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Sample records for acid pdb entries

  1. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M

    2018-01-01

    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbsum. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  2. PDBe: improved accessibility of macromolecular structure data from PDB and EMDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Sameer; van Ginkel, Glen; Alhroub, Younes; Battle, Gary M; Berrisford, John M; Conroy, Matthew J; Dana, Jose M; Gore, Swanand P; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Haslam, Pauline; Hendrickx, Pieter M S; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Mir, Saqib; Fernandez Montecelo, Manuel A; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Oldfield, Thomas J; Patwardhan, Ardan; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Sen, Sanchayita; Slowley, Robert A; Wainwright, Michael E; Deshpande, Mandar S; Iudin, Andrii; Sahni, Gaurav; Salavert Torres, Jose; Hirshberg, Miriam; Mak, Lora; Nadzirin, Nurul; Armstrong, David R; Clark, Alice R; Smart, Oliver S; Korir, Paul K; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2016-01-04

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (http://pdbe.org) accepts and annotates depositions of macromolecular structure data in the PDB and EMDB archives and enriches, integrates and disseminates structural information in a variety of ways. The PDBe website has been redesigned based on an analysis of user requirements, and now offers intuitive access to improved and value-added macromolecular structure information. Unique value-added information includes lists of reviews and research articles that cite or mention PDB entries as well as access to figures and legends from full-text open-access publications that describe PDB entries. A powerful new query system not only shows all the PDB entries that match a given query, but also shows the 'best structures' for a given macromolecule, ligand complex or sequence family using data-quality information from the wwPDB validation reports. A PDBe RESTful API has been developed to provide unified access to macromolecular structure data available in the PDB and EMDB archives as well as value-added annotations, e.g. regarding structure quality and up-to-date cross-reference information from the SIFTS resource. Taken together, these new developments facilitate unified access to macromolecular structure data in an intuitive way for non-expert users and support expert users in analysing macromolecular structure data. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. PROSITE - PDB SEQRES matching - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us DB-SPIRE PROSITE - PDB SEQRES matching Data detail Data name PROSITE - PDB SEQRES matching D...QRES matches a PROSITE entry Data file File name: dbspire_prosite_pdb_seq.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archi...PDB chain pdbMatchLine Sequence numbers of PDB entries/chains whose SEQRES matches this PROSITE entry About Thi...s Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us PROSITE - PDB SEQRES matching - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive ...

  4. BLOCKS - PDB matching - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us DB-SPIRE BLOCKS - PDB matching Data detail Data name BLOCKS - PDB matching DOI 10.18908/lsdb...a.nbdc00411-006 Description of data contents PDB entries/chains which matches a BLOCKS entry Data file File ...name: dbspire_blocks_pdb.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/dbspire/LATEST/dbspire_blocks_pdb.... ID pdbChain PDB Chain About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of Thi

  5. BLOCKS - PDB SEQRES matching - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us DB-SPIRE BLOCKS - PDB SEQRES matching Data detail Data name BLOCKS - PDB SEQRES matching DOI...ES matches a BLOCKS entry Data file File name: dbspire_blocks_pdb_seq.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archi... Sequence numbers of PDB entries/chains whose SEQRES matches this BLOCKS entry About This Database Database ...Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us BLOCKS - PDB SEQRES matching - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  7. Protein Data Bank (PDB): The Single Global Macromolecular Structure Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Stephen K; Berman, Helen M; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Markley, John L; Nakamura, Haruki; Velankar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB)--the single global repository of experimentally determined 3D structures of biological macromolecules and their complexes--was established in 1971, becoming the first open-access digital resource in the biological sciences. The PDB archive currently houses ~130,000 entries (May 2017). It is managed by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank organization (wwPDB; wwpdb.org), which includes the RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB; rcsb.org), the Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj; pdbj.org), the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe; pdbe.org), and BioMagResBank (BMRB; www.bmrb.wisc.edu). The four wwPDB partners operate a unified global software system that enforces community-agreed data standards and supports data Deposition, Biocuration, and Validation of ~11,000 new PDB entries annually (deposit.wwpdb.org). The RCSB PDB currently acts as the archive keeper, ensuring disaster recovery of PDB data and coordinating weekly updates. wwPDB partners disseminate the same archival data from multiple FTP sites, while operating complementary websites that provide their own views of PDB data with selected value-added information and links to related data resources. At present, the PDB archives experimental data, associated metadata, and 3D-atomic level structural models derived from three well-established methods: crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and electron microscopy (3DEM). wwPDB partners are working closely with experts in related experimental areas (small-angle scattering, chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry, Forster energy resonance transfer or FRET, etc.) to establish a federation of data resources that will support sustainable archiving and validation of 3D structural models and experimental data derived from integrative or hybrid methods.

  8. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Vikas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Results Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous αL helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into αR helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an αR conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a βR conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to αL helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. Conclusion By examining left-handed α-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed α-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  9. Alternate mechanism for amino acid entry into Neurospora crassa: extracellular deamination and subsequent keto acid transport.

    OpenAIRE

    DeBusk, R M; Brown, D T; DeBusk, A G; Penderghast, R D

    1981-01-01

    The growth of the pm nbg mutant strain of Neurospora crassa was inhibited by the amino acid analog para-fluorophenylalanine despite the fact that none of the three constitutive amino acid permeases is functional in this strain. This observation led to the detection of both a deaminase which was released into the growth medium in response to para-fluorophenylalanine and a keto acid transport system which allowed entry of the resulting keto acid into the cell. The transported keto acid was reco...

  10. Outcome of the First wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul D; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; Bell, Jeffrey A; Berman, Helen M; Bhat, Talapady N; Blaney, Jeff M; Bolton, Evan; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, David; Burley, Stephen K; Case, David A; Clark, Kirk L; Darden, Tom; Emsley, Paul; Feher, Victoria A; Feng, Zukang; Groom, Colin R; Harris, Seth F; Hendle, Jorg; Holder, Thomas; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Krojer, Tobias; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Mark, Alan E; Markley, John L; Miller, Matthew; Minor, Wladek; Montelione, Gaetano T; Murshudov, Garib; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki; Nicholls, Anthony; Nicklaus, Marc; Nolte, Robert T; Padyana, Anil K; Peishoff, Catherine E; Pieniazek, Susan; Read, Randy J; Shao, Chenghua; Sheriff, Steven; Smart, Oliver; Soisson, Stephen; Spurlino, John; Stouch, Terry; Svobodova, Radka; Tempel, Wolfram; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Tronrud, Dale; Velankar, Sameer; Ward, Suzanna C; Warren, Gregory L; Westbrook, John D; Williams, Pamela; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine

    2016-04-05

    Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive, ∼75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery and design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron-density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide PDB/Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30-31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the PDB? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. sc-PDB: a database for identifying variations and multiplicity of 'druggable' binding sites in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslamani, Jamel; Rognan, Didier; Kellenberger, Esther

    2011-05-01

    The sc-PDB database is an annotated archive of druggable binding sites extracted from the Protein Data Bank. It contains all-atoms coordinates for 8166 protein-ligand complexes, chosen for their geometrical and physico-chemical properties. The sc-PDB provides a functional annotation for proteins, a chemical description for ligands and the detailed intermolecular interactions for complexes. The sc-PDB now includes a hierarchical classification of all the binding sites within a functional class. The sc-PDB entries were first clustered according to the protein name indifferent of the species. For each cluster, we identified dissimilar sites (e.g. catalytic and allosteric sites of an enzyme). SCOPE AND APPLICATIONS: The classification of sc-PDB targets by binding site diversity was intended to facilitate chemogenomics approaches to drug design. In ligand-based approaches, it avoids comparing ligands that do not share the same binding site. In structure-based approaches, it permits to quantitatively evaluate the diversity of the binding site definition (variations in size, sequence and/or structure). The sc-PDB database is freely available at: http://bioinfo-pharma.u-strasbg.fr/scPDB.

  12. Tannic Acid Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Entry into Huh7.5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanghu; Chen, Ren; Hagedorn, Curt H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Although antiviral therapy has dramatically improved recently, a number of patients remain untreated and some do not clear infection with treatment. Viral entry is an essential step in initiating and maintaining chronic HCV infections. One dramatic example of this is the nearly 100% infection of newly transplanted livers in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HCV entry inhibitors could play a critical role in preventing HCV infection of newly transplanted livers. Tannic acid, a polymer of gallic acid and glucose molecules, is a plant-derived polyphenol that defends some plants from insects and microbial infections. It has been shown to have a variety of biological effects, including antiviral activity, and is used as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages. In this study, we demonstrate that tannic acid is a potent inhibitor of HCV entry into Huh7.5 cells at low concentrations (IC50 5.8 μM). It also blocks cell-to-cell spread in infectious HCV cell cultures, but does not inhibit HCV replication following infection. Moreover, experimental results indicate that tannic acid inhibits an early step of viral entry, such as the docking of HCV at the cell surface. Gallic acid, tannic acid's structural component, did not show any anti-HCV activity including inhibition of HCV entry or replication at concentrations up to 25 μM. It is possible the tannin structure is related on the effect on HCV inhibition. Tannic acid, which is widely distributed in plants and foods, has HCV antiviral activity in cell culture at low micromolar concentrations, may provide a relative inexpensive adjuvant to direct-acting HCV antivirals and warrants future investigation.

  13. Proteins of Unknown Function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB: An Inventory of True Uncharacterized Proteins and Computational Tools for Their Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nadzirin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files that were categorized under “unknown function” are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  14. Nonsulfated, cinnamic acid-based lignins are potent antagonists of HSV-1 entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jay N; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Desai, Umesh R

    2010-05-10

    In an effort to discover macromolecular mimetics of heparan sulfate (HS), we previously designed sulfated lignins (Raghuraman et al. Biomacromolecules 2007, 8, 1759-1763). To probe the relevance of sulfate groups of HS in viral entry, lignins completely devoid of sulfate moieties, and yet possessing an electrostatic surface equivalent to that of HS, were designed. Two carboxylated lignins based on a 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid scaffold were synthesized using enzymatic oxidative coupling in high yields, fractionated according to their sizes, and tested in cellular assays of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. The two carboxylated lignins were found to not only inhibit HSV-1 entry into mammalian cells (IC(50) = 8-56 nM), but were more potent than sulfated lignins. In addition, shorter carboxylated lignins were found to be as active as the longer chains, suggesting that structural features, in addition to carboxylate groups, may be important. It can be expected that carboxylated lignins also antagonize the entry of other enveloped viruses, for example, HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus, and hepatitis C virus, that utilize HS to gain entry into cells. The results present major opportunities for developing lignin-based antiviral formulations for topical use.

  15. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1602 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:346-794(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...346-794(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:346-794(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  16. PDB: CBRC-PABE-07-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:377-801(Identity=9...6%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...377-801(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:377-801(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  17. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-02-0275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:374-798(Identity=9...6%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...374-798(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:374-798(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  18. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-05-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:383-810(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...383-810(Identity=91%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:383-810(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  19. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-19-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:352-778(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...352-778(Identity=91%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:352-778(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  20. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-1094 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:394-820(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  1. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-01-0507 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:324-795(Identity=9...3%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...324-795(Identity=92%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:324-795(Identity=92%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  2. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-2184 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=91%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:381-814(Identity=9...1%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...381-814(Identity=90%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:381-814(Identity=90%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  3. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-04-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=95%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:385-812(Identity=9...5%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  4. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-37-0329 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=87%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:577-967(Identity=8...7%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  5. PDB: CBRC-AGAM-03-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:493-923(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...493-923(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:493-923(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  6. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1491 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:337-792(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...337-792(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:337-792(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  7. PDB: CBRC-XTRO-01-3362 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=84%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:362-748(Identity=8...4%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...362-750(Identity=84%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:362-750(Identity=84%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  8. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1549 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1549 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain:A (NMR...),Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-01-0096 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0096 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain:A (NMR...),Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-PABE-11-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-11-0036 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1941 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1941 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-10-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-10-0036 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0137 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR...),Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity...=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-PABE-08-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0030 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:45-139(Identity...=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity...=80%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  17. The young person's guide to the PDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB), created in 1971 when merely seven protein crystal structures were known, today holds over 120, 000 experimentally-determined three-dimensional models of macromolecules, including gigantic structures comprised of hundreds of thousands of atoms, such as ribosomes and viruses. Most of the deposits come from X-ray crystallography experiments, with important contributions also made by NMR spectroscopy and, recently, by the fast growing Cryo-Electron Microscopy. Although the determination of a macromolecular crystal structure is now facilitated by advanced experimental tools and by sophisticated software, it is still a highly complicated research process requiring specialized training, skill, experience and a bit of luck. Understanding the plethora of structural information provided by the PDB requires that its users (consumers) have at least a rudimentary initiation. This is the purpose of this educational overview.

  18. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-37-0154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:3DU7 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB...:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:2WBE Chain:A (EM Resolution=9.40),Reg...ion:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:400-819(Id...entity=93%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.95),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:400-819(Identity=93%

  19. PDB: CBRC-FRUB-02-0776 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:A (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolu...tion=1.90),Region:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Re...gion:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3DU7 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:1326...-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.95),Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:1326-1

  20. PDB: CBRC-DRER-10-0153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3DU7,3E22, Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resol...ution=28.00),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),...Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:383-83...1(Identity=93%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.58),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.20),Region:383-821(Identit

  1. PDB: CBRC-FRUB-02-0211 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3E22, Region:369-811(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:369-814(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolut...ion=1.90),Region:369-814(Identity=95%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Regio...n:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:369-814(I...dentity=94%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:369-814(Identity=94%

  2. PDB: CBRC-ACAR-01-1016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:331-779(Identity=95%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:331-779(Identity=97%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolut...ion=1.90),Region:331-779(Identity=97%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Regio...n:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:331-779(I...dentity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:331-779(Identity=96%

  3. PDB: CBRC-TNIG-22-0159 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2WBE,3DU7,2E4H, Region:346-770(Identity=93%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:346-770(Identity...=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:346-770(Identity=95%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Region:346-770(Ident...ity=94%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:346-770(Identity...=94%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A ...(EM Resolution=3.50),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:346-770(Identity

  4. Aquaglyceroporins Are the Entry Pathway of Boric Acid in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiccobetre, Sabrina; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lang, Florian; Figarella, Katherine; Uzcátegui, Néstor L

    2017-05-01

    The boron element possesses a range of different effects on living beings. It is essential to beneficial at low concentrations, but toxic at excessive concentrations. Recently, some boron-based compounds have been identified as promising molecules against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness. However, until now, the boron metabolism and its access route into the parasite remained elusive. The present study addressed the permeability of T. brucei aquaglyceroporins (TbAQPs) for boric acid, the main natural boron species. To this end, the three TbAQPs were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our findings in both expression systems showed that all three TbAQPs are permeable for boric acid. Especially TbAQP2 is highly permeable for this compound, displaying one of the highest conductances reported for a solute in these channels. Additionally, T. brucei aquaglyceroporin activities were sensitive to pH. Taken together, these results establish that TbAQPs are channels for boric acid and are highly efficient entry pathways for boron into the parasite. Our findings stress the importance of studying the physiological functions of boron and their derivatives in T. brucei, as well as the pharmacological implications of their uptake by trypanosome aquaglyceroporins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengli [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States); Luecke, Christian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet (Germany); Baier, Leslie J. [NIDDK, NIH, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch (United States); Sacchettini, James C. [Texas A and M University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States); Hamilton, James A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States)

    1997-04-15

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel {beta}-strands which form two nearly orthogonal {beta}-sheets of five strands each, and two short {alpha}-helices that connect the {beta}-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two {beta}-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand.

  6. PDB: CBRC-LAFR-01-0276 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW, Region:1-299(Identity=83%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.95),Region:1-299(Identity=83%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-299(Identity=83%) PD...B:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-299(Identity=83%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...ion=2.80),Region:1-299(Identity=83%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regio...n:1-299(Identity=83%) PDB:1HZX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-299(Ident

  7. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0391 1FFX,1IA0,1JFF,1SA0,1SA1,1TUB,1TVK,2WBE,1Z2B,3DCO,3DU7,3E22, Region:421-804(Identity...=82%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1IA0 Chai...n:B (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:421-804(Identity...=82%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:421-804(Identity=82...%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.20),Region:421-788(Identity=82%) PDB:1TUB Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.70),Region:421-788(Identit

  8. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-06-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-06-0015 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Res...olution=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-06-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-06-0019 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Res...olution=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-06-0013 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:21-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.10),Region:21-47(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:21-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:23-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.50),Region:26-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Res...olution=2.40),Region:32-40(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-06-0012 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Res...olution=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-05-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0018 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Res...olution=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-0359 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0359 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Res...olution=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-1460 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1460 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:22-118(Identity=85%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.76),Region:22-118(Identity=85%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:22-118(Identity=85%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-0928 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0928 1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:41-61(Identity=80%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray... Resolution=3.50),Region:44-61(Identity=88%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:50-58(Identity=88%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-10-0233 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-10-0233 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:26-121(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:26-121(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:26-121(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-04-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-04-0013 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-PABE-18-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-18-0028 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1589 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1589 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:367-375(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:367-375(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:367-375(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-09-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-09-0011 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:39-134(Identity=94%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:39-134(Identity=94%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:39-134(Identity=94%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-11-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-11-0131 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:41-136(Identity=96%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:41-136(Identity=96%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:41-136(Identity=96%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-OPRI-01-1523 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1523 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-03-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-03-0017 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-17-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-17-0035 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-02-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0036 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-09-0212 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-09-0212 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-18-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-18-0028 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:27-122(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:27-122(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:27-122(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-EEUR-01-1463 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1463 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:33-126(Identity=83%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:33-126(Identity=83%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:33-126(Identity=83%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-23-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-23-0006 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-PABE-04-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-04-0051 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-0880 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0880 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-1356 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1356 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:417-425(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:417-425(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:417-425(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1625 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1625 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-0834 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0834 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-30-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-30-0010 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:14-109(Identity=81%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:14-109(Identity=81%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:14-109(Identity=81%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-0319 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0319 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1208 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1208 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:24-119(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:24-119(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:24-119(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2355 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2355 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:46-141(Identity=92%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:46-141(Identity=92%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:46-141(Identity=92%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1677 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1677 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:89-184(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:89-184(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:89-184(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1574 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1574 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S, Region:1-294(Identity=90%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.40),Region:1-294(Identity=90%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-294(Identity=90%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-02-0161 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0161 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:31-126(Identity=87%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:31-126(Identity=87%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:31-126(Identity=87%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-0897 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0897 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:408-416(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:408-416(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:408-416(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-16-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-16-0030 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A... (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:85-449(Identity...=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:108-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.40),Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-367(Ide...ntity=98%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-367(Identity=97%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-06-0027 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:126-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.40),Region:126-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:126-4...92(Identity=98%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:149-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.40),Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:32-398(...Identity=96%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:55-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.40),Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-365(Ide...ntity=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  9. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2nd generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent.The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal

  10. PDB: CBRC-STRI-01-2819 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2819 2K03,2K04,2K05,3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:1-38(Identity=84%...) PDB:2K03 Chain:B (NMR),Region:1-38(Identity=84%) PDB:2K04 Chain:B (NMR),Region:1-38(Identity=84%) PDB:2K05... Chain:B (NMR),Region:2-319(Identity=95%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.5),Region:2-319(Identity=95%)... PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-325(Identity=95%) PDB:3OE6 Chai...n:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-319(Identity=95%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1),Region:2-319(Identity=95%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-SARA-01-0838 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0838 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-330(...Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-0762 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0762 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:3-325(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-14-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-14-0054 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1210 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1210 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-PABE-08-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0035 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-1022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-1022 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1639 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1639 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-13-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-13-0058 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:10-3...29(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-04-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0074 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:18-3...40(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-13-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-13-0023 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-324(...Identity=94%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-01-0008 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-EEUR-01-1356 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1356 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:35-3...53(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-05-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-05-0006 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-02-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0054 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-03-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-03-0043 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-03-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-03-0009 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0019 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:...25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-05-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-05-0017 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-OCUN-01-0879 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0879 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:13-3...32(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-TSYR-01-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0036 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-55...1(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray ...Resolution=2.75),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-ETEL-01-1471 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1471 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:52-3...75(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-07-0089 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-07-0089 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-01-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-01-0060 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:6-332(...Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-10-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-10-0003 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1450 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1450 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:11...3-435(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-0300 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0300 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-271(...Identity=98%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-OPRI-01-1351 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1351 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23...-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1177 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1177 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1389 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1389 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=94%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-08-0108 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0108 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-TSYR-01-1259 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1259 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:1-306(...Identity=88%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1145 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1145 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-06-0098 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0098 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-1379 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1379 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-GGAL-01-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-01-0005 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-01-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-01-0027 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:...33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1190 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1190 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-48...5(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray ...Resolution=2.75),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-PABE-03-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-03-0008 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-330(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2536 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2536 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:10-3...30(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-1931 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1931 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:37-3...54(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-08-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-08-0048 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1532 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1532 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-0392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0392 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(...Identity=94%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-DNOV-01-3105 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-3105 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(...Identity=91%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1429 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1429 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2808 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2808 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-GGAL-07-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-07-0011 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:9-331(...Identity=81%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-VPAC-01-0675 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0675 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-332(...Identity=91%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-02-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-02-0002 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-04-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0056 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-MEUG-01-2439 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2439 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35...-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-ACAR-01-1082 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1082 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35...-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-LAFR-01-1328 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1328 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-317(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-07-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-07-0055 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1471 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1471 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-MEUG-01-2373 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2373 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-MEUG-01-0424 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0424 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:13-3...27(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-0390 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0390 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-02-0383 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0383 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-XTRO-01-3192 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3192 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23...-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-10-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-10-0011 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:13-3...35(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-15-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF, Region:1-351(Identity=87%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.95),Region:1-351(Identity=87%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-351(Identity=87...%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=85%) PDB:1EDX Ch...ain:A (NMR),Region:1-351(Identity=87%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-351(Identity=87%) P...DB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-351(Identity=87%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),

  14. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-1134 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=95%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=97%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=95%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  15. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-11-0073 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  16. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-04-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  17. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-0804 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=97%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  18. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-1431 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  19. PDB: CBRC-PABE-04-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  20. PDB: CBRC-CPOR-01-1479 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I36,3C9M,2J4Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-354(Identity=88%) PDB:2I37 Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Region:1-354(Identity=88%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-354(Identity...=88%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-354(Identity=88%) ...PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=87%) PDB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-354(Identity...=88%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-354(Identity=88%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  1. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-1800 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I36,3C9M,2J4Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-353(Identity=89%) PDB:2I37 Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Region:1-353(Identity=89%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-353(Identity...=89%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-353(Identity=89%) ...PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=82%) PDB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-353(Identity...=89%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-353(Identity=89%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  2. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-03-0075 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  3. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-1321 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I36,3C9M,2J4Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=92%) PDB:2I37 Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Region:1-348(Identity=92%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity...=92%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity=92%) ...PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=92%) PDB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity...=92%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity=92%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  4. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Lin, Song-Chow; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Anderson, Robert; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D

    2013-08-07

    We previously identified two hydrolyzable tannins, chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) that blocked herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry and spread. These compounds inhibited viral glycoprotein interactions with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Based on this property, we evaluated their antiviral efficacy against several different viruses known to employ GAGs for host cell entry. Extensive analysis of the tannins' mechanism of action was performed on a panel of viruses during the attachment and entry steps of infection. Virus-specific binding assays and the analysis of viral spread during treatment with these compounds were also conducted. CHLA and PUG were effective in abrogating infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV), measles virus (MV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), at μM concentrations and in dose-dependent manners without significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the natural compounds inhibited viral attachment, penetration, and spread, to different degrees for each virus. Specifically, the tannins blocked all these steps of infection for HCMV, HCV, and MV, but had little effect on the post-fusion spread of DENV and RSV, which could suggest intriguing differences in the roles of GAG-interactions for these viruses. CHLA and PUG may be of value as broad-spectrum antivirals for limiting emerging/recurring viruses known to engage host cell GAGs for entry. Further studies testing the efficacy of these tannins in vivo against certain viruses are justified.

