Molecular Simulation of Naphthenic Acid Removal on Acidic Catalyst Ⅱ. Experimental results of catalytic decarboxylation over acidic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqin; Tian Songbai; Hou Shuandi; Longjun; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    The energy barriers of thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids and catalytic decarboxylation reactions of Br(o)nsted acid and Lewis acid were analyzed using molecular simulation technology.Compared with thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids, the decarboxylation reactions by acid catalysts were easier to occur. The decarboxylaton effect by Lewis acid was better than Br(o)nsted acid. The mechanisms of catalytic decarboxylation over acid catalyst were also verified by experiments on a fixed bed and a fluidized bed, the experimental results showed that the rate of acid removal could reach up to 97% over the acidic catalyst at a temperature above 400℃.

  3. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones......,4-lactone, respectively. A 2,3-aziridino-2,3-dideoxypentonamide 70 was also prepared from D-glucono-1,5-lactone. The lactones were converted into methyl 3,4-O-isopropylidene-2-O-sulfonyl esters 42, 50, 62 and 68, which upon treatment with concentrated aqueous ammonia yielded the aziridino compounds...

  4. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  5. Enzymatic tRNA acylation by acid and alpha-hydroxy acid analogues of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Alina; Safro, Mark; Wolfson, Alexey D

    2008-01-08

    Incorporation of unnatural amino acids with unique chemical functionalities has proven to be a valuable tool for expansion of the functional repertoire and properties of proteins as well as for structure-function analysis. Incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acids (primary amino group is substituted with hydroxyl) leads to the synthesis of proteins with peptide bonds being substituted by ester bonds. Practical application of this modification is limited by the necessity to prepare corresponding acylated tRNA by chemical synthesis. We investigated the possibility of enzymatic incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues (lacking amino group) of amino acids into tRNA using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). We studied direct acylation of tRNAs by alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues of amino acids and corresponding chemically synthesized analogues of aminoacyl-adenylates. Using adenylate analogues we were able to enzymatically acylate tRNA with amino acid analogues which were otherwise completely inactive in direct aminoacylation reaction, thus bypassing the natural mechanisms ensuring the selectivity of tRNA aminoacylation. Our results are the first demonstration that the use of synthetic aminoacyl-adenylates as substrates in tRNA aminoacylation reaction may provide a way for incorporation of unnatural amino acids into tRNA, and consequently into proteins.

  6. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-11-07

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  7. Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Chyba, Christopher F.

    2000-05-01

    Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D/L) molecules. We calculate D/L ratios for seven biological, α-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization by the time they are recovered on Earth. If the mechanism of amino acid formation imposes some enantiomeric preference on the amino acids, a chiral signature can be retained through the entire history of the meteorite. Original enantiomeric excesses in meteorites such as Murchison, which have undergone apparently short and cool alteration scenarios, should have persisted to the present time. Of the seven amino acids for which relevant data are available, we expect glutamic acid, isoleucine, and valine, respectively, to be the most likely to retain an initial enantiomeric excess, and phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and alanine the least. Were the D/L ratio initially identical in each amino acid, final D/L ratios could be used to constrain the initial ratio and the thermal history experienced by the whole suite.

  8. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  9. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  10. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  11. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  13. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  14. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  15. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  16. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  17. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  18. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scalabrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  19. Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid and its derivatives : Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marek J.

    1981-11-01

    Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid, O-deutero-salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid crystals have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Interpretation of these spectra was based on the Witkowski-Maréchal model. Semi-quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be achieved with the simplest form of this model, with values of interaction parameters transferable for equivalent intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  20. Production of succinic Acid from citric Acid and related acids by lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneuchi, C; Seki, M; Komagata, K

    1988-12-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, alpha-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli.

  1. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  2. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  3. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  4. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do ... Pantothenas, Calcium D-Pantothenate, Calcium Pantothenate, Complexe de Vitamines B, D-Calcium Pantothenate, D-Panthenol, D-Panthénol, ...

  5. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  6. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  7. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  8. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  9. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound.

  10. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid.

  11. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  12. A Convenient Approach to the Enantiopure (1S, 2S, 4S, 5S )- and( 1R, 2S, 4R, 5 S )-2,5-Bis ( phenylmethyl)-l, 4-diazabicyclo[ 2.2.2 ] -octane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱丽华; 沈宗旋; 陈五红; 张勇; 张雅文

    2003-01-01

    Cyclodipepflde (3S, 6S )-bis (phenylmethyl) piperazlne-2,5-dione was prelmred in high yield by heating phenylalanine methyl ester in toluene under reflux. The reduction of this cydodipeptide with sodium NaBH4-BF3 in DIME gave the (2S ,SS)-bis(phenyl-methyl)plperazine, which, on heating with ethylene bromide and triethyiamine, afforded the title compounds. This methodwas proved to be generally applicable to the synthesis of C2-symmetric 2, 5-disubsiituted=l, 4-diazabicyclo [ 2.2.2 ] octanefrom the corresponding natural or unnatural amino acid esters.

  13. The Property and Application of Arachidonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相勤; 姚建铭; 袁成凌; 王纪; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). This paper mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic healthcare function and application of AA.

  14. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  15. Terahertz spectrum of gallic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Zhao, Guozhong; Wang, Haiyan; Liang, Chengshen

    2009-11-01

    Gallic acid is natural polyphenol compound found in many green plants. More and more experiments have demonstrated that the gallic acid has comprehensive applications. In the field of medicine, the gallic acid plays an important role in antianaphylaxis, antineoplastic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, antivirotic, antiasthmatic and inhibiting the degradation of insulin. It also has a lot of applications in chemical industry, food industry and light industry. So it is important to study the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of gallic acid. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new coherent spectral technology based on the femtosecond laser. In this work, the spectral characteristics of gallic acid in the range of 0.4 THz to 2.6 THz have been measured by THz-TDS. We obtained its absorption and refraction spectra at room temperature. The vibration absorption spectrum of the single molecule between 0.4 THz and 2.6 THz is simulated based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is found that the gallic acid has the spectral response to THz wave in this frequency range. The results show the abnormal dispersion at 1.51 THz and 2.05 THz. These results can be used in the qualitative analysis of gallic acid and the medicine and food inspection.

  16. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  17. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.

  18. ELECTRODIALYTIC PRODUCTION OF HYPOPHOSPHOROUS ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jianzhong; ZHANG Yingzhe; ZHANG Baogui; ZHANG Zhengpu

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of preparing hypophosphorous acid comprising contacting an insoluble anode with an aqueous solution of hypophosphite anions and applying a direct current through the insoluble anode to a cathode in electrical contact with the aqueous solution to generate H+ ions in the aqueous solution thereby forming a hypophosphorous acid solution. The process is simple,low cost and high efficient, which can be tied into an existing process for producing sodium hypophosphite wherein the product of sodium hypophosphite process is used as a starting material in the hypophosphorous acid process.

  19. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  20. 栗喉蜂虎捕食差异%Individual Differences in Blue-tailed Bee-eaters Foraging Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程闯; 韩联宪; 岩道

    2012-01-01

    2010年4~5月和2011年4~6月,用焦点动物取样法对云南省保山市潞江镇怒江河谷栗喉蜂虎捕食差异进行了观察.对栗喉蜂虎雌性成年鸟、雄性成年鸟、青年鸟捕食种类、数量、成功率、食物组成、食物资源量、处理食物成功率及处理时间进行了统计.结果表明,栗喉蜂虎捕食种类包括7类昆虫,以膜翅目Hymenoptera、蜻蜓目Odonate、鳞翅目Lepidoptera昆虫为主;成年雄鸟捕食频次高于成年雌鸟和青年鸟;成年鸟与青年鸟处理食物成功率无显著差异,但二者捕食成功率和处理食物时间差异显著.

  1. Make up your mind about food : A healthy mindset attenuates attention for high-calorie food in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus

  2. Self-Control, Diet Concerns and Eater Prototypes Influence Fatty Foods Consumption of Adolescents in Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Joanne H.; O'Hara, Ross E.; Piko, Bettina F.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Keresztes, Noemi; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; de Wit, John B. F.

    2010-01-01

    As adolescent overweight has become a widespread problem in the developed world, it is timely to understand commonalities underlying dietary practices across countries. This study examines whether consumption of fruits and vegetables and fatty foods among adolescents in different countries is related to the same individual difference and social…

  3. Baetid mayflies are very messy eaters: evidence from field experiments in a tropical stream, Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsulovic, F.; Moulton, T.

    2005-05-01

    Mayflies may play an important role in periphyton dynamics. In previous field exclusion experiments, we had found that baetid mayflies (Americabaetis sp. and Cloeodes sp.) had a strong negative impact on periphyton. In this study we quantified the contributions of mayfly consumptive and non-consumptive effects on periphyton in the absence of shrimp. We carried out five field experiments: an egestion rate experiment to quantify periphyton consumed by mayflies and four shrimp exclusion experiments using electricity to exclude shrimps from natural substrate to estimate total removal of periphyton by mayflies. By comparing total removal with estimated ingestion, we estimated non-consumptive loss. We starved mayflies for 0, 3 and 6 h and assumed that periphyton egested would be replaced by ingestion at the same time. We found that, after 3h, 52.8% of the initial amount of periphyton in the mayfly alimentary canal was lost due to egestion, and 77.9% after 6h. During shrimp absence mayflies accumulated over control level and significantly reduced periphyton. Estimated ingestion was 2 to 23% of the periphyton depletion, thus mayfly non-consumptive periphyton removal contributed 98 to 77% of all periphyton lost inside electrified areas. Our results suggest that mayfly have strong negative non-consumptive effects on periphyton.

  4. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  5. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  7. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article: Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects:... Article: Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects:... Article: Folic Acid Supplementation for Prevention of ...

  8. Low acid producing solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  9. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  10. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  11. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  12. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  13. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  14. Anthranilic acid derivatives from Inula japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jiang Qin; Hui Zi Jin; Jian Jun Fu; Xiao Jia Hu; Yan Zhu; Yun Heng Shen; Shi Kai Yan; Wei Dong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Three new anthranilic acid derivatives, N-heneicosanoylanthranilic acid (1b), N-tricosanoylanthranilic acid (1d), N-tetra-cosanoylanthranilic acid (1e), and two known N-arachidylanthranilic acid (1a) and N-docosanoylanthranilic acid (1c) were isolatedfrom the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods.2008 Hui Zi Jin. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids....

  16. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  17. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  18. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing...... strategies and of new principles for regulating the activity of the inhibitory action of aptamers of general interest to researchers working with nucleic acid aptamers...

  19. Cyanuric acid-epichlorohydrin prepolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, L. M.; Simões, P; Portugal, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the reaction of cyanuric acid and epichlorohydrin (ECH). SnCl4 was used as a catalyst. Several reaction conditions were tested, and the products were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared and 1H-NMR spectroscopy, hydroxyl group content, molar mass, elemental and thermal analysis, viscosity, and density. ECH reacted with the amine groups of the cyanuric acid ring to form lateral chains that contained chloroalkyl and hydroxyl end groups. Full substitutio...

  20. Biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Winkler, Margit

    2014-06-01

    An increasing demand for non-petroleum-based products is envisaged in the near future. Carboxylic acids such as citric acid, succinic acid, fatty acids, and many others are available in abundance from renewable resources and they could serve as economic precursors for bio-based products such as polymers, aldehyde building blocks, and alcohols. However, we are confronted with the problem that carboxylic acid reduction requires a high level of energy for activation due to the carboxylate's thermodynamic stability. Catalytic processes are scarce and often their chemoselectivity is insufficient. This review points at bio-alternatives: currently known enzyme classes and organisms that catalyze the reduction of carboxylic acids are summarized. Two totally distinct biocatalyst lines have evolved to catalyze the same reaction: aldehyde oxidoreductases from anaerobic bacteria and archea, and carboxylate reductases from aerobic sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. The majority of these enzymes remain to be identified and isolated from their natural background in order to evaluate their potential as industrial biocatalysts.

