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Sample records for acid pdb entries

  1. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries

    OpenAIRE

    Laskowski, Roman A.; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image‐based and include protein secondary structure, protein‐ligand and protein‐DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password‐protected PDBsum analyses for e...

  2. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M

    2018-01-01

    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbsum. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. Computational mining for hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in protein data bank (PDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Nur Syatila Ab; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein can provide insights regarding its function. Functional relationship between proteins can be inferred from fold and sequence similarities. In certain cases, sequence or fold comparison fails to conclude homology between proteins with similar mechanism. Since the structure is more conserved than the sequence, a constellation of functional residues can be similarly arranged among proteins of similar mechanism. Local structural similarity searches are able to detect such constellation of amino acids among distinct proteins, which can be useful to annotate proteins of unknown function. Detection of such patterns of amino acids on a large scale can increase the repertoire of important 3D motifs since available known 3D motifs currently, could not compensate the ever-increasing numbers of uncharacterized proteins to be annotated. Here, a computational platform for an automated detection of 3D motifs is described. A fuzzy-pattern searching algorithm derived from IMagine an Amino Acid 3D Arrangement search EnGINE (IMAAAGINE) was implemented to develop an automated method for searching of hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in Protein Data Bank (PDB), without the need for prior knowledge on related sequence or structure of pattern of interest. We present an example of the searches, which is the detection of a hypothetical pattern derived from known structural motif of C2H2 structural pattern from zinc fingers. The conservation of particular patterns of amino acid side chains in unrelated proteins is highlighted. This approach can act as a complementary method for available structure- and sequence-based platforms and may contribute in improving functional association between proteins.

  4. PDB2Graph: A toolbox for identifying critical amino acids map in proteins based on graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Niloofar; Khakzad, Hamed; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The integrative and cooperative nature of protein structure involves the assessment of topological and global features of constituent parts. Network concept takes complete advantage of both of these properties in the analysis concomitantly. High compatibility to structural concepts or physicochemical properties in addition to exploiting a remarkable simplification in the system has made network an ideal tool to explore biological systems. There are numerous examples in which different protein structural and functional characteristics have been clarified by the network approach. Here, we present an interactive and user-friendly Matlab-based toolbox, PDB2Graph, devoted to protein structure network construction, visualization, and analysis. Moreover, PDB2Graph is an appropriate tool for identifying critical nodes involved in protein structural robustness and function based on centrality indices. It maps critical amino acids in protein networks and can greatly aid structural biologists in selecting proper amino acid candidates for manipulating protein structures in a more reasonable and rational manner. To introduce the capability and efficiency of PDB2Graph in detail, the structural modification of Calmodulin through allosteric binding of Ca(2+) is considered. In addition, a mutational analysis for three well-identified model proteins including Phage T4 lysozyme, Barnase and Ribonuclease HI, was performed to inspect the influence of mutating important central residues on protein activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PDB-Explorer: a web-based interactive map of the protein data bank in shape space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian; Awale, Mahendra; Zasso, Michaël; Kostro, Daniel; Patiny, Luc; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-23

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) provides public access to experimentally determined 3D-structures of biological macromolecules (proteins, peptides and nucleic acids). While various tools are available to explore the PDB, options to access the global structural diversity of the entire PDB and to perceive relationships between PDB structures remain very limited. A 136-dimensional atom pair 3D-fingerprint for proteins (3DP) counting categorized atom pairs at increasing through-space distances was designed to represent the molecular shape of PDB-entries. Nearest neighbor searches examples were reported exemplifying the ability of 3DP-similarity to identify closely related biomolecules from small peptides to enzyme and large multiprotein complexes such as virus particles. The principle component analysis was used to obtain the visualization of PDB in 3DP-space. The 3DP property space groups proteins and protein assemblies according to their 3D-shape similarity, yet shows exquisite ability to distinguish between closely related structures. An interactive website called PDB-Explorer is presented featuring a color-coded interactive map of PDB in 3DP-space. Each pixel of the map contains one or more PDB-entries which are directly visualized as ribbon diagrams when the pixel is selected. The PDB-Explorer website allows performing 3DP-nearest neighbor searches of any PDB-entry or of any structure uploaded as protein-type PDB file. All functionalities on the website are implemented in JavaScript in a platform-independent manner and draw data from a server that is updated daily with the latest PDB additions, ensuring complete and up-to-date coverage. The essentially instantaneous 3DP-similarity search with the PDB-Explorer provides results comparable to those of much slower 3D-alignment algorithms, and automatically clusters proteins from the same superfamilies in tight groups. A chemical space classification of PDB based on molecular shape was obtained using a new atom-pair 3

  6. BLOCKS - PDB ATOM matching - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DB-SPIRE BLOCKS - PDB ATOM matching Data detail Data name BLOCKS - PDB ATOM matching DOI 10....18908/lsdba.nbdc00411-008 Description of data contents Sequence numbers of PDB entries/chains whose ATOM mat...ches a BLOCKS entry Data file File name: dbspire_blocks_pdb_atom.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/ar...chive/dbspire/LATEST/dbspire_blocks_pdb_atom.zip File size: 6.2 MB Simple search ...URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/dbspire_blocks_pdb_atom#en Data acquisition method BLOCKS, PD

  7. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  8. Protein Data Bank (PDB): The Single Global Macromolecular Structure Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Stephen K; Berman, Helen M; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Markley, John L; Nakamura, Haruki; Velankar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB)--the single global repository of experimentally determined 3D structures of biological macromolecules and their complexes--was established in 1971, becoming the first open-access digital resource in the biological sciences. The PDB archive currently houses ~130,000 entries (May 2017). It is managed by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank organization (wwPDB; wwpdb.org), which includes the RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB; rcsb.org), the Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj; pdbj.org), the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe; pdbe.org), and BioMagResBank (BMRB; www.bmrb.wisc.edu). The four wwPDB partners operate a unified global software system that enforces community-agreed data standards and supports data Deposition, Biocuration, and Validation of ~11,000 new PDB entries annually (deposit.wwpdb.org). The RCSB PDB currently acts as the archive keeper, ensuring disaster recovery of PDB data and coordinating weekly updates. wwPDB partners disseminate the same archival data from multiple FTP sites, while operating complementary websites that provide their own views of PDB data with selected value-added information and links to related data resources. At present, the PDB archives experimental data, associated metadata, and 3D-atomic level structural models derived from three well-established methods: crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and electron microscopy (3DEM). wwPDB partners are working closely with experts in related experimental areas (small-angle scattering, chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry, Forster energy resonance transfer or FRET, etc.) to establish a federation of data resources that will support sustainable archiving and validation of 3D structural models and experimental data derived from integrative or hybrid methods.

  9. Representation of viruses in the remediated PDB archive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Catherine L.; Dutta, Shuchismita; Westbrook, John D.; Henrick, Kim; Berman, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    A new data model for PDB entries of viruses and other biological assemblies with regular noncrystallographic symmetry is described. A new scheme has been devised to represent viruses and other biological assemblies with regular noncrystallographic symmetry in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The scheme describes existing and anticipated PDB entries of this type using generalized descriptions of deposited and experimental coordinate frames, symmetry and frame transformations. A simplified notation has been adopted to express the symmetry generation of assemblies from deposited coordinates and matrix operations describing the required point, helical or crystallographic symmetry. Complete correct information for building full assemblies, subassemblies and crystal asymmetric units of all virus entries is now available in the remediated PDB archive

  10. PDBCOP: PDB comparison program

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfarová, Karla; Dohnálek, Jan; Hašek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 35 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : crystal structure * protein * PDB Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed alpha-turns guide design with D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annavarapu, Srinivas; Nanda, Vikas

    2009-09-22

    Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous alpha(L) helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into alpha(R) helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an alpha(R) conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a beta(R) conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to alpha(L) helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. By examining left-handed alpha-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed alpha-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  12. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Vikas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Results Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous αL helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into αR helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an αR conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a βR conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to αL helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. Conclusion By examining left-handed α-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed α-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  13. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Emel Maden; Güntert, Peter, E-mail: guentert@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary.

  14. Arachidonic acid-induced Ca2+ entry and migration in a neuroendocrine cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswamee, Priyodarshan; Pounardjian, Tamar; Giovannucci, David R

    2018-01-01

    Store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) has been implicated in the migration of some cancer cell lines. The canonical SOCE is defined as the Ca 2+ entry that occurs in response to near-maximal depletion of Ca 2+ within the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively, arachidonic acid (AA) has been shown to induce Ca 2+ entry in a store-independent manner through Orai1/Orai3 hetero-multimeric channels. However, the role of this AA-induced Ca 2+ entry pathway in cancer cell migration has not been adequately assessed. The present study investigated the involvement of AA-induced Ca 2+ entry in migration in BON cells, a model gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEPNET) cell line using pharmacological and gene knockdown methods in combination with live cell fluorescence imaging and standard migration assays. We showed that both the store-dependent and AA-induced Ca 2+ entry modes could be selectively activated and that exogenous administration of AA resulted in Ca 2+ entry that was pharmacologically distinct from SOCE. Also, whereas homomeric Orai1-containing channels appeared to largely underlie SOCE, the AA-induced Ca 2+ entry channel required the expression of Orai3 as well as Orai1. Moreover, we showed that AA treatment enhanced the migration of BON cells and that this migration could be abrogated by selective inhibition of the AA-induced Ca 2+ entry. Taken together, these data revealed that an alternative Orai3-dependent Ca 2+ entry pathway is an important signal for GEPNET cell migration.

  15. Valine entry into rat brain after diet-induced changes in plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tews, J.K.; Greenwood, J.; Pratt, O.E.; Harper, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Passage of amino acids across the blood-brain barrier is assumed to be modified by amino acid composition of the blood. To gain a better understanding of the effects of protein intake on brain amino acid uptake, the authors examined associations among diet, plasma amino acid patterns, and the rate of entry of valine into the brain. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 18, or 50% casein before receiving one meal of a diet containing 0, 6, 18, or 50% casein. After 4-7 h, they were anesthetized and infused intravenously with [ 14 C]valine for 5 min before plasma and brain samples were taken for determination of radioactivity and content of individual amino acids. As protein content of the meal was increased from 0 to 50% casein, plasma and brain concentrations of valine and most other large neutral amino acid (LNAA) increased severalfold; also the ratio of [ 14 C]valine in brain to that in plasma decreased by >50%, and the rate of valine entry into the brain increased 3.5-fold. The increase in valine flux slowed as plasma levels of LNAA, competitors for valine transport, increased. The results were far more dependent on protein content of the final meal than on that of the adaptation diet; thus changes in protein intake, as reflected in altered plasma amino acid patterns, markedly altered valine entry into the brain

  16. LS-SNP/PDB: annotated non-synonymous SNPs mapped to Protein Data Bank structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael; Diekhans, Mark; Lien, Stephanie; Liu, Yun; Karchin, Rachel

    2009-06-01

    LS-SNP/PDB is a new WWW resource for genome-wide annotation of human non-synonymous (amino acid changing) SNPs. It serves high-quality protein graphics rendered with UCSF Chimera molecular visualization software. The system is kept up-to-date by an automated, high-throughput build pipeline that systematically maps human nsSNPs onto Protein Data Bank structures and annotates several biologically relevant features. LS-SNP/PDB is available at (http://ls-snp.icm.jhu.edu/ls-snp-pdb) and via links from protein data bank (PDB) biology and chemistry tabs, UCSC Genome Browser Gene Details and SNP Details pages and PharmGKB Gene Variants Downloads/Cross-References pages.