  5. Structural changes of homodimers in the PDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Ryotaro; Amemiya, Takayuki; Horii, Tatsuya; Ota, Motonori

    2017-12-09

    Protein complexes are involved in various biological phenomena. These complexes are intrinsically flexible, and structural changes are essential to their functions. To perform a large-scale automated analysis of the structural changes of complexes, we combined two original methods. An application, SCPC, compares two structures of protein complexes and decides the match of binding mode. Another application, Motion Tree, identifies rigid-body motions in various sizes and magnitude from the two structural complexes with the same binding mode. This approach was applied to all available homodimers in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We defined two complex-specific motions: interface motion and subunit-spanning motion. In the former, each subunit of a complex constitutes a rigid body, and the relative movement between subunits occurs at the interface. In the latter, structural parts from distinct subunits constitute a rigid body, providing the relative movement spanning subunits. All structural changes were classified and examined. It was revealed that the complex-specific motions were common in the homodimers, detected in around 40% of families. The dimeric interfaces were likely to be small and flat for interface motion, while large and rugged for subunit-spanning motion. Interface motion was accompanied by a drastic change in contacts at the interface, while the change in the subunit-spanning motion was moderate. These results indicate that the interface properties of homodimers correlated with the type of complex-specific motion. The study demonstrates that the pipeline of SCPC and Motion Tree is useful for the massive analysis of structural change of protein complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The RCSB PDB information portal for structural genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouranov, Andrei; Xie, Lei; de la Cruz, Joanna; Chen, Li; Westbrook, John; Bourne, Philip E; Berman, Helen M

    2006-01-01

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) offers online tools, summary reports and target information related to the worldwide structural genomics initiatives from its portal at http://sg.pdb.org. There are currently three components to this site: Structural Genomics Initiatives contains information and links on each structural genomics site, including progress reports, target lists, target status, targets in the PDB and level of sequence redundancy; Targets provides combined target information, protocols and other data associated with protein structure determination; and Structures offers an assessment of the progress of structural genomics based on the functional coverage of the human genome by PDB structures, structural genomics targets and homology models. Functional coverage can be examined according to enzyme classification, gene ontology (biological process, cell component and molecular function) and disease.

  7. The RCSB PDB information portal for structural genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kouranov, Andrei; Xie, Lei; de la Cruz, Joanna; Chen, Li; Westbrook, John; Bourne, Philip E.; Berman, Helen M.

    2005-01-01

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) offers online tools, summary reports and target information related to the worldwide structural genomics initiatives from its portal at . There are currently three components to this site: Structural Genomics Initiatives contains information and links on each structural genomics site, including progress reports, target lists, target status, targets in the PDB and level of sequence redundancy; Targets provides combined target information, protocols and other da...

  8. Improving links between literature and biological data with text mining: a case study with GEO, PDB and MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Névéol, Aurélie; Wilbur, W John; Lu, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput experiments and bioinformatics techniques are creating an exploding volume of data that are becoming overwhelming to keep track of for biologists and researchers who need to access, analyze and process existing data. Much of the available data are being deposited in specialized databases, such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for microarrays or the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for protein structures and coordinates. Data sets are also being described by their authors in publications archived in literature databases such as MEDLINE and PubMed Central. Currently, the curation of links between biological databases and the literature mainly relies on manual labour, which makes it a time-consuming and daunting task. Herein, we analysed the current state of link curation between GEO, PDB and MEDLINE. We found that the link curation is heterogeneous depending on the sources and databases involved, and that overlap between sources is low, <50% for PDB and GEO. Furthermore, we showed that text-mining tools can automatically provide valuable evidence to help curators broaden the scope of articles and database entries that they review. As a result, we made recommendations to improve the coverage of curated links, as well as the consistency of information available from different databases while maintaining high-quality curation. Database URLs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/, http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/

  9. The PDB_REDO server for macromolecular structure model optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie P. Joosten

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The refinement and validation of a crystallographic structure model is the last step before the coordinates and the associated data are submitted to the Protein Data Bank (PDB. The success of the refinement procedure is typically assessed by validating the models against geometrical criteria and the diffraction data, and is an important step in ensuring the quality of the PDB public archive [Read et al. (2011, Structure, 19, 1395–1412]. The PDB_REDO procedure aims for `constructive validation', aspiring to consistent and optimal refinement parameterization and pro-active model rebuilding, not only correcting errors but striving for optimal interpretation of the electron density. A web server for PDB_REDO has been implemented, allowing thorough, consistent and fully automated optimization of the refinement procedure in REFMAC and partial model rebuilding. The goal of the web server is to help practicing crystallographers to improve their model prior to submission to the PDB. For this, additional steps were implemented in the PDB_REDO pipeline, both in the refinement procedure, e.g. testing of resolution limits and k-fold cross-validation for small test sets, and as new validation criteria, e.g. the density-fit metrics implemented in EDSTATS and ligand validation as implemented in YASARA. Innovative ways to present the refinement and validation results to the user are also described, which together with auto-generated Coot scripts can guide users to subsequent model inspection and improvement. It is demonstrated that using the server can lead to substantial improvement of structure models before they are submitted to the PDB.

  10. The PDB_REDO server for macromolecular structure model optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Robbie P; Long, Fei; Murshudov, Garib N; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2014-07-01

    The refinement and validation of a crystallographic structure model is the last step before the coordinates and the associated data are submitted to the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The success of the refinement procedure is typically assessed by validating the models against geometrical criteria and the diffraction data, and is an important step in ensuring the quality of the PDB public archive [Read et al. (2011 ▶), Structure, 19, 1395-1412]. The PDB_REDO procedure aims for 'constructive validation', aspiring to consistent and optimal refinement parameterization and pro-active model rebuilding, not only correcting errors but striving for optimal interpretation of the electron density. A web server for PDB_REDO has been implemented, allowing thorough, consistent and fully automated optimization of the refinement procedure in REFMAC and partial model rebuilding. The goal of the web server is to help practicing crystallo-graphers to improve their model prior to submission to the PDB. For this, additional steps were implemented in the PDB_REDO pipeline, both in the refinement procedure, e.g. testing of resolution limits and k-fold cross-validation for small test sets, and as new validation criteria, e.g. the density-fit metrics implemented in EDSTATS and ligand validation as implemented in YASARA. Innovative ways to present the refinement and validation results to the user are also described, which together with auto-generated Coot scripts can guide users to subsequent model inspection and improvement. It is demonstrated that using the server can lead to substantial improvement of structure models before they are submitted to the PDB.

  11. Minimal concentrations of retinoic acid induce stimulation by retinoic acid 8 and promote entry into meiosis in isolated pregonadal and gonadal mouse primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Marianna; Desimio, Maria Giovanna; Klinger, Francesca Gioia; De Felici, Massimo; Farini, Donatella

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that minimal concentrations (≤ 1 nM) of retinoic acid (RA), equivalent to the quantity contaminating serum-containing culture medium, are sufficient to promote meiotic entry and progression through meiotic prophase I (MPI) stages in isolated 12.5-days postcoitum (dpc) XX and XY mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) in culture. Similarly, we found that the same low RA concentration up-regulated or induced stimulation by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8) in such cells, both at mRNA and protein level. In preleptotene/leptotene germ cells, STRA8 was localized in nuclear dots that disappeared at later MPI stages. In addition to Stra8, other meiotic genes such as Dmc1 and Rec8 appeared stimulated by RA directly in PGCs with similar concentration-dependent trends. Finally, we found that RA induced Stra8, Sycp3, Dmc1, and Rec8 transcripts, promoting meiotic entry in culture also in pregonadal 10.5-dpc PGCs of both sexes. When cultured isolated from somatic cells, such PGCs, however, were unable to progress through MPI stages, while after entering meiosis, they progressed through MPI when cultured within aorta/gonad/mesonephros tissues. We conclude that besides RA, germ cell intrinsic factors and other exogenous signals from the surrounding somatic cells are probably necessary for meiotic entry and progression in mouse PGCs.

  12. 2-S-Lipoylcaffeic Acid, a Natural Product-Based Entry to Tyrosinase Inhibition via Catechol Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Micillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Conjugation of naturally occurring catecholic compounds with thiols is a versatile and facile entry to a broad range of bioinspired multifunctional compounds for diverse applications in biomedicine and materials science. We report herein the inhibition properties of the caffeic acid- dihydrolipoic acid S-conjugate, 2-S-lipoylcaffeic acid (LC, on mushroom tyrosinase. Half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 3.22 ± 0.02 and 2.0 ± 0.1 µM were determined for the catecholase and cresolase activity of the enzyme, respectively, indicating a greater efficiency of LC compared to the parent caffeic acid and the standard inhibitor kojic acid. Analysis of the Lineweaver–Burk plot suggested a mixed-type inhibition mechanism. LC proved to be non-toxic on human keratinocytes (HaCaT at concentrations up to 30 µM. These results would point to LC as a novel prototype of melanogenesis regulators for the treatment of pigmentary disorders.

  13. Inhibition of hepatitis B viral entry by nucleic acid polymers in HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Guillot

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with 240 million individuals chronically infected and at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments rarely cure chronic hepatitis B infection, highlighting the need for new anti-HBV drugs. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs are phosphorothioated oligonucleotides that have demonstrated a great potential to inhibit infection with several viruses. In chronically infected human patients, NAPs administration lead to a decline of blood HBsAg and HBV DNA and to HBsAg seroconversion, the expected signs of functional cure. NAPs have also been shown to prevent infection of duck hepatocytes with the Avihepadnavirus duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV and to exert an antiviral activity against established DHBV infection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the specific anti-HBV antiviral activity of NAPs in the HepaRG human hepatoma cell line and primary cultures of human hepatocytes. NAPs with different chemical features (phosphorothioation, 2'O-methyl ribose, 5-methylcytidine were assessed for antiviral activity when provided at the time of HBV inoculation or post-inoculation. NAPs dose-dependently inhibited HBV entry in a phosphorothioation-dependent, sequence-independent and size-dependent manner. This inhibition of HBV entry by NAPs was impaired by 2'O-methyl ribose modification. NAP treatment after viral inoculation did not elicit any antiviral activity.

  14. Entry of Newcastle Disease Virus into the host cell: role of acidic pH and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Felipe, Lorena; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Most paramyxoviruses enter the cell by direct fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane. Our previous studies have shown the colocalization of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) with the early endosome marker EEA1 and the inhibition of NDV fusion by the caveolin-phosphorylating drug phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) prompted us to propose that NDV enters the cells via endocytosis. Here we show that the virus-cell fusion and cell-cell fusion promoted by NDV-F are increased by about 30% after brief exposure to low pH in HeLa and ELL-0 cells but not in NDV receptor- deficient cell lines such as GM95 or Lec1. After a brief low-pH exposure, the percentage of NDV fusion at 29 °C was similar to that at 37 °C without acid-pH stimulation, meaning that acid pH would decrease the energetic barrier to enhance fusion. Furthermore, preincubation of cells with the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide led to the inhibition of about 30% of NDV infectivity, suggesting that a population of virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, the involvement of the GTPase dynamin in NDV entry is shown as its specific inhibitor, dynasore, also impaired NDV fusion and infectivity. Optimal infection of the host cells was significantly affected by drugs that inhibit endosomal acidification such as concanamycin A, monensin and chloroquine. These results support our hypothesis that entry of NDV into ELL-0 and HeLa cells occurs through the plasma membrane as well as by dynamin- low pH- and receptor- dependent endocytosis. © 2013.

  15. MINAS--a database of Metal Ions in Nucleic AcidS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, Joachim; Suter, Pascal; Sigel, Roland K O

    2012-01-01

    Correctly folded into the respective native 3D structure, RNA and DNA are responsible for uncountable key functions in any viable organism. In order to exert their function, metal ion cofactors are closely involved in folding, structure formation and, e.g. in ribozymes, also the catalytic mechanism. The database MINAS, Metal Ions in Nucleic AcidS (http://www.minas.uzh.ch), compiles the detailed information on innersphere, outersphere and larger coordination environment of >70,000 metal ions of 36 elements found in >2000 structures of nucleic acids contained today in the PDB and NDB. MINAS is updated monthly with new structures and offers a multitude of search functions, e.g. the kind of metal ion, metal-ligand distance, innersphere and outersphere ligands defined by element or functional group, residue, experimental method, as well as PDB entry-related information. The results of each search can be saved individually for later use with so-called miniPDB files containing the respective metal ion together with the coordination environment within a 15 Å radius. MINAS thus offers a unique way to explore the coordination geometries and ligands of metal ions together with the respective binding pockets in nucleic acids.

  16. Autotaxin, a lysophosphatidic acid-producing ectoenzyme, promotes lymphocyte entry into secondary lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, Hidenobu; Newton, Rebecca; Klein, Russell; Morita, Yuka; Gunn, Michael D.; Rosen, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular lysophospholipase D, autotaxin (ATX), and its product lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) have diverse roles in development and cancer, but little is known about functions in the immune system. We found that ATX was highly expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymphoid organs and was secreted. Chemokine-activated lymphocytes expressed enhanced receptors for ATX, providing a mechanism to target the secreted ATX onto lymphocytes undergoing recruitment. LPA induced chemokines...

  17. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States); Bricogne, Gerard, E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Global Phasing Ltd, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Macromolecular structures deposited in the PDB can and should be continually reinterpreted and improved on the basis of their accompanying experimental X-ray data, exploiting the steady progress in methods and software that the deposition of such data into the PDB on a massive scale has made possible. Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be

  18. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is activated through a sulfenic acid intermediate at a copper ion entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherolf, Morgan M; Boyd, Stefanie D; Taylor, Alexander B; Kim, Hee Jong; Wohlschlegel, James A; Blackburn, Ninian J; Hart, P John; Winge, Dennis R; Winkler, Duane D

    2017-07-21

    Metallochaperones are a diverse family of trafficking molecules that provide metal ions to protein targets for use as cofactors. The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) activates immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) by delivering copper and facilitating the oxidation of the Sod1 intramolecular disulfide bond. Here, we present structural, spectroscopic, and cell-based data supporting a novel copper-induced mechanism for Sod1 activation. Ccs1 binding exposes an electropositive cavity and proposed "entry site" for copper ion delivery on immature Sod1. Copper-mediated sulfenylation leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that eventually resolves to form the Sod1 disulfide bond with concomitant release of copper into the Sod1 active site. Sod1 is the predominant disulfide bond-requiring enzyme in the cytoplasm, and this copper-induced mechanism of disulfide bond formation obviates the need for a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase in that compartment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  20. Multiple roles of protein kinase a in arachidonic acid-mediated Ca2+ entry and tumor-derived human endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Genova, Tullio; Pupo, Emanuela; Tomatis, Cristiana; Genazzani, Armando; Zaninetti, Roberta; Munaron, Luca

    2010-11-01

    We recently showed that arachidonic acid (AA) triggers calcium signals in endothelial cells derived from human breast carcinoma (B-TEC). In particular, AA-dependent Ca(2+) entry is involved in the early steps of tumor angiogenesis in vitro. Here, we investigated the multiple roles of the nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathways in AA-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in the same cells. B-TEC stimulation with 5 μmol/L AA resulted in endothelial NO synthase (NOS) phosphorylation at Ser(1177), and NO release was measured with the fluorescent NO-sensitive probe DAR4M-AM. PKA inhibition by the use of the membrane-permeable PKA inhibitory peptide myristoylated PKI(14-22) completely prevented both AA- and NO-induced calcium entry and abolished B-TEC migration promoted by AA. AA-dependent calcium entry and cell migration were significantly affected by both the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide, suggesting that NO release is functionally involved in the signaling dependent on AA. Moreover, pretreatment with carboxyamidotriazole, an antiangiogenic compound that interferes with agonist-activated calcium entry, prevented AA-dependent B-TEC motility. Interestingly, even in the absence of AA, enhancement of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway with the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin evoked a calcium entry dependent on NOS recruitment and NO release. The functional relevance of AA-induced calcium entry could be restricted to tumor-derived endothelial cells (EC) because AA evoked a smaller calcium entry in normal human microvascular ECs compared with B-TECs, and even more importantly, it was unable to promote cell motility in wound healing assay. This evidence opens an intriguing opportunity for differential pharmacologic treatment between normal and tumor-derived human ECs. ©2010 AACR.

  1. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel L-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives as potential influenza virus entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Xu, Renyang; Shi, Yongying; Si, Longlong; Jiao, Pingxuan; Fan, Zibo; Han, Xu; Wu, Xingyu; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Yongmin; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin; Xiao, Sulong

    2016-03-03

    Since the influenza viruses can rapidly evolve, it is urgently required to develop novel anti-influenza agents possessing a novel mechanism of action. In our previous study, two pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (Q8 and Y3) have been found to have anti-influenza virus entry activities. Keeping the potential synergy of biological activity of pentacyclic triterpenes and l-ascorbic acid in mind, we synthesized a series of novel l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (18-26, 29-31, 35-40 and 42-43). Moreover, we evaluated these novel compounds for their anti-influenza activities against A/WSN/33 virus in MDCK cells. Among all evaluated compounds, the 2,3-O,O-dibenzyl-6-deoxy-l-ascorbic acid-betulinic acid conjugate (30) showed the most significant anti-influenza activity with an EC50 of 8.7 μM, and no cytotoxic effects on MDCK cells were observed. Time-of-addition assay indicated that compound 30 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle. Further analyses revealed that influenza virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by treatment of compound 30, and the interaction between the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and compound 30 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with a dissociation constant of KD = 3.76 μM. Finally, silico docking studies indicated that compound 30 and its derivative 31 were able to occupy the binding pocket of HA for sialic acid receptor. Collectively, these results suggested that l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpenes were promising anti-influenza entry inhibitors, and HA protein associated with viral entry was a promising drug target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  3. Analysis of topological and nontopological structural similarities in the PDB: new examples with old structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, N N; Fischer, D

    1996-07-01

    We have developed a new method and program, SARF2, for fast comparison of protein structures, which can detect topological as well as nontopological similarities. The method searches for large ensembles of secondary structure elements, which are mutually compatible in two proteins. These ensembles consist of small fragments of C alpha-trace, similarly arranged in three-dimensional space in two proteins, but not necessarily equally-ordered along the polypeptide chains. The program SARF2 is available for everyone through the World-Wide Web (WWW). We have performed an exhaustive pairwise comparison of all the entries from a recent issue of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and report here on the results of an automated hierarchical cluster analysis. In addition, we report on several new cases of significant structural resemblance between proteins. To this end, a new definition of the significance of structural similarity is introduced, which effectively distinguishes the biologically meaningful equivalences from those occurring by chance. Analyzing the distribution of sequence similarity in significant structural matches, we show that sequence similarity as low as 20% in structurally-prealigned proteins can be a strong indication for the biological relevance of structural similarity.

  4. PDB file parser and structure class implemented in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelryck, Thomas; Manderick, Bernard

    2003-11-22

    The biopython project provides a set of bioinformatics tools implemented in Python. Recently, biopython was extended with a set of modules that deal with macromolecular structure. Biopython now contains a parser for PDB files that makes the atomic information available in an easy-to-use but powerful data structure. The parser and data structure deal with features that are often left out or handled inadequately by other packages, e.g. atom and residue disorder (if point mutants are present in the crystal), anisotropic B factors, multiple models and insertion codes. In addition, the parser performs some sanity checking to detect obvious errors. The Biopython distribution (including source code and documentation) is freely available (under the Biopython license) from http://www.biopython.org

  5. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, V Joachim; Daminelli, Simone; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) - a drug's ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand flexibility to have a minor

  6. hpvPDB: An Online Proteome Reserve for Human Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Daf, Sangeeta; Mohod, Kanchan; Goyal, Peyush; Varma, Ashok K

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The molecular understanding of HPV proteins has significant connotation for understanding their intrusion in the host and designing novel protein vaccines and anti-viral agents, etc. Genomic, proteomic, structural, and disease-related information on HPV is available on the web; yet, with trivial annotations and more so, it is not well customized for data analysis, host-pathogen interaction, strain-disease association, drug designing, and sequence analysis, etc. We attempted to design an online reserve with comprehensive information on HPV for the end users desiring the same. The Human Papillomavirus Proteome Database (hpvPDB) domiciles proteomic and genomic information on 150 HPV strains sequenced to date. Simultaneous easy expandability and retrieval of the strain-specific data, with a provision for sequence analysis and exploration potential of predicted structures, and easy access for curation and annotation through a range of search options at one platform are a few of its important features. Affluent information in this reserve could be of help for researchers involved in structural virology, cancer research, drug discovery, and vaccine design.

  7. hpvPDB: An Online Proteome Reserve for Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The molecular understanding of HPV proteins has significant connotation for understanding their intrusion in the host and designing novel protein vaccines and anti-viral agents, etc. Genomic, proteomic, structural, and disease-related information on HPV is available on the web; yet, with trivial annotations and more so, it is not well customized for data analysis, host-pathogen interaction, strain-disease association, drug designing, and sequence analysis, etc. We attempted to design an online reserve with comprehensive information on HPV for the end users desiring the same. The Human Papillomavirus Proteome Database (hpvPDB domiciles proteomic and genomic information on 150 HPV strains sequenced to date. Simultaneous easy expandability and retrieval of the strain-specific data, with a provision for sequence analysis and exploration potential of predicted structures, and easy access for curation and annotation through a range of search options at one platform are a few of its important features. Affluent information in this reserve could be of help for researchers involved in structural virology, cancer research, drug discovery, and vaccine design.

  8. Journey describing the discoveries of anti-HIV triterpene acid families targeting HIV-entry/fusion, protease functioning and maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rahul V; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection/AIDS, is a fatal disease multiplying rapidly in virtually every country. Extensive creations are in progress to arrest the replication of the HIV, following the destruction of either particular step involved in the progression of HIV infection. In such endeavors, mechanistically more diverse antiviral therapies were showcased using naturally occurring triterpene acid and their derivatives acting at various stages of HIV life cycle like entry or fusion, function of HIV protease enzyme and finally at maturation. The present article holds an extensive step-by-step summary of anti-HIV breakthroughs of triterpene acid analogues and their derivatives with synthetic and activity aspects, featuring fertile clues for novel anti-HIV drug design, which helps to develop unprecedented opportunities to discover the next-generation anti- HIV armamentarium.

  9. PDB-UF: database of predicted enzymatic functions for unannotated protein structures from structural genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlewski Leszek

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of protein structures from structural genomics centers dramatically increases in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Many of these structures are functionally unannotated because they have no sequence similarity to proteins of known function. However, it is possible to successfully infer function using only structural similarity. Results Here we present the PDB-UF database, a web-accessible collection of predictions of enzymatic properties using structure-function relationship. The assignments were conducted for three-dimensional protein structures of unknown function that come from structural genomics initiatives. We show that 4 hypothetical proteins (with PDB accession codes: 1VH0, 1NS5, 1O6D, and 1TO0, for which standard BLAST tools such as PSI-BLAST or RPS-BLAST failed to assign any function, are probably methyltransferase enzymes. Conclusion We suggest that the structure-based prediction of an EC number should be conducted having the different similarity score cutoff for different protein folds. Moreover, performing the annotation using two different algorithms can reduce the rate of false positive assignments. We believe, that the presented web-based repository will help to decrease the number of protein structures that have functions marked as "unknown" in the PDB file. Availability http://paradox.harvard.edu/PDB-UF and http://bioinfo.pl/PDB-UF

  10. Spontaneous Mutation at Amino Acid 544 of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Potentiates Virus Entry and Selection in Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedas, John B; Ladner, Jason T; Ettinger, Chelsea R; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Palacios, Gustavo; Connor, John H

    2017-08-01

    Ebolaviruses have a surface glycoprotein (GP1,2) that is required for virus attachment and entry into cells. Mutations affecting GP1,2 functions can alter virus growth properties. We generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding Ebola virus Makona variant GP1,2 (rVSV-MAK-GP) and observed emergence of a T544I mutation in the Makona GP1,2 gene during tissue culture passage in certain cell lines. The T544I mutation emerged within two passages when VSV-MAK-GP was grown on Vero E6, Vero, and BS-C-1 cells but not when it was passaged on Huh7 and HepG2 cells. The mutation led to a marked increase in virus growth kinetics and conferred a robust growth advantage over wild-type rVSV-MAK-GP on Vero E6 cells. Analysis of complete viral genomes collected from patients in western Africa indicated that this mutation was not found in Ebola virus clinical samples. However, we observed the emergence of T544I during serial passage of various Ebola Makona isolates on Vero E6 cells. Three independent isolates showed emergence of T544I from undetectable levels in nonpassaged virus or virus passaged once to frequencies of greater than 60% within a single passage, consistent with it being a tissue culture adaptation. Intriguingly, T544I is not found in any Sudan, Bundibugyo, or Tai Forest ebolavirus sequences. Furthermore, T544I did not emerge when we serially passaged recombinant VSV encoding GP1,2 from these ebolaviruses. This report provides experimental evidence that the spontaneous mutation T544I is a tissue culture adaptation in certain cell lines and that it may be unique for the species Zaire ebolavirusIMPORTANCE The Ebola virus (Zaire) species is the most lethal species of all ebolaviruses in terms of mortality rate and number of deaths. Understanding how the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein functions to facilitate entry in cells is an area of intense research. Recently, three groups independently identified a polymorphism in the Ebola glycoprotein (I544) that

  11. Primary biliary acids inhibit hepatitis D virus (HDV entry into human hepatoma cells expressing the sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira

    Full Text Available The sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP is both a key bile acid (BA transporter mediating uptake of BA into hepatocytes and an essential receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis D virus (HDV. In this study we aimed to characterize to what extent and through what mechanism BA affect HDV cell entry.HuH-7 cells stably expressing NTCP (HuH-7/NTCP and primary human hepatocytes (PHH were infected with in vitro generated HDV particles. Infectivity in the absence or presence of compounds was assessed using immunofluorescence staining for HDV antigen, standard 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 assays and quantitative PCR.Addition of primary conjugated and unconjugated BA resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the number of infected cells while secondary, tertiary and synthetic BA had a lesser effect. This effect was observed both in HuH-7/NTCP and in PHH. Other replication cycle steps such as replication and particle assembly and release were unaffected. Moreover, inhibitory BA competed with a fragment from the large HBV envelope protein for binding to NTCP-expressing cells. Conversely, the sodium/BA-cotransporter function of NTCP seemed not to be required for HDV infection since infection was similar in the presence or absence of a sodium gradient across the plasma membrane. When chenodeoxycolic acid (15 mg per kg body weight was administered to three chronically HDV infected individuals over a period of up to 16 days there was no change in serum HDV RNA.Primary BA inhibit NTCP-mediated HDV entry into hepatocytes suggesting that modulation of the BA pool may affect HDV infection of hepatocytes.