  1. SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  2. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  3. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  4. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids. [Hydroxy acids: acetylsalicylic, gallic, lactic, salicyclic, orotic,. gamma. -hydroxybutyric acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen' eva, T.I. (Gor' kovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-03-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, ..gamma..-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp/sub 2/, VOCOR or CpV (OCOR)/sub 2/ type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented.

  5. An Efficient Procedure for Esterification of Aryloxyacetic Acid and Arylthioacetic Acid Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Hong-Ya; LI,Ji-Tai; LI,Hui-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Aryloxyacetate and arylthioacetate are wildly used in herbicides, plant regulator and insecticides. Recently, Wille et al. have reported that methyl aryloxyacetate is an efficient agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.[1] The most popular synthesis is by heating sodium phenoxide (mercaptide) with ethyl chloroacetate in DMF,[2] or by the esterification of acid with alcohol using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst.[3] In this paper, synthesis of aryloxyacetate and aryl thioacetate from aryloxyacetic acid and arylthioacetic acid respectively in ether catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid in 83%~94% yields is described. The catalyst is reused for 3 times without significant loss of activity (Entry 4). Compared with common procedures, the present procedure possesses the advantages of the operational simplicity, short reaction time,less-corrosion, high yield and reusable catalyst.

  6. Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

    2009-01-28

    The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine.

  7. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  8. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  9. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  10. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-06-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  11. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...... boronate internucleosidic linkages. The DNA- or RNA-templated system comprises a 5′-ended boronic acid probe connecting a 3′-ended ribonucleosidic oligonucleotide partner. To explore the dominant factors that control the reversible linkage, we synthesized a series of 3′-end modified ribonucleotidic strands...

  12. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1097 - Tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1097 Tannic acid. (a) Tannic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1401-55-4), or hydrolyzable gallotannin, is a complex polyphenolic organic structure that yields gallic acid and either glucose or quinic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tannic acid. 184.1097 Section 184.1097 Food...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may...

  15. Microbial production of amino acids in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H

    2000-01-01

    The microbial biotechnology of amino acids production which was developed and industrialized in Japan have been summarized. The amino acids include L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-p-hydroxyphenyl-glycine, and hydroxy-L-proline.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  17. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  18. Toxicologic Study of Monochloroacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bo; Zhan Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Monochloroacetic Acid (MCA) is a chlorinated analog of acetic acids. MCA and its sodium salt (SMCA) are widely used as a chemical intermediate (primarily in the manufacture of chlorophenoxy herbicides,carboxymethylcelluose, glycine and indigoid dyes).Moreover, MCA has been found as a common by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. Chloroacetates are ubiquitous in the environment, and MCA is the most abundant among chloroacetates. A background level of 0.1 - 1μg/L is expected to occur in precipitation[1]. Total world wide annual production of MCA reported was about 400 000 tons[2]. Many studies have showed that MCA not only caused acute or chronic damage to the skin , liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs, but also caused acute death systemically under high concentration[2,3]. So this article will discuss the toxic effect of Monochloroacetic Acid in Toxicology.

  19. Anions in Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Auffinger, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid crystallization buffers contain a large variety of chemicals fitting specific needs. Among them, anions are often solely considered for pH-regulating purposes and as cationic co-salts while their ability to directly bind to nucleic acid structures is rarely taken into account. Here we review current knowledge related to the use of anions in crystallization buffers along with data on their biological prevalence. Chloride ions are frequently identified in crystal structures but display low cytosolic concentrations. Hence, they are thought to be distant from nucleic acid structures in the cell. Sulfate ions are also frequently identified in crystal structures but their localization in the cell remains elusive. Nevertheless, the characterization of the binding properties of these ions is essential for better interpreting the solvent structure in crystals and consequently, avoiding mislabeling of electron densities. Furthermore, understanding the binding properties of these anions should help to get clues related to their potential effects in crowded cellular environments.

  20. Fauna of an acid stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, M.E.

    1922-01-01

    The hydrogen-ion concentration of the water of the big muddy river was found to vary between pH 5.8 and pH 6.8 to 7.2, the higher acidity occurring during the winter. The bottom fauna was characterized by the abundance of clams and shrimp, and by the absence of branchiate snails and ephemerid nymphs. Fish fry and fingerlings were found in large numbers during the summer in weakly acid water, pH 6.8. Observations on our acid streams, continued over a considerable period of time, would tell us much concerning the adaptability of various species to different hydrogen-ion concentrations and are greatly needed in the interpretation of experimental data.

  1. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed E. A. Shayoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  2. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: khalid.alfarouk@act.sd [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-20

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  3. Solubilities of Isophthalic Acid in Acetic Acid + Water Solvent Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Youwei; HUO Lei; LI Xi

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of isophthalic acid (1) in binary acetic acid (2) + water (3) solvent mixtures were determined in a pressurized vessel.The temperature range was from 373.2 to 473.2K and the range of the mole fraction of acetic acid in the solvent mixtures was from x2 =0 to 1.A new method to measure the solubility was developed,which solved the problem of sampling at high temperature.The experimental results indicated that within the temperature range studied,the solubilities of isophthalic acid in all mixtures showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature.The experimental solubilities were correlated by the Buchowski equation,and the calculate results showed good agreement with the experimental solubilities.Furthermore,the mixed solvent systems were found to exhibit a maximum solubility effect on the solubility,which may be attributed to the intermolecular association between the solute and the solvent mixture.The maximum solubility effect was well modeled by the modified Wilson equation.

  4. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trujillo, Juan Pablo; Dos-Santos, Noelia; Martínez-Alcaraz, Rocío; Le Bleis, Inés

    2013-01-01

    A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC) in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS). The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE). Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate). Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate) decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate) increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate). Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid).

  5. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In t...

  6. Spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polowczyk Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid was described. In the first step, the system of good and poor solvents as well as bridging liquid was selected. As a result of a preliminary study, ethyl alcohol, water and carbon tetrachloride were used as the good solvent, poor one, and bridging liquid, respectively. Then, the amount of acetylsalicylic acid and the ratio of the solvents as well as the volume of the bridging liquid were examined. In the last step, the agglomeration conditions, such as mixing intensity and time, were investigated. The spherical agglomerates obtained under optimum conditions could be subjected to a tableting process afterwards.

  7. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids, also known as neuraminic acids, are a family of negatively charged α-keto acids with a nine-carbon backbone. These unique sugars have been found at the termini of many glycan chains of vertebrate cell surface, which play pivotal roles in mediating or modulating a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This brief review covers general approaches for synthesizing sialic acid containing structures. Recently developed synthetic methods along with structural diversities and biological functions of sialic acid are discussed.

  8. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L. C. Van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  9. Modulating the electronic structure of amino acids: interaction of model lewis acids with anthranilic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Irshaidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of theoretical B3LYP calculations, Yáñez and co-workers (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2293 illustrated that beryllium ions are capable of significantly modulating (changing the electronic structures of imidazole. In this computational organic chemistry study, the interaction of this β-amino acid and five model Lewis acids (BeF1+, Be2+, AlF2(1+, AlF2+, and Al3+ were investigated. Several aspects were addressed: natural bond orbitals, including second order perturbation analysis of intra-molecular charge delocalization and the natural population analysis atomic charges; molecular geometries; selected infrared stretching frequencies (C-N, C-O, and N-H, and selected ¹H-NMR chemical shifts. The data illustrate that this interaction can weaken the H-O bond and goes beyond strengthening the intra-molecular hydrogen bond (N...H-O to cause a spontaneous transfer of the proton to the nitrogen atom in five cases generating zwitterion structures. Many new features are observed. Most importantly, the zwitterion structures include a stabilizing hydrogen bond (N-H...O that varies in relative strength according to the Lewis acid. These findings explain the experimental observations of α-amino acids (for example: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3577 and are the first reported fundamental electronic structure characterization of β-amino acids in zwitterion form.

  10. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  11. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  12. Kinetics of wet air oxidation of glyoxalic acid and oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shende, R.V.; Mahajani, V.V. (Univ. of Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology)

    1994-12-01

    Oxidation of lower molecular weight monobasic and dibasic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, glyoxalic acid, and oxalic acid is often the rate-controlling step during wet air oxidation (WAO) of an aqueous waste stream exhibiting very high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The kinetics of WAO of glyoxalic acid and oxalic acid was studied in absence and presence of a cupric sulfate catalyst in the temperature range of 120--245 C and oxygen partial pressure of 0.345--1.380 MPa. The wet oxidation of oxalic acid was found to require more severe conditions as compared to glyoxalic acid. The reaction mechanism and kinetic model have been discussed.

  13. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  14. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  15. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  16. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid orally administered suppresses P-selectin expression on mouse platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid are a naturally occurring phenolic acid and its ester found in human diets. In this paper, potential effects of caffeic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid found in coffee and other plant sources on platelet activation were studied via investigating P-selectin expre...

  17. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  18. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  19. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of urinary vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironi, A; Seghieri, G; Niccolai, M; Mammini, P

    1988-12-01

    We describe a liquid-chromatographic method for quantifying, simultaneously by a single procedure, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in urine. After solvent extraction of acidified urine, the analytes were chromatographed on a C8 column, with use of a mobile phase of phosphate buffer (20 mmol/L, pH 4.0) and methanol with a variable gradient elution, and detected fluorometrically. We report the analytical recovery, sensitivity, precision, working linear range, and potential for interference from similar molecules or drugs. The results of such tests demonstrate that the proposed method is sensitive and reproducible. It is, furthermore, easy to perform, and thus is suitable for use in the clinical laboratory.

  20. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  1. Liquid chromatography of organophosphorus acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, A.; Kientz, C.E.; Berg, J. van den

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of different liquid chromatographic systems such as ion-exchange, ion-exclusion, reversed phase and ion-pair partition was studied for the analysis of a number of simple structurally related organophosphorus acids which lack a chromophoric group. Preliminary experiments based on th

  2. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  3. Adipic Acid: Vigorous Import Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Adipic acid is mainly used to manufacture nylon 6,6, plasticizers, grease, polyurethane etc. There are three major commercial production processes: cyclohexane process, cyclohexanol process, butadiene carbonylation process, and the air oxidation of cyclohexane process constitute 93% of the total.

  4. Getting folic acid nutrition right

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two articles in this issue of the journal provide some definitive answers to questions relating to folic acid exposure and folate nutritional status of the US population in the post-fortification era, and, by implication, pose other questions. Most convincingly, these reports, which are based la...

  5. Acid resistance of starch granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, S.; Sakakura, M.; Komiya, T.

    1983-08-01

    When potato starch was hydrolyzed to form Naegeli amylodextrin by 16% sulfuric acid at 30/sup 0/C, only the amorphous portion of the starch granules was deteriorated. The crystallinity of Naegeli amylodextrin showing the hydrolysis ratio of 0.22 was 1.28 times as large as that of original starch. The hydrolysis process at above 45/sup 0/C was given by two exponential equations. The value of acid resistance portion (C/sub 0/) at 30 and 38/sup 0/C was 100%, while the values at 45, 50 and 55/sup 0/C were 67, 38 and 18%, respectively. The high value of C/sub 0/ generally showed the high acid resistance in the various starches. Sweet potato and waxy rice starches were more easily hydrolysed than other starches, although they gave the relatively high value of C/sub 0/. Thus, it was slightly more difficult for low acid resistance portion of potato starch to be hydrolyzed than for that of other starches. Moreover, that of waxy rice was easily hydrolyzed.