  17. Proteins of unknown function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB): an inventory of true uncharacterized proteins and computational tools for their analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzirin, Nurul; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2012-10-08

    Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files) that were categorized under "unknown function" are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  18. Proteins of Unknown Function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB: An Inventory of True Uncharacterized Proteins and Computational Tools for Their Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nadzirin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files that were categorized under “unknown function” are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  19. A global analysis of NMR distance constraints from the PDB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranken, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Information obtained from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments is encoded as a set of constraint lists when calculating three-dimensional structures for a protein. With the amount of constraint data from the world wide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) that is now available, it is possible to do a global, large-scale analysis using only information from the constraints, without taking the coordinate information into account. This article describes such an analysis of distance constraints from NOE data based on a set of 1834 NMR PDB entries containing 1909 protein chains. In order to best represent the quality and extent of the data that is currently deposited at the wwPDB, only the original data as deposited by the authors was used, and no attempt was made to 'clean up' and further interpret this information. Because the constraint lists provide a single set of data, and not an ensemble of structural solutions, they are easier to analyse and provide a reduced form of structural information that is relevant for NMR analysis only. The online resource resulting from this analysis makes it possible to check, for example, how often a particular contact occurs when assigning NOESY spectra, or to find out whether a particular sequence fragment is likely to be difficult to assign. In this respect it formalises information that scientists with experience in spectrum analysis are aware of but cannot necessarily quantify. The analysis described here illustrates the importance of depositing constraints (and all other possible NMR derived information) along with the structure coordinates, as this type of information can greatly assist the NMR community

  20. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-10-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-10-0036 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-19-0098 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-19-0098 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:133-164(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1941 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1941 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity...=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-PABE-08-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0030 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:45-139(Identity...=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity...=80%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  6. Identification of a D-amino acid decapeptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggiano, Cesar; Jiang Shibo; Lu Hong; Zhao Qian; Liu Shuwen; Binley, James; Blondelle, Sylvie E.

    2006-01-01

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion into host cells involves three major steps, each being a potential target for the development of entry inhibitors: gp120 binding to CD4, gp120-CD4 complex interacting with a coreceptor, and gp41 refolding to form a six-helix bundle. Using a D-amino acid decapeptide combinatorial library, we identified peptide DC13 as having potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory activity, and effectively inhibiting infection by several laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains. While DC13 did not block binding of gp120 to CD4, nor disrupt the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, it effectively blocked the binding of an anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody and chemokine SDF-1α to CXCR4-expressing cells. However, because R5-using primary viruses were also neutralized, the antiviral activity of DC13 implies additional mode(s) of action. These results suggest that DC13 is a useful HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist for CXCR4 and, due to its biostability and simplicity, may be of value for developing a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors

  7. The young person's guide to the PDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB), created in 1971 when merely seven protein crystal structures were known, today holds over 120, 000 experimentally-determined three-dimensional models of macromolecules, including gigantic structures comprised of hundreds of thousands of atoms, such as ribosomes and viruses. Most of the deposits come from X-ray crystallography experiments, with important contributions also made by NMR spectroscopy and, recently, by the fast growing Cryo-Electron Microscopy. Although the determination of a macromolecular crystal structure is now facilitated by advanced experimental tools and by sophisticated software, it is still a highly complicated research process requiring specialized training, skill, experience and a bit of luck. Understanding the plethora of structural information provided by the PDB requires that its users (consumers) have at least a rudimentary initiation. This is the purpose of this educational overview.

  8. Concentration and entry rate of amino acids in buffalo calves fed on two planes of crude protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Amino acid entry rates into the body pool have been estimated in buffalo calves using a single injection isotope dilution technique. The animals received 2 levels of crude protein, 13 percent lower and 19 percent higher than NRC recommendation. The concentrations of free amino acid in plasma were 5.49 and 7.17 mg/100 ml in animals fed on low and high crude protein diet, respectively. There was significant differences in the plasma amino acid concentration and entry rates between the groups. Amino acid entry rates were 79.17 and 117.78 mg per min in groups fed on low and high plane of crude protein respectively, showing that availability of amino acid is better in animals given ratio high in crude protein contents. (author)

  9. PDB: CBRC-TNIG-22-0159 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2WBE,3DU7,2E4H, Region:346-770(Identity=93%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:346-770(Identity...=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:346-770(Identity=95%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Region:346-770(Ident...ity=94%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:346-770(Identity...=94%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A ...(EM Resolution=3.50),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:346-770(Identity

  10. PDB@: an offline toolkit for exploration and analysis of PDB files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Udayakumar; Ravisankar, Sadhana; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund

    2013-12-01

    Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a freely accessible archive of the 3-D structural data of biological molecules. Structure based studies offers a unique vantage point in inferring the properties of a protein molecule from structural data. This is too big a task to be done manually. Moreover, there is no single tool, software or server that comprehensively analyses all structure-based properties. The objective of the present work is to develop an offline computational toolkit, PDB@ containing in-built algorithms that help categorizing the structural properties of a protein molecule. The user has the facility to view and edit the PDB file to his need. Some features of the present work are unique in itself and others are an improvement over existing tools. Also, the representation of protein properties in both graphical and textual formats helps in predicting all the necessary details of a protein molecule on a single platform.

  11. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Lin, Song-Chow; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Anderson, Robert; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously identified two hydrolyzable tannins, chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) that blocked herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry and spread. These compounds inhibited viral glycoprotein interactions with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Based on this property, we evaluated their antiviral efficacy against several different viruses known to employ GAGs for host cell entry. Results Extensive analysis of the tannins? mechanism of action was performed on a ...

  12. PDB-NMA of a protein homodimer reproduces distinct experimental motility asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirion, Monique M.; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We have extended our analytically derived PDB-NMA formulation, Atomic Torsional Modal Analysis or ATMAN (Tirion and ben-Avraham 2015 Phys. Rev. E 91 032712), to include protein dimers using mixed internal and Cartesian coordinates. A test case on a 1.3 {\\mathringA} resolution model of a small homodimer, ActVA-ORF6, consisting of two 112-residue subunits identically folded in a compact 50 {\\mathringA} sphere, reproduces the distinct experimental Debye-Waller motility asymmetry for the two chains, demonstrating that structure sensitively selects vibrational signatures. The vibrational analysis of this PDB entry, together with biochemical and crystallographic data, demonstrates the cooperative nature of the dimeric interaction of the two subunits and suggests a mechanical model for subunit interconversion during the catalytic cycle.

  13. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0391 1FFX,1IA0,1JFF,1SA0,1SA1,1TUB,1TVK,2WBE,1Z2B,3DCO,3DU7,3E22, Region:421-804(Identity...=82%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1IA0 Chai...n:B (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:421-804(Identity...=82%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:421-804(Identity=82...%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.20),Region:421-788(Identity=82%) PDB:1TUB Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.70),Region:421-788(Identit

  14. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengli; Luecke, Christian; Baier, Leslie J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Hamilton, James A.

    1997-01-01

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel β-strands which form two nearly orthogonal β-sheets of five strands each, and two short α-helices that connect the β-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two β-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand

  15. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengli [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States); Luecke, Christian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet (Germany); Baier, Leslie J. [NIDDK, NIH, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch (United States); Sacchettini, James C. [Texas A and M University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States); Hamilton, James A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States)

    1997-04-15

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel {beta}-strands which form two nearly orthogonal {beta}-sheets of five strands each, and two short {alpha}-helices that connect the {beta}-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two {beta}-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand.

  16. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A... (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:32-398(Identity...=96%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:55-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A ...(X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-365(Identity...=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A ...(X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-367(Identity...=98%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-367(Identity=97%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A... (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:85-449(Identity...=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:108-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  20. The Use of PDB database as a Tool for Biochemistry Active Learning of Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.F. Günther et al.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Biochemistry teaching-learning is still an ongoing practice at UFSC. There are few published reports about innovative pedagogical practices of this discipline at this University. To ensure motivation through active learning of Basic Biochemistry we started to apply new methodologies back to 2005. This approach intended to stimulate undergraduate students in learning Biochemistry proactively. Objectives: Use PDB as a tool to improve skills related to Biochemistry education, while using specific information available; provide virtual data in order to stimulate student autonomy in active teaching-learning processes through methodologies based on the use of safe and suitable scientific information. Material and Methods: At the beginning, students were exposed to Biochemistry of Proteins content through traditional lectures. On the following stage, an introduction to PDB was made at the digital environment (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/home/home.do depicting scientific information. Students received a model-instruction describing myoglobin characteristics at PDB (https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/1. This Powerpoint™ presentation gave clues on how the work was to be done. A lottery was made and each pair of students was allowed to select a protein and then developed Powerpoint™ presentations. Proteins were chosen from the PDB categories and obtained from the academic educational plan for Basic Biochemistry related to the Nutrition-Course. The Moodle plataform provided virtual materials, allowing full interactivity to all student presentations. Results and Discussion: There was total adherence to the pedagogical proposal. The student presentations in Powerpoint™ were adequate and made available to the attendees in the Moodle platform. Items surveyed in the presented script with the highest hit rates (grade ten were: biological importance (100%, amino acid composition (92.30%, structural information (89.75%, occurrence (89.74%, URL cited (79

  1. Outcome of the first wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul D.; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; Bell, Jeffrey A.; Berman, Helen M.; Bhat, Talapady N.; Blaney, Jeff; Bolton, Evan; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, David; Burley, Stephen K.; Case, David A.; Clark, Kirk L.; Darden, Tom; Emsley, Paul; Feher, Victoria A.; Feng, Zukang; Groom, Colin R.; Harris, Seth F.; Hendle, Jorg; Holder, Thomas; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Krojer, Tobias; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Mark, Alan E.; Markley, John L.; Miller, Matthew; Minor, Wladek; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Murshudov, Garib; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki; Nicholls, Anthony; Nicklaus, Marc; Nolte, Robert T.; Padyana, Anil K.; Peishoff, Catherine E.; Pieniazek, Susan; Read, Randy J.; Shao, Chenghua; Sheriff, Steven; Smart, Oliver; Soisson, Stephen; Spurlino, John; Stouch, Terry; Svobodova, Radka; Tempel, Wolfram; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Tronrud, Dale; Velankar, Sameer; Ward, Suzanna; Warren, Gregory L.; Westbrook, John D.; Williams, Pamela; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank archive, ~75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery/design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide Protein Data Bank/Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30–31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the Protein Data Bank? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated. PMID:27050687

  2. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2nd generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent.The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal

  3. Retinoic Acid signalling and the control of meiotic entry in the human fetal gonad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Childs

    Full Text Available The development of mammalian fetal germ cells along oogenic or spermatogenic fate trajectories is dictated by signals from the surrounding gonadal environment. Germ cells in the fetal testis enter mitotic arrest, whilst those in the fetal ovary undergo sex-specific entry into meiosis, the initiation of which is thought to be mediated by selective exposure of fetal ovarian germ cells to mesonephros-derived retinoic acid (RA. Aspects of this model are hard to reconcile with the spatiotemporal pattern of germ cell differentiation in the human fetal ovary, however. We have therefore examined the expression of components of the RA synthesis, metabolism and signalling pathways, and their downstream effectors and inhibitors in germ cells around the time of the initiation of meiosis in the human fetal gonad. Expression of the three RA-synthesising enzymes, ALDH1A1, 2 and 3 in the fetal ovary and testis was equal to or greater than that in the mesonephros at 8-9 weeks gestation, indicating an intrinsic capacity within the gonad to synthesise RA. Using immunohistochemistry to detect RA receptors RARα, β and RXRα, we find germ cells to be the predominant target of RA signalling in the fetal human ovary, but also reveal widespread receptor nuclear localization indicative of signalling in the testis, suggesting that human fetal testicular germ cells are not efficiently shielded from RA by the action of the RA-metabolising enzyme CYP26B1. Consistent with this, expression of CYP26B1 was greater in the human fetal ovary than testis, although the sexually-dimorphic expression patterns of the germ cell-intrinsic regulators of meiotic initiation, STRA8 and NANOS2, appear conserved. Finally, we demonstrate that RA induces a two-fold increase in STRA8 expression in cultures of human fetal testis, but is not sufficient to cause widespread meiosis-associated gene expression. Together, these data indicate that while local production of RA within the fetal ovary may

  4. Retinoic Acid Signalling and the Control of Meiotic Entry in the Human Fetal Gonad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Hazel L.; Anderson, Richard A.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.