  12. TRIIODOTHYRONINE INCREASES MYOCARDIAL FUNCTION AND PYRUVATE ENTRY INTO THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE AFTER REPERFUSION IN A MODEL OF INFANT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2012-03-01

    We utilized a translational model of infant CPB to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion. Methods and Results: Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-13Carbon(13C)]-pyruvate for 40 minutes (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (Cont) or immediately after reperfusion (IR) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (IR-Tr) received T3 (1.2 ug/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels (aCAC) and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC ) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC; ) using 13C-labeled pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C NMR. Neither IR nor IR-Tr modified aCAC. However, compared to IR, T3 (group IR-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after CPB while elevating both PDC and PC (~ four-fold). T3 inhibited IR induced reductions in CAC intermediate molar percent enrichment (MPE) and oxaloacetate(citrate)/malate MPE ratio; an index of aspartate entry into the CAC. Conclusions: T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC thereby providing substrate for elevated cardiac function and work after reperfusion. The increases in pyruvate flux occur with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Additionally, T3 inhibition of reductions in CAC intermediate MPEs indicates that T3 reduces the reliance on amino acids (AA) for anaplerosis after reperfusion. Thus, AA should be more available for other functions such as protein synthesis.

  13. Multivariate Analyses of Quality Metrics for Crystal Structures in the PDB Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenghua; Yang, Huanwang; Westbrook, John D; Young, Jasmine Y; Zardecki, Christine; Burley, Stephen K

    2017-03-07

    Following deployment of an augmented validation system by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) partnership, the quality of crystal structures entering the PDB has improved. Of significance are improvements in quality measures now prominently displayed in the wwPDB validation report. Comparisons of PDB depositions made before and after introduction of the new reporting system show improvements in quality measures relating to pairwise atom-atom clashes, side-chain torsion angle rotamers, and local agreement between the atomic coordinate structure model and experimental electron density data. These improvements are largely independent of resolution limit and sample molecular weight. No significant improvement in the quality of associated ligands was observed. Principal component analysis revealed that structure quality could be summarized with three measures (Rfree, real-space R factor Z score, and a combined molecular geometry quality metric), which can in turn be reduced to a single overall quality metric readily interpretable by all PDB archive users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. US Ports of Entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  15. Web servers and services for electrostatics calculations with APBS and PDB2PQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Samir; Huang, Yong; Hanson, Robert; Tobias, Malcolm; Krishnan, Sriram; Li, Wilfred W.; Nielsen, Jens E.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    APBS and PDB2PQR are widely utilized free software packages for biomolecular electrostatics calculations. Using the Opal toolkit, we have developed a Web services framework for these software packages that enables the use of APBS and PDB2PQR by users who do not have local access to the necessary amount of computational capabilities. This not only increases accessibility of the software to a wider range of scientists, educators, and students but it also increases the availability of electrostatics calculations on portable computing platforms. Users can access this new functionality in two ways. First, an Opal-enabled version of APBS is provided in current distributions, available freely on the web. Second, we have extended the PDB2PQR web server to provide an interface for the setup, execution, and visualization electrostatics potentials as calculated by APBS. This web interface also uses the Opal framework which ensures the scalability needed to support the large APBS user community. Both of these resources are available from the APBS/PDB2PQR website: http://www.poissonboltzmann.org/. PMID:21425296

  16. PyPDB: a Python API for the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, William

    2016-01-01

    We have created a Python programming interface for the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) that allows search and data retrieval for a wide range of result types, including BLAST and sequence motif queries. The API relies on the existing XML-based API and operates by creating custom XML requests from native Python types, allowing extensibility and straightforward modification. The package has the ability to perform many types of advanced search of the PDB that are otherwise only available through the PDB website. PyPDB is implemented exclusively in Python 3 using standard libraries for maximal compatibility. The most up-to-date version, including iPython notebooks containing usage tutorials, is available free-of-charge under an open-source MIT license via GitHub at https://github.com/williamgilpin/pypdb, and the full API reference is at http://williamgilpin.github.io/pypdb_docs/html/. The latest stable release is also available on PyPI. wgilpin@stanford.edu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mildly Acidic pH Triggers an Irreversible Conformational Change in the Fusion Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B and Inactivation of Viral Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Darin J; Pritchard, Suzanne M; Gonzalez, Floricel; Aguilar, Hector C; Nicola, Anthony V

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into a subset of cells requires endocytosis and endosomal low pH. Preexposure of isolated virions to mildly acidic pH of 5 to 6 partially inactivates HSV infectivity in an irreversible manner. Acid inactivation is a hallmark of viruses that enter via low-pH pathways; this occurs by pretriggering conformational changes essential for fusion. The target and mechanism(s) of low-pH inactivation of HSV are unclear. Here, low-pH-treated HSV-1 was defective in fusion activity and yet retained normal levels of attachment to cell surface heparan sulfate and binding to nectin-1 receptor. Low-pH-triggered conformational changes in gB reported to date are reversible, despite irreversible low-pH inactivation. gB conformational changes and their reversibility were measured by antigenic analysis with a panel of monoclonal antibodies and by detecting changes in oligomeric conformation. Three-hour treatment of HSV-1 virions with pH 5 or multiple sequential treatments at pH 5 followed by neutral pH caused an irreversible >2.5 log infectivity reduction. While changes in several gB antigenic sites were reversible, alteration of the H126 epitope was irreversible. gB oligomeric conformational change remained reversible under all conditions tested. Altogether, our results reveal that oligomeric alterations and fusion domain changes represent distinct conformational changes in gB, and the latter correlates with irreversible low-pH inactivation of HSV. We propose that conformational change in the gB fusion domain is important for activation of membrane fusion during viral entry and that in the absence of a host target membrane, this change results in irreversible inactivation of virions. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is an important pathogen with a high seroprevalence throughout the human population. HSV infects cells via multiple pathways, including a low-pH route into epithelial cells, the primary portal into the host. HSV is inactivated by low-pH preexposure, and g

  18. Hydrolyzable Tannins (Chebulagic Acid and Punicalagin) Target Viral Glycoprotein-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions To Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S.; Grindley, T. Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells. Experiments revealed that both tannins targeted and inactivated HSV-1 viral particles and could prevent binding, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread, as well as secondary infection. The antiviral effect from either of the tannins was not associated with induction of type I interferon-mediated responses, nor was pretreatment of the host cell protective against HSV-1. Their inhibitory activities targeted HSV-1 glycoproteins since both natural compounds were able to block polykaryocyte formation mediated by expression of recombinant viral glycoproteins involved in attachment and membrane fusion. Our results indicated that CHLA and PUG blocked interactions between cell surface glycosaminoglycans and HSV-1 glycoproteins. Furthermore, the antiviral activities from the two tannins were significantly diminished in mutant cell lines unable to produce heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate and could be rescued upon reconstitution of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. We suggest that the hydrolyzable tannins CHLA and PUG may be useful as competitors for glycosaminoglycans in the management of HSV-1 infections and that they may help reduce the risk for development of viral drug resistance during therapy with nucleoside analogues. PMID:21307190

  19. Hydrolyzable tannins (chebulagic acid and punicalagin) target viral glycoprotein-glycosaminoglycan interactions to inhibit herpes simplex virus 1 entry and cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S; Grindley, T Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D

    2011-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells. Experiments revealed that both tannins targeted and inactivated HSV-1 viral particles and could prevent binding, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread, as well as secondary infection. The antiviral effect from either of the tannins was not associated with induction of type I interferon-mediated responses, nor was pretreatment of the host cell protective against HSV-1. Their inhibitory activities targeted HSV-1 glycoproteins since both natural compounds were able to block polykaryocyte formation mediated by expression of recombinant viral glycoproteins involved in attachment and membrane fusion. Our results indicated that CHLA and PUG blocked interactions between cell surface glycosaminoglycans and HSV-1 glycoproteins. Furthermore, the antiviral activities from the two tannins were significantly diminished in mutant cell lines unable to produce heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate and could be rescued upon reconstitution of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. We suggest that the hydrolyzable tannins CHLA and PUG may be useful as competitors for glycosaminoglycans in the management of HSV-1 infections and that they may help reduce the risk for development of viral drug resistance during therapy with nucleoside analogues.

  20. The PDBFINDER database: a summary of PDB, DSSP and HSSP information with added value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, R W; Sander, C; Scharf, M; Vriend, G

    1996-12-01

    The Protein Data Bank currently contains more than 4700 protein coordinate sets. It is often desirable to make a selection from these files based on a criterion like R-factor, experimental method, length of the amino acid sequence, or the number of homologous sequences in SWISSPROT. Doing this using the distributed form of the Protein Data Bank can be a tedious task, because (1) this requires reading one file for every single entry, and (2) not all of the information is present in a consistent computer readable way in all of the entries. The PDBFINDER database provides an easy to interpret file containing summary information about all Protein Data Bank files. Summary information from the DSSP (Definition of Secondary Structure of Proteins) and HSSP (Homology derived Secondary Structure of Proteins) databases is also included. Furthermore, where essential data were missing from the Protein Data Bank file, this information has been retrieved from the original literature. The latest version of the PDBFINDER database can be downloaded by anonymous ftp from swift.embl-heidelberg.de, directory:/pdbfinder. E-mail address hooft@embl-heidelberg.de.

  1. Omokage search: shape similarity search service for biomolecular structures in both the PDB and EMDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirofumi; Kawabata, Takeshi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-02-15

    Omokage search is a service to search the global shape similarity of biological macromolecules and their assemblies, in both the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB). The server compares global shapes of assemblies independent of sequence order and number of subunits. As a search query, the user inputs a structure ID (PDB ID or EMDB ID) or uploads an atomic model or 3D density map to the server. The search is performed usually within 1 min, using one-dimensional profiles (incremental distance rank profiles) to characterize the shapes. Using the gmfit (Gaussian mixture model fitting) program, the found structures are fitted onto the query structure and their superimposed structures are displayed on the Web browser. Our service provides new structural perspectives to life science researchers. Omokage search is freely accessible at http://pdbj.org/omokage/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. ESBTL: efficient PDB parser and data structure for the structural and geometric analysis of biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriot, Sébastien; Cazals, Frédéric; Bernauer, Julie

    2010-04-15

    The ever increasing number of structural biological data calls for robust and efficient software for analysis. Easy Structural Biology Template Library (ESBTL) is a lightweight C++ library that allows the handling of PDB data and provides a data structure suitable for geometric constructions and analyses. The parser and data model provided by this ready-to-use include-only library allows adequate treatment of usually discarded information (insertion code, atom occupancy, etc.) while still being able to detect badly formatted files. The template-based structure allows rapid design of new computational structural biology applications and is fully compatible with the new remediated PDB archive format. It also allows the code to be easy-to-use while being versatile enough to allow advanced user developments. ESBTL is freely available under the GNU General Public License from http://esbtl.sf.net. The web site provides the source code, examples, code snippets and documentation.

  3. A tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins from PDB structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the research on protein functional sites, researchers often need to identify binding-site residues on a protein. A commonly used strategy is to find a complex structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB that consists of the protein of interest and its interacting partner(s and calculate binding-site residues based on the complex structure. However, since a protein may participate in multiple interactions, the binding-site residues calculated based on one complex structure usually do not reveal all binding sites on a protein. Thus, this requires researchers to find all PDB complexes that contain the protein of interest and combine the binding-site information gleaned from them. This process is very time-consuming. Especially, combing binding-site information obtained from different PDB structures requires tedious work to align protein sequences. The process becomes overwhelmingly difficult when researchers have a large set of proteins to analyze, which is usually the case in practice. Results In this study, we have developed a tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins, TCBRP http://yanbioinformatics.cs.usu.edu:8080/ppbindingsubmit. For an input protein, TCBRP can quickly find all binding-site residues on the protein by automatically combining the information obtained from all PDB structures that consist of the protein of interest. Additionally, TCBRP presents the binding-site residues in different categories according to the interaction type. TCBRP also allows researchers to set the definition of binding-site residues. Conclusion The developed tool is very useful for the research on protein binding site analysis and prediction.

  4. A tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins from PDB structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Yan, Changhui

    2009-08-03

    In the research on protein functional sites, researchers often need to identify binding-site residues on a protein. A commonly used strategy is to find a complex structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that consists of the protein of interest and its interacting partner(s) and calculate binding-site residues based on the complex structure. However, since a protein may participate in multiple interactions, the binding-site residues calculated based on one complex structure usually do not reveal all binding sites on a protein. Thus, this requires researchers to find all PDB complexes that contain the protein of interest and combine the binding-site information gleaned from them. This process is very time-consuming. Especially, combing binding-site information obtained from different PDB structures requires tedious work to align protein sequences. The process becomes overwhelmingly difficult when researchers have a large set of proteins to analyze, which is usually the case in practice. In this study, we have developed a tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins, TCBRP http://yanbioinformatics.cs.usu.edu:8080/ppbindingsubmit. For an input protein, TCBRP can quickly find all binding-site residues on the protein by automatically combining the information obtained from all PDB structures that consist of the protein of interest. Additionally, TCBRP presents the binding-site residues in different categories according to the interaction type. TCBRP also allows researchers to set the definition of binding-site residues. The developed tool is very useful for the research on protein binding site analysis and prediction.

  5. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Joosten, Robbie P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn{sup 2+}-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn{sup 2+}, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate.

  6. PENGARUH INFLASI, SUKU BUNGA, KURS, DAN PERTUMBUHAN PDB TERHADAP INDEKS HARGA SAHAM GABUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suramaya Suci Kewal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Inflation, interest rate, exchange rate, and GDP growth Toward Indonesia Composite Index. This research aims to investigate empirically the effect of selected macroeconomic variables, i.e., inflation rate, Bank Indonesia Certificate rate, the exchange rate on IDR, and GDP growth on Indonesia Composite Index at The Indonesia Stock Exchanges (IDX. This paper examines the direct effect of selected macroeconomic variabel on Indonesia Composite Index. The paper employs a regression model analysis. The result indicates that only the exchange rate on IDR significantly effects to Indonesia Composite Index. The inflation rate, Bank Certificate rate, and GDP growth do not effect to Indonesia Composite Index. This research only covers four selected macroeconomic variables. Therefore, further research should examine other potential macroeconomic variables.   Keywords: macroeconomic variables, Indonesia Composite Index   Abstrak: Pengaruh Inflasi, Suku Bunga, Kurs, dan Pertumbuhan PDB Terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti secara empiris pengaruh variabel-variabel makroekonomi, yaitu : tingkat inflasi, suku bunga sertifikat Bank Indonesia, kurs, dan tingkat pertumbuhan GDP terhadap IHSG di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa hanya kurs yang berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap IHSG, sedangkan tingkat inflasi, suku bunga SBI dan pertumbuhan PDB tidak berpengaruh terhadap IHSG. Penelitian ini hanya menggunakan empat variabel makroekonomi, sehingga penelitian selanjutnya perlu menemukan variabel makroekonomi lain yang diduga berpengaruh terhadap IHSG.   Kata kunci : variabel makroekonomi, IHSG.

  7. Entry at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  8. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  9. Entry Skills for BSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Mary K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…

  10. Prediction of secondary structural content of proteins from their amino acid composition alone. II. The paradox with secondary structural class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaber, F; Frömmel, C; Argos, P

    1996-06-01

    The success rates reported for secondary structural class prediction with different methods are contradictory. On one side, the problem of recognizing the secondary structural class of a protein knowing only its amino acid composition appears completely solved by simply applying jury decision with an elliptically scaled distance function. Chou and coworkers repeatedly (see Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30:275-349, 1995) published prediction accuracies near 100%. On the other hand, traditional secondary structure prediction techniques achieve success rates of about 70% for the secondary structural state per residue and about 75% for structural class only with extensive input information (full sequence of the query protein, its amino acid composition and length, multiple alignments with homologous sequences). In this article, we resolve the paradox and consider (1) the question of the secondary structural class definition, (2) the role of the representativity of the test set of protein tertiary structure for the current state of the Protein Data Bank (PDB); and (3) we estimate the real impact of amino acid composition on secondary structural class. We formulate three objective criteria for a reasonable definition of secondary structural classes and show that only the criterion of Nakashima et al. (J. Biochem. 99:153-162, 1986) complies with all of them. Only this definition matches the distribution of secondary structural content in representative PDB subsets, whereas other criteria leave many proteins (up to 65% of all PDB entries) simply unassigned. We review critically specialized secondary-structural class prediction methods, especially those of Chou and coworkers, which claim almost 100% accuracy using only amino acid composition, and resolve the paradox that these prediction accuracies are better than those from secondary structure predictions from multiple alignments. We show (i) that these techniques rely on a preselection of test sets which removes

  11. Vivaldi: visualization and validation of biomacromolecular NMR structures from the PDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Pieter M S; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2013-04-01

    We describe Vivaldi (VIsualization and VALidation DIsplay; http://pdbe.org/vivaldi), a web-based service for the analysis, visualization, and validation of NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Vivaldi provides access to model coordinates and several types of experimental NMR data using interactive visualization tools, augmented with structural annotations and model-validation information. The service presents information about the modeled NMR ensemble, validation of experimental chemical shifts, residual dipolar couplings, distance and dihedral angle constraints, as well as validation scores based on empirical knowledge and databases. Vivaldi was designed for both expert NMR spectroscopists and casual non-expert users who wish to obtain a better grasp of the information content and quality of NMR structures in the public archive. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  13. Low temperature activation of methane over a zinc-exchanged heteropolyacid as an entry to its selective oxidation to methanol and acetic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    A Zn-exchanged heteropolyacid supported onto silica (Zn-HPW/SiO2) activates methane at 25 °C into Zn-methyl. At higher temperatures and with CH4/O2 or CH4/CO2, it gives methanol and acetic acid respectively. This journal is

  14. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  15. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  16. Viral Entry into Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2010-09-01

    Successful viral infection of a healthy cell requires complex host-pathogen interactions. In this talk we focus on the dynamics specific to the HIV virus entering a eucaryotic cell. We model viral entry as a stochastic engagement of receptors and coreceptors on the cell surface. We also consider the transport of virus material to the cell nucleus by coupling microtubular motion to the concurrent biochemical transformations that render the viral material competent for nuclear entry. We discuss both mathematical and biological consequences of our model, such as the formulation of an effective integrodifferential boundary condition embodying a memory kernel and optimal timing in maximizing viral probabilities.

  17. An Efficient and Simple Entry to N-Substituted beta-Enamino Acid Derivatives from 2-Alkyl-2-oxazolines and 2-Alkyl-2-thiazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustero, Santos; Navarro, Antonio; Díaz, Dolores; de La Torre, Marta G.; Asensio, Amparo; Sanz, Francisco; González, M. Liu

    1996-12-13

    Reaction of azaenolates of 2-alkyl-oxa(thia)zolines 6 with imidoyl chlorides 7 as electrophiles to furnish masked N-substituted beta-enamino acid derivatives 1-2 in 70-90% yield is described. Alternative routes are discussed. Compounds 1-2 generally appear in one tautomeric form, imino or enamino, depending on the nature of the imidoyl chloride. The configuration of the enamino moiety (Z) and the conformation (s-cis) of compounds 1-2 obtained were established by an NMR study and unequivocally set by nuclear Overhauser effect difference experiments. An X-ray structure of compound 1e is also reported, showing a strong intramolecular NH.N hydrogen bond. Ab initio calculations (HF/3-21G and HF/3-21+G) have been carried out on several representative examples (1e, 1p, and 1l) in an attempt to support and provide the correct geometry of these derivatives. Structural considerations among the possible isomers of compounds 1 are discussed. From these studies it was concluded that the theoretical calculations agree with the experimental results. In addition, a very simple one-pot procedure for the preparation of masked N-substituted alpha-alkylated beta-enamino acid derivatives 2 from 6, 7, and different alkyl halides (R(3)Y) is described.

  18. Lobbying on entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise

  19. Data Entry Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document describes a project that provides full-time training in the microcomputing area of data entry/word processing as well as job-specific English as a second language (ESL) to adults whose first language is Chinese. The project includes a component that develops the trainees' language proficiency in business communications while…

  20. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a...... core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with functional isolate sequences of genotypes 1a (alternative isolate), 1b, and 2a. While the 1a-E2 exchange did not impact virus viability, the 2a-E2 recombinant was nonviable. After E2 exchange from three 1b isolates, long delays were observed before spread of infection....... For recovered 1b-E2 recombinants, single E2 stem region amino acid changes were identified at residues 706, 707, and 710. In reverse genetic studies, these mutations increased infectivity titers by ~100-fold, apparently without influencing particle stability or cell binding although introducing slight decrease...

  1. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  2. Entry Decision and Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Jorge; Cesaltina Pires

    2007-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the impact of firms' pricing policies upon entry to a framework where price competition and differentiated products are present. We consider a model where an incumbent serves two distinct and independent geographical markets and an entrant may enter in one of the markets. Entry under discriminatory pricing is more likely than under uniform pricing when entry is profitable under discriminatory pricing but unprofitable under uniform pricing. Our results show entry unde...

  3. Paralympic Games sport entries mamual

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This manual is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) with the Paralympic Sport Entries process, relevant policies, and instructions for completing the online registration for athletes participating in the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games and to assist NPCs in using the online Sport Entries and Qualification (ePEQ) system to complete the entries of their athletes to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  4. Web-based visualisation and analysis of 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB and PDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Moore, William J; Patwardhan, Ardan; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Best, Christoph; Swedlow, Jason R; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2013-11-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) has developed web-based tools for the visualisation and analysis of 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) structures in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB). The tools include: (1) a volume viewer for 3D visualisation of maps, tomograms and models, (2) a slice viewer for inspecting 2D slices of tomographic reconstructions, and (3) visual analysis pages to facilitate analysis and validation of maps, tomograms and models. These tools were designed to help non-experts and experts alike to get some insight into the content and assess the quality of 3DEM structures in EMDB and PDB without the need to install specialised software or to download large amounts of data from these archives. The technical challenges encountered in developing these tools, as well as the more general considerations when making archived data available to the user community through a web interface, are discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  6. FeatureMap3D - a tool to map protein features and sequence conservation onto homologous structures in the PDB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Rapacki, Krzysztof; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FeatureMap3D is a web-based tool that maps protein features onto 3D structures. The user provides sequences annotated with any feature of interest, such as post-translational modifications, protease cleavage sites or exonic structure and FeatureMap3D will then search the Protein Data Bank (PDB......) for structures of homologous proteins. The results are displayed both as an annotated sequence alignment, where the user-provided annotations as well as the sequence conservation between the query and the target sequence are displayed, and also as a publication-quality image of the 3D protein structure...... with the selected features and sequence conservation enhanced. The results are also returned in a readily parsable text format as well as a PyMol (http://pymol.sourceforge.net/) script file, which allows the user to easily modify the protein structure image to suit a specific purpose. FeatureMap3D can also be used...