  6. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  7. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  8. Boric Acid in Kjeldahl Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    The use of boric acid in the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen is a variant of the original method widely applied in many laboratories all over the world. Its use is recommended by control organizations such as ISO, IDF, and EPA because it yields reliable and accurate results. However, the chemical principles the method is based on are not…

  9. Benzylidene Acetal Protecting Group as Carboxylic Acid Surrogate: Synthesis of Functionalized Uronic Acids and Sugar Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amit; Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2016-01-18

    Direct oxidation of the 4,6-O-benzylidene acetal protecting group to C-6 carboxylic acid has been developed that provides an easy access to a wide range of biologically important and synthetically challenging uronic acid and sugar amino acid derivatives in good yields. The RuCl3 -NaIO4 -mediated oxidative cleavage method eliminates protection and deprotection steps and the reaction takes place under mild conditions. The dual role of the benzylidene acetal, as a protecting group and source of carboxylic acid, was exploited in the efficient synthesis of six-carbon sialic acid analogues and disaccharides bearing uronic acids, including glycosaminoglycan analogues.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  11. Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Willis, A L; Nguyen, N; Conner, D; Zahedi, S; Fulks, J

    1989-01-01

    Studies in man and laboratory animals suggest that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents of fish oils have antiatherosclerotic properties. We have studied the effects of several such polyunsaturated fatty acids for ability to modify the in vitro release of mitogens from human platelets. Such mitogens may produce the fibro-proliferative component of atherosclerotic plaques. Both 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), major constituents of fish oils, inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of platelets and the accompanying release of mitogens. These effects are dose dependent. Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3), the biosynthetic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid, also inhibited platelet aggregation and mitogen release. Eicosapentaenoic acid also inhibited mitogen release from human monocyte-derived macrophages, which, in vivo, are an additional source of mitogens during atherogenesis. Potent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and mitogen release was also seen with dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid 20:3 omega 6), whose levels are reportedly elevated in Eskimos subsisting on marine diets. We conclude that diets that elevate plasma and/or tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid precursor gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 6) may exert antiatherosclerotic effects by inhibiting the release of mitogens from platelets and other cells.

  12. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  13. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1986-02-01

    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with /sup 14/C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid or /sup 14/C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes.

  14. Synthesis of Stereoisomers of 3-Aminocyclohexanecarboxylic Acid and cis-3-Aminocyclohexene-5-carboxylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yu; YU Sheng-Liang; YANG Yu-Jin; ZHU Jin; DENG Jin-Gen

    2006-01-01

    A practical synthesis of stereoisomers of 3-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid and cis-3-aminocyclohexene-5-carboxylic acid was achieved from cyclohexene-4-carboxylic acid via a key resolving approach with chiral 1-phenylethylamine.

  15. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  16. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...... capacity of scavenging singlet oxygen and of quenching PheSA fluorescence. These studies revealed that HA-PheSA is a strong quencher of electronic excited state PheSA and acts as a scavenger of singlet oxygen, thus medical applications of this derivatised form of HA may protect tissues and organs...... with ps resolved streak camera technology. Structural and fluorescence properties changes induced on HA-PheSA due to the presence of singlet oxygen were monitored using static light scattering (SLS), steady state fluorescence and ps time resolved fluorescence studies. SLS studies provided insight...

  17. Endocrine and paracrine role of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verena Keitel; Ralf Kubitz; Dieter H(a)ussinger

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions.Bile acids regulate bile acid,lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis.Furthermore,bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation and liver regeneration but can also induce programmed cell death.Bile acid functions are mediated through different pathways which comprise the activation of nuclear hormone receptors,of intracellular kinases and of the plasma membranebound,G-protein coupled bile acid receptor TGR5/Gpbar-1.

  18. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  19. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  20. Interference effects from coexisting fatty acids on elaidic acid separation by fractionating crystallization: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Bjerring, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage temperature-programmed fractionating crystallization process was carried out to examine the effects of the presence of stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA) on the separation of elaidic acid (EA). The results showed that the efficiency of fractionating crystalli......A multi-stage temperature-programmed fractionating crystallization process was carried out to examine the effects of the presence of stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA) on the separation of elaidic acid (EA). The results showed that the efficiency of fractionating...

  1. Ursodeoxycholic acid in the Ursidae: biliary bile acids of bears, pandas, and related carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagey, L R; Crombie, D L; Espinosa, E; Carey, M C; Igimi, H; Hofmann, A F

    1993-11-01

    The biliary bile acid composition of gallbladder bile obtained from six species of bears (Ursidae), the Giant panda, the Red panda, and 11 related carnivores were determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bile acids were conjugated solely with taurine (in N-acyl linkage) in all species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (3 alpha, 7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid) was present in all Ursidae, averaging 1-39% of biliary bile acids depending on the species; it was not detected or present as a trace constituent (bears, and its proportion averaged 34% (range 0-62%). Ursodeoxycholic acid averaged 17% of biliary bile acids in the Polar bear (n = 4) and 18% in the Brown bear (n = 6). Lower proportions (1-8%) were present in the Sun bear (n = 2), Ceylon Sloth bear (n = 1), and the Spectacled bear (n = 1). Bile of all species contained taurine-conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. In some related carnivores, deoxycholic acid, the 7-dehydroxylation product of cholic acid, was also present. To determine whether the 7 beta hydroxy group of ursodeoxycholic acid was formed by hepatic or bacterial enzymes, bile acids were determined in hepatic bile obtained from bears with chronic biliary fistulae. Fistula bile samples contained ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and a trace amount of cholic acid, all as taurine conjugates, indicating that ursodeoxycholic acid is a primary bile acid formed in the liver in Ursidae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Discovery of enantioselectivity of urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Manoj; Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Boggu, PullaReddy; Venkateswararao, Eeda; Jalani, Hitesh B; Kim, Nam-Doo; Lee, Seul Ki; Jeon, Jang Su; Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-19

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and inflammation. Although many urea derivatives are known as sEH inhibitors, the enantioselectivity of the inhibitors is not highlighted in spite of the stereoselective hydrolysis of EETs by sEH. In an effort to explore the importance of enantioselectivity in the urea scaffold, a series of enantiomers with the stereocenter adjacent to the urea nitrogen atom were prepared. The selectivity of enantiomers of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl)-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureas showed wide range differences up to 125 fold with the low IC50 value up to 13 nM. The S-configuration with planar phenyl and small alkyl groups at α-position is crucial for the activity and selectivity. However, restriction of the free rotation of two α-groups with indan-1-yl or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl moiety abolishes the selectivity between the enantiomers, despite the increase in activity up to 13 nM. The hydrophilic group like sulfonamido group at para position of 3-phenylpropyl motif of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea improves the activity as well as enantiomeric selectivity. All these ureas are proved to be specific inhibitor of sEH without inhibition against mEH.

  3. Identification of some benproperine metabolites in humans and investigation of their antitussive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LI; Da-fang ZHONG; Si-wei CHEN; Isamu MAEBA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To identify 4 unknown metabolites of benproperine (BPP, 1) in human urine after a po dose, and to investigate the antitussive effect of monohydroxylate metabolites. Methods: The putative metabolite references were prepared using chemical synthesis. Their structures were identified using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry. The metabolites in human urine were separated and assayed using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and further confirmed by comparison of their mass spectra and chromatographic retention times with those of synthesized reference substances. The antitussive effects of metabolites were evaluated on coughs induced by 7.5% citric acid in conscious guinea pigs. Results: 1-[1-Methyl-2-[2-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] -ethyl] -4-piperidinol (2), 1- [ 1-methyl-2- [2-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethyl]-3-piperidinol (3) and their glucuronides 4 and 5 were obtained from chemical synthesis. Four urinary metabolites in human urine showed peaks with the same chromatographic retention times and mass spectra in LC/MS/MS as synthetic substances 2, 3, 4 and 5. Phosphates of compounds 2 and 3 prolonged the latency of cough and reduced the number of coughs during the 3 min test using citric acid, but did not reduce the number of coughs during the 5 min immediately after the test in conscious guinea pigs. Conclusion: Compounds 2, 3, 4,and 5 were identified as the metabolites of BPP in human urine. Among them,compounds 2 and 3 are inactive in the antitussive effect.

  4. Linoleic acid: between doubts and certainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque, Benjamin; Catheline, Daniel; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human nutrition and represents about 14 g per day in the US diet. Following the discovery of its essential functions in animals and humans in the early 1920's, studies are currently questioning the real requirement of linoleic acid. It seems now overestimated and creates controversy: how much linoleic acid should be consumed in a healthy diet? Beyond the necessity to redefine the dietary requirement of linoleic acid, many questions concerning the consequences of its excessive consumption on human health arise. Linoleic acid is a direct precursor of the bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. It is also a precursor of arachidonic acid, which produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and endocannabinoids. A majority of the studies on linoleic acid and its derivatives show a direct/indirect link with inflammation and metabolic diseases. Many authors claim that a high linoleic acid intake may promote inflammation in humans. This review tries to (i) highlight the importance of reconsidering the actual requirement of linoleic acid (ii) point out the lack of knowledge between dietary levels of linoleic acid and the molecular mechanisms explaining its physiological roles (iii) demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further human studies on the single variable linoleic acid.

  5. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  6. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  7. Lower fetal status of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and essential fatty acids is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are abundant in brain and may be conditionally essential in fetal life. We investigated umbilical artery (UA) and vein (UV) fatty acid compositions and early neonatal neurological condition in 317 term i

  8. Nucleic acid based logical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-12

    Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.

  9. Prostatic acid phosphatase by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, G.R.; Stirton, M.S.; Liedtke, R.J.; Batjer, J.D.

    1980-11-07

    Prostatic acid phosphatase values in 98 patients with prostatic carcinoma were measured by a commmercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) and by enzymatic assay. Forty-three carcinomas were staged by rigorous pathological criteria. Patients (N = 129) with benign prostatic hyperplasia were the control group. At 94% specificity, sensitivities of the RIA vs the enzymatic assay for clinically staged patients were as follows: stage A, 22% vs 6%; B, 29% vs 10%; C, 52% vs 38%; and D, 87% vs 80%. However, none of the seven patients with pathological stage A and B disease had a positive test result, and we suggest that variability in staging criteria accounts for the discrepant sensitivity claims reported. Prostatic acid phosphatase RIA should not be used for screening but as an adjunct for staging known prostatic carcinoma.

  10. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-09

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Burnham, W McIntyre; Auvin, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiologic processes in the brain. There is some evidence suggesting that PUFAs-and particularly omega-3 PUFAs-may have anticonvulsant effects, both in humans and in animals. In the present review, we assess the evidence related to the antiseizure properties of the n-3 PUFAs, discuss their possible mechanism(s) of action, and make recommendations for future clinical trials. In general, the available data from cell cultures and whole animal studies support the idea that the n-3 PUFAs have antiseizure properties. Future clinical trials involving the n-3 PUFAs should involve higher doses and longer periods of administration in order to definitively assess their possible antiseizure effects.

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid and superoxide anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Predrag Ljubuncic; Omar Abu-Salach; Arieh Bomzon

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to scavenge superoxide anion (O2-).METHODS: We assessed the ability of UDCA to scavenge (O2-) generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) in a cell-free system and its effect on the rate of O2--induced ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in hepatic post-mitochondrial supernatants.RESULTS: UDCA at a concentration as high as 1 mmol/Ldid not impair the ability of the X-XO system to generate O2-, but could scavenge O2- at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mmol/L, and decrease the rate of AA oxidation at a concentration of 100 μmol/L.CONCLUSION: UDCA can scavenge O2-, an action that may be beneficial to patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

  13. Signalling properties of lysophosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, M E; Lynch, K R

    1993-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the simplest natural phospholipid, primarily known as a membrane component and metabolic intermediate. However, a remarkable variety of biological effects of this compound have come to light, seemingly pointing to an additional role for LPA as a signalling molecule. In this review, Marcel Durieux and Kevin Lynch integrate the recent information that indicates that LPA could be an intercellular messenger, possibly acting through a G protein-coupled receptor, and with a role in cell growth and motility.

  14. Diagnostic relevance of uric acid

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid, the final product of purine metabolism, is one of the most recognized biological markers, a catalyzed reaction by xantina oxidoreductasa (XOR). This bifunctional enzyme in its dehydrogenated shape (XDH), produces AU, and nicotidamide adenine dinucleotide and in oxidase (XO), AU and Superoxide (O2•-). Hyperuricemia (HAU) is an indicator of over-regulation of XO activity, a powerful system producer of species of reactive oxygen (ROS), in human physiology. Accumulation of these radica...

  15. Nucleic acid detection using MNAzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2010-02-26

    Deoxyribozymes are promising biotechnological tools. In a recent JACS article, Mokany et al. reported on the design of multi-component deoxyribozyme (MNAzyme) sensors based on 10-23 and 8-17 DNA enzymes. The sensors can detect down to 5 pM of a specific nucleic acid. The versatility of MNAzyme platform allows the design of catalytic cascades for signal amplification. This work is a step forward to PCR-free molecular diagnostics.