    2011-01-01

    The development of mammalian fetal germ cells along oogenic or spermatogenic fate trajectories is dictated by signals from the surrounding gonadal environment. Germ cells in the fetal testis enter mitotic arrest, whilst those in the fetal ovary undergo sex-specific entry into meiosis, the initiation of which is thought to be mediated by selective exposure of fetal ovarian germ cells to mesonephros-derived retinoic acid (RA). Aspects of this model are hard to reconcile with the spatiotemporal pattern of germ cell differentiation in the human fetal ovary, however. We have therefore examined the expression of components of the RA synthesis, metabolism and signalling pathways, and their downstream effectors and inhibitors in germ cells around the time of the initiation of meiosis in the human fetal gonad. Expression of the three RA-synthesising enzymes, ALDH1A1, 2 and 3 in the fetal ovary and testis was equal to or greater than that in the mesonephros at 8–9 weeks gestation, indicating an intrinsic capacity within the gonad to synthesise RA. Using immunohistochemistry to detect RA receptors RARα, β and RXRα, we find germ cells to be the predominant target of RA signalling in the fetal human ovary, but also reveal widespread receptor nuclear localization indicative of signalling in the testis, suggesting that human fetal testicular germ cells are not efficiently shielded from RA by the action of the RA-metabolising enzyme CYP26B1. Consistent with this, expression of CYP26B1 was greater in the human fetal ovary than testis, although the sexually-dimorphic expression patterns of the germ cell-intrinsic regulators of meiotic initiation, STRA8 and NANOS2, appear conserved. Finally, we demonstrate that RA induces a two-fold increase in STRA8 expression in cultures of human fetal testis, but is not sufficient to cause widespread meiosis-associated gene expression. Together, these data indicate that while local production of RA within the fetal ovary may be important in

  5. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-04-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  6. PDB: CBRC-PABE-04-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  7. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-1321 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I36,3C9M,2J4Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=92%) PDB:2I37 Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Region:1-348(Identity=92%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity...=92%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity=92%) ...PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=92%) PDB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity...=92%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity=92%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  8. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-03-0075 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  9. PDB: CBRC-CPOR-01-1479 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I36,3C9M,2J4Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-354(Identity=88%) PDB:2I37 Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Region:1-354(Identity=88%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-354(Identity...=88%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-354(Identity=88%) ...PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=87%) PDB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-354(Identity...=88%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-354(Identity=88%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  10. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-11-0073 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  11. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-20-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=97%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  12. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-1800 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I36,3C9M,2J4Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-353(Identity=89%) PDB:2I37 Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Region:1-353(Identity=89%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-353(Identity...=89%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-353(Identity=89%) ...PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=82%) PDB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-353(Identity...=89%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-353(Identity=89%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  13. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-0804 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=97%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  14. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-1431 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  15. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-1134 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=95%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=97%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=95%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=95%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  16. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously identified two hydrolyzable tannins, chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) that blocked herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry and spread. These compounds inhibited viral glycoprotein interactions with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Based on this property, we evaluated their antiviral efficacy against several different viruses known to employ GAGs for host cell entry. Results Extensive analysis of the tannins’ mechanism of action was performed on a panel of viruses during the attachment and entry steps of infection. Virus-specific binding assays and the analysis of viral spread during treatment with these compounds were also conducted. CHLA and PUG were effective in abrogating infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV), measles virus (MV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), at μM concentrations and in dose-dependent manners without significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the natural compounds inhibited viral attachment, penetration, and spread, to different degrees for each virus. Specifically, the tannins blocked all these steps of infection for HCMV, HCV, and MV, but had little effect on the post-fusion spread of DENV and RSV, which could suggest intriguing differences in the roles of GAG-interactions for these viruses. Conclusions CHLA and PUG may be of value as broad-spectrum antivirals for limiting emerging/recurring viruses known to engage host cell GAGs for entry. Further studies testing the efficacy of these tannins in vivo against certain viruses are justified. PMID:23924316

  17. The PDB_REDO server for macromolecular structure model optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie P. Joosten

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The refinement and validation of a crystallographic structure model is the last step before the coordinates and the associated data are submitted to the Protein Data Bank (PDB. The success of the refinement procedure is typically assessed by validating the models against geometrical criteria and the diffraction data, and is an important step in ensuring the quality of the PDB public archive [Read et al. (2011, Structure, 19, 1395–1412]. The PDB_REDO procedure aims for `constructive validation', aspiring to consistent and optimal refinement parameterization and pro-active model rebuilding, not only correcting errors but striving for optimal interpretation of the electron density. A web server for PDB_REDO has been implemented, allowing thorough, consistent and fully automated optimization of the refinement procedure in REFMAC and partial model rebuilding. The goal of the web server is to help practicing crystallographers to improve their model prior to submission to the PDB. For this, additional steps were implemented in the PDB_REDO pipeline, both in the refinement procedure, e.g. testing of resolution limits and k-fold cross-validation for small test sets, and as new validation criteria, e.g. the density-fit metrics implemented in EDSTATS and ligand validation as implemented in YASARA. Innovative ways to present the refinement and validation results to the user are also described, which together with auto-generated Coot scripts can guide users to subsequent model inspection and improvement. It is demonstrated that using the server can lead to substantial improvement of structure models before they are submitted to the PDB.

  18. Carboxylic acids in crystallization of macromolecules: learning from successful crystallization experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Lesa R; He, John Z; Mank, Nicholas J; Booth, William T; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-03-01

    The production of macromolecular crystals suitable for structural analysis is one of the most important and limiting steps in the structure determination process. Often, preliminary crystallization trials are performed using hundreds of empirically selected conditions. Carboxylic acids and/or their salts are one of the most popular components of these empirically derived crystallization conditions. Our findings indicate that almost 40 % of entries deposited to the Protein Data Bank (PDB) reporting crystallization conditions contain at least one carboxylic acid. In order to analyze the role of carboxylic acids in macromolecular crystallization, a large-scale analysis of the successful crystallization experiments reported to the PDB was performed. The PDB is currently the largest source of crystallization data, however it is not easily searchable. These complications are due to a combination of a free text format, which is used to capture information on the crystallization experiments, and the inconsistent naming of chemicals used in crystallization experiments. Despite these difficulties, our approach allows for the extraction of over 47,000 crystallization conditions from the PDB. Initially, the selected conditions were investigated to determine which carboxylic acids or their salts are most often present in crystallization solutions. From this group, selected sets of crystallization conditions were analyzed in detail, assessing parameters such as concentration, pH, and precipitant used. Our findings will lead to the design of new crystallization screens focused around carboxylic acids.

  19. Structure-activity relationships of 3-O-β-chacotriosyl oleanic acid derivatives as entry inhibitors for highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Jia, Xiuhua; Shen, Xintian; Wei, Zhuwen; Jiang, Zhiyan; Liao, Yixian; Guo, Yiming; Zheng, Xiaojun; Zhong, Guohua; Song, Gaopeng

    2017-08-15

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 virus (H5N1) entry is a key target for the development of novel anti-influenza agents with new mechanisms of action. In our continuing efforts to identify novel potential anti-H5N1 entry inhibitors, a series of 3-O-β-chacotriosyl oleanolic acid analogs have been designed, synthesized and evaluated as H5N1 entry inhibitors based on two small molecule inhibitors 1 and 2 previously discovered by us. The anti-H5N1 entry activities were determined based on HA/HIV and VSVG/HIV entry assays. Compound 15 displayed the most promising anti-H5N1 entry activities with average IC 50 values of 4.05μM and good selective index (22.9). Detailed structure-activity relationships (SARs) studies suggested that either the introduction of an additional oxo group to position 11 at OA or alteration of the C-3 configuration of OA from 3β- to 3α-forms can significantly enhance the selective index while maintaining their antiviral activities in vitro. Molecular simulation analysis confirmed that the compounds exert their inhibitory activity through binding tightly to hemagglutinin (HA2) protein near the fusion peptide and prevent virus entry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bricogne, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be made generally available, along with the precursor entries, with various views of the structures being made available depending on the types of questions that users are interested in answering.

  1. Recommendations of the wwPDB NMR Validation Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelione, Gaetano T.; Nilges, Michael; Bax, Ad; Güntert, Peter; Herrmann, Torsten; Richardson, Jane S.; Schwieters, Charles; Vranken, Wim F.; Vuister, Geerten W.; Wishart, David S.; Berman, Helen M.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Markley, John L.