  7. FragBag, an accurate representation of protein structure, retrieves structural neighbors from the entire PDB quickly and accurately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowski-Tal, Inbal; Nov, Yuval; Kolodny, Rachel

    2010-02-23

    Fast identification of protein structures that are similar to a specified query structure in the entire Protein Data Bank (PDB) is fundamental in structure and function prediction. We present FragBag: An ultrafast and accurate method for comparing protein structures. We describe a protein structure by the collection of its overlapping short contiguous backbone segments, and discretize this set using a library of fragments. Then, we succinctly represent the protein as a "bags-of-fragments"-a vector that counts the number of occurrences of each fragment-and measure the similarity between two structures by the similarity between their vectors. Our representation has two additional benefits: (i) it can be used to construct an inverted index, for implementing a fast structural search engine of the entire PDB, and (ii) one can specify a structure as a collection of substructures, without combining them into a single structure; this is valuable for structure prediction, when there are reliable predictions only of parts of the protein. We use receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to quantify the success of FragBag in identifying neighbor candidate sets in a dataset of over 2,900 structures. The gold standard is the set of neighbors found by six state of the art structural aligners. Our best FragBag library finds more accurate candidate sets than the three other filter methods: The SGM, PRIDE, and a method by Zotenko et al. More interestingly, FragBag performs on a par with the computationally expensive, yet highly trusted structural aligners STRUCTAL and CE.

  8. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-08-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001-2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  9. HIV: cell binding and entry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilen, Craig B; Tilton, John C; Doms, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The first step of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication cycle-binding and entry into the host cell-plays a major role in determining viral tropism and the ability of HIV to degrade the human immune system...

  10. Tactile Data Entry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  11. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  12. Spacecraft entry into an atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaroshevskii, Vasilii A.

    Problems related to the safe entry of spacecraft into the earth or other planetary atmospheres are discussed in a general manner. Attention is given to restrictions imposed on dynamical and thermal overloads, and an analysis is made of the aerodynamic characteristics of space vehicles of different types. Analytical and semianalytical methods for calculating entry trajectories are compared, and the applicability regions of approximate solutions are determined. The discussion also covers reentry trajectory optimization problems and the principal types of perturbations and navigation and control techniques.

  13. Regulation of entry into gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Werven, Folkert J; Amon, Angelika

    2011-12-27

    Gametogenesis is a fundamental aspect of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. In the unicellular fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast), where this developmental programme has been extensively studied, entry into gametogenesis requires the convergence of multiple signals on the promoter of a master regulator. Starvation signals and cellular mating-type information promote the transcription of cell fate inducers, which in turn initiate a transcriptional cascade that propels a unique type of cell division, meiosis, and gamete morphogenesis. Here, we will provide an overview of how entry into gametogenesis is initiated in budding and fission yeast and discuss potential conserved features in the germ cell development of higher eukaryotes.

  14. Economics of entry into marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Bowmaker, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains three studies on the economics of entry into marriage; a life event that has been shown to have significant implications for the well-being (economic and otherwise) of men, women and their children. The first study examines the effect of family background on the timing of first marriage of 7,853 individuals born in 1970 in Great Britain. Hazard model analysis reveals that high levels of parental resources serve to delay entry into marriage for both males and femal...

  15. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  16. Phoebus: A Hypervelocity Entry Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracina, L.; Marraffa, L.; Longo, J.

    2012-12-01

    ESA is today considering various missions, such as Marco Polo R and (Moon of) Mars Sample Return, requiring capsules re-entering the Earth atmosphere at speeds up to 13 km/s.To mature critical high speed re-entry technologies and consequently to speed-up the development and reduce the development cost (and cost uncertainties) for future sample return mission, an in-flight technology demonstrator, named PHOEBUS (Project for a High- speed Of Entry Ballistic multi-User System), is presently under investigation at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) of ESA.This paper focuses on the preliminary aerothermodynamics feasibility assessment conducted within the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study at ESA-ESTEC for the design of the PHOEBUS re-entry capsule starting from a parametric analysis of the entry phase to enable a preliminary design and a baseline configuration selection and concluded with non- equilibrium reacting flow computations coupled with radiation and transport simulations to estimate the heat flux experience by the TPS at few selected trajectory points.

  17. Forcing Entry into the Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Alexis; Nader, Guilherme; Piel, Matthieu

    2017-12-04

    Nuclear pore complexes tightly regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, controlling the nuclear concentration of several transcription factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Elosegui-Artola et al. (2017) show that nuclear deformation modulates the nuclear entry rates of YAP/TAZ via nuclear pore stretching, clarifying how forces affect gene transcription. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The PDB database is a rich source of alpha-helical anti-microbial peptides to combat disease causing pathogens [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of α-helical anti-microbial peptides (AH-AMP to combat pathogens is fast gaining prominence. Based on recently published open access software for characterizing α-helical peptides (PAGAL, we elucidate a search methodology (SCALPEL that leverages the massive structural data pre-existing in the PDB database to obtain AH-AMPs belonging to the host proteome. We provide in vitro validation of SCALPEL on plant pathogens (Xylella fastidiosa, Xanthomonas arboricola and Liberibacter crescens by identifying AH-AMPs that mirror the function and properties of cecropin B, a well-studied AH-AMP. The identified peptides include a linear AH-AMP present within the existing structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC20, and an AH-AMP mimicing the properties of the two α-helices of cecropin B from chitinase (CHITI25. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these peptides are comparable to that of cecropin B, while anionic peptides used as control failed to show any inhibitory effect on these pathogens. Substitute therapies in place of conventional chemotherapies using membrane permeabilizing peptides like these might also prove effective to target cancer cells. The use of native structures from the same organism could possibly ensure that administration of such peptides will be better tolerated and not elicit an adverse immune response. We suggest a similar approach to target Ebola epitopes, enumerated using PAGAL recently, by selecting suitable peptides from the human proteome, especially in wake of recent reports of cationic amphiphiles inhibiting virus entry and infection.

  19. Amino acid differences in glycoproteins B (gB, C (gC, H (gH and L(gL are associated with enhanced herpes simplex virus type-1 (McKrae entry via the paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Sona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1 enters into cells via membrane fusion of the viral envelope with plasma or endosomal membranes mediated by viral glycoproteins. HSV-1 virions attach to cell surfaces by binding of viral glycoproteins gC, gD and gB to specific cellular receptors. Here we show that the human ocular and highly neurovirulent HSV-1 strain McKrae enters substantially more efficiently into cells via the gB-specific human paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor-α (hPILR-α. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences between HSV-1(F and McKrae strains indicates that amino acid changes within gB, gC, gH and gL may cause increased entry via the hPILR- α receptor. Results HSV-1 (McKrae entered substantially more efficiently than viral strain F in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells expressing hPIRL-α but not within CHO-human nectin-1, -(CHO-hNectin-1, CHO-human HVEM (CHO-hHVEM or Vero cells. The McKrae genes encoding viral glycoproteins gB, gC, gD, gH, gL, gK and the membrane protein UL20 were sequenced and their predicted amino acid (aa sequences were compared with virulent strains F, H129, and the attenuated laboratory strain KOS. Most aa differences between McKrae and F were located at their gB amino termini known to bind with the PILRα receptor. These aa changes included a C10R change, also seen in the neurovirulent strain ANG, as well as redistribution and increase of proline residues. Comparison of gC aa sequences revealed multiple aa changes including an L132P change within the 129-247 aa region known to bind to heparan sulfate (HS receptors. Two aa changes were located within the H1 domain of gH that binds gL. Multiple aa changes were located within the McKrae gL sequence, which were preserved in the H129 isolate, but differed for the F strain. Viral glycoproteins gD and gK and the membrane protein UL20 were conserved between McKrae and F strains. Conclusions The results indicate that the observed

  20. Airport Barriers to Entry in the US

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dresner M; Windle R; Yao Y

    2002-01-01

    An examination is conducted on the effects of three airport barriers to entry - slot controls, gate constraints, and gate utilisation during peak operating periods - on both yields and entry in the US airline...

  1. Bi-weekly waterfowl survey data entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data sheet for the entry of bi-weekly waterfowl survey data from the state of Kansas. This Excel file contains the data entry sheet and a chart displaying waterfowl...

  2. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  3. Fragmentation and ablation during entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    This note discusses objects that both fragment and ablate during entry, using the results of previous reports to describe the velocity, pressure, and fragmentation of entering objects. It shows that the mechanisms used there to describe the breakup of non-ablating objects during deceleration remain valid for most ablating objects. It treats coupled fragmentation and ablation during entry, building on earlier models that separately discuss the entry of objects that are hard, whose high heat of ablation permits little erosion, and those who are strong whose strength prevents fragmentation, which are discussed in ``Radiation from Hard Objects,`` ``Deceleration and Radiation of Strong, Hard, Asteroids During Atmospheric Impact,`` and ``Meteor Signature Interpretation.`` This note provides a more detailed treatment of the further breakup and separation of fragments during descent. It replaces the constraint on mass per unit area used earlier to determine the altitude and magnitude of peak power radiation with a detailed analytic solution of deceleration. Model predictions are shown to be in agreement with the key features of numerical calculations of deceleration. The model equations are solved for the altitudes of maximum radiation, which agree with numerical integrations. The model is inverted analytically to infer object size and speed from measurements of peak power and altitude to provide a complete model for the approximate inversion of meteor data.

  4. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within...

  5. Gangliosides Are Essential for Bovine Adeno-Associated Virus Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Michael; Chiorini, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors. We have recently identified a bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) that demonstrates unique tropism and transduction activity compared to primate AAVs. To better understand the entry pathway and cell tropism of BAAV, we have characterized the initial cell surface interactions required for transduction with BAAV vectors. Like a number of AAVs, BAAV requires cell surface sialic acid groups for transduction and virus ...

  6. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  7. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  8. Titan Atmospheric Entry Radiative Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, Aaron; Cruden, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube for conditions relevant to Titan entry, varying atmospheric composition, free-stream density (equivalent to altitude) and shock velocity. Permutations in atmospheric composition include 1.1, 2, 5 and 8.6 CH4 by mole with a balance of N2 and 1.5 CH4 0.5 Ar 98 N2 by mole, which is consistent with the current understanding of Titan's atmosphere. The effect of gas impurities identified in previous shock tube studies were also examined by testing in pure N2 and deliberate addition of air to the CH4N2 mixtures. The test campaign measured radiation at velocities from 4.7 kms to 8 kms and free-stream pressures from 0.1 to 0.47 Torr. These conditions cover a range of potential trajectories for flight missions, including a direct ballistic trajectory, a fly by or an extremely high speed entry. Radiances measured in this work are substantially larger compared to that reported both in past EAST test campaigns and other shock tube facilities. Depending on the metric used for comparison, the discrepancy can be as high as an order of magnitude. Potential causes for the discrepancy, such as the effect of oxygen due to Air leakage, gas composition and purity are discussed. The present work provides a new benchmark set of data to replace those published in previous studies.

  9. Crystal structure and ligand affinity of avidin in the complex with 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Paweł; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Avidin is a protein found in egg white that binds numerous organic compounds with high affinity, especially biotin and its derivatives. Due to its extraordinary affinity for its ligands, avidin is extensively used in biotechnology. X-ray crystallography and fluorescence-based biophysical techniques were used to show that avidin binds the dye 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA) with a lower affinity than biotin. The apparent dissociation constant determined for the avidin complex with HABA by microscale thermophoresis (MST) is 4.12 μM. The crystal structure of avidin-HABA complex was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å (PDB entry 5chk). The crystals belong to a hexagonal system, in the space group P6422. In that structure, the hydrazone tautomer of HABA is bound at the bottom part of the central calyx near the polar residues. We show interactions of the dye with avidin and compare them with the previously reported avidin-biotin complex.

  10. Endocytic Pathways Involved in Filovirus Entry: Advances, Implications and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions.

  11. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  12. Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, T.; Koppenwallner, G.; Bianchi, L.; Klinkrad, H.

    2009-03-01

    From 2007 to 2008, Hypersonic Technology Göttingen (HTG) worked on a study called Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-entry (RADR). The main purposes of this study were to identify and to quantify the inherent uncertainties of re-entry analysis tools, and to provide possible risk mitigation measures. For these purposes, three basic risk scenarios were specified: a 1-ton-class satellite without propulsion for uncontrolled re-entry, a 6-ton-class satellite with propulsion and the capability to perform a controlled re-entry, and a 1-ton-class launcher upper stage re-entering uncontrolled. Based on the identified uncertainty parameters, variation analyses were conducted for these scenarios with the two ESA tools for re-entry analysis SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Reentry and Aerothermal Breakup) and SESAM (Spacecraft Entry Survival Analysis Module). This paper describes the major results of the RADR study.

  13. Entry menus in bilingual electronic dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert; Tokarek, Patryk

    2010-01-01

    The study undertakes to assess the efficiency of entry menus in bilingual dictionaries in the electronic format. An experimental dictionary interface is tested for performance in terms of access speed and task success. The task underlying dictionary use is guided Polish-to-English translation, performed under three conditions by 90 Polish learners of English. The first version of the dictionary displays a complete polysemous entry immediately after an entry is selected. In the second version ...

  14. Innate immunity modulation in virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Mathias; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal

    2011-07-01

    Entry into a cell submits viruses to detection by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to an early innate anti-viral response. Several viruses evolved strategies to avoid or subvert PRR recognition at the step of virus entry to promote infection. Whereas viruses mostly escape from soluble PRR detection, endocytic/phagocytic PRRs, such as the mannose receptor or DC-SIGN, are commonly used for virus entry. Moreover, virion-incorporated proteins may also offer viruses a way to dampen anti-viral innate immunity upon virus entry, and entering viruses might usurp autophagy to improve their own infectivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  16. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  17. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Gaudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G. Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell.

  18. 19 CFR 147.11 - Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.11 Entry. (a) Made in name of fair operator. All entries of articles for a fair shall be made at the port in the name of the fair operator which shall be deemed for... exhibition purposes under the Trade Fair Act of 1959. Mark Number Package and contents Quality Invoice value...

  19. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is associated with significant entry costs, which allow the incumbents to take advantage of their dominant position and derive positive economic profits. In case of entry threat by potential competitors the incumbents take strategic actions aimed at deterring entry and preserving their dominant position. Among the most efficient strategic actions one can emphasize the erection of additional barriers to entry for the newcomers through producing the limit output and price, investments in sunk assets, capacity expansion and product differentiation. Meanwhile by taking strategic actions the incumbents are not always trying to affect the entrant’s costs and profit directly, they often aim at changing the entrant’s expectations regarding future intentions of the incumbents to preserve dominant position.

  20. 27 CFR 27.184 - Entry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry documents. 27.184 Section 27.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.184 Entry documents...

  1. Stoichiometric parameters of HIV-1 entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Melissa; Siliciano, Robert

    2015-01-01

    During HIV type 1 (HIV-1) entry, trimers of gp120 bind to CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor on the target cell. The stoichiometric parameters associated with HIV-1 entry remain unclear. Important unanswered questions include: how many trimers must attach to CD4 molecules, how many must bind coreceptors, and how many functional gp120 subunits per trimer are required for entry? We performed single round infectivity assays with chimeric viruses and compared the experimental relative infectivity curves with curves generated by mathematical models. Our results indicate that HIV-1 entry requires only a small number of functional spikes (one or two), that Env trimers may function with fewer than three active subunits, and that there is no major difference in the stoichiometric requirements for CCR5 vs. CXCR4 mediated HIV-1 entry into host cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Orion Entry Display Feeder and Interactions with the Entry Monitor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Darren; Bernatovich, Mike; Gillespie, Ellen; Kadwa, Binaifer; Matthews, Dave; Penny, Wes; Zak, Tim; Grant, Mike; Bihari, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is designed to return astronauts to a landing within 10 km of the intended landing target from low Earth orbit, lunar direct-entry, and lunar skip-entry trajectories. Al pile the landing is nominally controlled autonomously, the crew can fly precision entries manually in the event of an anomaly. The onboard entry displays will be used by the crew to monitor and manually fly the entry, descent, and landing, while the Entry Monitor System (EMS) will be used to monitor the health and status of the onboard guidance and the trajectory. The entry displays are driven by the entry display feeder, part of the Entry Monitor System (EMS). The entry re-targeting module, also part of the EMS, provides all the data required to generate the capability footprint of the vehicle at any point in the trajectory, which is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD). It also provides caution and warning data and recommends the safest possible re-designated landing site when the nominal landing site is no longer within the capability of the vehicle. The PFD and the EMS allow the crew to manually fly an entry trajectory profile from entry interface until parachute deploy having the flexibility to manually steer the vehicle to a selected landing site that best satisfies the priorities of the crew. The entry display feeder provides data from the ENIS and other components of the GNC flight software to the displays at the proper rate and in the proper units. It also performs calculations that are specific to the entry displays and which are not made in any other component of the flight software. In some instances, it performs calculations identical to those performed by the onboard primary guidance algorithm to protect against a guidance system failure. These functions and the interactions between the entry display feeder and the other components of the EMS are described.

  3. 50 CFR 91.22 - Display of contest entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Display of contest entries. 91.22 Section... Administering the Contest § 91.22 Display of contest entries. The Federal Duck Stamp Office assigns all eligible entries a number as entries are received. That office displays the entries in numerical order at the...

  4. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  5. Retrovirus Entry by Endocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinao Kubo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses include infectious agents inducing severe diseases in humans and animals. In addition, retroviruses are widely used as tools to transfer genes of interest to target cells. Understanding the entry mechanism of retroviruses contributes to developments of novel therapeutic approaches against retrovirus-induced diseases and efficient exploitation of retroviral vectors. Entry of enveloped viruses into host cell cytoplasm is achieved by fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes at either the cell surface or intracellular vesicles. Many animal retroviruses enter host cells through endosomes and require endosome acidification. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus entry requires cathepsin proteases activated by the endosome acidification. CD4-dependent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is thought to occur via endosomes, but endosome acidification is not necessary for the entry whereas entry of CD4-independent HIVs, which are thought to be prototypes of CD4-dependent viruses, is low pH dependent. There are several controversial results on the retroviral entry pathways. Because endocytosis and endosome acidification are complicatedly controlled by cellular mechanisms, the retrovirus entry pathways may be different in different cell lines.

  6. Novel Approaches to Inhibit HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka A. Didigu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV entry into target cells is a multi-step process involving binding of the viral glycoprotein, Env, to its receptor CD4 and a coreceptor—either CCR5 or CXCR4. Understanding the means by which HIV enters cells has led to the identification of genetic polymorphisms, such as the 32 base-pair deletion in the ccr5 gene (ccr5∆32 that confers resistance to infection in homozygous individuals, and has also resulted in the development of entry inhibitors—small molecule antagonists that block infection at the entry step. The recent demonstration of long-term control of HIV infection in a leukemic patient following a hematopoietic stem cell transplant using cells from a ccr5∆32 homozygous donor highlights the important role of the HIV entry in maintaining an established infection and has led to a number of attempts to treat HIV infection by genetically modifying the ccr5 gene. In this review, we describe the HIV entry process and provide an overview of the different classes of approved HIV entry inhibitors while highlighting novel genetic strategies aimed at blocking HIV infection at the level of entry.

  7. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  8. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  9. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... compared to non-family firms. Furthermore, the Danish exporters regarded China as being the most established of the four BRIC markets which could be seen in their willingness to use high control entry modes in China. Finally, non-family firms are more concerned about higher flexibility and lower control...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  10. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for adaptive context...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  11. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  12. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  13. Remodeling of Calcium Entry Pathways in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+) entry pathways play important roles in control of many cellular functions, including long-term proliferation, migration and cell death. In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that, in some types of tumors, remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways could contribute to cancer hallmarks such as excessive proliferation, cell migration and invasion as well as resistance to cell death or survival. In this chapter we briefly review findings related to remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways in cancer with emphasis on the mechanisms that contribute to increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and store-operated currents (SOCs) in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, since SOCE appears critically involved in colon tumorogenesis, the inhibition of SOCE by aspirin and other NSAIDs and its possible contribution to colon cancer chemoprevention is reviewed.

  14. Developing Quantitative Models for Auditing Journal Entries

    OpenAIRE

    Argyrou, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines how the auditing of journal entries can detect and prevent financial statement fraud. Financial statement fraud occurs when an intentional act causes financial statements to be materially misstated. Although it is not a new phenomenon, financial statement fraud has attracted much publicity in the wake of numerous cases of financial malfeasance (e.g. ENRON, WorldCom). Existing literature has provided limited empirical evidence on the link between auditing journal entrie...

  15. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in ventur...

  16. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS)

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Robert; Casillas, Jose; Scales, Gregory; Green, Robert; Niehoff, Mellissa; Fitzgerald, David; Ouellette, David

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy requires a capability for effective and efficient entry control for restricted areas that house critical assets. This thesis describes an Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS) to meet this requirement. System requirements were obtained from existing governing documentation as well as stakeholder inputs. A functional architecture was developed and then modeled using the Imagine That Inc. ExtendSim tool. Factors...

  17. Limit pricing and secret barriers to entry

    OpenAIRE

    Brighi, Luigi; D'Amato, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    We study a two periods entry game where the incumbent .rm, who has private information about his own production costs, makes a non observable long run investment choice, along with a pricing decision observed by the entrant. The investment choice affects both post-entry competition and first period cost of production, so that the cost of signaling becomes endogenous. The game is solved following Bayes-Nash requirements, the intuitive criterion is used to constrain off-equilibrium beliefs. Whe...

  18. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  19. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  20. Gangliosides are essential for bovine adeno-associated virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Chiorini, John A

    2006-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors. We have recently identified a bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) that demonstrates unique tropism and transduction activity compared to primate AAVs. To better understand the entry pathway and cell tropism of BAAV, we have characterized the initial cell surface interactions required for transduction with BAAV vectors. Like a number of AAVs, BAAV requires cell surface sialic acid groups for transduction and virus attachment. However, glycosphingolipids (GSLs), not cell surface proteins, were required for vector entry and transduction. Incorporation of gangliosides, ceramide-based glycolipids containing one or more sialic acid groups, into the cytoplasmic cell membranes of GSL-depleted COS cells partially reconstituted BAAV transduction. The dependency of BAAV on gangliosides for transduction was further confirmed by studies with C6 cells, a rat glioma cell line that is deficient in the synthesis of complex gangliosides. C6 cells were resistant to transduction by BAAV. Addition of gangliosides to C6 cells prior to transduction rendered the cells susceptible to transduction by BAAV. Therefore, gangliosides are a likely receptor for BAAV.

  1. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  2. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  3. Regulation of Entry and the Distortion of Industrial Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Fisman; Virginia Sarria-Allende

    2004-01-01

    We study the distortions to industrial organization caused by entry regulation. We take advantage of heterogeneity across industries in their natural barriers and growth opportunities to examine whether some industries are differentially affected by country-level entry regulation. In industries with high natural entry barriers, entry regulation has little impact on the quantity and average size of firms in an industry. By contrast, in industries with low natural entry barriers, countries with...

  4. 19 CFR 141.56 - Single entry summary for multiple transportation entries consigned to the same consignee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single entry summary for multiple transportation entries consigned to the same consignee. 141.56 Section 141.56 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... transportation entries consigned to the same consignee. (a) Requirement. Port directors may accept one entry...

  5. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...... are identified. The paper closes with a brief discussion of limitations, avenues for future research, and implications for managers and affected policymakers....