  16. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... salt from cane sugar or molasses. It may be synthesized by sulfuric acid dehydration of citric acid... availability of this incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (7) Residue...

  18. Biobased synthesis of acrylonitrile from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamic acid was transformed into acrylonitrile in a two step procedure involving an oxidative decarboxylation in water to 3-cyanopropanoic acid followed by a decarbonylation-elimination reaction using a palladium catalyst

  19. Lactic acid fermentation-aided biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.M. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1996-09-01

    The preservation of fisheries biomass by lactic acid fermentation is discussed. This method is favourably compared to acid ensiling and fish meal production in terms of safety considerations, energy requirements, simplicity of process and product quality. (Author)

  20. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1979-02-20

    A subterranean formation is acidized with an acid-in-oil emulsion consisting of an aqueous acidizing solution, an oil, an alkyl C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary fatty amine, and at least one diethanolamide of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ fatty acid. The present invention is an improved acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method such as an emulsion, the emulsion being of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction. The diethanolamine is a nonionic surfactant which causes the emulsion to break as the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially depleted, i.e., spent, on the formation. 41 claims.

  1. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    O`Sullivan, K.; Taylor, M.

    1983-01-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  2. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

    1983-09-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  3. Acid Rain Program Opt-in Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Opt-in Program, which allows sources not required to participate in the Acid Rain Program the opportunity to enter the program on a voluntary basis and receive Acid Rain Program allowances.

  4. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  5. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  6. Dilute Acid and Autohydrolysis Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210°C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such “steam gun” devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems.

  7. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  8. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  9. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  10. Levulinic acid production from waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,; Claudia Antonetti; Valentina De Luise,; Domenico Licursi,; Nicoletta Nassi

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning) were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic perform...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  12. Microbial production of natural poly amino acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of poly amino acids, poly-γ-glutamic acid, poly(ε-L-lysine) and multi-L-arginyl-poly (L-aspartic acid) can be synthesized by enzymatic process independently from ribosomal protein biosynthesis pathways in microorganism. These biosynthesized polymers have attracted more and more attentions because of their unique properties and various applications. In this review, the current knowledge on the biosynthesis, biodegradations and applications of these three poly amino acids are summarized.

  13. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  14. The beneficial biological properties of salicylic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Randjelović Pavle; Veljković Slavimir; Stojiljković Nenad; Sokolović Dušan; Ilić Ivan; Laketić Darko; Randjelović Dušica; Randjelović Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a phytochemical with beneficial effects on human well-being. Salicylic acid is a phenolic compound and is present in various plants where it has a vital role in protection against pathogenic agents. Natural sources include fruits, vegetables and spices. The most famous and defined effect of salicylic acid is prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Salicylic acid has antiinflammatory effects through suppression of transcription of genes for cyclooxygenase. Most of the pharmacolog...

  15. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  16. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  17. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  18. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  19. Genetics of proteinases of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus

    1988-01-01

    Because it is essential for good growth with concomitant rapid acid production, and for the production of flavorous peptides and amino acids, the proteolytic ability of lactic acid bacteria is of crucial importance for reliable dairy product quality. In view of this importance, considerable research

  20. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  1. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. The present review includes updated searches of randomised trials on tranexamic acid versus placebo, cimetidine or lansoprazole....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  3. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip

  4. 21 CFR 582.6033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.6033 Section 582.6033 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. 2 For the purpose of this subpart, no attempt has been made...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.1033 Section 582.1033 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  7. More on Effects Controlling Carboxylic Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1981-01-01

    Gas phase acidity data shown are offered to writers of elementary organic chemistry texts for replacement of the aqueous phase data that are universally used. Relative acidities in the gas phase are controlled virtually exclusively by enthalpic factors. Structural-energetic explanations of acidic trends can therefore be used. (SK)

  8. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 172.130 - Dehydroacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.130 Dehydroacetic acid. The food additive dehydroacetic acid and/or its sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dehydroacetic acid. 172.130 Section 172.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  13. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar lev...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid. 582.1061 Section 582.1061 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1061 Lactic acid. (a) Product. Lactic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  16. Acid Rain: What We Must Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Eville

    1983-01-01

    Addresses questions about the nature, source, and history of acid rain. In addition, discusses the questions: Why is acid rain a problem? Is acid rain getting worse? What is the threat of further problems? Concludes that it is time to act on the problem and recommends an appropriate course of action. (JN)

  17. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  18. 21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of salicylic acid in milk from dairy animals....

  19. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM. M

  3. Hyaluronic acid for anticancer drug and nucleic acid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosio, Franco; Arpicco, Silvia; Stella, Barbara; Fattal, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely used in anticancer drug delivery, since it is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic; moreover, HA receptors are overexpressed on many tumor cells. Exploiting this ligand-receptor interaction, the use of HA is now a rapidly-growing platform for targeting CD44-overexpressing cells, to improve anticancer therapies. The rationale underlying approaches, chemical strategies, and recent advances in the use of HA to design drug carriers for delivering anticancer agents, are reviewed. Comprehensive descriptions are given of HA-based drug conjugates, particulate carriers (micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, microparticles), inorganic nanostructures, and hydrogels, with particular emphasis on reports of preclinical/clinical results.

  4. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  5. The influence of dicarboxylic acids: Oxalic acid and tartaric acid on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Ahmadi Jaya; Setyawati, Harsasi; Hamami, Murwani, Irmina Kris

    2016-03-01

    Glass ionomer cement (GIC) has limitation on the mechanical properties especially compressive strength. The change of compressive strength of GIC by adding oxalic acid and tartaric acid has been investigated. Oxalic acid and tartaric acid was added to the liquid components at concentrations of 0 - 15% (w/w). Powder component of GIC was made from optimum experimental powder glass SiO2-Al2O3-CaF2. GIC was characterized by compressive strength test, SEM-EDX and FTIR. The addition of tartaric acid to GIC has greater improvement than addition of oxalic acid. The addition of tartaric acid at 10 % (w/w) to GIC has greatest value of compressive strength.

  6. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  7. Evaporation of methyl- and dimethyl-substituted malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acid particles at ambient temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob Garbrecht; Rosenørn, Thomas; Svenningsson, Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid......Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid...

  8. Relationship between acid pocket and acid reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚东英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between acid pocket and acid reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD).Methods From March 2011 to January 2012,29 patients with GERD were enrolled and nine healthy individuals were set as control.All objects of this study accepted esophageal manometry test,acid pocket test,test of the occurrence time of acid pocket and ambulatory

  9. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  10. Kinetic resolution of racemic carboxylic acids through asymmetric protolactonization promoted by chiral phosphonous acid diester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Masayuki; Sakakura, Akira; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2013-06-07

    Chiral phosphonium salts induce the kinetic resolution of racemic α-substituted unsaturated carboxylic acids through asymmetric protolactonization. Both the lactones and the recovered carboxylic acids are obtained with high enantioselectivities and high S (= kfast/kslow) values. Asymmetric protolactonization also leads to the desymmetrization of achiral carboxylic acids. Notably, chiral phosphonous acid diester not only induced the enantioselectivity but also promoted protolactonization.

  11. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  12. Identification of organic acids in wine that stimulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Walker, Jessica; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-07-18

    Wine may cause stomach irritation due to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion, although the mechanisms by which wine or components thereof activate pathways of gastric acid secretion are poorly understood. Gastric pH was measured with a noninvasive intragastric probe, demonstrating that administration of 125 mL of white or red wine to healthy volunteers stimulated gastric acid secretion more potently than the administration of equivalent amounts of ethanol. Between both beverages, red wine showed a clear trend for being more active in stimulating gastric acid secretion than white wine (p = 0.054). Quantification of the intracellular proton concentration in human gastric tumor cells (HGT-1), a well-established indicator of proton secretion and, in turn, stomach acid formation in vivo, confirmed the stronger effect of red wine as compared to white wine. RT-qPCR experiments on cells exposed to red wine also revealed a more pronounced effect than white wine on the fold change expression of genes associated with gastric acid secretion. Of the quantitatively abundant organic acids in wine, malic acid and succinic acid most actively stimulated proton secretion in vitro. However, addition of ethanol to individual organic acids attenuated the secretory effect of tartaric acid, but not that of the other organic acids. It was concluded that malic acid for white wine and succinic acid for red wine are key organic acids that contribute to gastric acid stimulation.

  13. Simple synthesis of radiolabelled bromoacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, D.N.; Gaudreault, R.C.; Noujaim, A.A.

    Bromoacetic acid has been used as a chemical precursor in the synthesis of a large number of biologically active compounds including uracil (1) and malonic acid. We required /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C labelled bromoacetic acid as an intermediate in the preparation of new bifunctional chelating agents for dual label studies with proteins and monoclonal antibodies. The sulfur catalyzed bromination of acetic acid proved to be a facile synthesis of radiolabelled bromoacetic acid directly from /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C sodium acetate.

  14. Lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, J; Lachmann, B; Lauer, R; Eppacher, S; Noe, C R

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties. Two synthetic approaches are presented, on the one hand a non selective oligomerisation of lactic acid and on the other hand a block synthesis to tetramers of lactic acid. Dimers of lactic acid were investigated with respect to their plasma stability and their adsorption to albumine. Ibuprofen was chosen as the first drug for OLAylation. The ester 19 of LA(1)-ibuprofen was evaluated with respect to the degradation to human plasma and the adsorption to albumine. All results indicate that lactic acid oligomers are promising prodrug moieties.

  15. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  16. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  17. The Specifications for Monitoring of Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background Since China is a country seriously affected by acid rain pollution,it is a long-term fundamental work for acid rain pollution prevention and control in China by getting well informed of the characteristics of spatial and temporal changes in acid rain and long-term trends of these changes.In order to reach the national demand for acid rain monitoring data,the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) began to construct the network of acid rain monitoring stations in 1992.By the end of 2010,the total number of monitoring stations has exceeded 340.

  18. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  19. Intestinal transport of sulfanilic acid in rats immunized with protein-sulfanilic acid conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Kawaratani, T; Kawashima, K; Hashida, M; Sezaki, H

    1990-07-01

    Intestinal transport of sulfanilic acid was examined by means of an in vitro everted sac technique in rats immunized with a bovine gamma-globulin-sulfanilic acid conjugate. At a low concentration of sulfanilic acid, the intestinal transport of sulfanilic acid was decreased in rats immunized with bovine gamma-globulin-sulfanilic acid conjugate. This phenomenon was dose dependent and antigen specific, since there was no difference in the transport of sulfanilic acid at a high concentration and of an unrelated hapten. These results suggested that parenteral immunization impaired not only the intestinal transport of macromolecular antigens, as previously shown, but also the transport of the low molecular weight hapten, sulfanilic acid.

  20. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine).

  1. Study of Synthesis of Copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) by Direct Melt Polycondensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Ping; GAO Qin-wei; SHAO Hui-li; HU Xue-chao

    2005-01-01

    A two steps direct copolymerisation process was developed. The first step is to produce oligomer and then the oligomer of lactic acid/glycolic acid (90/10) is polymerized with binary catalyst tin chloride dihydrate/ptoluenesulfonic acid. In this way, the direct synthesis of copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) without any organic solvent was investigated. The properties and structures of products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and so on. The results show that comparatively high molecular weight copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid can be prepared by direct processing under appropriate technological conditions.

  2. Molecular pharmacology of 4-substituted glutamic acid analogues at ionotropic and metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Nielsen, B; Stensbøl, T B;

    1997-01-01

    using rat brain ionotropic glutamate receptors, and in functional assays using cloned metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. As a notable result of these studies, (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid and (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid were shown to be selective for kainic acid receptors and mGlu receptors......The pharmacology of (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid, (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid and (S)- and (R)-4-methyleneglutamic acids (obtained in high chemical and enantiomeric purity from racemic 4-methyleneglutamic acid by chiral HPLC using a Crownpak CR(+) column), was examined in binding experiments...... (subtypes 1alpha and 2), respectively, whereas (S)-4-methyleneglutamic acid showed high but rather non-selective affinity for the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid, NMDA and mGlu receptors (subtypes 1alpha and 2). Although none of the compounds were specific...