    2013-01-01

    As methods for analysis of biomolecular structure and dynamics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) continue to advance, the resulting 3D structures, chemical shifts, and other NMR data are broadly impacting biology, chemistry, and medicine. Structure model assessment is a critical area of NMR methods development, and is an essential component of the process of making these structures accessible and useful to the wider scientific community. For these reasons, the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) has convened an NMR Validation Task Force (NMR-VTF) to work with the wwPDB partners in developing metrics and policies for biomolecular NMR data harvesting, structure representation, and structure quality assessment. This paper summarizes the recommendations of the NMR-VTF, and lays the groundwork for future work in developing standards and metrics for biomolecular NMR structure quality assessment. PMID:24010715

  2. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bricogne, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular structures deposited in the PDB can and should be continually reinterpreted and improved on the basis of their accompanying experimental X-ray data, exploiting the steady progress in methods and software that the deposition of such data into the PDB on a massive scale has made possible. Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be

  3. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States); Bricogne, Gerard, E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Global Phasing Ltd, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Macromolecular structures deposited in the PDB can and should be continually reinterpreted and improved on the basis of their accompanying experimental X-ray data, exploiting the steady progress in methods and software that the deposition of such data into the PDB on a massive scale has made possible. Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be

  4. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  5. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is activated through a sulfenic acid intermediate at a copper ion entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherolf, Morgan M; Boyd, Stefanie D; Taylor, Alexander B; Kim, Hee Jong; Wohlschlegel, James A; Blackburn, Ninian J; Hart, P John; Winge, Dennis R; Winkler, Duane D

    2017-07-21

    Metallochaperones are a diverse family of trafficking molecules that provide metal ions to protein targets for use as cofactors. The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) activates immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) by delivering copper and facilitating the oxidation of the Sod1 intramolecular disulfide bond. Here, we present structural, spectroscopic, and cell-based data supporting a novel copper-induced mechanism for Sod1 activation. Ccs1 binding exposes an electropositive cavity and proposed "entry site" for copper ion delivery on immature Sod1. Copper-mediated sulfenylation leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that eventually resolves to form the Sod1 disulfide bond with concomitant release of copper into the Sod1 active site. Sod1 is the predominant disulfide bond-requiring enzyme in the cytoplasm, and this copper-induced mechanism of disulfide bond formation obviates the need for a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase in that compartment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. ccPDB: compilation and creation of data sets from Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder; Chauhan, Jagat Singh; Gromiha, M Michael; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2012-01-01

    ccPDB (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/ccpdb/) is a database of data sets compiled from the literature and Protein Data Bank (PDB). First, we collected and compiled data sets from the literature used for developing bioinformatics methods to annotate the structure and function of proteins. Second, data sets were derived from the latest release of PDB using standard protocols. Third, we developed a powerful module for creating a wide range of customized data sets from the current release of PDB. This is a flexible module that allows users to create data sets using a simple six step procedure. In addition, a number of web services have been integrated in ccPDB, which include submission of jobs on PDB-based servers, annotation of protein structures and generation of patterns. This database maintains >30 types of data sets such as secondary structure, tight-turns, nucleotide interacting residues, metals interacting residues, DNA/RNA binding residues and so on.

  7. An approach to creating a more realistic working model from a protein data bank entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Christopher J; Martin, Benjamin P; McGee, Kelly J; Stewart, James J P; Braun-Sand, Sonja B

    2015-01-01

    An accurate model of three-dimensional protein structure is important in a variety of fields such as structure-based drug design and mechanistic studies of enzymatic reactions. While the entries in the Protein Data Bank ( http://www.pdb.org ) provide valuable information about protein structures, a small fraction of the PDB structures were found to contain anomalies not reported in the PDB file. The semiempirical PM7 method in MOPAC2012 was used for identifying anomalously short hydrogen bonds, C-H⋯O/C-H⋯N interactions, non-bonding close contacts, and unrealistic covalent bond lengths in recently published Protein Data Bank files. It was also used to generate new structures with these faults removed. When the semiempirical models were compared to those of PDB_REDO (http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/pdb_redo/), the clashscores, as defined by MolProbity ( http://molprobity.biochem.duke.edu/), were better in about 50% of the structures. The semiempirical models also had a lower root-mean-square-deviation value in nearly all cases than those from PDB_REDO, indicative of a better conservation of the tertiary structure. Finally, the semiempirical models were found to have lower clashscores than the initial PDB file in all but one case. Because this approach maintains as much of the original tertiary structure as possible while improving anomalous interactions, it should be useful to theoreticians, experimentalists, and crystallographers investigating the structure and function of proteins.

  8. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  9. SEQATOMS: a web tool for identifying missing regions in PDB in sequence context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, B.W.; Heringa, J.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    With over 46 000 proteins, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the most important database with structural information of biological macromolecules. PDB files contain sequence and coordinate information. Residues present in the sequence can be absent from the coordinate section, which means their

  10. Critical amino acids within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein V4 N- and C-terminals contribute to virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available The importance of the fourth variable (V4 region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env in virus infection has not been well clarified, though the polymorphism of this region has been found to be associated with disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. In the present work, we focused on the correlation between HIV-1 gp120 V4 region polymorphism and the function of the region on virus entry, and the possible mechanisms for how the V4 region contributes to virus infectivity. Therefore, we analyzed the differences in V4 sequences along with coreceptor usage preference from CCR5 to CXCR4 and examined the importance of the amino acids within the V4 region for CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic virus entry. In addition, we determined the influence of the V4 amino acids on Env expression and gp160 processing intracellularly, as well as the amount of Env on the pseudovirus surface. The results indicated that V4 tended to have a shorter length, fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS, greater evolutionary distance, and a lower negative net charge when HIV-1 isolates switched from a coreceptor usage preference for CCR5 to CXCR4. The N- and C-terminals of the HIV-1 V4 region are highly conserved and critical to maintain virus entry ability, but only the mutation at position 417 in the context of ADA (a R5-tropic HIV-1 strain resulted in the ability to utilize CXCR4. In addition, 390L, 391F, 414I, and 416L are critical to maintain gp160 processing and maturation. It is likely that the hydrophobic properties and the electrostatic surface potential of gp120, rather than the conformational structure, greatly contribute to this V4 functionality. The findings provide information to aid in the understanding of the functions of V4 in HIV-1 entry and offer a potential target to aid in the development of entry inhibitors.

  11. PDB2CD visualises dynamics within protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Proteins tend to have defined conformations, a key factor in enabling their function. Atomic resolution structures of proteins are predominantly obtained by either solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or crystal structure methods. However, when considering a protein whose structure has been determined by both these approaches, on many occasions, the resultant conformations are subtly different, as illustrated by the examples in this study. The solution NMR approach invariably results in a cluster of structures whose conformations satisfy the distance boundaries imposed by the data collected; it might be argued that this is evidence of the dynamics of proteins when in solution. In crystal structures, the proteins are often in an energy minimum state which can result in an increase in the extent of regular secondary structure present relative to the solution state depicted by NMR, because the more dynamic ends of alpha helices and beta strands can become ordered at the lower temperatures. This study examines a novel way to display the differences in conformations within an NMR ensemble and between these and a crystal structure of a protein. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy can be used to characterise protein structures in solution. Using the new bioinformatics tool, PDB2CD, which generates CD spectra from atomic resolution protein structures, the differences between, and possible dynamic range of, conformations adopted by a protein can be visualised.

  12. hpvPDB: An Online Proteome Reserve for Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The molecular understanding of HPV proteins has significant connotation for understanding their intrusion in the host and designing novel protein vaccines and anti-viral agents, etc. Genomic, proteomic, structural, and disease-related information on HPV is available on the web; yet, with trivial annotations and more so, it is not well customized for data analysis, host-pathogen interaction, strain-disease association, drug designing, and sequence analysis, etc. We attempted to design an online reserve with comprehensive information on HPV for the end users desiring the same. The Human Papillomavirus Proteome Database (hpvPDB domiciles proteomic and genomic information on 150 HPV strains sequenced to date. Simultaneous easy expandability and retrieval of the strain-specific data, with a provision for sequence analysis and exploration potential of predicted structures, and easy access for curation and annotation through a range of search options at one platform are a few of its important features. Affluent information in this reserve could be of help for researchers involved in structural virology, cancer research, drug discovery, and vaccine design.

  13. Internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of a mammalian mRNA is regulated by amino acid availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, J.; Yaman, I.; Mishra, R.; Merrick, W. C.; Snider, M. D.; Lamers, W. H.; Hatzoglou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The cationic amino acid transporter, Cat-1, facilitates the uptake of the essential amino acids arginine and lysine. Amino acid starvation causes accumulation and increased translation of cat-1 mRNA, resulting in a 58-fold increase in protein levels and increased arginine uptake. A bicistronic mRNA

  14. PDB4DNA: Implementation of DNA geometry from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) description for Geant4-DNA Monte-Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, E.; Pham, Q. T.; Karamitros, M.; Payno, H.; Stepan, V.; Incerti, S.; Maigne, L.; Perrot, Y.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes PDB4DNA, a new Geant4 user application, based on an independent, cross-platform, free and open source C++ library, so-called PDBlib, which enables use of atomic level description of DNA molecule in Geant4 Monte Carlo particle transport simulations. For the evaluation of direct damage induced on the DNA molecule by ionizing particles, the application makes use of an algorithm able to determine the closest atom in the DNA molecule to energy depositions. Both the PDB4DNA application and the PDBlib library are available as free and open source under the Geant4 license.

  15. Bile acids induce necrosis in pancreatic stellate cells dependent on calcium entry and sodium‐driven bile uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Monika A.; Gerasimenko, Julia V.; Gerasimenko, Oleg V.; Petersen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Acute biliary pancreatitis is a sudden and severe condition initiated by bile reflux into the pancreas.Bile acids are known to induce Ca2+ signals and necrosis in isolated pancreatic acinar cells but the effects of bile acids on stellate cells are unexplored.Here we show that cholate and taurocholate elicit more dramatic Ca2+ signals and necrosis in stellate cells compared to the adjacent acinar cells in pancreatic lobules; whereas taurolithocholic acid 3‐sulfate primarily affects acinar cells.Ca2+ signals and necrosis are strongly dependent on extracellular Ca2+ as well as Na+; and Na+‐dependent transport plays an important role in the overall bile acid uptake in pancreatic stellate cells.Bile acid‐mediated pancreatic damage can be further escalated by bradykinin‐induced signals in stellate cells and thus killing of stellate cells by bile acids might have important implications in acute biliary pancreatitis. Abstract Acute biliary pancreatitis, caused by bile reflux into the pancreas, is a serious condition characterised by premature activation of digestive enzymes within acinar cells, followed by necrosis and inflammation. Bile acids are known to induce pathological Ca2+ signals and necrosis in acinar cells. However, bile acid‐elicited signalling events in stellate cells remain unexplored. This is the first study to demonstrate the pathophysiological effects of bile acids on stellate cells in two experimental models: ex vivo (mouse pancreatic lobules) and in vitro (human cells). Sodium cholate and taurocholate induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations in stellate cells, larger than those elicited simultaneously in the neighbouring acinar cells. In contrast, taurolithocholic acid 3‐sulfate (TLC‐S), known to induce Ca2+ oscillations in acinar cells, had only minor effects on stellate cells in lobules. The dependence of the Ca2+ signals on extracellular Na+ and the presence of sodium–taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) indicate a Na

  16. Triiodothyronine increases myocardial function and pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle after reperfusion in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Aaron K.; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy; Rosiers, Christine Des

    2012-01-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) supplementation improves clinical outcomes in infants after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass by unknown mechanisms. We utilized a translational model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC), thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-13Carbon(13C)]pyruvate for 40 min (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (control) or immediately after reperfusion (I/R) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (I/R-Tr) received T3 (1.2 μg/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC) using [2-13C]pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When compared with I/R, T3 (group I/R-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after I/R while elevating flux of both PDC and PC (∼4-fold). Although neither I/R nor I/R-Tr modified absolute CAC levels, T3 inhibited I/R-induced reductions in their molar percent enrichment. Furthermore, 13C-labeling of CAC intermediates suggests that T3 may decrease entry of unlabeled carbons at the level of oxaloacetate through anaplerosis or exchange reaction with asparate. T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC fluxes, thereby providing potential substrate for elevated cardiac function after reperfusion. This T3-induced increase in pyruvate fluxes occurs with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Our labeling data raise the possibility that T3 reduces reliance on amino acids for anaplerosis after reperfusion. PMID:22180654

  17. Expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase allows efficient entry of exogenous fatty acids into the Escherichia coli fatty acid and lipid A synthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Campbell, John W; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E

    2010-02-02

    Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function.