  6. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  7. Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus Cell Entry Unraveled by Single-Virus Tracking in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoornweg, Tabitha E; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Ayala Nuñez, Nilda V; Albulescu, Irina C; van Hemert, Martijn J; Smit, Jolanda M

    2016-05-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied previously using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which CHIKV enters the cell: several studies suggest that CHIKV enters via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while others show that it enters independently of clathrin. Here we applied live-cell microscopy and monitored the cell entry behavior of single CHIKV particles in living cells transfected with fluorescent marker proteins. This approach allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the dynamic events that occur during CHIKV entry. We observed that almost all particles fused within 20 min after addition to the cells. Of the particles that fused, the vast majority first colocalized with clathrin. The average time from initial colocalization with clathrin to the moment of membrane fusion was 1.7 min, highlighting the rapidity of the cell entry process of CHIKV. Furthermore, these results show that the virus spends a relatively long time searching for a receptor. Membrane fusion was observed predominantly from within Rab5-positive endosomes and often occurred within 40 s after delivery to endosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that a valine at position 226 of the E1 protein enhances the cholesterol-dependent membrane fusion properties of CHIKV. To conclude, our work confirms that CHIKV enters cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and shows that fusion occurs from within acidic early endosomes. Since its reemergence in 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread rapidly around the world, leading to millions of infections. CHIKV often causes chikungunya fever, a self-limiting febrile illness with severe arthralgia. Currently, no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment against CHIKV is available. A potential antiviral strategy is to interfere with the cell entry process of the

  8. Continuous Aerodynamic Modelling of Entry Shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.; Mooij, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the conceptual design phase of a re-entry vehicle, the vehicle shape can be varied and its impact on performance evaluated. To this end, the continuous modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics as a function of the shape is useful in exploring the full design space. Local inclination

  9. Female entrepreneurial networks and foreign market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of networks in the 116 foreign market entries (FMEs) of women-owned small businesses. A multiple case study based on semi-structured interviews with eight female entrepreneurs in the Danish fashion design industry. The results show that contrary...

  10. Thinking and Reading for Entry Level Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentown Literacy Council, PA.

    A pilot project demonstrated that cooperative training programs are effective and cost efficient for small businesses. Common entry-level reading and thinking tasks were identified in a variety of occupational areas. Five growing occupational areas were identified: industrial/machine operator; health care; food preparation; hotel/hospitality; and…

  11. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  12. Internet portals as portfolios of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the valuation of platform investment, such as a software operating system or an Internet portal WebPage. Platform investment is the creation of an innovative distribution and production infrastructure, which increases access to customers; as a result it reduces entry costs in related

  13. Radiation and critical shocks in atmospheric entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Sub- and supercritical shock waves are produced during atmospheric entry. The radiation efficiency of the former increases strongly with velocity and altitude; that of the latter increases with altitude, but decreases with supercritical velocities. These efficiencies shift the region of maximum radiation one to two scale heights higher and decrease overall radiation efficiency.

  14. Correlation Between Entry Requirements and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the investigator examines the correlation between entry requirements and academic performance of undergraduate students at the University of Buea. The quality of performance on the Cameroon General Certificate Examination at the Advanced Level is the predictor while the criterion is the cumulative grade ...

  15. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  16. 19 CFR 159.7 - Rewarehouse entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rewarehouse entries. 159.7 Section 159.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... When any of the following types of merchandise are withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to...

  17. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  18. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  19. Quantitative membrane proteomics reveals a role for tetraspanin enriched microdomains during entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV depends on and modulates multiple host cell membrane proteins during each stage of the viral life cycle. To gain a global view of the impact of HCMV-infection on membrane proteins, we analyzed HCMV-induced changes in the abundance of membrane proteins in fibroblasts using stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC, membrane fractionation and protein identification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This systematic approach revealed that CD81, CD44, CD98, caveolin-1 and catenin delta-1 were down-regulated during infection whereas GRP-78 was up-regulated. Since CD81 downregulation was also observed during infection with UV-inactivated virus we hypothesized that this tetraspanin is part of the viral entry process. Interestingly, additional members of the tetraspanin family, CD9 and CD151, were also downregulated during HCMV-entry. Since tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEM cluster host cell membrane proteins including known CMV receptors such as integrins, we studied whether TEMs are required for viral entry. When TEMs were disrupted with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cylcodextrin, viral entry was inhibited and this inhibition correlated with reduced surface levels of CD81, CD9 and CD151, whereas integrin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of multiple tetraspanins inhibited viral entry whereas individual knockdown had little effect suggesting essential, but redundant roles for individual tetraspanins during entry. Taken together, our data suggest that TEM act as platforms for receptors utilized by HCMV for entry into cells.

  20. Coronaviruses induce entry-independent, continuous macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Megan Culler; Peek, Christopher T; Becker, Michelle M; Smith, Everett Clinton; Denison, Mark R

    2014-08-05

    Macropinocytosis is exploited by many pathogens for entry into cells. Coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV are important human pathogens; however, macropinocytosis during CoV infection has not been investigated. We demonstrate that the CoVs SARS CoV and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) induce macropinocytosis, which occurs late during infection, is continuous, and is not associated with virus entry. MHV-induced macropinocytosis results in vesicle internalization, as well as extended filopodia capable of fusing with distant cells. MHV-induced macropinocytosis requires fusogenic spike protein on the cell surface and is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor activation. Inhibition of macropinocytosis reduces supernatant viral titers and syncytia but not intracellular virus titers. These results indicate that macropinocytosis likely facilitates CoV infection through enhanced cell-to-cell spreading. Our studies are the first to demonstrate virus use of macropinocytosis for a role other than entry and suggest a much broader potential exploitation of macropinocytosis in virus replication and host interactions. Importance: Coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, are critical emerging human pathogens. Macropinocytosis is induced by many pathogens to enter host cells, but other functions for macropinocytosis in virus replication are unknown. In this work, we show that CoVs induce a macropinocytosis late in infection that is continuous, independent from cell entry, and associated with increased virus titers and cell fusion. Murine hepatitis virus macropinocytosis requires a fusogenic virus spike protein and signals through the epidermal growth factor receptor and the classical macropinocytosis pathway. These studies demonstrate CoV induction of macropinocytosis for a purpose other than entry and indicate that viruses

  1. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market

    OpenAIRE

    Karataev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  2. Setting up a large set of protein-ligand PDB complexes for the development and validation of knowledge-based docking algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Luis A; Morell, Persy; Aguilera, Longendri; Moreno, Ernesto

    2007-08-25

    The number of algorithms available to predict ligand-protein interactions is large and ever-increasing. The number of test cases used to validate these methods is usually small and problem dependent. Recently, several databases have been released for further understanding of protein-ligand interactions, having the Protein Data Bank as backend support. Nevertheless, it appears to be difficult to test docking methods on a large variety of complexes. In this paper we report the development of a new database of protein-ligand complexes tailored for testing of docking algorithms. Using a new definition of molecular contact, small ligands contained in the 2005 PDB edition were identified and processed. The database was enriched in molecular properties. In particular, an automated typing of ligand atoms was performed. A filtering procedure was applied to select a non-redundant dataset of complexes. Data mining was performed to obtain information on the frequencies of different types of atomic contacts. Docking simulations were run with the program DOCK. We compiled a large database of small ligand-protein complexes, enriched with different calculated properties, that currently contains more than 6000 non-redundant structures. As an example to demonstrate the value of the new database, we derived a new set of chemical matching rules to be used in the context of the program DOCK, based on contact frequencies between ligand atoms and points representing the protein surface, and proved their enhanced efficiency with respect to the default set of rules included in that program. The new database constitutes a valuable resource for the development of knowledge-based docking algorithms and for testing docking programs on large sets of protein-ligand complexes. The new chemical matching rules proposed in this work significantly increase the success rate in DOCKing simulations. The database developed in this work is available at http://cimlcsext.cim.sld.cu:8080/screeningbrowser/.

  3. Setting up a large set of protein-ligand PDB complexes for the development and validation of knowledge-based docking algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera Longendri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of algorithms available to predict ligand-protein interactions is large and ever-increasing. The number of test cases used to validate these methods is usually small and problem dependent. Recently, several databases have been released for further understanding of protein-ligand interactions, having the Protein Data Bank as backend support. Nevertheless, it appears to be difficult to test docking methods on a large variety of complexes. In this paper we report the development of a new database of protein-ligand complexes tailored for testing of docking algorithms. Methods Using a new definition of molecular contact, small ligands contained in the 2005 PDB edition were identified and processed. The database was enriched in molecular properties. In particular, an automated typing of ligand atoms was performed. A filtering procedure was applied to select a non-redundant dataset of complexes. Data mining was performed to obtain information on the frequencies of different types of atomic contacts. Docking simulations were run with the program DOCK. Results We compiled a large database of small ligand-protein complexes, enriched with different calculated properties, that currently contains more than 6000 non-redundant structures. As an example to demonstrate the value of the new database, we derived a new set of chemical matching rules to be used in the context of the program DOCK, based on contact frequencies between ligand atoms and points representing the protein surface, and proved their enhanced efficiency with respect to the default set of rules included in that program. Conclusion The new database constitutes a valuable resource for the development of knowledge-based docking algorithms and for testing docking programs on large sets of protein-ligand complexes. The new chemical matching rules proposed in this work significantly increase the success rate in DOCKing simulations. The database developed in this work is

  4. Entry Location and Entry Timing (ELET Decision Model for International Construction Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Maznah Mat Isa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for entry location (EL and entry timing (ET decisions to guide construction firms in accessing targeted international markets.  Neglecting to properly choose the right combination of the entry location and entry timing (ELET decisions can lead to poor performance of the firms’ international ventures.  The sampling frame was from the Malaysian construction firms that have undertaken and completed projects abroad.  Survey questionnaires sent to 115 firms registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB Malaysia, operating in more than 50 countries, achieved a 39.1 per cent response rate. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of survey data it was found that the mutually inclusive significant factors that influenced the firms’ ELET decisions were: the firm’s ability to assess market signals and opportunities, international experience, financial capacity, competencies and capabilities (project management, specialist expertise and technology, resources (level of knowledge based on research and development, experience in similar works, financial support from the home country banks, technical complexities of projects and availability of funds for projects.  Hence, the present research builds on and extends the literature on the ELET decisions in a more integrated way. Keywords: Entry location, entry timing, resource-based view, international markets, Malaysian construction firms.

  5. Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ADEPT Project is developing a mechanically deployable low-ballistic coefficient aeroshell entry system to perform entry descent landing (EDL) functions for...

  6. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  7. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  8. Concepts of papillomavirus entry into host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patricia M; Schelhaas, Mario

    2014-02-01

    Papillomaviruses enter basal cells of stratified epithelia. Assembly of new virions occurs in infected cells during terminal differentiation. This unique biology is reflected in the mechanism of entry. Extracellularly, the interaction of nonenveloped capsids with several host cell proteins, after binding, results in discrete conformational changes. Asynchronous internalization occurs over several hours by an endocytic mechanism related to, but distinct from macropinocytosis. Intracellular trafficking leads virions through the endosomal system, and from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi-network, before nuclear delivery. Here, we discuss the existing data with the aim to synthesize an integrated model of the stepwise process of entry, thereby highlighting key open questions. Additionally, we relate data from experiments with cultured cells to in vivo results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aurora A, mitotic entry, and spindle bipolarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quentin; Ruderman, Joan V.

    2006-01-01

    The kinase Aurora-A (Aur-A), which is enriched at centrosomes, is required for centrosome maturation and accurate chromosome segregation, and recent work implicates centrosomes as sites where the earliest activation of cyclin B1-cdc2 occurs. Here, we have used Xenopus egg extracts to investigate Aur-A's contribution to cell cycle progression and spindle morphology in the presence or absence of centrosomes. We find that addition of active Aur-A accelerates cdc2 activation and mitotic entry. Depletion of endogenous Aur-A or addition of inactive Aur-A, which lead to monopolar spindles, delays but does not block mitotic entry. These effects on timing and spindle structure do not require the presence of centrosomes or chromosomes. The catalytic domain alone of Aur-A is sufficient to restore spindle bipolarity; additional N-terminal sequences function in mitotic timing. PMID:16581905

  10. BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES AS THE SUBJECT OF THEFT

    OpenAIRE

    Groshev A. V.; Shulga A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Book-entry securities as the subject of theft. The article deals with the questions of legal assessment of crimes, targeted at embezzlement of book-entry securities. The article reports author's position concerning the expediency of creation in Russian criminal law system, the criminal liability for book-entry security taking in articles about theft and property crimes. The plot of the article requires the discussion in terms of recognizing book-entry securities the subject of theft, and crea...

  11. Filter for interpretation of fragmentation during entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-10-01

    Objects that fragment cascade and decelerate abruptly, producing short, bright, signatures which can be used to estimate object diameter and speed. Other objects can be incorporated into a generalized fragmentation filter. This note summarizes the results of previous reports on the prediction and inversion of signatures from objects that radiate, ablate, and fragment during entry and uses them to produce models for the parameters of entering objects.

  12. Entry Mistakes, Entrepreneurial Boldness and Optimism

    OpenAIRE

    Brocas, Isabelle; Carrillo, Juan D

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the investment decision of a population of time inconsistent entrepreneurs who overweight current payoffs relative to future returns. We show that, in order to avoid inefficient procrastination, agents may find it optimal to keep optimistic priors about their chances of success and 'blindly invest'. This explains entrepreneurial boldness and entry mistakes (or an excessive level of investment in the economy) without assuming the existence of boundedly rational, 'intrinsically optim...

  13. Dynamics in car ownership: the role of entry into parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.M.; Manting, D.; Nijland, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of entry into parenthood on changes in car ownership. If entry into parenthood affects changes in car ownership, then delay or offset of entry into parenthood might also be an important explanation of recent car travel trends of young adults. This study analysed

  14. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  15. 19 CFR 12.11 - Requirements for entry and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for entry and release. 12.11 Section 12.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... of arrival for any type of entry except rewarehouse and informal mail entries. Such notice shall be...

  16. Targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A2α impedes cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mu; Xie, Chanlu; Kiang, Mei-Yee; Teng, Ying; Harman, David; Tiffen, Jessamy; Wang, Qian; Sved, Paul; Bao, Shisan; Witting, Paul; Holst, Jeff; Dong, Qihan

    2015-10-27

    Cell cycle re-entry of quiescent cancer cells has been proposed to be involved in cancer progression and recurrence. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane glycerophospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are implicated in cancer cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cPLA2α in cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells. When PC-3 and LNCaP cells were rendered to a quiescent state, the active form of cPLA2α with a phosphorylation at Ser505 was lower compared to their proliferating state. Conversely, the phospho-cPLA2α levels were resurgent during the induction of cell cycle re-entry. Pharmacological inhibition of cPLA2α with Efipladib upon induction of cell cycle re-entry inhibited the re-entry process, as manifested by refrained DNA synthesis, persistent high proportion of cells in G0/G1 and low percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases, together with a stagnant recovery of Ki-67 expression. Simultaneously, Efipladib prohibited the emergence of Skp2 while maintained p27 at a high level in the nuclear compartment during cell cycle re-entry. Inhibition of cPLA2α also prevented an accumulation of cyclin D1/CDK4, cyclin E/CDK2, phospho-pRb, pre-replicative complex proteins CDC6, MCM7, ORC6 and DNA synthesis-related protein PCNA during induction of cell cycle re-entry. Moreover, a pre-treatment of the prostate cancer cells with Efipladib during induction of cell cycle re-entry subsequently compromised their tumorigenic capacity in vivo. Hence, cPLA2α plays an important role in cell cycle re-entry by quiescent prostate cancer cells.

  17. A clathrin independent macropinocytosis-like entry mechanism used by bluetongue virus-1 during infection of BHK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid dependent infection of Hela and Vero cells by BTV-10 occurs from within early-endosomes following virus uptake by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Forzan et al., 2007: J Virol 81: 4819-4827. Here we report that BTV-1 infection of BHK cells is also dependent on a low endosomal pH; however, virus entry and infection were not inhibited by dominant-negative mutants of Eps15, AP180 or the 'aa' splice variant of dynamin-2, which were shown to inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition, infection was not inhibited by depletion of cellular cholesterol, which suggests that virus entry is not mediated by a lipid-raft dependent process such as caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Although virus entry and infection were not inhibited by the dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutant, entry was inhibited by the general dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, indicating that virus entry is dynamin dependent. During entry, BTV-1 co-localised with LAMP-1 but not with transferrin, suggesting that virus is delivered to late-endosomal compartments without first passing through early-endosomes. BTV-1 entry and infection were inhibited by EIPA and cytochalasin-D, known macropinocytosis inhibitors, and during entry virus co-localised with dextran, a known marker for macropinocytosis/fluid-phase uptake. Our results extend earlier observations with BTV-10, and show that BTV-1 can infect BHK cells via an entry mechanism that is clathrin and cholesterol-independent, but requires dynamin, and shares certain characteristics in common with macropinocytosis.

  18. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  19. 19 CFR 149.6 - Entry and entry summary documentation and Importer Security Filing submitted via a single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Security Filing submitted via a single electronic transmission. 149.6 Section 149.6 Customs Duties U.S... submitted via a single electronic transmission. If the Importer Security Filing is filed pursuant to § 149.2 of this part via the same electronic transmission as entry or entry/entry summary documentation...

  20. Imaging single retrovirus entry through alternative receptor isoforms and intermediates of virus-endosome fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Naveen K; Latinovic, Olga; Martin, Erik; Novitskiy, Gennadiy; Marin, Mariana; Miyauchi, Kosuke; Naughton, John; Young, John A T; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2011-01-20

    A large group of viruses rely on low pH to activate their fusion proteins that merge the viral envelope with an endosomal membrane, releasing the viral nucleocapsid. A critical barrier to understanding these events has been the lack of approaches to study virus-cell membrane fusion within acidic endosomes, the natural sites of virus nucleocapsid capsid entry into the cytosol. Here we have investigated these events using the highly tractable subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein (EnvA)-TVA receptor system. Through labeling EnvA pseudotyped viruses with a pH-sensitive fluorescent marker, we imaged their entry into mildly acidic compartments. We found that cells expressing the transmembrane receptor (TVA950) internalized the virus much faster than those expressing the GPI-anchored receptor isoform (TVA800). Surprisingly, TVA800 did not accelerate virus uptake compared to cells lacking the receptor. Subsequent steps of virus entry were visualized by incorporating a small viral content marker that was released into the cytosol as a result of fusion. EnvA-dependent fusion with TVA800-expressing cells occurred shortly after endocytosis and delivery into acidic endosomes, whereas fusion of viruses internalized through TVA950 was delayed. In the latter case, a relatively stable hemifusion-like intermediate preceded the fusion pore opening. The apparent size and stability of nascent fusion pores depended on the TVA isoforms and their expression levels, with TVA950 supporting more robust pores and a higher efficiency of infection compared to TVA800. These results demonstrate that surface receptor density and the intracellular trafficking pathway used are important determinants of efficient EnvA-mediated membrane fusion, and suggest that early fusion intermediates play a critical role in establishing low pH-dependent virus entry from within acidic endosomes.

  1. Imaging single retrovirus entry through alternative receptor isoforms and intermediates of virus-endosome fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Jha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large group of viruses rely on low pH to activate their fusion proteins that merge the viral envelope with an endosomal membrane, releasing the viral nucleocapsid. A critical barrier to understanding these events has been the lack of approaches to study virus-cell membrane fusion within acidic endosomes, the natural sites of virus nucleocapsid capsid entry into the cytosol. Here we have investigated these events using the highly tractable subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein (EnvA-TVA receptor system. Through labeling EnvA pseudotyped viruses with a pH-sensitive fluorescent marker, we imaged their entry into mildly acidic compartments. We found that cells expressing the transmembrane receptor (TVA950 internalized the virus much faster than those expressing the GPI-anchored receptor isoform (TVA800. Surprisingly, TVA800 did not accelerate virus uptake compared to cells lacking the receptor. Subsequent steps of virus entry were visualized by incorporating a small viral content marker that was released into the cytosol as a result of fusion. EnvA-dependent fusion with TVA800-expressing cells occurred shortly after endocytosis and delivery into acidic endosomes, whereas fusion of viruses internalized through TVA950 was delayed. In the latter case, a relatively stable hemifusion-like intermediate preceded the fusion pore opening. The apparent size and stability of nascent fusion pores depended on the TVA isoforms and their expression levels, with TVA950 supporting more robust pores and a higher efficiency of infection compared to TVA800. These results demonstrate that surface receptor density and the intracellular trafficking pathway used are important determinants of efficient EnvA-mediated membrane fusion, and suggest that early fusion intermediates play a critical role in establishing low pH-dependent virus entry from within acidic endosomes.

  2. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  3. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  4. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity....

  5. Ezrin Interacts with the SARS Coronavirus Spike Protein and Restrains Infection at the Entry Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Kien, François; Cheung, Chung-Yan; Siu, Yu-Lam; Chan, Wing-Lim; Li, Huiying; Leung, Hiu-Lan; Jaume, Martial; Bruzzone, Roberto; Malik Peiris, Joseph S.; Altmeyer, Ralf Marius; Nal, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Background Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S). There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. Conclusions/Significance Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection. PMID:23185364

  6. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kaoru Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S. There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.

  7. BmREEPa Is a Novel Gene that Facilitates BmNPV Entry into Silkworm Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-long Dong

    Full Text Available We previously established two silkworm cell lines, BmN-SWU1 and BmN-SWU2, from Bombyx mori ovaries. BmN-SWU1 cells are susceptible while BmN-SWU2 cells are highly resistant to BmNPV infection. Interestingly, we found that the entry of BmNPV into BmN-SWU2 cells was largely inhibited. To explore the mechanism of this inhibition, in this study we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based quantitative protein expression profiling and identified 629 differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines. Among them, we identified a new membrane protein termed BmREEPa. The gene encoding BmREEPa transcribes two splice variants; a 573 bp long BmREEPa-L encoding a protein with 190 amino acids and a 501 bp long BmREEPa-S encoding a protein with 166 amino acids. BmREEPa contains a conserved TB2/DP, HVA22 domain and three transmembrane domains. It is localized in the plasma membrane with a cytoplasmic C-terminus and an extracellular N-terminus. We found that limiting the expression of BmREEPa in BmN-SWU1 cells inhibited BmNPV entry, whereas over-expression of BmREEPa in BmN-SWU2 cells promoted BmNPV entry. Our results also indicated that BmREEPa can interact with GP64, which is the key envelope fusion protein for BmNPV entry. Taken together, the findings of our study revealed that BmREEPa is required for BmNPV to gain entry into silkworm cells, and may provide insights for the identification of BmNPV receptors.

  8. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. UPSON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  9. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  10. The campaigning soldier: Vitellius’ entry into Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Fear

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Tacitus’ account of Vitellius’ triumphal entry into Rome is used by the author to underline his disapproval of this emperor. However the historian’s description of the Vitellian army has often been seen as positive and in sharp contrast to that given to the emperor himself. This article attempts to show that on close inspection Tacitus’ account is equally hostile to the emperor’s troops and that his disapproval is reinforced by his dwelling upon the colour of their uniforms and the varied associations this would have had in the Roman mind.

  11. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect......A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  12. Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Cook, Frank; Artiushin, Sergey; Mondal, Shankar; Anderson, Kelsi; Eberth, John; Timoney, Peter J.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Bailey, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from equine industry from high rates of abortion in pregnant mares, death in young foals, establishment of the carrier state in stallions, and trade restrictions imposed by various countries. Similar to other arteriviruses, EAV primarily targets cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which, when infected, are believed to play a critical role in EVA pathogenesis. To this point, however, the host-specified molecules involved in EAV binding and entry into monocytes/macrophages have not been identified. Identification of the cellular receptors for EAV may provide insights to design antivirals and better prophylactic reagents. In this study, we have demonstrated that EqCXCL16 acts as an EAV entry receptor in EAV-susceptible cells, equine monocytes. These findings represent a significant advance in our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms associated with the entry of EAV into susceptible cells. PMID:26764004

  13. Passive Stability on an Entry Vehicle to Enhance Crew Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Daniel J.; Hoffman, David; Crull, Tim; Cuthbert, Peter; Liama, Eduardo; Madsen, Chris; Stuart, Phil; Bryant, Lee

    2005-01-01

    The most desirable crew survival feature for an entry vehicle is probably a full coverage escape system. With full coverage escape, crew survival is maintained for a wide range of failures by the allowing the crew to escape from the failed vehicle and performing the entry to touchdown flight phase in an alternative system. However, there are considerable challenges in providing a separate entry capability, and for some programs, requiring full coverage escape could result in program cancellation. An alternative means of providing for crew survival if the flight control system fails is to design a return vehicle that can enter without active attitude control. A study was performed to assess the feasibility of performing a totally passive entry. Lift over drag has a major impact on performing a passive entry, so a parametric of three typical lift over drag concepts was performed. First an assessment of historical entry vehicles was completed. Second an assessment of end of mission entry trajectories and entry trajectories initiated from ascent abort profiles were made. Trajectories for a wide array of pitch, yaw, and roll rates were made. Third, six-degree-of freedom analyses of the entry were performed. FOP a truly passive return, the entry vehicle must trim in only the heat shield forward orientation. An assessment of the effect of center of gravity placement to achieve this orientation was made.