  3. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on fatty acid omega-hydroxylation in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, R

    1986-12-01

    The effect of acetylsalicylic acid on the cytochrome P-450-mediated fatty acid omega-hydroxylation system was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats after they were fed a diet containing 1% (w/w) acetylsalicylic acid. A 3-fold increase in the specific activity of laurate omega-hydroxylation was observed in the acetylsalicylic acid fed rats in comparison to control rats. This effect of acetylsalicylic acid was unique as the specific activities of other cytochrome P-450-mediated reactions were not increased. The induction of the laurate omega-hydroxylation system was also manifested in a rapid formation of its dicarboxylic acid derivative, dodecanedioic acid, as the omega-hydroxy derivative was further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. These results suggest the acetylsalicylic acid is similar to other peroxisomal proliferating agents in that it also induces the microsomal fatty acid omega-hydroxylation system and may account for the appearance of unique dicarboxylic acids in Reye's syndrome patients.

  4. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  5. Gluconic acid production by Penicillium puberulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, M A; Megalla, S E

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five Penicillium species isolated from Egyptian soil were examined for their ability to produce gluconic acid in surface culture. Of the eight species capable of producing gluconic acid, Penicillium puberulum gave the maximum yield (91% gluconic acid from glucose after 7 days of fermentation with 3% CaCO3). Peptone was the best nitrogen source for acid fermentation and glucose was superior to sucrose. Addition of low concentrations of KH2PO4 and MgSO4 - 7 H2O stimulated acid production. An initial pH of 6.1 was most favourable for acid accumulation and addition of CaCO3 was necessary for maximum acid production.

  6. Structure Property Relationships of Carboxylic Acid Isosteres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalas, Pierrik; Gay, Bryant; Lasfargeas, Caroline; James, Michael J; Tran, Van; Vijayendran, Krishna G; Brunden, Kurt R; Kozlowski, Marisa C; Thomas, Craig J; Smith, Amos B; Huryn, Donna M; Ballatore, Carlo

    2016-04-14

    The replacement of a carboxylic acid with a surrogate structure, or (bio)-isostere, is a classical strategy in medicinal chemistry. The general underlying principle is that by maintaining the features of the carboxylic acid critical for biological activity, but appropriately modifying the physicochemical properties, improved analogs may result. In this context, a systematic assessment of the physicochemical properties of carboxylic acid isosteres would be desirable to enable more informed decisions of potential replacements to be used for analog design. Herein we report the structure-property relationships (SPR) of 35 phenylpropionic acid derivatives, in which the carboxylic acid moiety is replaced with a series of known isosteres. The data set generated provides an assessment of the relative impact on the physicochemical properties that these replacements may have compared to the carboxylic acid analog. As such, this study presents a framework for how to rationally apply isosteric replacements of the carboxylic acid functional group.

  7. Activation of carboxylic acids in asymmetric organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Mattia Riccardo; Poladura, Belén; Diaz de Los Bernardos, Miriam; Leutzsch, Markus; Goddard, Richard; List, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Organocatalysis, catalysis using small organic molecules, has recently evolved into a general approach for asymmetric synthesis, complementing both metal catalysis and biocatalysis. Its success relies to a large extent upon the introduction of novel and generic activation modes. Remarkably though, while carboxylic acids have been used as catalyst directing groups in supramolecular transition-metal catalysis, a general and well-defined activation mode for this useful and abundant substance class is still lacking. Herein we propose the heterodimeric association of carboxylic acids with chiral phosphoric acid catalysts as a new activation principle for organocatalysis. This self-assembly increases both the acidity of the phosphoric acid catalyst and the reactivity of the carboxylic acid. To illustrate this principle, we apply our concept in a general and highly enantioselective catalytic aziridine-opening reaction with carboxylic acids as nucleophiles.

  8. Itaconic Acid Production by Microorganisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helia Hajian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Itaconic acid (C5H6O4 is an organic acid with unique structure and characteristics. In order to promote the bio-based economy, the US-Department of Energy (DOE assigned a “top-12” of platform chemicals, which include numerous of organic acids. In particular di-carboxylic acids, like itaconic acid, can be used as monomers for bio-polymers. Thus the need to produce itaconic acid attracts much attention. The favored production process is fermentation of carbohydrates by fungi and Aspergillus terreus is the mostly frequently employed commercial producer of itaconic acid. This review reports the current status of use of microorganisms in enhancing productivity.

  9. N-Acetylneuraminic acid storage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumkötter, J; Cantz, M; Mendla, K; Baumann, W; Friebolin, H; Gehler, J; Spranger, J

    1985-01-01

    Increased amounts of free sialic acid were found in body fluids, leukocytes, cultured fibroblasts, and liver tissue of a four-year-old boy with mental retardation, ataxia, and clinical and radiologic findings of a mild mucopolysaccharidosis. A diagnosis of Salla disease was made though in contrast to earlier reports, recurrent upper respiratory infections and hepatosplenomegaly were present already in infancy, and skeletal abnormalities of dysostosis multiplex were found in early childhood. Free sialic acid in the urine was identified as N-acetylneuraminic acid by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Sialidase activities were normal. Increased amounts of bound sialic acid were found in liver and cultured fibroblasts and were attributed to an intracellular inhibition of sialyloligosaccharide-degrading neuraminidase by excessive amounts of free neuraminic acid. The molecular basis of N-acetylneuraminic acid storage disease is unknown but may be related to a defective transport mechanism preventing neuraminic acid from leaving the lysosomal compartment.

  10. New multifunctional surfactants from natural phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centini, Marisanna; Rossato, Maria Sole; Sega, Alessandro; Buonocore, Anna; Stefanoni, Sara; Anselmi, Cecilia

    2012-01-11

    Several new multifunctional molecules derived from natural sources such as amino acids and hydroxycinnamic acids were synthesized. They exhibit various activities such as emulsifying, UV-protecting, and radical scavenging, thereby conforming to the latest requirements for cosmetic ingredients. The synthesis comprises only a few steps: (i) the amino acid, the acid groups of which are protected by esterification, is coupled with ferulic or caffeic acid; (ii) the p-hydroxyl group of the cinnamic derivative reacts with dodecyl bromide in the presence of potassium carbonate (the resulting compounds are highly lipophilic and tested as water/oil (W/O) emulsifiers); (iii) these molecules, by deprotonating the acid groups of the amino acids, with successive salification, are more hydrophilic, with stronger O/W emulsifying properties. The new multifunctional surfactants might prove useful for the treatment of multiple skin conditions, including loss of cellular antioxidants, damage from free radicals, damage from UV, and others.

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsha S. Shivsharan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro-organisms have tendency to produce antimicrobial substances which show biological activity against other kind of micro-organisms. This phenomenon of bacterial antagonism is observed in lactic acid bacteria with competitive advantages. The lactic acid bacteria are commonly present in many fermented products, fruits and milk products. The variety of antimicrobial substances produced by lactic acid bacteria showing good inhibition capacity include production of lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide, diacetyl and bacteriocin. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of intense research because of their antimicrobial activity against food born bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum and several others .Bacteriocins may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal with narrow or broad range of activity. The main of the study was to study the antimicrobial activity of such lactic acid bacterial isolates.

  12. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed.

  13. Ferrocenyl-phospho-nic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Zhang; Xu, Chao; Duan, Tai-Ke; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2011-08-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C(5)H(5))(C(5)H(6)O(3)P)], the phosphate group is bonded to the ferrocene unit with a P-C bond length of 1.749 (3) Å. In the crystal, six ferrocenyl-phospho-nic acid mol-ecules are connected by 12 strong inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a highly distorted octa-hedral cage. The volume of the octa-hedral cage is about 270 Å(3).

  14. Fumaric acid esters in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumaric acid esters (FAE are substances of interest in dermatology. FAE exert various activities on cutaneous cells and cytokine networks. So far only a mixture of dimethylfumarate (DMF and three salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF have gained approval for the oral treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis in Germany. DMF seems to be the major active component. There is evidence that FAE are not only effective and safe in psoriasis but granulomatous non-infectious diseases like granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica and sarcoidosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest some activity in malignant melanoma as well.

  15. Nanoscale Properties of Boric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nanoscale properties of boric acid were studied by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanome-chanical testing system. XPS was used to research on the transform behaviors of H3BO3 at different temperatures.The crystal structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of H3BO3 were described. The results showthat H3BO3 has layered structure, and can be transformed to boron oxide at high temperature. In addition there area lot of defects in H3BO3 crystal.

  16. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-05

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA.

  17. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  18. A Comparative Study of the Radical-scavenging Activity of the Phenolcarboxylic Acids Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, Chlorogenic Acid and Ferulic Acid, With or Without 2-Mercaptoethanol, a Thiol, Using the Induction Period Method

    OpenAIRE

    Seiichiro Fujisawa; Yoshinori Kadoma

    2008-01-01

    Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione), a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME), as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP) method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile...

  19. DILUTE SOLUTION BEHAVIOR OF CHITOSAN IN DIFFERENT ACID SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Lihua; QIN Wen

    1994-01-01

    Dilute solution behavior of chitosan was studied in formic acid, acetic acid,lactic acid and hydrochloric acid aqueous solution under different pH values. The reduced viscosities, ηsp/C,of chitosan solutions were dependent on the properties of acid and pH value of solvents. For a given chitosan concentration, ηsp/C decreased with the increase of acid concentration, or decreasing pH of solvent, indicating shielding effect of excessive acid similar to adding salt into solution. The stabilities of dilute chitosan solution in formic acid and lactic acid were better than that in acetic acid and hydrochloric acid.

  20. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  1. A study of petroleum fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, I.V.; Kulachenko, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study conducted through a method of gas liquid chromatography of n-fatty acids, separated from the oils of a number of deposits of Western Siberia, are discussed. In particular, the molecular mass distribution of n-acids and paraffins, as well as the free acids and the thermodestruction acids in the oil of the Fedorovsk deposit, were studied. The existence of a predominance of acids of even structure in the range of C/sub 16/-C/sub 20/ is common for the free and bound acids. At the same time, it is noted that for the time being, it is difficult to provide an unambiguous explanation for the obtained results. But one fact is certain: the free, in the form of complex ethers, as well as the form of the compounds which liberate the acids after precise thermal action. The individual composition of the acids of all three forms is different. A specific regularity is traced in the distribution of the n-acids in the oil fractions. It is explained that the molecular mass distribution of the acids in the fractions and in the initial oil is identical.

  2. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Z; Orzechowska, G E; Fogel, M L; Ehrenfreund, P

    2008-01-01

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly i...

  3. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  4. Study of Thiosemicarbazone Derivative of Essential Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Essential fatty acids results in numerous health benefits. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for human alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical well-being has been recognised for several decades . Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) is an angiosperm belonging to the cannabaceae family and cannabi...

  5. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  6. A glutamic acid-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Malaysian fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound.

  7. Incorporation of oxygen into abscisic Acid and phaseic Acid from molecular oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1984-05-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% (18)O(2) and 80% N(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is incorporated in the 6'-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase.Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing (18)O(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1'-, 4'-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1'- and 4'-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress.

  8. Dietary phenolic acids and ascorbic acid: Influence on acid-catalyzed nitrosative chemistry in the presence and absence of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; El Mesmari, Aziza; Preston, Tom; Crozier, Alan; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2010-03-15

    Acid-catalyzed nitrosation and production of potentially carcinogenic nitrosative species is focused at the gastroesophageal junction, where salivary nitrite, derived from dietary nitrate, encounters the gastric juice. Ascorbic acid provides protection by converting nitrosative species to nitric oxide (NO). However, NO may diffuse into adjacent lipid, where it reacts with O(2) to re-form nitrosative species and N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). In this way, ascorbic acid promotes acid nitrosation. Using a novel benchtop model representing the gastroesophageal junction, this study aimed to clarify the action of a range of water-soluble antioxidants on the nitrosative mechanisms in the presence or absence of lipids. Caffeic, ferulic, gallic, or chlorogenic and ascorbic acids were added individually to simulated gastric juice containing secondary amines, with or without lipid. NO and O(2) levels were monitored by electrochemical detection. NOC were measured in both aqueous and lipid phases by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the absence of lipids, all antioxidants tested inhibited nitrosation, ranging from 35.9 + or - 7.4% with gallic acid to 93 + or - 0.6% with ferulic acid. In the presence of lipids, the impact of each antioxidant on nitrosation was inversely correlated with the levels of NO they generated (R(2) = 0.95, pascorbic acid promoted nitrosation, whereas ferulic and caffeic acids markedly inhibited nitrosation.