  18. Web servers and services for electrostatics calculations with APBS and PDB2PQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Samir; Huang, Yong; Hanson, Robert; Tobias, Malcolm; Krishnan, Sriram; Li, Wilfred W.; Nielsen, Jens E.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    APBS and PDB2PQR are widely utilized free software packages for biomolecular electrostatics calculations. Using the Opal toolkit, we have developed a Web services framework for these software packages that enables the use of APBS and PDB2PQR by users who do not have local access to the necessary amount of computational capabilities. This not only increases accessibility of the software to a wider range of scientists, educators, and students but it also increases the availability of electrostatics calculations on portable computing platforms. Users can access this new functionality in two ways. First, an Opal-enabled version of APBS is provided in current distributions, available freely on the web. Second, we have extended the PDB2PQR web server to provide an interface for the setup, execution, and visualization electrostatics potentials as calculated by APBS. This web interface also uses the Opal framework which ensures the scalability needed to support the large APBS user community. Both of these resources are available from the APBS/PDB2PQR website: http://www.poissonboltzmann.org/. PMID:21425296

  19. PyPDB: a Python API for the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, William

    2016-01-01

    We have created a Python programming interface for the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) that allows search and data retrieval for a wide range of result types, including BLAST and sequence motif queries. The API relies on the existing XML-based API and operates by creating custom XML requests from native Python types, allowing extensibility and straightforward modification. The package has the ability to perform many types of advanced search of the PDB that are otherwise only available through the PDB website. PyPDB is implemented exclusively in Python 3 using standard libraries for maximal compatibility. The most up-to-date version, including iPython notebooks containing usage tutorials, is available free-of-charge under an open-source MIT license via GitHub at https://github.com/williamgilpin/pypdb, and the full API reference is at http://williamgilpin.github.io/pypdb_docs/html/. The latest stable release is also available on PyPI. wgilpin@stanford.edu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. US Ports of Entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  1. LIBP-Pred: web server for lipid binding proteins using structural network parameters; PDB mining of human cancer biomarkers and drug targets in parasites and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Munteanu, Cristian R; Postelnicu, Lucian; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Gestal, Marcos; Pazos, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    Lipid-Binding Proteins (LIBPs) or Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins (FABPs) play an important role in many diseases such as different types of cancer, kidney injury, atherosclerosis, diabetes, intestinal ischemia and parasitic infections. Thus, the computational methods that can predict LIBPs based on 3D structure parameters became a goal of major importance for drug-target discovery, vaccine design and biomarker selection. In addition, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) contains 3000+ protein 3D structures with unknown function. This list, as well as new experimental outcomes in proteomics research, is a very interesting source to discover relevant proteins, including LIBPs. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no general models to predict new LIBPs based on 3D structures. We developed new Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models based on 3D electrostatic parameters of 1801 different proteins, including 801 LIBPs. We calculated these electrostatic parameters with the MARCH-INSIDE software and they correspond to the entire protein or to specific protein regions named core, inner, middle, and surface. We used these parameters as inputs to develop a simple Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier to discriminate 3D structure of LIBPs from other proteins. We implemented this predictor in the web server named LIBP-Pred, freely available at , along with other important web servers of the Bio-AIMS portal. The users can carry out an automatic retrieval of protein structures from PDB or upload their custom protein structural models from their disk created with LOMETS server. We demonstrated the PDB mining option performing a predictive study of 2000+ proteins with unknown function. Interesting results regarding the discovery of new Cancer Biomarkers in humans or drug targets in parasites have been discussed here in this sense.

  2. A tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins from PDB structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the research on protein functional sites, researchers often need to identify binding-site residues on a protein. A commonly used strategy is to find a complex structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB that consists of the protein of interest and its interacting partner(s and calculate binding-site residues based on the complex structure. However, since a protein may participate in multiple interactions, the binding-site residues calculated based on one complex structure usually do not reveal all binding sites on a protein. Thus, this requires researchers to find all PDB complexes that contain the protein of interest and combine the binding-site information gleaned from them. This process is very time-consuming. Especially, combing binding-site information obtained from different PDB structures requires tedious work to align protein sequences. The process becomes overwhelmingly difficult when researchers have a large set of proteins to analyze, which is usually the case in practice. Results In this study, we have developed a tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins, TCBRP http://yanbioinformatics.cs.usu.edu:8080/ppbindingsubmit. For an input protein, TCBRP can quickly find all binding-site residues on the protein by automatically combining the information obtained from all PDB structures that consist of the protein of interest. Additionally, TCBRP presents the binding-site residues in different categories according to the interaction type. TCBRP also allows researchers to set the definition of binding-site residues. Conclusion The developed tool is very useful for the research on protein binding site analysis and prediction.

  3. PDB Editor: a user-friendly Java-based Protein Data Bank file editor with a GUI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonas; Kim, Sung Hou

    2009-04-01

    The Protein Data Bank file format is the format most widely used by protein crystallographers and biologists to disseminate and manipulate protein structures. Despite this, there are few user-friendly software packages available to efficiently edit and extract raw information from PDB files. This limitation often leads to many protein crystallographers wasting significant time manually editing PDB files. PDB Editor, written in Java Swing GUI, allows the user to selectively search, select, extract and edit information in parallel. Furthermore, the program is a stand-alone application written in Java which frees users from the hassles associated with platform/operating system-dependent installation and usage. PDB Editor can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pdbeditorjl/.

  4. RCSB PDB Mobile: iOS and Android mobile apps to provide data access and visualization to the RCSB Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory B; Bi, Chunxiao; Christie, Cole H; Pang, Kyle; Prlić, Andreas; Nakane, Takanori; Zardecki, Christine; Voigt, Maria; Berman, Helen M; Bourne, Philip E; Rose, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB) resource provides tools for query, analysis and visualization of the 3D structures in the PDB archive. As the mobile Web is starting to surpass desktop and laptop usage, scientists and educators are beginning to integrate mobile devices into their research and teaching. In response, we have developed the RCSB PDB Mobile app for the iOS and Android mobile platforms to enable fast and convenient access to RCSB PDB data and services. Using the app, users from the general public to expert researchers can quickly search and visualize biomolecules, and add personal annotations via the RCSB PDB's integrated MyPDB service. RCSB PDB Mobile is freely available from the Apple App Store and Google Play (http://www.rcsb.org). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Jesus' Entry into Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Sankamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to contribute to the understanding of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem. The author studies the entry, which is found in all the Gospels, in its Jewish context. The author argues that Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem on an ass is to be understood as a prophetic sign which was primarily meant to convey a message to the Jews.

  6. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Joosten, Robbie P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn{sup 2+}-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn{sup 2+}, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate.

  7. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C.; Joosten, Robbie P.; Hunter, William N.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn 2+ -containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn 2+ , where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate

  8. Pharmacophore searching: A potential solution for correcting unknown ligands (UNK) labelling errors in Protein Data Bank (PDB'S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Musadiq; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the single most important repository of structural data for proteins and other biologically relevant molecules. Therefore, it is critically important to keep the PDB data, error-free as much as possible. In this study, we have critically examined PDB structures of 292 protein molecules which have been deposited in the repository along with potentially incorrect ligands labelled as Unknown ligands (UNK). Pharmacophores were generated for all the protein structures by using Discovery Studio Visualizer (DSV) and Accelrys, Catalyst ® . The generated pharmacophores were subjected to the database search containing the reported ligand. Ligands obtained through Pharmacophore searching were then checked for fitting the observed electron density map by using Coot ® . The predicted ligands obtained via Pharmacophore searching fitted well with the observed electron density map, in comparison to the ligands reported in the PDB's. Based on our study we have learned that till may 2016, among 292 submitted structures in the PDB, at least 20 structures have ligands with a clear electron density but have been incorrectly labelled as unknown ligands (UNK). We have demonstrated that Pharmacophore searching and Coot ® can provide potential help to find suitable known ligands for these protein structures, the former for ligand search and the latter for electron density analysis. The use of these two techniques can facilitate the quick and reliable labelling of ligands where the electron density map serves as a reference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Resolving the ambiguity: Making sense of intrinsic disorder when PDB structures disagree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-01

    Missing regions in X-ray crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have played a foundational role in the study of intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs), especially in the development of in silico predictors of intrinsic disorder. However, a missing region is only a weak indication of intrinsic disorder, and this uncertainty is compounded by the presence of ambiguous regions, where more than one structure of the same protein sequence "disagrees" in terms of the presence or absence of missing residues. The question is this: are these ambiguous regions intrinsically disordered, or are they the result of static disorder that arises from experimental conditions, ensembles of structures, or domain wobbling? A novel way of looking at ambiguous regions in terms of the pattern between multiple PDB structures has been demonstrated. It was found that the propensity for intrinsic disorder increases as the level of ambiguity decreases. However, it is also shown that ambiguity is more likely to occur as the protein region is placed within different environmental conditions, and even the most ambiguous regions as a set display compositional bias that suggests flexibility. The results suggested that ambiguity is a natural result for many IDPRs crystallized under different conditions and that static disorder and wobbling domains are relatively rare. Instead, it is more likely that ambiguity arises because many of these regions were conditionally or partially disordered. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  10. Restricted N-glycan conformational space in the PDB and its implication in glycan structure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sunhwan; Lee, Hui Sun; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Im, Wonpil

    2013-01-01

    Understanding glycan structure and dynamics is central to understanding protein-carbohydrate recognition and its role in protein-protein interactions. Given the difficulties in obtaining the glycan's crystal structure in glycoconjugates due to its flexibility and heterogeneity, computational modeling could play an important role in providing glycosylated protein structure models. To address if glycan structures available in the PDB can be used as templates or fragments for glycan modeling, we present a survey of the N-glycan structures of 35 different sequences in the PDB. Our statistical analysis shows that the N-glycan structures found on homologous glycoproteins are significantly conserved compared to the random background, suggesting that N-glycan chains can be confidently modeled with template glycan structures whose parent glycoproteins share sequence similarity. On the other hand, N-glycan structures found on non-homologous glycoproteins do not show significant global structural similarity. Nonetheless, the internal substructures of these N-glycans, particularly, the substructures that are closer to the protein, show significantly similar structures, suggesting that such substructures can be used as fragments in glycan modeling. Increased interactions with protein might be responsible for the restricted conformational space of N-glycan chains. Our results suggest that structure prediction/modeling of N-glycans of glycoconjugates using structure database could be effective and different modeling approaches would be needed depending on the availability of template structures.

  11. Restricted N-glycan conformational space in the PDB and its implication in glycan structure modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhwan Jo

    Full Text Available Understanding glycan structure and dynamics is central to understanding protein-carbohydrate recognition and its role in protein-protein interactions. Given the difficulties in obtaining the glycan's crystal structure in glycoconjugates due to its flexibility and heterogeneity, computational modeling could play an important role in providing glycosylated protein structure models. To address if glycan structures available in the PDB can be used as templates or fragments for glycan modeling, we present a survey of the N-glycan structures of 35 different sequences in the PDB. Our statistical analysis shows that the N-glycan structures found on homologous glycoproteins are significantly conserved compared to the random background, suggesting that N-glycan chains can be confidently modeled with template glycan structures whose parent glycoproteins share sequence similarity. On the other hand, N-glycan structures found on non-homologous glycoproteins do not show significant global structural similarity. Nonetheless, the internal substructures of these N-glycans, particularly, the substructures that are closer to the protein, show significantly similar structures, suggesting that such substructures can be used as fragments in glycan modeling. Increased interactions with protein might be responsible for the restricted conformational space of N-glycan chains. Our results suggest that structure prediction/modeling of N-glycans of glycoconjugates using structure database could be effective and different modeling approaches would be needed depending on the availability of template structures.