  14. Structural correlates of rotavirus cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa H Abdelhakim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell entry by non-enveloped viruses requires translocation into the cytosol of a macromolecular complex--for double-strand RNA viruses, a complete subviral particle. We have used live-cell fluorescence imaging to follow rotavirus entry and penetration into the cytosol of its ∼ 700 Å inner capsid particle ("double-layered particle", DLP. We label with distinct fluorescent tags the DLP and each of the two outer-layer proteins and track the fates of each species as the particles bind and enter BSC-1 cells. Virions attach to their glycolipid receptors in the host cell membrane and rapidly become inaccessible to externally added agents; most particles that release their DLP into the cytosol have done so by ∼ 10 minutes, as detected by rapid diffusional motion of the DLP away from residual outer-layer proteins. Electron microscopy shows images of particles at various stages of engulfment into tightly fitting membrane invaginations, consistent with the interpretation that rotavirus particles drive their own uptake. Electron cryotomography of membrane-bound virions also shows closely wrapped membrane. Combined with high resolution structural information about the viral components, these observations suggest a molecular model for membrane disruption and DLP penetration.

  15. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  16. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  17. Essays on international market entry : Strategic alliance governance and product segment entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, A.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on the entry and evolution of foreign firms in a new market. The common thread through these three essays is a focus on the scope of the foreign firm in a host country, and on how this scope is shaped by local firms and environments. The first

  18. Novel small-molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus entry block viral spread and promote viral clearance in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen A Coburn

    Full Text Available Combinations of direct-acting anti-virals offer the potential to improve the efficacy, tolerability and duration of the current treatment regimen for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Viral entry represents a distinct therapeutic target that has been validated clinically for a number of pathogenic viruses. To discover novel inhibitors of HCV entry, we conducted a high throughput screen of a proprietary small-molecule compound library using HCV pseudoviral particle (HCVpp technology. We independently discovered and optimized a series of 1,3,5-triazine compounds that are potent, selective and non-cytotoxic inhibitors of HCV entry. Representative compounds fully suppress both cell-free virus and cell-to-cell spread of HCV in vitro. We demonstrate, for the first time, that long term treatment of an HCV cell culture with a potent entry inhibitor promotes sustained viral clearance in vitro. We have confirmed that a single amino acid variant, V719G, in the transmembrane domain of E2 is sufficient to confer resistance to multiple compounds from the triazine series. Resistance studies were extended by evaluating both the fusogenic properties and growth kinetics of drug-induced and natural amino acid variants in the HCVpp and HCV cell culture assays. Our results indicate that amino acid variations at position 719 incur a significant fitness penalty. Introduction of I719 into a genotype 1b envelope sequence did not affect HCV entry; however, the overall level of HCV replication was reduced compared to the parental genotype 1b/2a HCV strain. Consistent with these findings, I719 represents a significant fraction of the naturally occurring genotype 1b sequences. Importantly, I719, the most relevant natural polymorphism, did not significantly alter the susceptibility of HCV to the triazine compounds. The preclinical properties of these triazine compounds support further investigation of entry inhibitors as a potential novel therapy for HCV infection.

  19. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P S; Moss, Bernard

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 "fusion-suppressor" proteins, impact entry properties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  1. Mid-L/D Lifting Body Entry Demise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The mid-lift-to-drag ratio (mid-L/D) lifting body is a fully autonomous spacecraft under design at NASA for enabling a rapid return of scientific payloads from the International Space Station (ISS). For contingency planning and risk assessment for the Earth-return trajectory, an entry demise analysis was performed to examine three potential failure scenarios: (1) nominal entry interface conditions with loss of control, (2) controlled entry at maximum flight path angle, and (3) controlled entry at minimum flight path angle. The objectives of the analysis were to predict the spacecraft breakup sequence and timeline, determine debris survival, and calculate the debris dispersion footprint. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of the initial pitch rate on the spacecraft stability and breakup during the entry. This report describes the mid-L/D lifting body and presents the results of the entry demise and sensitivity analyses.

  2. Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H; Renslo, Adam R; Simmons, Graham

    2015-04-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  3. An Automated Evaluation Metric for Chinese Text Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Mike Tian-Jian; Zhan, James; Lin, Jaimie; Lin, Jerry; Hsu, Wen-Lien

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated evaluation metric for text entry. We also consider possible improvements to existing text entry evaluation metrics, such as the minimum string distance error rate, keystrokes per character, cost per correction, and a unified approach proposed by MacKenzie, so they can accommodate the special characteristics of Chinese text. Current methods lack an integrated concern about both typing speed and accuracy for Chinese text entry evaluation. Our goal is to re...

  4. Bat and pig Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 restrict cell entry by influenza virus and lyssaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Benfield, C.; Smith, S. E.; Wright, E; Wash, R. S.; F. Ferrara; Temperton, N. J.; Kellam, P.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a restriction factor which\\ud blocks cytosolic entry of numerous viruses that utilise acidic endosomal entry\\ud pathways. In humans and mice, IFITM3 limits influenza-induced morbidity and\\ud mortality. Although many IFITM3-sensitive viruses are zoonotic, whether IFITMs\\ud function as antiviral restriction factors in mammalian species other than humans and\\ud mice is unknown. Here, IFITM3 orthologues in the microbat Myotis myotis and the p...

  5. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  6. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  7. The Hera Saturn entry probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Frampton, R.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hueso, R.; Amato, M. J.; Colaprete, A.; Ferri, F.; Stam, D.; Wurz, P.; Atreya, S.; Aslam, S.; Banfield, D. J.; Calcutt, S.; Fischer, G.; Holland, A.; Keller, C.; Kessler, E.; Leese, M.; Levacher, P.; Morse, A.; Muñoz, O.; Renard, J.-B.; Sheridan, S.; Schmider, F.-X.; Snik, F.; Waite, J. H.; Bird, M.; Cavalié, T.; Deleuil, M.; Fortney, J.; Gautier, D.; Guillot, T.; Lunine, J. I.; Marty, B.; Nixon, C.; Orton, G. S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M-class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera's aim is to probe well into the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to the locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. By leading to an improved understanding of the processes by which giant planets formed, including the composition and properties of the local solar nebula at the time and location of giant planet formation, Hera will extend the legacy of the Galileo and Cassini missions by further addressing the creation, formation, and chemical, dynamical, and thermal evolution of the giant planets, the entire solar system including Earth and the other terrestrial planets, and formation of other planetary systems.

  8. Parvoviral host range and cell entry mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to translocate the genome from its initial host cell nucleus all the way into the nucleus of its subsequent host. Lacking a duplex transcription template, the virus must then wait for its host to enter S-phase before it can initiate transcription and usurp the cell's synthetic pathways. Here we review cell entry mechanisms used by parvoviruses. We explore two apparently distinct modes of host cell specificity, first that used by Minute virus of mice, where subtle glycan-specific interactions between host receptors and residues surrounding twofold symmetry axes on the virion surface mediate differentiated cell type target specificity, while the second involves novel protein interactions with the canine transferrin receptor that allow a mutant of the feline leukopenia serotype, Canine parvovirus, to bind to and infect dog cells. We then discuss conformational shifts in the virion that accompany cell entry, causing exposure of a capsid-tethered phospholipase A2 enzymatic core that acts as an endosomolytic agent to mediate virion translocation across the lipid bilayer into the cell cytoplasm. Finally, we discuss virion delivery into the nucleus, and consider the nature of transcriptionally silent DNA species that, escaping detection by the cell, might allow unhampered progress into S-phase and hence unleash the parvoviral Trojan horse.

  9. Disabled graduate-entry medical student experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Simon

    2017-04-24

    This study explored the experiences of graduate-entry medicine degree programme students who were disabled on the disclosure of their disability and the challenging disability issues they encountered during their degree programme. Eight student volunteers with a disability from the University of Warwick graduate-entry medicine degree programme took part in this study. Audio recordings of their semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Contributory factors to a reluctance or delay in disclosing disability to the medical school included confidentiality concerns, the potential impact of disclosure on their medical school application outcome and not perceiving their disability had an impact on their ability to function. They disclosed their disability for a range of professional and practical considerations. One participant was investigated and diagnosed with dyslexia following failure in a medical school examination. Disabled medical students encountered challenging issues such as having concerns about their future fitness to practice and employability, repeated disclosure of disability, confidentiality, abuse and difficulties in organising reasonable adjustments. Disabled medical students encounter challenging issues DISCUSSION: Medical school staff should keep an open mind about undiagnosed disability as a potential contributory factor to graduate students' academic underperformance. Participants expressed concerns about the management of their disability information that could potentially be addressed through regular dialogue between the students with a disability and medical school representatives, to define who, when and how other staff members could have access to the students' disability information. Despite the challenges students with a disability encountered during their degree programme, they viewed themselves as individuals who were in a good position to empathise with patients and understand their needs. © 2017 John

  10. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Paulsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated forms processing may be an alternative, but further validation is warranted. METHODS: 200 patients were randomly selected from a cohort of 5777 patients who had previously answered two different questionnaires. The questionnaires were scanned using an automated forms processing technique, as well as processed by single and double manual data entry, using the EpiData Entry data entry program. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correctly entered numbers at question, form and study level. RESULTS: Manual double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 performed better than single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729, (p = 0.020. There was no statistical difference between Optical Mark Recognition (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 and double-key data entry (p = 1.000. With the Intelligent Character Recognition method, there was no statistical difference compared to single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 6.734 (95% CI: 0.817-24.113, (p = 0.656, as well as double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 3.367 (95% CI: 0.085-18.616, (p = 0.319. CONCLUSIONS: Automated forms processing is a valid alternative to double manual data entry for highly structured forms containing only check boxes, numerical codes and no dates. Automated forms processing can be superior to single manual data entry through a data entry program, depending on the method chosen.

  11. The Curious Case of Arenavirus Entry, and Its Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne York

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses comprise a diverse family of enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that are endemic to specific rodent hosts worldwide. Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, including Junín and Machupo viruses in South America and Lassa fever virus in western Africa. Arenavirus entry into the host cell is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein complex, GPC. The virion is endocytosed on binding to a cell-surface receptor, and membrane fusion is initiated in response to physiological acidification of the endosome. As with other class I virus fusion proteins, GPC-mediated membrane fusion is promoted through a regulated sequence of conformational changes leading to formation of the classical postfusion trimer-of-hairpins structure. GPC is, however, unique among the class I fusion proteins in that the mature complex retains a stable signal peptide (SSP as a third subunit, in addition to the canonical receptor-binding and fusion proteins. We will review the curious properties of the tripartite GPC complex and describe evidence that SSP interacts with the fusion subunit to modulate pH-induced activation of membrane fusion. This unusual solution to maintaining the metastable prefusion state of GPC on the virion and activating the class I fusion cascade at acidic pH provides novel targets for antiviral intervention.

  12. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin O. Bates

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.

  13. THE BANDWAGON EFFECT OF LEADERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES ON FOLLOWERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Firms, whichhave to compete with global firms in domestic market, try to internationalizefor gaining competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to recommend a conceptual framework to explain thedynamics of internationalization process of leader and follower firms thatinternationalize from an emerging country. In this study, author tries tofigure out the determinants of entrymode decisions of follower firms. In addition, bandwagon effect of leaders'entry mode strategies on followers&...

  14. BLOCKS Information - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available escription of this entry blocks3dIdSize Number of PDB entries annotated with this... entry by MAST blocks3dChainSize Number of PDB chains annotated with this entry by MAST blocks3dSeqIdSize Nu...mber of PDB entries whose SEQRES matches this entry blocks3dSeqChainSize Number of PDB chains whose SEQRES m...atches this entry blocks3dAtomIdSize Number of PDB entries whose ATOM matches this entry blocks3dAtomChainSize

  15. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  16. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this part... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44...

  17. Entry, Pricing, and Product Design in an Initially Monopolized Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.; Murphy, Kevin M.; Topel, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze entry, pricing, and product design in a model with differentiated products. Market equilibrium can be "separating," with multiple sellers and a sorting of heterogeneous consumers across goods, or "exclusionary," with one seller serving all customer types. Entry into an initially monopolized market can occur because of cost reductions or…

  18. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a zone...

  19. Strategic advantage and the optimal exercise of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is

  20. Entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Monrad; Ruhoff, Peder Thusgaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real...

  1. 27 CFR 20.27 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Provisions Authorities § 20.27 Right of entry and examination. An appropriate TTB officer may... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... spirits, denatured alcohol, specially denatured rum or articles (including any substance for use in the...

  2. Cadaveric study for ideal dorsal pedicle screw entry point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sonone

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the ideal pedicle entry point described here should be considered by surgeons during thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation. The notch at the base of the superior articular process will always remain constant and therefore an important anatomical landmark in guiding the screw toward the entry of the pedicle.

  3. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  4. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  5. 19 CFR 10.1 - Domestic products; requirements on entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic products; requirements on entry. 10.1 Section 10.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Articles Exported and Returned § 10.1 Domestic products; requirements on entry. (a) Except as otherwise...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.525 - Entry of gin code number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of gin code number. 1205.525 Section 1205.525... Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Warehouse Receipts § 1205.525 Entry of gin code number. The warehouse that first receives a bale for storage after ginning shall enter the gin code number of the gin at...

  7. The Language Functioning of Youth at Entry to Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; DeSalvo, Catherine; Gehringer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the behavioral and educational characteristics of youth at entry to residential care, little is known about youth language performance. Given the impact of language deficits on outcomes, this study assessed the specific language skills of 70 adolescents at entry to a residential treatment setting. Results revealed…

  8. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean kilogram shall be filed in addition to the copies otherwise required. ...

  9. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean... estimated or actual net weight of the wool or hair in its condition as imported, its total estimated clean...

  10. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For insuring...

  11. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  12. 19 CFR 142.3 - Entry documentation required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 141.61(a)(1) of this chapter. (2) Evidence of the right to make entry. Evidence of the right to make entry, as set forth in § 141.11 of this chapter. (3) Commercial invoice. A commercial invoice, except that in those instances listed in § 141.83(d) of this chapter where a commercial invoice is not...

  13. Demographic and academic-related differences between standard-entry and graduate-entry nursing students: a prospective correlational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Trajkovski, Suza; Fernandez, Ritin

    2013-07-01

    Students who enroll in graduate-entry nursing programs are described as more highly motivated, scoring higher in most learning strategies, and achieving greater academic success than standard-entry nursing students. A prospective correlational design was used to compare the demographic and academic-related characteristics of standard-entry and graduate-entry nursing students in their first year of study. Between 2007 and 2011, students enrolled in the Bachelor of Nursing, Standard Entry and the Bachelor Nursing, Graduate Entry at a large Australian university were surveyed in the first year of their program. Data included English-language usage and time spent in paid work, as well as four dimensions of Pintrich's Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Survey data was linked to students' academic grades at the end of the semester. A total of 730 students completed the survey and consented to collection of their academic grades. Graduate-entry students were more likely to be older (28.6 vs. 24.3 years, P groups for use of Extrinsic Goal Orientation as a learning strategy, the graduate-entry students were more likely to identify Peer Learning, Help Seeking and Critical Thinking as strategies for learning than the standard-entry students (P group of students achieved a higher mean GPA (4.8 vs. 4.0, P groups, lower levels of English-language proficiency and increased time spent in paid work were predictors of poorer academic performance. Similar to US-based studies, demographic and academic-related differences were identified between standard-entry and graduate-entry nursing students. However, the study also highlights lower levels of English-language proficiency and increased time spent in paid work negatively impacted academic performance in both groups of nursing students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Keyboard data entry use among osteopathic medical students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helstrom, Julia M; Langenau, Erik E; Sandella, Jeanne M; Mote, Beth L

    2014-04-01

    Candidates taking the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) are currently evaluated on their ability to document clinical findings using a handwritten postencounter note. However, keyboard data entry is increasingly used for medical documentation. To determine the use and perception of keyboard data entry among osteopathic medical students and residents in educational and clinical settings. A Web-based survey regarding frequency of and preference for keyboard data entry was distributed to 9801 osteopathic medical students, 17,268 osteopathic residents, and 34 clinical deans of colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs). In addition, 31 COMs' clinical skills center directors were contacted to participate in a telephone survey about the use of keyboard data entry in their centers. A total of 1711 students, 1198 residents, 14 clinical deans, and 17 clinical skills center directors responded to the surveys. The majority of students (872 [51%]) reported using electronic keyboard data entry at their COM's clinical skills center for postencounter notes. Among respondents, 379 students (23%), 77 residents (9%), and 1 clinical dean reported that electronic keyboard data entry is never or rarely used during clinical rotations. Most trainees (1592 students [93%], 864 residents [94%]) reported that they were either comfortable or very comfortable with typing. Given the option of recording methods for SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) note findings on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, 7 clinical deans were unsure of their students' preferences, while the remaining favored keyboard data entry (5) over handwriting (2). The majority of student and resident respondents would choose keyboard data entry (1009 [60%] and 511 [55%], respectively). Osteopathic medical students and residents are comfortable with typing; they are exposed to and would prefer using an electronic form of entry for medical

  15. SAAS: Short Amino Acid Sequence - A Promising Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Method of Single Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In statistical methods of predicting protein secondary structure, many researchers focus on single amino acid frequencies in α-helices, β-sheets, and so on, or the impact near amino acids on an amino acid forming a secondary structure. But the paper considers a short sequence of amino acids (3, 4, 5 or 6 amino acids as integer, and statistics short sequence's probability forming secondary structure. Also, many researchers select low homologous sequences as statistical database. But this paper select whole PDB database. In this paper we propose a strategy to predict protein secondary structure using simple statistical method. Numerical computation shows that, short amino acids sequence as integer to statistics, which can easy see trend of short sequence forming secondary structure, and it will work well to select large statistical database (whole PDB database without considering homologous, and Q3 accuracy is ca. 74% using this paper proposed simple statistical method, but accuracy of others statistical methods is less than 70%.

  16. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  17. Induced charge effects on electrokinetic entry flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Rama Aravind; Zhou, Yilong; Zhao, Cunlu; Hu, Guoqing; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Yang, Chun; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2017-06-01

    Electrokinetic flow, due to a nearly plug-like velocity profile, is the preferred mode for transport of fluids (by electroosmosis) and species (by electrophoresis if charged) in microfluidic devices. Thus far there have been numerous studies on electrokinetic flow within a variety of microchannel structures. However, the fluid and species behaviors at the interface of the inlet reservoir (i.e., the well that supplies the fluid and species) and microchannel are still largely unexplored. This work presents a fundamental investigation of the induced charge effects on electrokinetic entry flow due to the polarization of dielectric corners at the inlet reservoir-microchannel junction. We use small tracing particles suspended in a low ionic concentration fluid to visualize the electrokinetic flow pattern in the absence of Joule heating effects. Particles are found to get trapped and concentrated inside a pair of counter-rotating fluid circulations near the corners of the channel entrance. We also develop a depth-averaged numerical model to understand the induced charge on the corner surfaces and simulate the resultant induced charge electroosmosis (ICEO) in the horizontal plane of the microchannel. The particle streaklines predicted from this model are compared with the experimental images of tracing particles, which shows a significantly better agreement than those from a regular two-dimensional model. This study indicates the strong influences of the top/bottom walls on ICEO in shallow microchannels, which have been neglected in previous two-dimensional models.

  18. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  19. Inflatable Emergency Atmospheric-Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Hall, Jeffrey; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2004-01-01

    In response to the loss of seven astronauts in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, large, lightweight, inflatable atmospheric- entry vehicles have been proposed as means of emergency descent and landing for persons who must abandon a spacecraft that is about to reenter the atmosphere and has been determined to be unable to land safely. Such a vehicle would act as an atmospheric decelerator at supersonic speed in the upper atmosphere, and a smaller, central astronaut pod could then separate at lower altitudes and parachute separately to Earth. Astronaut-rescue systems that have been considered previously have been massive, and the cost of designing them has exceeded the cost of fabrication of a space shuttle. In contrast, an inflatable emergency-landing vehicle according to the proposal would have a mass between 100 and 200 kg, could be stored in a volume of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cu m, and could likely be designed and built much less expensively. When fully inflated, the escape vehicle behaves as a large balloon parachute, or ballute. Due to very low mass-per-surface area, a large radius, and a large coefficient of drag, ballutes decelerate at much higher altitudes and with much lower heating rates than the space shuttle. Although the space shuttle atmospheric reentry results in surface temperatures of about 1,600 C, ballutes can be designed for maximum temperatures below 600 C. This allows ballutes to be fabricated with lightweight ZYLON(Registered TradeMark) or polybenzoxazole (PBO), or equivalent.

  20. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  1. Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) 2.0 for high-throughput and high-resolution EUV lithography: dual photosensitization of acid generation and quencher decomposition by flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Carcasi, Michael; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Dei, Satoshi; Shiozawa, Takahiro; Nafus, Kathleen; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert; Stock, Hans-Jürgen; Küchler, Bernd; Hori, Masafumi; Naruoka, Takehiko; Nagai, Tomoki; Minekawa, Yukie; Iseki, Tomohiro; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Kamei, Yuya; Tomono, Masaru; Shimada, Ryo; Biesemans, Serge; Nakashima, Hideo; Foubert, Philippe; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Oshima, Akihiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2017-03-01

    A new type of Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) **: "PSCAR 2.0," is introduced in this paper. PSCAR 2.0 is composed of a protected polymer, a "photo acid generator which can be photosensitized" (PS-PAG), a "photo decomposable base (quencher) which can be photosensitized" (PS-PDB) and a photosensitizer precursor (PP). With this PSCAR 2.0, a photosensitizer (PS) is generated by an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) pattern exposure. Then, during a subsequent flood exposure, PS selectively photosensitizes the EUV exposed areas by the decomposition of a PS-PDB in addition to the decomposition of PS-PAG. As these pattern-exposed areas have the additional acid and reduced quencher concentration, the initial quencher loading in PSCAR 2.0 can be increased in order to get the same target critical dimensions (CD). The quencher loading is to be optimized simultaneously with a UV flood exposure dose to achieve the best lithographic performance and resolution. In this work, the PSCAR performance when different quenchers are used is examined by simulation and exposure experiments with the 16 nm half-pitch (HP) line/space (L/S, 1:1) patterns. According to our simulation results among resists with the different quencher types, the best performance was achieved by PSCAR 2.0 using PS-PDB with the highest possible chemical gradient resulting in the lowest line width roughness (LWR). PSCAR 2.0 performance has furthermore been confirmed on ASML's NXE:3300 with TEL's standalone pre-alpha flood exposure tool at imec. The initial PSCAR 2.0 patterning results on NXE:3300 showed the accelerated photosensitization performance with PS-PDB. From these results, we concluded that the dual sensitization of PS-PAG and PS-PDB in PSCAR 2.0 have a potential to realize a significantly improved resist performance in EUV lithography.

  2. Angle of Attack Modulation for Mars Entry Terminal State Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.; Cerimele, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of atmospheric entry, descent, and landing (EDL), one of the most foreboding destinations in the solar system is Mars due in part to its exceedingly thin atmosphere. To benchmark best possible scenarios for evaluation of potential Mars EDL system designs, a study is conducted to optimize the entry-to-terminal-state portion of EDL for a variety of entry velocities and vehicle masses, focusing on the identification of potential benefits of enabling angle of attack modulation. The terminal state is envisioned as one appropriate for the initiation of terminal descent via parachute or other means. A particle swarm optimizer varies entry flight path angle, ten bank profile points, and ten angle of attack profile points to find maximum-final-altitude trajectories for a 10 30 m ellipsled at 180 different combinations of values for entry mass, entry velocity, terminal Mach number, and minimum allowable altitude. Parametric plots of maximum achievable altitude are shown, as are examples of optimized trajectories. It is shown that appreciable terminal state altitude gains (2.5-4.0 km) over pure bank angle control may be possible if angle of attack modulation is enabled for Mars entry vehicles. Gains of this magnitude could prove to be enabling for missions requiring high-altitude landing sites. Conclusions are also drawn regarding trends in the bank and angle of attack profiles that produce the optimal trajectories in this study, and directions for future work are identified.