  9. GLYCOLIC - FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.

    2010-11-08

    Flowsheet testing was performed to further develop the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All other processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Eight runs were performed in total, including the baseline run. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run was extremely difficult to process under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. In the nitric/glycolic/formic flowsheet runs, mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. It is recommended that DWPF continue to support development of the nitric/glycolic/formic flowsheet. Although experience is limited at this time, this flowsheet meets or outperforms the current flowsheet in many regards, including off-gas generation, mercury removal, product rheology and general ease of processing. Additional flowsheet testing will allow for a more thorough understanding of the chemistry and effectiveness of the flowsheet over a range of sludge compositions and formic/glycolic ratios. This testing will also show whether the REDOX and metal solubility concerns with this change in the flowsheet can be addressed by just adjusting the volumes of

  10. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section 862.1450....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base...

  11. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml−1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  12. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus.

  13. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-03-15

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  14. Organic Acid Composition in Croatian Predicate Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mihaljević Žulj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Continental Croatia wine region and especially Kutjevo vineyards are famous for their predicate wines production and quality. The most common grape varieties used there for different types of predicate wine are Welsch Riesling and Traminer. Ice wines, selected harvest wines and dry berry selection wines from different harvest years were examined by HPLC method to determine organic acids composition. The oldest sample was Traminer selected harvest from vintage year 1990, while the youngest wine was Traminer ice wine from harvest 2011. The dominant organic acids in all analyzed wines were tartaric, malic, citric and galactaric, ranged from 0.09 to 2.98 g/L. In most wines the difference in concentration of glucuronic, galacturonic and gluconic acids was established. The highest content of glucuronic acid was 58.4 mg/L in Traminer dry berry selection 2011. Galacturonic acid dominated in the same wine (924 mg/L, just like gluconic acid (141 mg/L.

  15. Interactions of Safranin T with Nucleic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Zhen-Xin; LIU, Dian-Jun; DONG, Slmo-Jun

    2001-01-01

    The interactions of Safranin T (ST) with several mucleic acidshave been investigated by electrochemical, UV- visibIe and CDspectroscopic technipues. The form of the nucleic acid-STcomplexes is starve to the ratio of the two species. Twoelectrocbemically inactive complexes such as, nucleic acid- srand nucleic acid-2ST, were formed while ST interacts withnucleic acids. Two proceases were obtaened from spectral experiments: (1) at the high value of R (R is defined as the ratio of the total concentration of ST to that of nucleic acid), sris groove-binding with stacking, (2) at the low value of R,ST is groove-binding without stacking.Intrinsic binding constants were obtained by spectral methods.The experints also show that electrostatic binding prays an important role inthe interactinn of ST with nucleic acids.

  16. Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Brinton, Karen L. F.; McDonald, Gene D.

    1999-08-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, β -alanine, and γ -amino-n-butyric acid (γ -ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  17. Gas-grain Modeling of Isocyanic Acid (HNCO), Cyanic Acid (HOCN), Fulminic Acid (HCNO), and Isofulminic Acid (HONC) in Assorted Interstellar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Roueff, Evelyne

    2010-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a well-known interstellar molecule. Evidence also exists for the presence of two of its metastable isomers in the interstellar medium: HCNO (fulminic acid) and HOCN (cyanic acid). Fulminic acid has been detected toward cold and lukewarm sources, while cyanic acid has been detected both in these sources and in warm sources in the Galactic Center. Gas-phase models can reproduce the abundances of the isomers in cold sources, but overproduce HCNO in the Galactic Center. Here we present a detailed study of a gas-grain model that contains these three isomers, plus a fourth isomer, isofulminic acid (HONC), for four types of sources: hot cores, the warm envelopes of hot cores, lukewarm corinos, and cold cores. The current model is partially able to rationalize the abundances of HNCO, HOCN, and HCNO in cold and warm sources. Predictions for HONC in all environments are also made.

  18. Electrogenicity of hepatocellular fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, C; Kassner, A; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J; Stremmel, W

    1998-08-18

    Sensitivity of cellular fatty acids uptake to the membrane potential difference is still a matter of controversy. For direct evaluation of potential sensitivity the effect of changing membrane potential on uptake of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid derivative, 12-NBD-stearate, in isolated rat hepatocytes, was examined. Changes in membrane potential were achieved by patch clamp procedures. Fatty acid influx was simultaneously determined by recording of cell fluorescence. Hyperpolarization from -30 to -70 mV accelerated fatty acid influx whereas depolarization to +50 mV reduced uptake. After obtaining equilibrium hyperpolarization increased cell fluorescence, whereas depolarization pushed NBD-stearate out of cells. Potential sensitivity of uptake was dependent on the fatty acid concentrations in the medium with most prominent effects at low unbound concentrations. These data show that, at low fatty acid concentrations, uptake is, in part, driven by an intracellular negative electric membrane potential.

  19. Hyperammonemia Associated with Valproic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid, a branched short-chain fatty acid, has numerous action mechanisms which turn it into a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug and make its use possible in some other pathologies such as bipolar disorder. It is extensively metabolized in liver, representing β-oxidation in the mitochondria one of its main metabolic route (40%. Carnitine is responsible for its entry into the mitochondria as any other fatty acid. Long-term high-dose VPA therapy or acute VPA overdose induces carnitine depletion, resulting in high levels of ammonia in blood. As a high correlation between salivary valproic acid levels and plasma ultrafiltrate levels was found in humans, saliva becomes a promising monitoring fluid in order to study valproic acid pharmacokinetics and its toxic effect. Extended-release (twice daily formulations of valproic acid or carnitine supplementation are the proposed two therapeutic strategies in order to reverse hyperammonemia.

  20. Degradation of amino acids to short-chain fatty acids in humans. An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H S; Holtug, K; Mortensen, P B

    1988-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) originate mainly in the colon through bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis that SCFA may originate from polypeptides as well, the production of these acids from albumin and specific amino acids was examined in a faecal incubation system....... Albumin was converted to all C2-C5-fatty acids, whereas amino acids generally were converted to specific SCFA, most often through the combination of a deamination and decarboxylation of the amino acids, although more complex processes also took place. This study indicates that a part of the intestinal...

  1. Cholic acid derivatives: novel antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P B; Li, C

    2000-02-01

    Mimics of squalamine and polymyxin B (PMB) have been prepared from cholic acid in hope of finding new antimicrobial agents. The squalamine mimics include the polyamine and sulphate functionalities found in the parent antibiotic, however, the positions relative to the steroid nucleus have been exchanged. The PMB mimics include the conservation of functionality among the polymyxin family of antibiotics, the primary amine groups and a hydrophobic chain. Although the squalamine and PMB mimics are morphologically dissimilar, they display similar activities. Both are simple to prepare and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Specific examples may be inactive alone, yet effectively permeabilise the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria rendering them sensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics. Problems associated with some of the squalamine and PMB mimics stem from their haemolytic activity and interactions with serum proteins, however, examples exist without these side effects which can sensitise Gram-negative bacteria to hydrophobic antibiotics.

  2. 4-(4-Bromobenzenesulfonamidobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H10BrNO4S, belongs to the sulfonamide class of organic compounds. The two aromatic rings are inclined at 34.30 (15° to one another, and the carboxyl substituent lies in the plane of the benzene ring to which it is bound (maximum deviation = 0.004 Å. In the crystal structure, charactersitic carboxylic acid dimers are formed through O—H...O hydrogen bonds. These dimers are linked into rows down a by N—H...O interactions. Additional C—H...O contacts further stabilize the structure, and a close Br...Br(x, −y + 1, −z + 1 contact of 3.5199 (9 Å is also observed.

  3. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

  4. 2-(2-Isopropylphenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Hussein Issa Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H14O3, the pendant –OCH2COOH chain is in an extended conformation and almost lies in the plane of the benzene ring, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 2.61 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming classical carboxylic acid inversion dimers, with an R22(8 loop. The crystal structure of this compound have been reported previously [Smith et al. (1992. Aust. J. Chem. 45, 1101–1108], however, in that report, the unit-cell dimensions differ significantly from those of the title structure and the carboxyl H atom was disordered within a cyclic hydrogen-bonded dimer.

  5. Overproduction of clavulanic acid by extractive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Costa,Cecília Ladeira; Colli Badino,Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Clavulanic acid is an important beta-lactamase inhibitor produced as a secondary metabolite by the actinomycete Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is chemically unstable; therefore, it is degraded during bacterial cultivation. In this work, the adsorbents clinoptilolite, activated carbon, calcined hydrotalcite, and Amberlite IRA 400 anionic exchange resin were studied in terms of their ability to adsorb clavulanic acid during extractive fermentation, in order to prevent pro...

  6. Uric acid and antioxidant effects of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Mladen; Modun, Darko

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this article is to review the role of uric acid in the context of antioxidant effects of wine and its potential implication to human health. We described and discussed the mechanisms of increase in plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of moderate amounts of wine. Because this effect is largely contributed by acute elevation in plasma uric acid, we paid special attention to wine constituents and metabolic processes that are likely to be involved in uric acid elevation.

  7. Uric Acid and Antioxidant Effects of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Boban, Mladen; Modun, Darko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the role of uric acid in the context of antioxidant effects of wine and its potential implication to human health. We described and discussed the mechanisms of increase in plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of moderate amounts of wine. Because this effect is largely contributed by acute elevation in plasma uric acid, we paid special attention to wine constituents and metabolic processes that are likely to be involved in uric acid elevation.

  8. 21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing § 573.480 Formic acid. Formic acid may be safely used as a preservative in hay crop silage in an amount not to exceed 2.25 percent of the silage on a dry weight basis or 0.45 percent when direct-cut. The top foot of silage stored should not contain formic acid and silage should not be fed to...

  9. A new potent fusidic acid analogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søtofte, Inger; Duvold, Tore

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of the compound, 17S,20S-dihydrofusidic acid diethylene glycol hydrate, C31H50O6.C4H10O3.H2O, consists of 17S,20S-dihydrofusidic acid, diethylene glycol and water. The fusidic acid moiety contains three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. The fused-ring system ado...

  10. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  11. New structural motif for carboxylic acid perhydrolases

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Delu; Purpero, Vince M.; Fujii, Ryota; Jing, Qing; Kazlauskas, Romas J.

    2013-01-01

    Some serine hydrolases also catalyze a promiscuous reaction – reversible perhydrolysis of carboxylic acids to make peroxycarboxylic acids. Five x-ray crystal structures of these carboxylic acid perhydrolases show a proline in the oxyanion loop. Here, we test whether this proline is essential for high perhydrolysis activity using Pseudomonas fluorescens esterase (PFE). The L29P variant of this esterase catalyzes perhydrolysis 43-fold faster (kcat comparison) than wild type. Surprisingly, satur...

  12. Quorum sensing mechanism in lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yılmaz - Yıldıran

    2015-04-01

    and detection occurs as a consecution it is hard to understand their QS mechanism. In this review, connection between QS mechanism and some characteristics of lactic acid bacteria are evaluated such as concordance with its host, inhibition of pathogen development and colonization in gastrointestinal system, bacteriocin production, acid and bile resistance, adhesion to epithelium cells. Understanding QS mechanism of lactic acid bacteria will be useful to design metabiotics which is defined as novel probiotics.

  13. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  14. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...... production into a suitable levulinic acid ester in the presence of a zeolite or zeotype catalyst and a suitable alcohol, and the ester may be further converted into levulinic acid if desired....