  12. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  13. Vivaldi: Visualization and validation of biomacromolecular NMR structures from the PDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Pieter M S; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2013-01-01

    We describe Vivaldi (VIsualization and VALidation DIsplay; http://pdbe.org/vivaldi), a web-based service for the analysis, visualization, and validation of NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Vivaldi provides access to model coordinates and several types of experimental NMR data using interactive visualization tools, augmented with structural annotations and model-validation information. The service presents information about the modeled NMR ensemble, validation of experimental chemical shifts, residual dipolar couplings, distance and dihedral angle constraints, as well as validation scores based on empirical knowledge and databases. Vivaldi was designed for both expert NMR spectroscopists and casual non-expert users who wish to obtain a better grasp of the information content and quality of NMR structures in the public archive. © Proteins 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23180575

  14. Nearest-cell: a fast and easy tool for locating crystal matches in the PDB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramraj, V.; Evans, G.; Diprose, J. M.; Esnouf, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    A fast and easy tool to locate unit-cell matches in the PDB is described. When embarking upon X-ray diffraction data collection from a potentially novel macromolecular crystal form, it can be useful to ascertain whether the measured data reflect a crystal form that is already recorded in the Protein Data Bank and, if so, whether it is part of a large family of related structures. Providing such information to crystallographers conveniently and quickly, as soon as the first images have been recorded and the unit cell characterized at an X-ray beamline, has the potential to save time and effort as well as pointing to possible search models for molecular replacement. Given an input unit cell, and optionally a space group, Nearest-cell rapidly scans the Protein Data Bank and retrieves near-matches

  15. Outcome of the First wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, Andrej; Berman, Helen M.; Schwede, Torsten; Trewhella, Jill; Kleywegt, Gerard; Burley, Stephen K.; Markley, John; Nakamura, Haruki; Adams, Paul; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Chiu, Wah; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Di Maio, Frank; Ferrin, Thomas E.; Grünewald, Kay; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Henderson, Richard; Hummer, Gerhard; Iwasaki, Kenji; Johnson, Graham; Lawson, Catherine L.; Meiler, Jens; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Nilges, Michael; Nussinov, Ruth; Patwardhan, Ardan; Rappsilber, Juri; Read, Randy J.; Saibil, Helen; Schröder, Gunnar F.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Seidel, Claus A. M.; Svergun, Dmitri; Topf, Maya; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Velankar, Sameer; Westbrook, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Structures of biomolecular systems are increasingly computed by integrative modeling that relies on varied types of experimental data and theoretical information. We describe here the proceedings and conclusions from the first wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop held at the European Bioinformatics Institute in Hinxton, UK, October 6 and 7, 2014. At the workshop, experts in various experimental fields of structural biology, experts in integrative modeling and visualization, and experts in data archiving addressed a series of questions central to the future of structural biology. How should integrative models be represented? How should the data and integrative models be validated? What data should be archived? How should the data and models be archived? What information should accompany the publication of integrative models? PMID:26095030

  16. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  17. FeatureMap3D - a tool to map protein features and sequence conservation onto homologous structures in the PDB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Rapacki, Krzysztof; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FeatureMap3D is a web-based tool that maps protein features onto 3D structures. The user provides sequences annotated with any feature of interest, such as post-translational modifications, protease cleavage sites or exonic structure and FeatureMap3D will then search the Protein Data Bank (PDB) f...

  18. The adsorption of Tl(I), Au(III), Cu(II) and the separation of 199Tl from alpha bombardment of gold target with PDB-18C6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dehai; Zhou Jimeng

    1989-01-01

    The adsorptive behavior of polymer of methyl aldehyde of dibenzo-18-crown-6 (PDB-18C6) in hydrochloric acid medium is studied and it is shown that the adsorption of T1(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) depends on the particle size of the crown ether resins, hydrochloric acid concentration and amount of the crown ether resins used. The difference in the adsorption behavior of different particle sizes of crown ether resins may be used for separating Tl(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) ions. The best eluant of Tl(I) and Au(III) is 0.4 mol/l perchloric acid and 2-ethoxy-ethanol. The recovery for Tl(I) is 82-98.8%. The gold target is bombarded in a 1.2 m cyclotron with 25-27 MeV α-particle with a cumulative beam intensities of 27μA·h, and 199 Tl is separated from the gold target with PDB-18C6. γ-spectrometry has shown that the Tl obtained is 199 Tl of high purity containing only about 0.50% 200 Tl

  19. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, ped...

  20. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  1. Low temperature activation of methane over a zinc-exchanged heteropolyacid as an entry to its selective oxidation to methanol and acetic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Umesh; Saih, Youssef; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Pelletier, Jeremie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    A Zn-exchanged heteropolyacid supported onto silica (Zn-HPW/SiO2) activates methane at 25 °C into Zn-methyl. At higher temperatures and with CH4/O2 or CH4/CO2, it gives methanol and acetic acid respectively. This journal is

  2. Entry and Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    1. Introduction R Analyses of industrial competition have attained a new vigor with the application of game -theoretic methods. The process of... competition is represented in models that reflect genuine struggles for entry, market power, and continuing survival. Dynamics and informational effects are...presents a few of the models developed recently to study competitive processes that affect a firm’s entry into a market , and the decision to exit. The

  3. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  4. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2009-01-01

    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  5. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Sagaram

    Full Text Available MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where it accumulates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, analysis of the structure of MtDef4 reveals the presence of a positively charged γ-core motif composed of β2 and β3 strands connected by a positively charged RGFRRR loop. Replacement of the RGFRRR sequence with AAAARR or RGFRAA abolishes the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells, suggesting that the RGFRRR loop is a translocation signal required for the internalization of the protein. MtDef4 binds to phosphatidic acid (PA, a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Amino acid substitutions in the RGFRRR sequence which abolish the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells also impair its ability to bind PA. These findings suggest that MtDef4 is a novel antifungal plant defensin capable of entering into fungal cells and affecting intracellular targets and that these processes are mediated by the highly conserved cationic RGFRRR loop via its interaction with PA.

  6. New entry for synthesis of N-acylhydrazones, pyridazinones, and 1,3,4-oxadiazin-6-ones from alpha-amino acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Eiko; Wada, Masao; Takamura, Norio

    2007-11-01

    Versatile electrophiles N-acylhydrazones are synthesized via diazotization, reduction, and acylation of alpha-amino acid esters. Reduction of diazo esters with L-selectride or tributylphosphine affords the corresponding hydrazones in good yields. Both reducing agents give anti-hydrazones as the major product although the reactivity of each reductant is slightly different. The resulting hydrazones are acylated to give N-acylhydrazones, which are subjected to further reactions to give 1,3,4-oxadiazin-6-ones that serve as useful synthetic intermediates for the Diels-Alder reaction.

  7. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  8. Lobbying on entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise

  9. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    To better understand the technology requirements for Uranus atmospheric entry probe, Entry Vehicle Technology project funded an internal study with a multidisciplinary team from NASA Ames, Langley and JPL. The results of this study are communicated.

  10. Border Crossing/Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  11. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Marjomäki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus B species (EV-B are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1, actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC and protein kinase Cα (PKCα. Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1 and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9. These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication.

  12. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  13. Entry-Control Systems Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The function of an entry-control system in a total Physical Protection System is to allow the movement of authorized personnel and material through normal access routes, yet detect and delay unauthorized movement of personnel and material from uncontrolled areas. The ten chapters of this handbook cover: introduction, credentials, personnel identity verification systems, special nuclear materials monitors, metal detectors, explosives sensors, package search systems, criteria for selection of entry-control equipment, machine-aided manual entry-control systems, and automated entry-control systems. A system example and its cost are included as an appendix

  14. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Markley, John L.; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including 1 H, 13 C and 15 N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001–2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  15. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Peter F. Orazem

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  16. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1986-05-01

    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  17. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  18. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  19. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a....../release. Studies of E1/E2 heterodimerization showed no differences in intracellular E1/E2 interaction for chimeric constructs with or without E2 stem region mutations. Interestingly, the E2 stem region mutations allowed efficient entry, which was verified in 1a-E1/1b-E2 HCV pseudoparticle assays. A CD81 inhibition...

  20. The PDB database is a rich source of alpha-helical anti-microbial peptides to combat disease causing pathogens [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of α-helical anti-microbial peptides (AH-AMP to combat pathogens is fast gaining prominence. Based on recently published open access software for characterizing α-helical peptides (PAGAL, we elucidate a search methodology (SCALPEL that leverages the massive structural data pre-existing in the PDB database to obtain AH-AMPs belonging to the host proteome. We provide in vitro validation of SCALPEL on plant pathogens (Xylella fastidiosa, Xanthomonas arboricola and Liberibacter crescens by identifying AH-AMPs that mirror the function and properties of cecropin B, a well-studied AH-AMP. The identified peptides include a linear AH-AMP present within the existing structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC20, and an AH-AMP mimicing the properties of the two α-helices of cecropin B from chitinase (CHITI25. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these peptides are comparable to that of cecropin B, while anionic peptides used as control failed to show any inhibitory effect on these pathogens. Substitute therapies in place of conventional chemotherapies using membrane permeabilizing peptides like these might also prove effective to target cancer cells. The use of native structures from the same organism could possibly ensure that administration of such peptides will be better tolerated and not elicit an adverse immune response. We suggest a similar approach to target Ebola epitopes, enumerated using PAGAL recently, by selecting suitable peptides from the human proteome, especially in wake of recent reports of cationic amphiphiles inhibiting virus entry and infection.