  3. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  4. Fuel cells selected entries from the encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The expected end of the "oil age" will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role.  Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today's fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. Featuring 21 peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Fuel

  5. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  6. Atmospheric structure from Phoenix atmospheric entry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    The atmospheric structure at the time of landing of NASA's Phoenix probe has been derived from measurements of the aerodynamic drag of the spacecraft during atmospheric entry and descent. The result provides the first atmospheric structure in Mars' polar environment obtained from in situ measurements. Phoenix was equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that used accelerometers for linear acceleration measurement in three Cartesian axes and ring-laser gyroscopes to measure the three- dimensional orientation of the probe (Taylor et al., 2008). The temperature structure of the atmosphere along the flight path was calculated via a four-step process: (i) integrating forward the IMU data to obtain the time history of the spacecraft velocity vector relative to the atmosphere as a function of altitude; (ii) calculating atmospheric density from drag, with iteration for aerodynamic coefficient dependence on density; (iii) integrating the hydrostatic equation to derive the vertical pressure; and (iv) calculating atmospheric temperature from the equation of state. Initial profile reconstruction shows reasonable agreement with predictions in the middle atmosphere for the given season and time of day (landing occurred at 16h 33min 37sec in local solar time expressed as a 24-hour clock). However, the derived lower atmospheric structure below ~0.1 mbar is generally warmer than predicted. A possible explanation could be a shallower vertical distribution of dust that usually assumed. References: P. A. Taylor, D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. O. Gunnlaugsson, A-M. Harri, C. F. Lange, Temperature, pressure and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113, EA0A10, doi:10.1029/2007JE003015, 2008.

  7. Modulation of Calcium Entry by Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteriz, Rosalba; Matesanz-Isabel, Jessica; Arias-Del-Val, Jessica; Alvarez-Illera, Pilar; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in intracellular Ca(2+) signaling relies mainly in its capacity to take up Ca(2+) from the cytosol and thus modulate the cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Because of the low Ca(2+)-affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+)-uptake system, this organelle appears specially adapted to take up Ca(2+) from local high-Ca(2+) microdomains and not from the bulk cytosol. Mitochondria would then act as local Ca(2+) buffers in cellular regions where high-Ca(2+) microdomains form, that is, mainly close to the cytosolic mouth of Ca(2+) channels, both in the plasma membrane and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One of the first targets proposed already in the 1990s to be regulated in this way by mitochondria were the store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCE). Mitochondria, by taking up Ca(2+) from the region around the cytosolic mouth of the SOCE channels, would prevent its slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation, thus keeping them active for longer. Since then, evidence for this mechanism has accumulated mainly in immunitary cells, where mitochondria actually move towards the immune synapse during T cell activation. However, in many other cell types the available data indicate that the close apposition between plasma and ER membranes occurring during SOCE activation precludes mitochondria from getting close to the Ca(2+)-entry sites. Alternative pathways for mitochondrial modulation of SOCE, both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent, have also been proposed, but further work will be required to elucidate the actual mechanisms at work. Hopefully, the recent knowledge of the molecular nature of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter will allow soon more precise studies on this matter.

  8. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  9. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  10. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    2014-05-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and Θ (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being

  11. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid-base catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric P; Vasquez, Ernesto E; Scott, William G

    2014-09-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid-base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK(a) of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK(a) and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the potential

  12. Mini-Series on the Entry Level Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K., Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight essays regarding the debate over establishment of the doctoral degree as a requirement for entry-level school psychologists are presented. Critical issues facing the National Association of School Psychologists and the American Psychological Association are considered. (TJH)

  13. Orion Entry Performance-Based Center-of-Gravity Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion capsule has many performance requirements for its atmospheric entry trajectory. Requirements on landing accuracy, maximum heating rate, total heat load, propellant usage, and sensed acceleration must all be satised. It is desired to define a methodology to translate the many performance requirements for an atmospheric entry trajectory into language easily understood by vehicle designers in terms of an allowable center-of-gravity box. This is possible by noting that most entry performance parameters for a capsule vehicle are mainly determined by the lift-to-drag ratio of the vehicle. However, the lift-to- drag ratio should be considered a probabilistic quantity rather than deterministic, where variations in the lift-to-drag are caused by both aerodynamic and center-of-gravity un- certainties. This paper discusses the technique used by the Orion program to define the allowable dispersions in center-of-gravity to achieve the desired entry performance while accounting for aerodynamic uncertainty.

  14. Forecast and capacity planning for Nogales' ports of entry : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document provides the final report of the activities performed under the project : Nogales POEs Traffic Study: Forecast and Capacity Planning for Nogales Ports of Entry : sponsored by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) under Gran...

  15. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone. ...

  16. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...... in the labor market and entry modes shape the post-entry dynamics of nascent business owners. By differentiating between different entry and exit routes, this paper provides new evidence on different human capital patterns among nascent business owners and on key determinants of entrepreneurial survival. Our...

  17. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  18. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  19. 40 CFR 89.506 - Right of entry and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section only upon the consent of the... manufacturer is responsible for locating its foreign testing and manufacturing facilities in jurisdictions...

  20. Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber™ sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry...

  1. Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every...

  2. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    depending on the control that the company has over its activities abroad. The paper examines selected factors that influence the ‘entry modes’ of Danish SMEs in different strategic settings. Results show that the most deciding factor for the choice of high control entry mode (subsidiary) was the factor...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances).......The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups...

  3. Mexican Immigration and the Port-of-Entry School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results of immigrant student census data are used to describe school entry patterns and educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students. Interviews with recently arrived immigrant parents reveal educational and occupational expectations. Research and policy implications are discussed. (MW)

  4. 7 CFR 319.41-5 - Condition of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be made safe by sterilization or other treatment, the entire shipment may be refused entry. (b) When... safeguards and by routing prescribed by the inspector to an approved port where facilities for sterilization...

  5. Newly designed launch and entry suit (LES) modeled by technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Space shuttle orange launch and entry suit (LES), a partial pressure suit, is modeled by a technician. LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions. Included in the crew escape system (CES) package are launch and entry helmet (LEH) with communications carrier (COMM CAP), parachute pack and harness, life raft, life preserver unit (LPU), LES gloves, suit oxygen manifold and valves, boots, and survival gear.

  6. Principles of safe abdominal entry in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongrak Thepsuwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic gynecologic surgery has been widely used with a range of benefits. However, there are complications that are related to the abdominal entry process. Serious complications are gastrointestinal tract and major blood vessel injuries. This review introduces the recent available literature to prevent and eliminate the laparoscopic entry complications. The open entry technique is associated with a significant reduction of failed entry, compared to the closed entry technique; however there is no difference in the incidence of visceral or vascular injury. Laparoscopic entry by the left upper abdomen (i.e., Palmer's point or the middle upper abdomen (i.e., the Lee-Huang point could be considered in patients with suspected periumbilical adhesions or a history of umbilical hernia, or after three failed attempts of insufflation at the umbilicus. The Lee-Huang point has its own benefit for the operative laparoscopy in large pelvic pathologies and gynecology malignancy cases. The angle of Veress needle insertion varies from 45° in nonobese women to 90° in extraordinarily obese women. The high intra-peritoneal pressure entries, which range from 20 mmHg to 25 mmHg, minimize the risk of vascular injury. Therefore, this will not adversely affect the cardiopulmonary function in healthy women. The Veress intraperitoneal pressure (<10 mmHg is a reliable indicator of correct intraperitoneal placement of the Veress needle. The elevation of anterior abdominal wall for placement of a Veress needle increases the risks of failed entry and shows no advantage in regard to vascular or visceral complications. Surgeons should continue to increase their knowledge of anatomy, their training, and their experience to decrease laparoscopic complications.

  7. Can Small Entry Barriers Have Large Effects on Competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Seabright, Paul

    1990-01-01

    One of the main aims of the deregulation of previously heavily regulated markets is to diminish artificial barriers to entry. But in oligopolistic markets, the mechanisms whereby potential competition can discipline the behaviour of incumbent firms are not very well understood, especially since pricing responses to entry can typically be very rapid. This paper develops a model in which potential competition has no direct effect upon the pricing behaviour of incumbents, but affects the extent ...

  8. The entry price threshold in EU agriculture: deterrent or barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Cioffi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of the entry price scheme for fresh fruit and vegetables. The analysis is conducted on the European prices of tomatoes, lemons and apples for some of the main competing countries on the European domestic markets: Morocco, Argentina, Turkey and China. The econometric analysis is based on testing and estimating a switching vector autoregressive model with endogenous threshold entry price level. The model shows the isolation effects and the accumulation of Sta...

  9. Modeling global franchising in emerging markets: An entry mode analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    Emerging markets are some of the fastest-growing economies in the world because of their substantial economic transformation. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing choices of foreign entry mode into those markets. In an attempt to expand knowledge of this topic, this article presents an empirical assessment of the relationship between a set of variables and the four possible entry modes franchisors can adopt: direct franchising, master franchising, joint venture, and dir...

  10. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  11. Institutions, resources, and entry strategies in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus E Meyer; Estrin, Saul; Bhaumik, Sumon; Peng, Mike W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of market-supporting institutions on business strategies by analyzing the entry strategies of foreign investors entering emerging economies. We apply and advance the institutions-based view of strategy by integrating it with resource-based considerations. In particular, we show how resource-seeking strategies are pursued using different entry modes in different institutional contexts. Alternative modes of entry— greenfield, acquisition, and joint venture (JV)—allo...

  12. Stagnation Point Radiative Heating Relations for Venus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Palmer, Grant E.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Improved analytic expressions for calculating the stagnation point radiative heating during entry into the atmosphere of Venus have been developed. These analytic expressions can be incorporated into entry trajectory simulation codes. Together with analytical expressions for convective heating at the stagnation point, the time-integrated total heat load at the stagnation point is used in determining the thickness of protective material required, and hence the mass of the fore body heatshield of uniform thickness.

  13. Entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters and Supermarkets’ Profit Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou Liu; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    This article quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using method of simulated moments and milk scanner data from Dallas/Fort Worth supermarkets. The empirical findings show that the entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters accounts for about an average 50% decrease in milk profit margins for incumbent supermarkets. Effects of scale are found to be more significant for Wal-Mart Supercenters than for incumbent supermarkets, granti...

  14. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Camara Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  15. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Store-operated calcium entry and increased endothelial cell permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, N; Moore, T M; Dean, D A; Bhattacharjee, R; Li, M; Stevens, T

    2000-11-01

    We hypothesized that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) links calcium release to activation of store-operated calcium entry, which is important for control of the endothelial cell barrier. Acute inhibition of MLCK caused calcium release from inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium stores and prevented subsequent activation of store-operated calcium entry by thapsigargin, suggesting that MLCK serves as an important mechanism linking store depletion to activation of membrane calcium channels. Moreover, in voltage-clamped single rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, thapsigargin activated an inward calcium current that was abolished by MLCK inhibition. F-actin disruption activated a calcium current, and F-actin stabilization eliminated the thapsigargin-induced current. Thapsigargin increased endothelial cell permeability in the presence, but not in the absence, of extracellular calcium, indicating the importance of calcium entry in decreasing barrier function. Although MLCK inhibition prevented thapsigargin from stimulating calcium entry, it did not prevent thapsigargin from increasing permeability. Rather, inhibition of MLCK activity increased permeability that was especially prominent in low extracellular calcium. In conclusion, MLCK links store depletion to activation of a store-operated calcium entry channel. However, inhibition of calcium entry by MLCK is not sufficient to prevent thapsigargin from increasing endothelial cell permeability.

  17. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  18. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  19. Calcium influx factor (CIF) as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Y; Hanley, M R

    1999-06-30

    Acid extracts of thapsigargin-treated Xenopus oocytes revealed Ca2(+)-dependent Cl- currents by microinjection into Xenopus oocytes. These currents were detected in highly purified fractions by carrying out a sequence of purification steps including gel filtration chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The nature of the membrane currents evoked by the highly purified fractions were carried by chloride ions as blockade by the selective chloride channel blocker 1 mM niflumic acid. Injection of the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) eradicated the current activities, indicating that the current responses are completely Ca2(+)-dependent. Moreover, the currents were sensitive to the removal of extracellular calcium, indicating the dependence on calcium entry through plasma membrane calcium entry channels. These results elucidate that the highly purified fractions aquired by thapsigargin-stimulated oocytes is an authentic calcium influx factor (CIF). Thus, the detection of increased CIF production from thapsigargin treatment in Xenopus oocytes would give strong support for the existence of CIF as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry pathways in Xenopus oocytes.

  20. Numerical Study of Flow Augmented Thermal Management for Entry and Re-Entry Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Neroorkar, Kshitij D.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See; Daso, Endwell O.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a flow augmented thermal management system for entry and re-entr environments is one method for reducing heat and drag loads. This concept relies on jet penetration from supersonic and hypersonic counterflowing jets that could significantly weaken and disperse the shock-wave system of the spacecraft flow field. The objective of this research effort is to conduct parametric studies of the supersonic flow over a 2.6% scale model of the Apollo capsule, with and without the counterflowing jet, using time-accurate and steady-state computational fluid dynamics simulations. The numerical studies, including different freestream Mach number angle of attack counterflowing jet mass flow rate, and nozzle configurations, were performed to examine their effect on the drag and beat loads and to explore the counternowing jet condition. The numerical results were compared with the test data obtained from transonic blow-down wind-tunnel experiments conducted independently at NASA MSFC.

  1. Virus entry. Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Lucas T; Raaben, Matthijs; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Soh, Timothy K; Stubbs, Sarah H; Janssen, Hans; Damme, Markus; Saftig, Paul; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2014-06-27

    Lassa virus spreads from a rodent to humans and can lead to lethal hemorrhagic fever. Despite its broad tropism, chicken cells were reported 30 years ago to resist infection. We found that Lassa virus readily engaged its cell-surface receptor α-dystroglycan in avian cells, but virus entry in susceptible species involved a pH-dependent switch to an intracellular receptor, the lysosome-resident protein LAMP1. Iterative haploid screens revealed that the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 was required for the interaction of the virus glycoprotein with LAMP1. A single glycosylated residue in LAMP1, present in susceptible species but absent in birds, was essential for interaction with the Lassa virus envelope protein and subsequent infection. The resistance of Lamp1-deficient mice to Lassa virus highlights the relevance of this receptor switch in vivo. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. White spot syndrome virus entry is dependent on multiple endocytic routes and strongly facilitated by Cq-GABARAP in a CME-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Wei-wei; Xie, Xiao-lu; Meng, Chuang; Chang, Xue-jiao; Zheng, Li-bing; Jeswin, Joseph; Li, Cheng-hua; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, including crayfish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its cellular entry remains elusive due to the lack of shrimp cell lines for viral propagation. Crayfish hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell culture was recently established as a good model for WSSV infection study. Here, we showed that multiple endocytic routes, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were indispensably employed for the viral entry into Hpt cell of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Intriguingly, cellular autophagic activity was positively correlated with efficient viral entry, in which a key autophagy-related protein, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (Cq-GABARAP), that not only localized but also co-localized with WSSV on the Hpt cell membrane, strongly facilitated WSSV entry by binding to the viral envelope VP28 in a CME-dependent manner that was negatively regulated by Cq-Rac1. Furthermore, cytoskeletal components, including Cq-β-tubulin and Cq-β-actin, bound to both recombinant rCq-GABARAP and WSSV envelope proteins, which likely led to viral entry promotion via cooperation with rCq-GABARAP. Even under conditions that promoted viral entry, rCq-GABARAP significantly reduced viral replication at an early stage of infection, which was probably caused by the formation of WSSV aggregates in the cytoplasm. PMID:27385304

  3. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  4. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  5. UVRAG is required for virus entry through combinatorial interaction with the class C-Vps complex and SNAREs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirooz, Sara Dolatshahi; He, Shanshan; Zhang, Tian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Zhen; Oh, Soohwan; O'Connell, Douglas; Khalilzadeh, Payam; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Farzan, Michael; Liang, Chengyu

    2014-02-18

    Enveloped viruses exploit the endomembrane system to enter host cells. Through a cascade of membrane-trafficking events, virus-bearing vesicles fuse with acidic endosomes and/or lysosomes mediated by SNAREs triggering viral fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we found that UV-radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagic tumor suppressor, is required for the entry of the prototypic negative-strand RNA virus, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, by a mechanism independent of IFN and autophagy. UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)], leading to the assembly of a fusogenic trans-SNARE complex involving vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP8), but not VAMP7. Indeed, UVRAG stimulates VAMP8 translocation to virus-bearing endosomes. Inhibition of VAMP8, but not VAMP7, significantly reduces viral entry. Our data indicate that UVRAG, in concert with C-Vps, regulates viral entry by assembling a specific fusogenic SNARE complex. Thus, UVRAG governs downstream viral entry, highlighting an important pathway capable of potential antiviral therapeutics.

  6. 50 CFR 26.27 - Exception for entry on designated routes of travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception for entry on designated routes of travel. 26.27 Section 26.27 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Entry § 26.27 Exception for entry on designated...

  7. 19 CFR 144.12 - Contents of entry summary; estimated duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of entry summary; estimated duties. 144... Procedures for Warehouse Entry § 144.12 Contents of entry summary; estimated duties. The entry summary, Customs Form 7501, shall show the value, classification, and rate of duty as approved by the port director...

  8. 19 CFR 144.42 - Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. 144.42 Section 144.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... applicable to this type of entry, with the following exceptions: (1) Form of entry. A combined entry for...

  9. NALDB: nucleic acid ligand database for small molecules targeting nucleic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Mishra, Subodh; Kumar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid ligand database (NALDB) is a unique database that provides detailed information about the experimental data of small molecules that were reported to target several types of nucleic acid structures. NALDB is the first ligand database that contains ligand information for all type of nucleic acid. NALDB contains more than 3500 ligand entries with detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information such as target name, target sequence, ligand 2D/3D structure, SMILES, molecular f...

  10. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent

    2010-12-01

    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  11. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  12. A Gestalt approach to Gram-negative entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn L

    2016-12-15

    A major obstacle confronting the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents to combat resistant Gram-negative (GN) organisms is the lack of a rational process for endowing compounds with properties that allow (or promote) entry into the bacterial cytoplasm. The major permeability difference between GN and Gram-positive (GP) bacteria is the GN outer membrane (OM) which is a permeability barrier itself and potentiates efflux pumps that expel compounds. Based on the fact that OM-permeable and efflux-deleted GNs are sensitive to many anti-GP drugs, recent efforts to approach the GN entry problem have focused on ways of avoiding efflux and transiting or compromising the OM, with the tacit assumption that this could allow entry of compounds into the GN cytoplasm. But bypassing the OM and efflux obstacles does not take into account the additional requirement of penetrating the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) whose sieving properties appear to be orthogonal to that of the OM. That is, tailoring compounds to transit the OM may well compromise their ability to enter the cytoplasm. Thus, a Gestalt approach to understanding the chemical requirements for GN entry seems a useful adjunct. This might consist of characterizing compounds which reach the cytoplasm, grouping (or binning) by routes of entry and formulating chemical 'rules' for those bins. This will require acquisition of data on large numbers of compounds, using non-activity-dependent methods of measuring accumulation in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  14. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  15. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  16. Acid- and Au(i)-mediated synthesis of hexathymidine-DNA-heterocycle chimeras, an efficient entry to DNA-encoded libraries inspired by drug structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, compound characterization data, analysis of ligation reactions, and analysis of the tiDEL. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00455a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škopić, Mateja Klika; Salamon, Hazem; Bugain, Olivia; Jung, Kathrin; Gohla, Anne; Doetsch, Lara J.; dos Santos, Denise; Bhat, Avinash; Wagner, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Libraries of DNA-tagged compounds are a validated screening technology for drug discovery. They are synthesized through combinatorial iterations of alternated coding and preparative synthesis steps. Thus, large chemical space can be accessed for target-based screening. However, the need to preserve the functionality of the DNA tag severely restricts the choice of chemical methods for library synthesis. Acidic organocatalysts, transition metals, and oxidants furnish diverse drug-like structures from simple starting materials, but cause loss of genetic information by depurination. A hexathymidine oligonucleotide, called “hexT” allows the chemist utilizing these classes of catalysts to access a potentially broad variety of structures in the initial step of library synthesis. We exploited its catalyst tolerance to efficiently synthesize diverse substituted β-carbolines, pyrazolines, and pyrazoles from readily available starting materials as hexT conjugates by acid- and Au(i)-catalysis, respectively. The hexT conjugates were ligated to coding DNA sequences yielding encoded screening libraries inspired by drug structures. PMID:28507705

  17. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System Modeling, Calibration, and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; VanNorman, John; Siemers, Paul M.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Munk, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)/Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) project installed seven pressure ports through the MSL Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield to measure heatshield surface pressures during entry. These measured surface pressures are used to generate estimates of atmospheric quantities based on modeled surface pressure distributions. In particular, the quantities to be estimated from the MEADS pressure measurements include the dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This report describes the calibration of the pressure transducers utilized to reconstruct the atmospheric data and associated uncertainty models, pressure modeling and uncertainty analysis, and system performance results. The results indicate that the MEADS pressure measurement system hardware meets the project requirements.

  18. Features of Human Herpesvirus-6A and -6B Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Maeki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 is a T lymphotropic herpesvirus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. HHV-6 was long classified into variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B; however, recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were reclassified as different species. The process of herpesvirus entry into target cells is complicated, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated, although both viruses are known to enter cells via endocytosis. In this paper, (1 findings about the cellular receptor and its ligand for HHV-6A and HHV-6B are summarized, and (2 a schematic model of HHV-6A’s replication cycle, including its entry, is presented. In addition, (3 reports showing the importance of lipids in both the HHV-6A envelope and target-cell membrane for viral entry are reviewed, and (4 glycoproteins involved in cell fusion are discussed.

  19. Confined space entry program for the Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    To comply with anticipated OSHA regulatory requirements concerning Permit-Required Confined Spaces, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) created a Confined Spaces Task Team. The primary focus of the task team was to prepare a formal Confined Space Entry (CSE) Program that would ensure full compliance with the anticipated OSHA requirements. A comprehensive training plan was also prepared and submitted for approval as soon as the new CSE Program was approved and released for implementation. On January 14, 1993, OSHA released their final ruling which contained several further changes, requiring the WHC Confined Space Entry Program and Training Plan to be revised. The revised training manual and lessons learned in establishing a Confined Space Entry Program are presented.

  20. Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andres; Dutch, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family contains many common human pathogenic viruses, including measles, mumps, the parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the zoonotic henipaviruses, Hendra and Nipah. While the expression of a type 1 fusion protein and a type 2 attachment protein is common to all paramyxoviruses, there is considerable variation in viral attachment, the activation and triggering of the fusion protein, and the process of viral entry. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion, an essential process in viral infectivity. We also review the role of the other surface glycoproteins in receptor binding and viral entry, and the implications for viral infection. Throughout, we concentrate on the commonalities and differences in fusion triggering and viral entry among the members of the family. Finally, we highlight key unanswered questions and how further studies can identify novel targets for the development of therapeutic treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:22590688

  1. Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Dutch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paramyxovirus family contains many common human pathogenic viruses, including measles, mumps, the parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the zoonotic henipaviruses, Hendra and Nipah. While the expression of a type 1 fusion protein and a type 2 attachment protein is common to all paramyxoviruses, there is considerable variation in viral attachment, the activation and triggering of the fusion protein, and the process of viral entry. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion, an essential process in viral infectivity. We also review the role of the other surface glycoproteins in receptor binding and viral entry, and the implications for viral infection. Throughout, we concentrate on the commonalities and differences in fusion triggering and viral entry among the members of the family. Finally, we highlight key unanswered questions and how further studies can identify novel targets for the development of therapeutic treatments against these human pathogens.