  15. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  16. The Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-02

    Hydrazine nitrate-nitric acid solutions are used in the ion exchange process for separating Pu-238 and Np-237 and have been found to dissolve plutonium metal in a manner advantageous to SRP metal recovery operations. Laboratory tests on the stability of hydrazine in nitric acid solutions were performed to obtain accurate data, and the results of these tests are reported here. These tests provide sufficient information to specify temperature control for hydrazine-nitric acid solutions in plant processes.

  17. Multiplexed microfluidic approach for nucleic acid enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Langevin, Stanley Alan; Bent, Zachary; Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott M.; Van De Vreugde, James L.; Lane, Todd; Patel, Kamlesh; Branda, Steven

    2016-04-26

    A system for enhancing a nucleic acid sample may include a one pump, a denaturing chamber; a microfluidic hydroxyapatite chromatography device configured for performing hydroxyapatite chromatography on the nucleic acid sample, a sample collector, and tubing connecting the pump with the denaturing chamber, the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and the sample collector such that the pump may be used to move the nucleic acid sample from the denaturing chamber to the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and then to the sample collector.

  18. Hyaluronic Acid: A Boon in Periodontal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Parveen Dahiya; Reet Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring linear polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, synovial fluid, and other tissues. Its use in the treatment of the inflammatory process is established in medical areas such as orthopedics, dermatology, and ophthalmology. The Pubmed/Medline database was searched for keywords "Hyaluronic acid and periodontal disease" and "Hyaluronic acid and gingivitis" which resulted in 89 and 22 articles respectively. Only highly relevant articl...

  19. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION ON THE VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF 3-AMINOPROPANOIC ACID, 4-AMINOBUTANOIC ACID, 5-AMINOPENTANOIC ACID, 6-AMINOHEXANOIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María Romero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the effect of temperatureon the viscosities of aqueous solutionsof 3-aminopropanoic acid, 4-aminobutanoicacid, 5-aminopentanoic acidand 6-aminohexanoic acid as a functionof concentration. The experimental measurementswere done from 293.15 K to308.15 K. At each temperature the experimentaldata were fi tted to the Tsangaris-Martin equation and the B viscosity coefficient was determined. The dependenceof the B coeffi cients on the number ofcarbon atoms of the amino acids is linear,so the contribution of polar and apolargroups was established. The results areinterpreted in terms of amino acid hydration.

  20. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  1. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  3. Ion exchange properties of humus acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, V. N.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    Ion exchange equilibriums in a complex of brown humic acids (HAs) and related fulvic acids (FAs) with cations (H+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, and Al3+) have been studied, and the activity coefficients of the acid monoionic forms have been determined. The composition of the stoichiometric cell in the system of black and brown HAs and related FAs in a leached chernozem of the Ob' region has been calculated with consideration for the earlier studies of the ion exchange properties of black HAs and related FAs. It has been shown that hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron are the major components in the exchange complex of humus acids in the leached chernozem with the other cations being of subordinate importance. In spite of some differences between the analytical and calculated compositions of the humus acids, the results of the calculations can be considered satisfactory. They indicate that calculations are feasible for such complex objects as soils, and their accuracy will improve with the expansion of the experimental studies. The physicochemical simulation of the transformation of the humus acid composition under different acid-base conditions shows that the contents of most cations decrease under alkalization, and hydroxides or carbonates become the most stable forms of these cations. Under the acidification of solutions, the binding of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements by humus acids decreases and the adsorption of iron and aluminum by humus acids increases.

  4. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  5. Analysis of Chiral Carboxylic Acids in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Hein, J. E.; Aponte, J. C.; Parker, E. T.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Homochirality of amino acids in proteins and sugars in DNA and RNA is a critical feature of life on Earth. In the absence of a chiral driving force, however, reactions leading to the synthesis of amino acids and sugars result in racemic mixtures. It is currently unknown whether homochirality was necessary for the origins of life or if it was a product of early life. The observation of enantiomeric excesses of certain amino acids of extraterrestrial origins in meteorites provides evidence to support the hypothesis that there was a mechanism for the preferential synthesis or destruction of a particular amino acid enantiomer [e.g., 1-3]. The cause of the observed chiral excesses is un-clear, although at least in the case of the amino acid isovaline, the degree of aqueous alteration that occurred on the meteorite parent body is correlated to the isovaline L-enantiomeric excess [3, 4]. This suggests that chiral symmetry is broken and/or amplified within the meteorite parent bodies. Besides amino acids, there have been only a few reports of other meteoritic compounds found in enantiomeric excess: sugars and sugar acids [5, 6] and the hydroxy acid lactic acid [7]. Determining whether or not additional types of molecules in meteorites are also present in enantiomeric excesses of extraterrestrial information will provide insights into mechanisms for breaking chiral symmetry. Though the previous measurements (e.g., enantiomeric composition of lactic acid [7], and chiral carboxylic acids [8]) were made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the potential for increased sensitivity of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses is important because for many meteorite samples, only small sample masses are available for study. Furthermore, at least in the case of amino acids, many of the largest amino acid enantiomeric excesses were observed in samples that contained lower abundances (tens of ppb) of a given amino acid enantiomer. In the present work, we describe

  6. Gallic acid: molecular rival of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sharad; Singh, Amit; Mishra, Abha

    2013-05-01

    Gallic acid, a predominant polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in animal models and in vitro cancerous cell lines. The inhibitory effect of gallic acid on cancer cell growth is mediated via the modulation of genes which encodes for cell cycle, metastasis, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Gallic acid inhibits activation of NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways along with the activity of COX, ribonucleotide reductase and GSH. Moreover, gallic acid activates ATM kinase signaling pathways to prevent the processes of carcinogenesis. The data so far available, both from in vivo and in vitro studies, indicate that this dietary polyphenol could be promising agent in the field of cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Phytanic acid metabolism in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Komen, Jasper; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2011-09-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid which cannot be beta-oxidized due to the presence of the first methyl group at the 3-position. Instead, phytanic acid undergoes alpha-oxidation to produce pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid) plus CO(2). Pristanic acid is a 2-methyl branched-chain fatty acid which can undergo beta-oxidation via sequential cycles of beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria. The mechanism of alpha-oxidation has been resolved in recent years as reviewed in this paper, although some of the individual enzymatic steps remain to be identified. Furthermore, much has been learned in recent years about the permeability properties of the peroxisomal membrane with important consequences for the alpha-oxidation process. Finally, we present new data on the omega-oxidation of phytanic acid making use of a recently generated mouse model for Refsum disease in which the gene encoding phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase has been disrupted.

  8. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  9. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  10. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1980-10-07

    An acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method use an emulsion of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C8 to C18 primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction time of the acid with an acid soluble formation. The composition and method aspects are both affected by the inclusion in the emulsion of an effective amount of a nonionic surfactant. Specifically, the emulsion resides in a composition for acidizing a subterranean formation, the composition being of the acidizing solution-in-oil emulsion type containing an effective amount of an alkyl C8 to C18 primary amine to reduce the normal reaction rate of the emulsion, and an effective amount of at least one diethanolamide of at least one C8 to C18 fatty acid so that the emulsion substantially completely breaks when the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially spent as a result of reaction with such a formation. 19 claims.

  11. Highly Energetic, Low Sensitivity Aromatic Peroxy Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha H; Stiasny, Benedikt; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Martin, Philip D; Klapötke, Thomas M; Winter, Charles H

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis, structure, and energetic materials properties of a series of aromatic peroxy acid compounds are described. Benzene-1,3,5-tris(carboperoxoic) acid is a highly sensitive primary energetic material, with impact and friction sensitivities similar to those of triacetone triperoxide. By contrast, benzene-1,4-bis(carboperoxoic) acid, 4-nitrobenzoperoxoic acid, and 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid are much less sensitive, with impact and friction sensitivities close to those of the secondary energetic material 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Additionally, the calculated detonation velocities of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoperoxoic acid exceed that of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. The solid-state structure of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid contains intermolecular O-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds and numerous N⋅⋅⋅O, C⋅⋅⋅O, and O⋅⋅⋅O close contacts. These attractive lattice interactions may account for the less sensitive nature of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid.

  12. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

  13. Replenishing Humic Acids in Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Susic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, it was commonly believed that humic acids were formed in soils by the microbial conversion of plant lignins. However, an experiment to test whether these humic acids were formed prior to plant matter reaching the soil was never reported until the late 1980s (and then only as a side issue, even though humic acids were first isolated and reported in 1786. This was a serious omission, and led to a poor understanding of how the humic acid content of soils could be maintained or increased for optimum fertility. In this study, commercial sugar cane mulch and kelp extracts were extracted with alkali and analyzed for humic acid content. Humic acids in the extracts were positively identified by fluorescence spectrophotometry, and this demonstrated that humic acids are formed in senescent plant and algal matter before they reach the soil, where they are then strongly bound to the soil and are also resistant to microbial metabolism. Humic acids are removed from soils by wind and water erosion, and by water leaching, which means that they must be regularly replenished. This study shows that soils can be replenished or fortified with humic acids simply by recycling plant and algal matter, or by adding outside sources of decomposed plant or algal matter such as composts, mulch, peat, and lignite coals.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of vanillylmandelic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolentinis, Michalis K; Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Tsitou, Natalia Ch; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Kolettis, Theofilos M; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2013-03-05

    The main catecholamine end-metabolites have been considered biologically inactive, but accumulated evidence indicates a variety of pharmacological actions after exogenous administration. We examined the dose-related haemodynamic effects of vanillylmandelic acid in the in vivo rat-model. One hundred and sixteen Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were studied under continuous electrocardiographic monitoring; invasive blood pressure was recorded for 60 min through a catheter in the right common carotid artery. Measurements were performed at baseline and after vanillylmandelic acid (1, 10, 100mg/kg) and homovanillic acid (10mg/kg) intra-arterial administration. To examine the underlying mechanisms, the haemodynamic effects were compared with those (a) after trimetazidine administration, which has similar structure due to a tri-methylated phenolic ring; (b) after epinephrine and isoprenaline administration following vanillylmandelic acid pretreatment; (c) after vanillylmandelic acid administration post-bilateral vagotomy. Vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and (to a lesser extent) trimetazidine decreased heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. This effect was blunted in vagotomized animals. Comparable effects were noted in heart rate and blood pressure after adrenaline and isoprenaline infusion, with and without vanillylmandelic acid-pretreatment. In conclusion, vanillylmandelic acid administration decreases heart rate dose-dependently, mediated by increased vagal tone, without α- or β-adrenergic-receptor blocking effects. The pharmacological properties of compounds with a mono- and tri-methylated phenolic ring merit further investigation.

  15. Phytic acid increases mucin and endogenous amino acid losses from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Edward M; Asem, Elikplimi K; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2009-03-01

    The influence of the form of phytic acid on the regulation of mucin and endogenous losses of amino acids, nitrogen and energy in chickens was investigated. Forty-eight 10-week-old male broilers were grouped by weight into eight blocks of six cages with one bird per cage. Birds received by intubation six dextrose-based combinations of phytic acid and phytase arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial consisting of phytic acid form (no phytic acid, 1.0 g free phytic acid or 1.3 g magnesium-potassium phytate) and phytase (0 or 1000 units). Each bird received the assigned combination added to 25 g dextrose at each of the two feedings on the first day of experimentation. All excreta were collected continuously for 54 h following feeding and frozen until analysed. Frozen excreta were thawed, pooled for each bird, lyophilised, ground, and analysed for DM, energy, nitrogen, amino acids, mucin, and sialic and uric acids. Chickens fed either magnesium-potassium phytate or free phytic acid showed increased (P phytate than with free phytic acid treatment. Both phytic acid treatments also increased (P < 0.05) endogenous loss of threonine, proline and serine. In conclusion, the form of phytic acid fed to chickens affects the extent of mucin and endogenous amino acid losses from the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Identification of beer bitter acids regulating mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica; Hell, Johannes; Liszt, Kathrin I; Dresel, Michael; Pignitter, Marc; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-02-15

    Beer, one of the most consumed beverages worldwide, has been shown to stimulate gastric acid secretion. Although organic acids, formed by fermentation of glucose, are known to be stimulants of gastric acid secretion, very little is known about the effects of different types of beer or the active constituents thereof. In the present study, we compared the effects of different beers on mechanisms of gastric acid secretion. To investigate compound-specific effects on mechanisms of gastric acid secretion, organic acids and bitter compounds were quantified by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS and tested in human gastric cancer cells (HGT-1) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye which determines the intracellular pH as an indicator of proton secretion. The expression of relevant genes, coding the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase, ATP4A, the histamine receptor, HRH2, the acetylcholine receptor, CHRM3, and the somatostatin receptor, SSTR2, was determined by qPCR. Ethanol and the organic acids succinic acid, malic acid, and citric acid were demonstrated to contribute to some extent to the effect of beer. The bitter acids comprising α-, β-, and iso-α-acids were identified as potential key components promoting gastric acid secretion and up-regulation of CHRM3 gene expression by a maximum factor of 2.01 compared to that of untreated control cells with a correlation to their respective bitterness.