  1. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  2. Amino acid differences in glycoproteins B (gB, C (gC, H (gH and L(gL are associated with enhanced herpes simplex virus type-1 (McKrae entry via the paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Sona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1 enters into cells via membrane fusion of the viral envelope with plasma or endosomal membranes mediated by viral glycoproteins. HSV-1 virions attach to cell surfaces by binding of viral glycoproteins gC, gD and gB to specific cellular receptors. Here we show that the human ocular and highly neurovirulent HSV-1 strain McKrae enters substantially more efficiently into cells via the gB-specific human paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor-α (hPILR-α. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences between HSV-1(F and McKrae strains indicates that amino acid changes within gB, gC, gH and gL may cause increased entry via the hPILR- α receptor. Results HSV-1 (McKrae entered substantially more efficiently than viral strain F in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells expressing hPIRL-α but not within CHO-human nectin-1, -(CHO-hNectin-1, CHO-human HVEM (CHO-hHVEM or Vero cells. The McKrae genes encoding viral glycoproteins gB, gC, gD, gH, gL, gK and the membrane protein UL20 were sequenced and their predicted amino acid (aa sequences were compared with virulent strains F, H129, and the attenuated laboratory strain KOS. Most aa differences between McKrae and F were located at their gB amino termini known to bind with the PILRα receptor. These aa changes included a C10R change, also seen in the neurovirulent strain ANG, as well as redistribution and increase of proline residues. Comparison of gC aa sequences revealed multiple aa changes including an L132P change within the 129-247 aa region known to bind to heparan sulfate (HS receptors. Two aa changes were located within the H1 domain of gH that binds gL. Multiple aa changes were located within the McKrae gL sequence, which were preserved in the H129 isolate, but differed for the F strain. Viral glycoproteins gD and gK and the membrane protein UL20 were conserved between McKrae and F strains. Conclusions The results indicate that the observed

  3. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  4. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more......This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  5. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  6. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  7. BioMagResBank (BMRB) as a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB): new policies affecting biomolecular NMR depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Berman, Helen M.; Henrick, Kim; Nakamura, Haruki; Akutsu, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    We describe the role of the BioMagResBank (BMRB) within the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) and recent policies affecting the deposition of biomolecular NMR data. All PDB depositions of structures based on NMR data must now be accompanied by experimental restraints. A scheme has been devised that allows depositors to specify a representative structure and to define residues within that structure found experimentally to be largely unstructured. The BMRB now accepts coordinate sets representing three-dimensional structural models based on experimental NMR data of molecules of biological interest that fall outside the guidelines of the Protein Data Bank (i.e., the molecule is a peptide with 23 or fewer residues, a polynucleotide with 3 or fewer residues, a polysaccharide with 3 or fewer sugar residues, or a natural product), provided that the coordinates are accompanied by representation of the covalent structure of the molecule (atom connectivity), assigned NMR chemical shifts, and the structural restraints used in generating model. The BMRB now contains an archive of NMR data for metabolites and other small molecules found in biological systems

  8. PLASS: Protein-ligand affinity statistical score a knowledge-based force-field model of interaction derived from the PDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozrin, V. D.; Subbotin, M. V.; Nikitin, S. M.

    2004-04-01

    We have developed PLASS (Protein-Ligand Affinity Statistical Score), a pair-wise potential of mean-force for rapid estimation of the binding affinity of a ligand molecule to a protein active site. This scoring function is derived from the frequency of occurrence of atom-type pairs in crystallographic complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Statistical distributions are converted into distance-dependent contributions to the Gibbs free interaction energy for 10 atomic types using the Boltzmann hypothesis, with only one adjustable parameter. For a representative set of 72 protein-ligand structures, PLASS scores correlate well with the experimentally measured dissociation constants: a correlation coefficient R of 0.82 and RMS error of 2.0 kcal/mol. Such high accuracy results from our novel treatment of the volume correction term, which takes into account the inhomogeneous properties of the protein-ligand complexes. PLASS is able to rank reliably the affinity of complexes which have as much diversity as in the PDB.

  9. Endocytic Pathways Involved in Filovirus Entry: Advances, Implications and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions.

  10. Automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized. 2 refs., 7 figs

  11. Entry Mode Choice in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Anne Kathrine Navestad

    2012-01-01

    As the mature markets of developed economies have become increasingly saturated, firms are turning their attention towards emerging markets for further enterprise growth. However, these countries often present significant challenges for foreign entrants, forcing firms to adapt their strategies to the new context. While MNEs? entry mode choice is an extensively studied field, there is a deficit in the entry mode research on SMEs, and even more so when it comes to entry into emerging markets in...

  12. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Peter M.; Wrzaczek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped. PMID:26435573

  13. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is a...

  14. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. The entries in this revision include the corporate entries used in report bibliographic citations since 1973 and list approximately 28,000 corporate sources

  15. Cutting through - open entries require proper support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.S. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2000-06-01

    The paper explains the applications of open entries in mining and different roof techniques to relieve longwall abutment pressures. The primary support for the open (or cut-through) entries and recovery rooms are normally similar to other development entries in the same mines. The supplementary supports installed can be divided into the following three types: complete backfill of open entries, supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement only - no standing support and rows of standing support with or without supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement. 3 figs.

  16. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  17. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  18. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doreleijers, Jurgen F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Nederveen, Aart J. [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Vranken, Wim [European Bioinformatics Institute, Macromolecular Structure Database group (United Kingdom); Lin Jundong [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Kaptein, Robert [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States)], E-mail: elu@bmrb.wisc.edu

    2005-05-15

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA.

  19. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doreleijers, Jurgen F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Vranken, Wim; Lin Jundong; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Kaptein, Robert; Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L.

    2005-01-01

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA

  20. Energy Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1982-08-01

    Corporate author entries provide a means for consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records in the data bases of the DOE Technical Information Center. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations

  1. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is associated with significant entry costs, which allow the incumbents to take advantage of their dominant position and derive positive economic profits. In case of entry threat by potential competitors the incumbents take strategic actions aimed at deterring entry and preserving their dominant position. Among the most efficient strategic actions one can emphasize the erection of additional barriers to entry for the newcomers through producing the limit output and price, investments in sunk assets, capacity expansion and product differentiation. Meanwhile by taking strategic actions the incumbents are not always trying to affect the entrant’s costs and profit directly, they often aim at changing the entrant’s expectations regarding future intentions of the incumbents to preserve dominant position.

  2. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-entry interval applies, including, but not limited to, soil, water, air, or surfaces of plants; and (2...-entry activity, the agricultural employer shall provide a decontamination site in accordance with § 170... running water for routine and emergency decontamination and mechanical devices that would reduce the...

  3. Entry and Competition in Differentiated Products Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.; Verboven, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a methodology for estimating the competition effects from entry when firms sell differentiated products. We first derive precise conditions under which Bres- nahan and Reiss'entry threshold ratios (ETRs) can be used to test for the presence and to measure the magnitude of competition

  4. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information tec...

  5. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms.......We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...

  6. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  7. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.

  8. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  9. Technical Area 55 Entry Control System (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, A.; Brundige, E.; DesJardin, R.; Rivera, R.

    1984-01-01

    The exchange badge system which was used at the Plutonium Facility located in Technical Area 55 was replaced on a trial basis with an automated Entry Control System. As a result of the success of the trial system, a new system incorporating expanded features and increased reliability is being implemented. The new Entry Control System incorporates several features not previously available in relatively inexpensive entry systems. The reliability of the system is enhanced by redundant microprocessors incorporating bubble memory for nonvolatile storage of the system data base. The badge readers incorporate dual communication lines to two different controllers to further increase the total system reliability

  10. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  11. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making.......This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  13. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  14. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... are analysed. The effective management of firms’ resources and capabilities is influenced by the perception of these internal factors when expanding into foreign markets. Our results confirmed that family firms build up longer lasting relationships in the host country by choosing high commitment entry modes...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  15. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  16. Tactile Data Entry System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  17. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  18. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  19. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  20. Models of radon entry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper reviews existing models of radon entry into houses. The primary mechanism of radon entry in houses with high indoor concentrations is, in most cases, convective entry of radon bearing soil-gas from the surrounding soil. The driving force for this convective entry is the small indoor-outdoor pressure difference arising from the stack effect and other causes. Entry points for the soil-gas generally are the cracks or gaps in the building substructure, or though other parts of the building shell in direct contact with the soil, although entry may also occur by flow though permeable concrete or cinder block walls of the substructure. Models using analytical solutions to idealized geometrical configurations with simplified boundary conditions obtain analytical tractability of equations to be solved at the cost of severe approximations; their strength is in the insights they offer with their solutions. Models based on lumped parameters attempt to characterize the significant physical behavioral characteristics of the soil-gas and radon flow. When realistic approximations are desired for the boundary conditions and terms in the governing equations, numerical models must be used; these are usually based on finite difference or finite element solutions to the governing equations. Limited data are now available for experimental verification of model predictions. The models are briefly reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed

  1. Medical student satisfaction, coping and burnout in direct-entry versus graduate-entry programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Dawn; Canny, Benedict J; Nitzberg, Michael; Choudri, Jennifer; Porter, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal length of medical training, with concern about the cost of prolonged training. Two simultaneous tracks currently exist in Australia: direct entry from high school and graduate entry for students with a bachelor degree. Medical schools are switching to graduate entry based on maturity, academic preparedness and career-choice surety. We tested the assumption that graduate entry is better by exploring student preferences, coping, burnout, empathy and alcohol use. From a potential pool of 2188 participants, enrolled at five Australian medical schools, a convenience sample of 688 (31%) first and second year students completed a survey in the middle of the academic year. Participants answered questions about demographics, satisfaction and coping and completed three validated instruments. Over 90% of students preferred their own entry-type, though more graduate-entry students were satisfied with their programme (82.4% versus 65.3%, p students in self-reported coping or in the proportion of students meeting criteria for burnout (50.7% versus 51.2%). Direct-entry students rated significantly higher for empathy (concern, p = 0.022; personal distress, p = 0.031). Graduate-entry students reported significantly more alcohol use and hazardous drinking (30.0% versus 22.8%; p = 0.017). Our multi-institution data confirm that students are generally satisfied with their choice of entry pathway and do not confirm significant psychosocial benefits of graduate entry. Overall, our data suggest that direct-entry students cope with the workload and psychosocial challenges of medical school, in the first 2 years, as well as graduate-entry students. Burnout and alcohol use should be addressed in both pathways. Despite studies showing similar academic outcomes, and higher total costs, more programmes in Australia are becoming graduate entry. Further research on non-cognitive issues and outcomes is needed so that universities, government

  2. 19 CFR 151.41 - Information on entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.41 Section 151... Products § 151.41 Information on entry summary. On the entry summary for petroleum or petroleum products in.... If the exact volumetric quantity cannot be determined in advance, the entry summary may be made for...

  3. A Polymorphism within the Internal Fusion Loop of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Modulates Host Cell Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus; Crone, Lisa; Dietzel, Erik; Paijo, Jennifer; González-Hernández, Mariana; Nehlmeier, Inga; Kalinke, Ulrich; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The large scale of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 raised the question whether the host cell interactions of the responsible Ebola virus (EBOV) strain differed from those of other ebolaviruses. We previously reported that the glycoprotein (GP) of the virus circulating in West Africa in 2014 (EBOV2014) exhibited reduced ability to mediate entry into two nonhuman primate (NHP)-derived cell lines relative to the GP of EBOV1976. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants underlying the differential entry efficiency. We found that EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into diverse NHP-derived cell lines, as well as human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, was reduced compared to EBOV1976-GP, although entry into most human- and all bat-derived cell lines tested was comparable. Moreover, EBOV2014 replication in NHP but not human cells was diminished relative to EBOV1976, suggesting that reduced cell entry translated into reduced viral spread. Mutagenic analysis of EBOV2014-GP and EBOV1976-GP revealed that an amino acid polymorphism in the receptor-binding domain, A82V, modulated entry efficiency in a cell line-independent manner and did not account for the reduced EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into NHP cells. In contrast, polymorphism T544I, located in the internal fusion loop in the GP2 subunit, was found to be responsible for the entry phenotype. These results suggest that position 544 is an important determinant of EBOV infectivity for both NHP and certain human target cells. IMPORTANCE The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2013 entailed more than 10,000 deaths. The scale of the outbreak and its dramatic impact on human health raised the question whether the responsible virus was particularly adept at infecting human cells. Our study shows that an amino acid exchange, A82V, that was acquired during the epidemic and that was not observed in previously circulating viruses, increases viral entry into diverse target cells

  4. Entry control system for large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System

  5. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  6. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  7. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2012-01-01

    (first-mover or follower). Invention is understood as the conversion of human creativity, time and financial resources into new ideas. Innovation in turn reflects the practical and financial return on such investments. While there is little disagreement about what an innovator strategy is, imitative......This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...