  2. Disambiguating bilingual nominal entries against WordNet

    CERN Document Server

    Rigau, G; Rigau, German; Agirre, Eneko

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of conceptual knowledge from bilingual dictionaries (French/English, Spanish/English and English/Spanish) using a pre-existing broad coverage Lexical Knowledge Base (LKB) WordNet. Bilingual nominal entries are disambiguated agains WordNet, therefore linking the bilingual dictionaries to WordNet yielding a multilingual LKB (MLKB). The resulting MLKB has the same structure as WordNet, but some nodes are attached additionally to disambiguated vocabulary of other languages. Two different, complementary approaches are explored. In one of the approaches each entry of the dictionary is taken in turn, exploiting the information in the entry itself. The inferential capability for disambiguating the translation is given by Semantic Density over WordNet. In the other approach, the bilingual dictionary was merged with WordNet, exploiting mainly synonymy relations. Each of the approaches was used in a different dictionary. Both approaches attain high levels of precision on their own, sh...

  3. Outer planet atmospheric entry probes - An overview of technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodich, N. S.; Reynolds, R. T.; Grant, T. L.; Nachtsheim, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Entry probe systems for characterizing, by in situ measurements, the atmospheric properties, chemical composition, and cloud structure of the planets Saturn, Uranus, and Jupiter are examined from the standpoint of unique mission requirements, associated subsystem performance, and degree of commonality of design. Past earth entry vehicles (PAET) and current planetary spacecraft (Pioneer Venus probes and Viking lander) are assessed to identify the extent of potential subsystem inheritance, as well as to establish the significant differences, in both form and function, relative to outer planet requirements. Recent research results are presented and reviewed for the most critical probe technology areas, including: science accommodation, telecommunication, and entry heating and thermal protection. Finally presented is a brief discussion of the use of decision analysis techniques for quantifying various probe heat-shield test alternatives and performance risk.

  4. Clinical nurse specialist leadership in computerized provider order entry design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggow, Darla J; Solie, Carol J; Tracy, Mary Fran; Gjere, Niki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical project was to design and implement a computerized provider order entry system. Well-designed clinical computer systems can advance best practice and quality decision making, leading to improvements in patient and organizational outcomes. An Orders Design Group composed of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), staff nurses, and information management personnel was formed. CNSs used competencies in the system sphere to lead the integration of the needs of patients, nurses, and organizations into new technologies. CNSs facilitated implementation of a collaboratively designed interdisciplinary computerized order entry process. Evaluation of the design and implementation process demonstrated greater success with the order entry system under the leadership of CNSs than past initiatives where CNSs were not in leadership roles. CNS competencies in designing and implementing innovative system-level solutions are key to clinical information systems design.

  5. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  6. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-shan Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  7. Bat and pig IFN-induced transmembrane protein 3 restrict cell entry by influenza virus and lyssaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Camilla T O; Smith, Sarah E; Wright, Edward; Wash, Rachael S; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel J; Kellam, Paul

    2015-05-01

    IFN-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a restriction factor that blocks cytosolic entry of numerous viruses that utilize acidic endosomal entry pathways. In humans and mice, IFITM3 limits influenza-induced morbidity and mortality. Although many IFITM3-sensitive viruses are zoonotic, whether IFITMs function as antiviral restriction factors in mammalian species other than humans and mice is unknown. Here, IFITM3 orthologues in the microbat (Myotis myotis) and pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were identified using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Amino acid residues known to be important for IFITM3 function were conserved in the pig and microbat orthologues. Ectopically expressed pig and microbat IFITM3 co-localized with transferrin (early endosomes) and CD63 (late endosomes/multivesicular bodies). Pig and microbat IFITM3 restricted cell entry mediated by multiple influenza haemagglutinin subtypes and lyssavirus glycoproteins. Expression of pig or microbat IFITM3 in A549 cells reduced influenza virus yields and nucleoprotein expression. Conversely, small interfering RNA knockdown of IFITM3 in pig NPTr cells and primary microbat cells enhanced virus replication, demonstrating that these genes are functional in their species of origin at endogenous levels. In summary, we showed that IFITMs function as potent broad-spectrum antiviral effectors in two mammals - pigs and bats - identified as major reservoirs for emerging viruses. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  9. BeppoSAX equatorial uncontrolled re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C.

    The X-ray astronomy satellite BeppoSAX (Satellite per Astronomia X, "Beppo" in honor of Giuseppe Occhialini), is a project of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR). BeppoSAX was launched by an Atlas G Centaur directly into a circular 600 km- orbit at 3.9 degrees inclination on April 30th, 1996. The satellite is a three axis stabilized spacecraft with a total mass of about 1400 kg. The current (May 1, 2002) flight altitude is about 470 km and its uncontrolled re-entry is predicted late in 2002, or in 2003, with a 26 kg of hydrazine on board that could not be vented or used for controlled re-entry due to gyro's package total failure. Due to the relatively high mass of BeppoSAX, it has to be expected that parts of the satellite will survive the re-entry into the earth atmosphere. The Italian Space Agency has committed a study to HTG for the analysis of the destructive phase of the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry by means of a dedicated European software tool (SCARAB). The expected outputs will be used in order to determine how much of the spacecraft and how many fragments parts of it will reach the ground on the equatorial earth zone. This paper will address the peculiarities of the spacecraft initial status, its risks at end of life and the SCARAB modelling as well as its 6D flight dynamics re-entry analysis results also in terms of the destruction history tree. Consideration will be made on the ground dispersion and casualt y area due to the very restricted equatorial zone impacted. References B. Fritsche, H. Klinkrad, A. Kashkovsky, E.Grinberg; Spacecraft Disintegration during uncontrolled atmospheric entry ; IAA-99-IAA.6.7.02; 50t h IAC 4-8 Oct. 1999

  10. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  11. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  12. Minimum wages as a barrier to entry: Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; Kröger, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses employers' support for the introduction of industry-specific minimum wages as a cost-raising strategy in order to deter market entry. Using a unique data set consisting of 800 firms in the German service sector, we find some evidence that high-productivity employers support minimum wages. We further show that minimum wage support is higher in industries and regions with low barriers to entry. This is particularly the case in East Germany, where the perceived threat of low-...

  13. Best Entry Points for Structured Document Retrieval - Part I: Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Jane; Lalmas, Mounia; Finesilver, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Structured document retrieval makes use of document components as the basis of the retrieval process, rather than complete documents. The inherent relationships between these components make it vital to support users' natural browsing behaviour in order to offer effective and efficient access...... to structured documents. This paper examines the concept of best entry points, which are document components from which the user can browse to obtain optimal access to relevant document components. In particular this paper investigates the basic characteristics of best entry points....

  14. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.

    2007-01-01

    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show...... that partial acquisitions have features that are distinct from other modes with respect to the transfer of resources to the subsidiary and the determinants of entry mode choice. Recent research suggests that a buyer prefers partial acquisitions, when a seller possesses asymmetric information advantages...

  15. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S. [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Christopher D., E-mail: chris.richardson@dal.ca [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); The Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction.

  16. Cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein by airway proteases enhances virus entry into human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu-Wing Kam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells requires the activation of viral envelope glycoproteins through cleavage by either intracellular or extracellular proteases. In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of protease cleavage and its impact on the efficiency of viral entry, we investigated the susceptibility of a recombinant native full-length S-protein trimer (triSpike of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV to cleavage by various airway proteases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PURIFIED TRISPIKE PROTEINS WERE READILY CLEAVED IN VITRO BY THREE DIFFERENT AIRWAY PROTEASES: trypsin, plasmin and TMPRSS11a. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and amino acid sequencing analyses identified two arginine residues (R667 and R797 as potential protease cleavage site(s. The effect of protease-dependent enhancement of SARS-CoV infection was demonstrated with ACE2 expressing human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE. Airway proteases regulate the infectivity of SARS-CoV in a fashion dependent on previous receptor binding. The role of arginine residues was further shown with mutant constructs (R667A, R797A or R797AR667A. Mutation of R667 or R797 did not affect the expression of S-protein but resulted in a differential efficacy of pseudotyping into SARS-CoVpp. The R667A SARS-CoVpp mutant exhibited a lack of virus entry enhancement following protease treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that SARS S-protein is susceptible to airway protease cleavage and, furthermore, that protease mediated enhancement of virus entry depends on specific conformation of SARS S-protein upon ACE2 binding. These data have direct implications for the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV along the respiratory system and, furthermore expand the possibility of identifying potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV.

  17. PROSITE Information - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available teID PROSITE ID prositeIDType Accession type prositeDE Description of this entry prositeDO PROSITE DO of this entry prosite3dSize... Number of PDB entries for this entry (in PROSITE) prosite3dSeqIdSize Number of PDB ent...ries whose SEQRES matches this entry prosite3dSeqChainSize Number of PDB chains w...hose SEQRES matches this entry prosite3dAtomIdSize Number of PDB entries whose ATOM matches this entry prosite3dAtomChainSize

  18. Repetitive natriuresis and blood pressure. Long-term calcium entry blockade with isradipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusell, L R; Jespersen, L T; Schmitz, A; Thomsen, K; Pedersen, O L

    1987-12-01

    The long-term effects (3.5 months) of a new calcium entry blocker of the 1-4-dihydropyridine class, isradipine (PN 200-110), on renal hemodynamics and excretional parameters were investigated in 10 essential hypertensive subjects (World Health Organization Classes I and II). Blood pressure and renal vascular resistance fell significantly (p less than 0.001), and a slight increase in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow was seen (p less than 0.05). Output of fluid from the proximal tubules, measured as clearance of lithium and uric acid, increased significantly (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively), and a compensatory increase in absolute reabsorption of sodium beyond the proximal tubular level accompanied by an increase in clearance of potassium was noted. A 40% increase in the resultant clearance of sodium (p less than 0.01) and an increase in diuresis (p less than 0.05) followed the morning dose of isradipine after 3.5 months of treatment. Changes in blood pressure were significantly correlated with changes in absolute proximal reabsorption of sodium (r = 0.81), excretion of sodium (r = -0.64), and diuresis (r = -0.80). Thus, the natriuretic properties of calcium entry blockers may be more important for the long-term antihypertensive effect than the vasodilator effect per se. A model for renal sodium handling following treatment with calcium entry blockers was proposed. Although a causal relationship is not implied, isradipine induced a sustained, repetitive postdose effect on proximal fluid output, net natriuresis, and diuresis, that was intimately related to the long-term blood pressure-regulating response.

  19. Using Common Spatial Distributions of Atoms to Relate Functionally Divergent Influenza Virus N10 and N11 Protein Structures to Functionally Characterized Neuraminidase Structures, Toxin Cell Entry Domains, and Non-Influenza Virus Cell Entry Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Arthur; Weininger, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify the functional correlates of structural and sequence variation in proteins is a critical capability. We related structures of influenza A N10 and N11 proteins that have no established function to structures of proteins with known function by identifying spatially conserved atoms. We identified atoms with common distributed spatial occupancy in PDB structures of N10 protein, N11 protein, an influenza A neuraminidase, an influenza B neuraminidase, and a bacterial neuraminidase. By superposing these spatially conserved atoms, we aligned the structures and associated molecules. We report spatially and sequence invariant residues in the aligned structures. Spatially invariant residues in the N6 and influenza B neuraminidase active sites were found in previously unidentified spatially equivalent sites in the N10 and N11 proteins. We found the corresponding secondary and tertiary structures of the aligned proteins to be largely identical despite significant sequence divergence. We found structural precedent in known non-neuraminidase structures for residues exhibiting structural and sequence divergence in the aligned structures. In N10 protein, we identified staphylococcal enterotoxin I-like domains. In N11 protein, we identified hepatitis E E2S-like domains, SARS spike protein-like domains, and toxin components shared by alpha-bungarotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin I, anthrax lethal factor, clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, and clostridium tetanus toxin. The presence of active site components common to the N6, influenza B, and S. pneumoniae neuraminidases in the N10 and N11 proteins, combined with the absence of apparent neuraminidase function, suggests that the role of neuraminidases in H17N10 and H18N11 emerging influenza A viruses may have changed. The presentation of E2S-like, SARS spike protein-like, or toxin-like domains by the N10 and N11 proteins in these emerging viruses may indicate that H17N10 and H18N11 sialidase-facilitated cell

  20. Airborne re-entry observation experiment SLIT: UV spectroscopy during STARDUST and ATV1 re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhle, Stefan; Wernitz, Ricarda; Herdrich, Georg; Fertig, Markus; Röser, Hans-Peter; Ritter, Heiko

    2011-09-01

    Emission spectra during re-entry have been measured in 2006 for the STARDUST capsule and in 2008 for the ATV1 "Jules Verne" re-entry. This paper summarizes the approach to design the airborne UV spectroscopic setup and its modifications with respect to the missions. For the STARDUST mission, results of data analysis of data presented in 2008 are given while for the ATV1 observation first spectra of the main disruption are exemplary presented. The surface radiation during the STARDUST re-entry is used to estimate convective and radiative heat flux using different analytical models. A first look at the spectroscopic footprint of ATV1 shows that during the first explosive event, a severe break-up of the main ATV1 structure occurs. However, a correlation with an explosion of fuel could not be observed.

  1. 7 CFR 322.21 - Post-entry handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... or parasites of bees, or of undesirable species or strains of honeybees. We will use the following... systems, contain the restricted organisms, parasites and pathogens, and prevent the entry of other...

  2. Parachute triggering algorithms for re-entry vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ording, B.E.; Sudars, M.; Brouwer, G.F.

    Most re-entry vehicles utilize a Descent and Landing System (DLS) for a safe descent through the lowest part of the atmosphere. It usually requires deployment in a certain suitable range of flight conditions, which has to be estimated by limited means of navigation. This paper presents a comparison

  3. 76 FR 13703 - New Origin Entry Separation & Containerization Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...'' information in L604 or L603. There is no minimum load threshold for this separation. Periodicals Local Surface... for Periodicals piece processing based on the origin entry point. Prepare container (pallet) placards... a container price applicable to Periodicals bundles placed directly on mixed ADC pallets or...

  4. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brammer, Jeremy R.; Brunet, Nicolas D.; Burton, A.C.; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V.; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M.

    2016-01-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of

  5. Motivational interview improves treatment entry in homeless veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, R Morgan; Wilbourne, Paula L; Harris, Keith W; Pierson, Heather; Teleki, Jasmine; Burling, Thomas A; Lovett, Steven

    2011-05-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has successfully been used to facilitate entry and compliance in drug and alcohol treatment programs. Some questions have been raised as to the effectiveness of MI in severely distressed populations. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of MI in a population of homeless, unemployed, and substance dependent veterans who are being wait-listed for entry into a residential treatment program. Seventy-five veterans placed on a wait-list were randomized to receive a single MI or standard (Std) intake interview. Outcomes assessed were entry, and length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes assessed included program completion and rates of graduation. Readiness to change and self-efficacy were assessed before and after the interview. Significantly more participants entered the program in the MI group (95%) than in the Std group (71%). Although those in the MI group remained in the program longer, and had higher program completion and graduation rates, these differences were not statistically significant. No significant between-group or within-group differences were found in readiness or self-efficacy. This study demonstrates that a single, easily administered intervention can increase program entry. Also based on the study findings, further research into the question of whether MI can increase program retention, in a severely distressed population, is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... entry and exit at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. It uses iris scans to provide quick and secure biometric... to conduct the biometric based background checks and participate in an interview at an enrollment... personally identifiable information (PII), including biometric data and employment history, in GES may be...

  7. 7 CFR 322.11 - Ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.11 Section 322.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult...

  8. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  9. 7 CFR 322.35 - Ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.35 Section 322.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...

  10. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.10 Section 322.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  11. 7 CFR 322.20 - Ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.20 Section 322.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted...

  12. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and...

  13. 50 CFR 660.512 - Limited entry fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of a vessel with more than 5 mt of CPS finfish on board in the CPS Limited Entry Zone, other than... permit for a vessel will be issued only if that vessel landed 100 mt of CPS finfish from January 1, 1993...) and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 904, subpart D, apply. (f) Initial issuance. (1) The SFD...

  14. The Association of Kindergarten Entry Age with Early Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated whether age at kindergarten entry was associated with early literacy achievement gaps and if these gaps persisted over time. Using the kindergarten age eligibility cutoff date, they created 2 groups of students who represented the oldest and youngest children in a cohort of students in high-poverty, low-performing schools.…

  15. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  16. Graduate entry students' early perceptions of their future nursing careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Brooks, Ingrid

    2017-11-16

    Graduate entry nursing programs designed for individuals with prior degrees in other disciplines are becoming increasingly popular internationally. They provide entry into nursing for people with unique skill-sets. Yet, little is known about why these individuals choose career change into nursing and what they expect from their new careers. This component of a larger study sought to explore graduate entry nursing students' short and longer term career intentions on commencement of their courses. A cross-sectional survey was used. Descriptive frequencies were used to analyse demographic data, while summative content analysis was used with the open-ended questions. Participants were drawn from eight cohorts of commencing students from enrolled in one graduate entry masters program in Australia between 2009 and 2015. Content analysis identified three main categories: professional role, work location, and work context. Longer term responses were categorised under four categories: professional role, work location, work context and personal and professional goals. Many students had clear directions about their future nursing careers. On graduation, many envisioned working in advanced roles or in clinical specialty areas, primarily in hospital settings. However, in the longer term, there was diversity among with many envisaging work outside traditional hospital settings, and some in other health disciplines. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Handling Qualities of a Capsule Spacecraft During Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    A piloted simulation was conducted to study handling qualities for capsule spacecraft entering the Earth s atmosphere. Eight evaluation pilots, including six pilot astronauts, provided Cooper-Harper ratings, workload ratings, and qualitative comments. The simulation began after descending through the atmospheric entry interface point and continued until the drogue parachutes deployed. There were two categories of piloting tasks, both of which required bank angle control. In one task category, the pilot followed a closed-loop bank angle command computed by the backup guidance system to manage g-loads during entry. In the other task category, the pilot used intuitive rules to determine the desired bank angle independently, based on an open-loop schedule of vertical speed, Mach, and total energy specified at several range-to-target gates along the entry trajectory. Pilots were able to accurately track the bank angle guidance commands and steered the capsule toward the recovery site with essentially the same range error as the benchmark autopilot trajectory albeit with substantially higher propellant usage, and the handling qualities for this task were satisfactory. Another key result was that the complex piloting task of atmospheric entry could be performed satisfactorily, even in the presence of large dispersions, by controlling bank angle to follow a simple open-loop schedule.

  18. Mentor Relationships for Entry-Level Men in Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Daniel W.; Taub, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the experiences of entry-level men in student affairs, with particular focus on the function of mentors and role models. Through semistructured interviews and a focus group, 22 participants shared their thoughts and experiences regarding mentorship. Results indicated mentorship to be instrumental in recruitment and…

  19. Forecast and capacity planning for Nogales' ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report documents the findings and the activities performed under ADOT grant JPA 08024T. The overall purpose of this study was to forecast the number of border crossings by mode of traffic at the NogalesMariposa and DeConcini Ports of Entry...

  20. Methods and Devices: An Alternative Instrument for Making Entry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femoral shaft fractures are common in children and are increasingly being treated with elastic intramedullary nail. We outline an instrument we have used successfully to make an entry point for placement of elastic nail. Keywords: Elastic nailing, Fracture shaft femur, Technique ...

  1. Leadership: Industry Needs for Entry-Level Engineering Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Beth Lin; Jahren, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that sought to identify what companies mean by the word "leadership" when used a job descriptions for entry-level, full-time engineering positions. Seven years of job posting data was analyzed to first understand the frequency and use of the word "leadership" in job descriptions. Using…

  2. The Entrepreneurial Process: An International Analysis of Entry and Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van der Zwan (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with the entrepreneurial process from an international perspective. The first part explores which people decide to enter entrepreneurship. A distinction is made between two modes of entrepreneurial entry: taking over an existing firm and starting a new firm. The second

  3. Age at school entry and intergenerational educational mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp C. Bauer; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2009-01-01

    We use Swiss data to test whether intergenerational educational mobility is affected by the age at which children first enter (primary) school. Early age at school entry significantly affects mobility and reduces the relative advantage of children of better educated parents.

  4. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the task, an eye-tracking device unobtrusively recorded their gaze patterns, which are analyzed and discussed. Both successful and unsuccessful searches are examined. Also, we assess the potential of eye-tracking technology in the study of dictionary use. Keywords: eye tracking, bilingual dictionary, entry ...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1849-01 - Right of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 86.1849-01 Section 86.1849-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...

  6. Voices of Women at Entry Level Positions of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Catherine Eggleston

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of organizational culture on women's professional lives. It focuses on women in entry-level positions in educational administration and explores the interaction of organizational attitudes and expectations with the participants' personalities, epistemological positions, work needs, performance self-esteem, and sense…

  7. Application of an Aesthetic Evaluation Model to Data Entry Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, D. C. L.; Byrne, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a new model for quantitatively assessing screen formats. Results of applying the model to data entry screens support the use of the model. Also described is a critiquing mechanism embedded in a user interface design environment as a demonstration of this approach. (Author/AEF)

  8. On satellite umbra/penumbra entry and exit positions

    OpenAIRE

    Neta, Beny; Vellado, David

    1997-01-01

    The problem of computing Earth satellite entry and exit positions through the Earth's umbra and penumbra, for satellites in elliptical orbits, is solved without the use of a quartic equation. A condition for existence of a solution is given. This problem is related to perturbation force resulting from solar radiation pressure.

  9. Cygnus Code Simulation of Magnetoshell Aerocapture and Entry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Kirtley, David; Barnes, Dan; Slough, John

    2017-10-01

    A Magnetoshell Aerocapture and Entry System (MAC) is a novel concept for planetary atmospheric entry, which enables both manned and planetary deep space orbiter space missions that are difficult with present day technologies. The MAC uses a low-beta dipole plasma magnetoshell to produce a drag effect on the spacecraft through the collisional interactions between the entry atmospheric neutrals and the confined plasma in the magnetoshell, creating a dynamic and controllable plasma parachute for entry. To understand the performance and the behavior of the MAC, the Cygnus 2D Hall MHD code is used for this study. The Cygnus code is a 2D Hall MHD code with coupled external circuits, which has been originally developed for studying FRC formation, translation, merging, and compression. In this study, the Cygnus code is modified to support the MAC geometry with a simplified plasma-neutral model that accounts for electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange to simulate the collisional interaction processes for the MAC.

  10. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  11. Essays on Empirical Industrial Organization : Entry and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  12. A new approach to orientation: professional entry into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Bendi; Bennett, Sandra S; Schneider, Sharon K; Brunner, Barbie W

    2009-01-01

    With a strong emphasis on the overall recruitment and retention of staff, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Clinical Programs Staff Education Department, developed a new orientation program: "Professional Entry Into Practice." This article provides the model to review current orientation processes and to revise and evaluate new orientation processes.

  13. Candidate Medical Countermeasures Targeting Ebola Virus Cell Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    vesiculoviruses in vitro [96]. 261 The pharmacokinetic profile of K11777 in rodents, dogs , and nonhuman primates is suggestive 262 of its safety in humans [97...2123-2131 (2014). 600 89. Wolf MC, Freiberg AN, Zhang T et al. A broad-spectrum antiviral targeting entry of 601 enveloped viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad

  14. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  15. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: We use modern eye-tracking technology to scrutinize the process of sense and equivalent selection in polysemous bilingual entries. Our study subjects, intermediate and advanced Polish learners of English, consulted 26 Polish-to-English dictionary pages prompted with a sentence translation task. Throughout the ...

  16. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  17. Cones of Games arising from Market Entry Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Market entry situations are modelled, where an entrepreneur has to decide for a collection of markets which market to enter and which not. The entrepreneur can improve his prior information by making use of a group of informants, each of them knowing the situation in one or more markets. For such a

  18. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  19. The University of Sydney Library Catalogue Data Entry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M. E. L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This report is a description of the history, development, and present state of the University of Sydney Library Catalog Data Entry System. The system has been designed for use on an IBM System 360/20 using assembler programing language. While its primary objective is the generation of machine-readable catalogs, a byproduct of the system has been…

  20. Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoproteins, Key to Entry and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we have focussed on the RVFV Gn and Gc glycoproteins, the keys for virus entry and virus control. RVFV is an emerging virus that has already spread across the African continent and to the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of RVFV are characterized by abortion storms and high mortality,