  17. Different impacts of short-chain fatty acids on saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Tan, Yanzhen; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Guanglei; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu

    2013-10-16

    Aurantiochytrium is an important docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) producer containing two kinds of fatty acid synthesis pathways, that is, the fatty acid synthase pathway (FAS) for saturated fatty acid synthesis and the polyketide synthase pathway (PKS) for polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To understand the regulation mechanism between the two pathways, the impacts of six short-chain fatty acids on the fatty acid synthesis of Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 were studied. All short-chain fatty acids showed little effect on the cell growth, but some of them significantly affected lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition. Pentanoic acid and isovaleric acid greatly inhibited the synthesis of saturated fatty acids, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis was not affected. Analysis of malic enzyme activity, which supplied NADPH for saturated fatty acids biosynthesis, indicated that the two fatty acid synthesis pathways can utilize different substrates and possess independent sources of NADPH.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R A; Neumann, M A; Lien, E L; Boyd, K A; Tu, W C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (∼2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%).

  19. Amino acid-bile acid based molecules: extremely narrow surfactant nanotubes formed by a phenylalanine-substituted cholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Leana; D'Annibale, Andrea; Schillén, Karin; Olsson, Ulf; Sennato, Simona; Pavel, Nicolae V; Galantini, Luciano

    2012-12-21

    An amino acid-substituted bile acid forms tubular aggregates with inner and outer diameters of about 3 and 6 nm. The diameters are unusually small for surfactant self-assembled tubes. The results enhance the spectrum of applications of supramolecular tubules and open up possibilities for investigating a novel class of biological amphiphiles.

  20. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  1. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  2. Determination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in preparations containing amino acids: the molecular weight characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomaria, A; Nepravishta, R; Mazzanti, U; Marchetti, M; Piccioli, P; Paci, M

    2014-10-15

    Several pharmaceutical preparations contain hyaluronic acid in the presence of a large variety of low molecular weight charged molecules like amino acids. In these mixtures, it is particularly difficult to determine the concentration and the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid fragments. In fact zwitterionic compounds in high concentration behave by masking the hyaluronic acid due to the electrostatic interactions between amino acids and hyaluronic acid. In such conditions the common colorimetric test of the hyaluronic acid determination appears ineffective and in the (1)H NMR spectra the peaks of the polymer disappear completely. By a simple separation procedure the presence of hyaluronic acid was revealed by the DMAB test and (1)H NMR while its average molecular weight in the final product was determined by DOSY NMR spectroscopy alone. The latter determination is very important due to the healthy effects of some sizes of this polymer's fragments.

  3. Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Christensen, L P; Meyer, A S;

    2000-01-01

    of the analyzed components were observed among the different rye varieties and also between different harvest years. However, the content of phenolic acids in the analyzed rye varieties was narrow compared to cereals such as wheat and barley. The concentration of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid......The contents of pnenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline hydrolysis in kernels of 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties grown in one location in Denmark during 1997 and 1998. Significant variations (P ... ranged from 900 to 1170 microgram g(-1) dry matter. The content in sinapic acid ranged from 70 to 140 microgram g(-1) dry matter, p-coumaric acid ranged from 40 to 70 microgram g(-1) dry matter, and caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids were all detected in concentrations less...

  4. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  5. Covalent interactions between proteins and oxidation products of caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prigent, S.V.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The interactions between phenolic compounds and proteins can modify protein properties important in the food industry. To understand the effects of these interactions, the covalent interactions between caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, CQA) oxidised by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at ac

  6. Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sam H.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the roots of the common names of organic compounds most likely to be encountered by undergraduate organic chemistry students. Includes information for 19 amino acids, 17 aromatic compounds, and 21 carboxylic acids. (WRM)

  7. Mechanism of arylboronic acid-catalyzed amidation reaction between carboxylic acids and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yu, Hai-Zhu; Fu, Yao; Guo, Qing-Xiang

    2013-04-07

    Arylboronic acids were found to be efficient catalysts for the amidation reactions between carboxylic acids and amines. Theoretical calculations have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of this catalytic process. It is found that the formation of the acyloxyboronic acid intermediates from the carboxylic acid and the arylboronic acid is kinetically facile but thermodynamically unfavorable. Removal of water (as experimentally accomplished by using molecular sieves) is therefore essential for overall transformation. Subsequently C-N bond formation between the acyloxyboronic acid intermediates and the amine occurs readily to generate the desired amide product. The cleavage of the C-O bond of the tetracoordinate acyl boronate intermediates is the rate-determining step in this process. Our analysis indicates that the mono(acyloxy)boronic acid is the key intermediate. The high catalytic activity of ortho-iodophenylboronic acid is attributed to the steric effect as well as the orbital interaction between the iodine atom and the boron atom.

  8. Positional specificity of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidic acid from rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possmayer, F.; Scherphof, G.L.; Dubbelman, T.M.A.R.; Golde, L.M.G. van; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1969-01-01

    1. 1. The relative incorporation of a number of radioactive fatty acids into the different glycerolipids of rat liver microsomes has been investigated. 2. 2. Studies on the distribution of the radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid showed

  9. Effects of acid diffusibility and affinity to cellulose on strength loss of polycarboxylic acid crosslinked fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bolin; Zhao, Cunyi; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-25

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) imparts good anti-wrinkle property to cotton fabrics and results in significant strength loss due to cross-linking and acid degradation of cellulose simultaneously. However, benzophenone-3,3',4,4'- tetracarboxylic acid (BPTCA), an aromatic acid, crosslinks cellulose effectively but causes less strength loss to the products under similar conditions. The difference in damages to cellulose fibers was analyzed by using diffusibility and corresponding affinity of the acids to cellulose fibers, which were estimated by their molecular sizes and Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). Both experimental results and theoretical speculations revealed consistent agreement, indicating that smaller acid molecules could diffuse into cellulose fiber more rapidly and deeply, resulting in more acid degradation. Besides, the aliphatic acid such as BTCA has higher molecular affinity than BPTCA to cellulose, causing additional more degradation of cellulose. Both factors are potential reasons of the observed more severe tensile strength loss of the BTCA treated cotton fabrics.

  10. Monitoring Homovanillic Acid and Vanillylmandelic Acid in Human Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simple, rapid and low-cost method of separation and determination of homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid in human urine was developed based on capillary zone electrophoresis / amperometric detection with high sensitivity and good resolution.

  11. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio.

  12. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  13. BNL Citric Acid Technology: Pilot Scale Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A J; DODGE,; J, C; GILLOW, J B; FORRESTER, K E

    1999-09-24

    The objective of this project is to remove toxic metals such as lead and cadmium from incinerator ash using the Citric Acid Process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this process toxic metals in bottom ash from the incineration of municipal solid waste were first extracted with citric acid followed by biodegradation of the citric acid-metal extract by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens for metals recovery. The ash contained the following metals: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, and Zn. Optimization of the Citric Acid Process parameters which included citric acid molarity, contact time, the impact of mixing aggressiveness during extraction and pretreatment showed lead and cadmium removal from incinerator ash of >90%. Seeding the treated ash with P. fluorescens resulted in the removal of residual citric acid and biostabilization of any leachable lead, thus allowing it to pass EPA?s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Biodegradation of the citric acid extract removed >99% of the lead from the extract as well as other metals such as Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ti, and Zn. Speciation of the bioprecipitated lead by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure at the National Synchrotron Light Source showed that the lead is predominantly associated with the phosphate and carboxyl functional groups in a stable form. Citric acid was completely recovered (>99%) from the extract by sulfide precipitation technique and the extraction efficiency of recovered citric acid is similar to that of the fresh citric acid. Recycling of the citric acid should result in considerable savings in the overall treatment cost. We have shown the potential application of this technology to remove and recover the metal contaminants from incinerator ash as well as from other heavy metal bearing wastes (i.e., electric arc furnace dust from steel industry) or soils. Information developed from this project is being applied to demonstrate the remediation of

  14. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  15. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation.

  16. Interaction of aqueous caustic with acidic oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiwetelu, C.I.; Hornof, V.; Neale, G.H. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    High content of native carboxylic acids make heavy oils acidic. It is generally accepted that these acids react with caustic reagents present in floodwater, resulting in the in-situ formation of surface active soap anions. When these adsorb at the oil-water interface, they can drastically lower the interfacial tension to the point where residual oil is mobilized. The most intriguing aspect of these acid/caustic interactions is the dynamic nature of the interfacial tension. Given a sufficiently long time, the dynamic tension would attain an equilibrium state. Measurements were made of the equilibrium interfacial tensions of acidified oleic phases contacted with a wide range of caustic concentrations in the aqueous phase. A novel measurement technique (photomicropendography) was used, and data analysis was carried out by nonlinear regression. The present approach utilizes pre-selected fatty acids in a defined oleic phase, enabling quantification of relevant model parameters and facilitating evaluation of key variables influencing interfacial activity. The acid ionization constant and the equilibrium constant governing the formation of inactive soap species were found to be the most important parameters for systems of oleic and lauric acids dissolved in hexadecane. Regression analysis showed that the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of oleic acid ranged from 6.2 to 6.9 and was dependent on the working acid concentration. For lauric acid, the pKa values were in the range of 9 to 11 depending on the caustic concentration of the aqueous phase. Species aggregation in both the oleic and aqueous phases is mostly responsible for the variations in pKa values. 30 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Selective esterification of non-conjugated carboxylic acids in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG ZeWang; ZHAO XinQi; BI Hua

    2008-01-01

    Non-conjugated carboxylic acids are selectively esterified in good yields in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids by stirring over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid in dichloromethane at room temperature.

  18. Selective esterification of non-conjugated carboxylic acids in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-conjugated carboxylic acids are selectively esterified in good yields in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids by stirring over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid in di-chloromethane at room temperature.

  19. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with C-13-enriched glucose and N-15-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and C-13- and N-15 content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholip...

  20. Amino acids inhibit kynurenic acid formation via suppression of kynurenine uptake or kynurenic acid synthesis in rat brain in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Airi; Okamoto, Misaki; Kanatani, Yuka; Sano, Mitsue; Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increase of brain KYNA levels is involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. KYNA-producing enzymes have broad substrate specificity for amino acids, and brain uptake of kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is via large neutral amino acid transporters (LAT). In the present study, to find out amino acids with the potential to suppress KYNA production, we comprehensively investigated the effects of proteinogenic amino acids on KYNA formation and KYN uptake in rat brain in vitro. Cortical slices of rat brain were incubated for 2 h in Krebs-Ringer buffer containing a physiological concentration of KYN with individual amino acids. Ten out of 19 amino acids (specifically, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine, alanine, cysteine, glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate) significantly reduced KYNA formation at 1 mmol/L. These amino acids showed inhibitory effects in a dose-dependent manner, and partially inhibited KYNA production at physiological concentrations. Leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, all LAT substrates, also reduced tissue KYN concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with their inhibitory rates for KYN uptake significantly correlated with KYNA formation. These results suggest that five LAT substrates inhibit KYNA formation via blockade of KYN transport, while the other amino acids act via blockade of the KYNA synthesis reaction in brain. Amino acids can be a good tool to modulate brain function by manipulation of KYNA formation in the brain. This approach may be useful in the treatment and prevention of neurological and psychiatric diseases associated with increased KYNA levels.