  8. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  9. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  10. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  11. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  12. Correlation Between Entry Requirements and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the investigator examines the correlation between entry requirements and academic performance of undergraduate students at the University of Buea. The quality of performance on the Cameroon General Certificate Examination at the Advanced Level is the predictor while the criterion is the cumulative grade ...

  13. Women's Entry into Teaching: Myths and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the entry of women into the teaching profession in nineteenth-century America, noting that, while the primary motivation for encouraging women to teach was that they could be paid less than men, this economic justification was obscured by sentimental pronouncements about women's superior moral and nurturant power. (SJL)

  14. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  15. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  16. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    The DOE Energy Information Data Base has been created and is maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center. One of the controls for information entered into the base is the standardized name of the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of this list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. It also serves as a guide for users who retrieve information from a bibliographic data base and who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. This authority is a combination of entries established by the Technical Information Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The format calls, in general, for the name of the organization represented by the literature being cataloged to be cited as follows: the largest element, the place, the smallest element, e.g., Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah (USA), Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Code numbers are assigned to each entry to provide manipulation by computer. Cross references are used to reflect name changes and invalid entries

  17. Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    state which mainly determines its polarizability . ∆r2 = r2u− r2l is the difference between Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry RTO-EN-AVT...NO A← X (0,0) band in the presence of argon and nitrogen. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 47:375–390, 1992. Radiation

  18. 76 FR 15841 - Entry of Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 141 Entry of Merchandise CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 141 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 6, the second general authority citation for part...

  19. Anthropologists and Broadcasting: Roles and Entry Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    The article describes some of the roles open to anthropologists in radio and television. Entry strategies for occupying these roles include taking the first step in approaching the broadcast station, learning about broadcasting, and communicating anthropology to the broadcasters. (Author/NQ)

  20. Quantitative membrane proteomics reveals a role for tetraspanin enriched microdomains during entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV depends on and modulates multiple host cell membrane proteins during each stage of the viral life cycle. To gain a global view of the impact of HCMV-infection on membrane proteins, we analyzed HCMV-induced changes in the abundance of membrane proteins in fibroblasts using stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC, membrane fractionation and protein identification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This systematic approach revealed that CD81, CD44, CD98, caveolin-1 and catenin delta-1 were down-regulated during infection whereas GRP-78 was up-regulated. Since CD81 downregulation was also observed during infection with UV-inactivated virus we hypothesized that this tetraspanin is part of the viral entry process. Interestingly, additional members of the tetraspanin family, CD9 and CD151, were also downregulated during HCMV-entry. Since tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEM cluster host cell membrane proteins including known CMV receptors such as integrins, we studied whether TEMs are required for viral entry. When TEMs were disrupted with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cylcodextrin, viral entry was inhibited and this inhibition correlated with reduced surface levels of CD81, CD9 and CD151, whereas integrin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of multiple tetraspanins inhibited viral entry whereas individual knockdown had little effect suggesting essential, but redundant roles for individual tetraspanins during entry. Taken together, our data suggest that TEM act as platforms for receptors utilized by HCMV for entry into cells.

  1. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  2. An Analysis of the Feasible Entry Mode for Tottenham Hotspur’s Entry into China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of European football clubs has developed global strategies with an emphasis on the Chinese market, which seems to be a shortcut to their global success. In order to achieve an effective expansion, the selection of appropriate entry modes should be conducted cautiously. This paper aims to select feasible entry modes for Tottenham Hotspur F.C., an emerging power in the Premier League, to enter into the Chinese market. A framework that combines different theories based ...

  3. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market

    OpenAIRE

    Karataev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  4. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  5. In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

  6. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND... present a certificate to the appropriate customs official at the date of entry of specialty sugars. Entry...

  7. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1 . (Author)

  8. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  9. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Rea, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    For Exploration Missions 1 and 2, the Orion capsules will be entering the Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 km/s. In the event of a degraded Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, attempting the nominal guided entry may be inadvisable due to the potential for failures that result in a loss of vehicle (or crew, when crew are aboard). In such a case, a method of assuring Earth capture, water landing, and observence of trajectory constraints (heating, loads) is desired. Such a method should also be robust to large state uncertainty and variations in entry interface states. This document will explore four approaches evaluated and their performance in ensuring a safe return of the Orion capsule in the event of onboard system degradation.

  10. Available hardware for automated entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Ongoing work at Sandia National Laboratories is attempting to establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a performance test of the following biometric verifiers: (1) voice verifier by Alpha Microsystems of Santa Ana, California; (2) signature dynamics verifier by Autosig Systems of Irving, Texas; (3) voice verifier by Ecco Industries of Danvers, Massachusetts (now International Electronics); (4) retinal pattern verifier by EyeDentify of Portland, Oregon; (5) fingerprint verifier by Identix of Sunnyvale, California; and (6) hand geometry verifier by Recognition Systems of San Jose, California

  11. Cell entry of hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosch, Birke; Cosset, Francois-Loic

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important human pathogen, is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Cell attachment of flaviviruses generally leads to endocytosis of bound virions. Systems that support HCV replication and particle formation in vitro are emerging only now, 16 years after the discovery of the virus. Albeit this limitation, the route of HCV cell entry as well as 'capture' molecules involved in low-affinity interactions for the initial contact of HCV with target cells and potential high-affinity receptor candidates that may mediate HCV trafficking and fusion has been described. The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of different HCV model systems to our current knowledge about structure of the HCV GPs E1 and E2 and their roles in cell entry comprising cell attachment, interactions with cellular receptors, endocytosis, and fusion

  12. Guessing lexicon entries using finite-state methods

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenniemi, Kimmo Matti

    2018-01-01

    A practical method for interactive guessing of LEXC lexicon entries is presented. The method is based on describing groups of similarly inflected words using regular expressions. The patterns are compiled into a finite-state transducer (FST) which maps any word form into the possible LEXC lexicon entries which could generate it. The same FST can be used (1) for converting conventional headword lists into LEXC entries, (2) for interactive guessing of entries, (3) for corpus-assisted interactiv...

  13. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2014-04-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  14. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  15. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  16. Incumbent innovation and entry by spinoff

    OpenAIRE

    Falck, Oliver; Heblich, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a different perspective toward the escape entry incentive of incumbent firms to innovate. New entrants spawned from incumbents are not necessarily a threat; they can complement incumbents' production by commercializing knowledge incumbents are not willing or able to exploit. Accordingly, incumbent innovation determines exploitable knowledge externalities for spinoffs while, at the same time, spinoffs are expected to influence incumbent innovation. To overcome this problem of ...

  17. Advertising, Competition and Entry in Media Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Crampes, Claude; Haritchabalet, Carole; Jullien, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of media competition with free entry when media operators are financed both from advertisers and customers. The relation between advertising receipts and sales receipts, which are both complementary and antagonist, is different if media operators impose a price or a quantity to advertisers. When consumers dislike advertising, media operators are better off setting an advertising price than an advertising quantity. We establish a relationship between the equilibrium...

  18. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  19. Filovirus tropism: Cellular molecules for viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayato eTakada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In human and nonhuman primates, filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever.Recently, other animals such as pigs and some species of fruit bats have also been shown to be susceptible to these viruses. While having a preference for some cell types such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, filoviruses are known to be pantropic in infection of primates. The envelope glycoprotein (GP is responsible for both receptor binding and fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. It has been demonstrated that filovirus GP interacts with multiple molecules for entry into host cells, whereas none of the cellular molecules so far identified as a receptor/coreceptor fully explains filovirus tissue tropism and host range. Available data suggest that the mucin-like region (MLR on GP plays an important role in attachment to the preferred target cells, whose infection is likely involved in filovirus pathogenesis, whereas the MLR is not essential for the fundamental function of the GP in viral entry into cells in vitro. Further studies elucidating the mechanisms of cellular entry of filoviruses may shed light on the development of strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

  20. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  1. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be...

  2. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  3. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.63 Section 151.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean...

  4. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 deg Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Dinesh K.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Spilker, Thomas R.; Hwang, Helen H.; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and capsule diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30 is explored with a 3DOF trajectory code, TRAJ. Assuming that the thermal protection material of choice is carbon phenolic of flight heritage, the entry flight path angle space is constrained a posteriori by the mechanical and thermal performance parameters of the material. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load and 10 bar is assumed as the limit for heritage carbon-phenolic material. It is shown that both constraints cannot be active simultaneously. For thermal performance, a heat flux 2.5 kW/sq cm is utilized as a threshold below which the heritage carbon phenolic is considered mass inefficient. Using these constraints, viable entry flight path angle corridors are determined. Analysis of the results also hints at the existence of a range of "critical" ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of 10 bar. The results are verified against known performance of the various probes used in the Pioneer Venus mission. It is anticipated that the results presented here will serve as a baseline in the development of a new class of ablative materials for future Venus missions.

  5. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  7. The entry of chlorate into the food chain should be reduced

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR)

    2018-01-01

    Chlorates are salts of chloric acid HClO3. Sodium and potassium chlorate used to be employed as herbicides but the use of plant protection and biocidal products containing chlorate is no longer permitted in the EU. Chlorate can occur, however, as a by-product when using chlorinated substances for cleaning or disinfection. According to the latest available findings, the likely entry path is the contact of foods with water that was previously treated with chlorinated biocidal pro...

  8. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode fo...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  9. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kaoru Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S. There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.

  10. Analysis and Optimization of Entry Stability in Underground Longwall Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable utilization of limited coal resources, it is important to increase the coal recovery rate and reduce mine accidents, especially those occurring in the entry (gateroad. Entry stabilities are vital for ventilation, transportation and other essential services in underground coal mining. In the present study, a finite difference model was built to investigate stress evolutions around the entry, and true triaxial tests were carried out at the laboratory to explore entry wall stabilities under different mining conditions. The modeling and experimental results indicated that a wide coal pillar was favorable for entry stabilities, but oversize pillars caused a serious waste of coal resources. As the width of the entry wall decreased, the integrated vertical stress, induced by two adjacent mining panels, coupled with each other and experienced an increase on the entry wall, which inevitably weakened the stability of the entry. Therefore, mining with coal pillars always involves a tradeoff between economy and safety. To address this problem, an innovative non-pillar mining technique by optimizing the entry surrounding structures was proposed. Numerical simulation showed that the deformation of the entry roof decreased by approximately 66% after adopting the new approach, compared with that using the conventional mining method. Field monitoring indicated that the stress condition of the entry was significantly improved and the average roof pressure decreased by appropriately 60.33% after adopting the new technique. This work provides an economical and effective approach to achieve sustainable exploitation of underground coal resources.

  11. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. UPSON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  12. Hepatitis C virus utilizes VLDLR as a novel entry pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Hishiki, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Takaku, Hiroshi; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2016-01-05

    Various host factors are involved in the cellular entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition to the factors previously reported, we discovered that the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) mediates HCV entry independent of CD81. Culturing Huh7.5 cells under hypoxic conditions significantly increased HCV entry as a result of the expression of VLDLR, which was not expressed under normoxic conditions in this cell line. Ectopic VLDLR expression conferred susceptibility to HCV entry of CD81-deficient Huh7.5 cells. Additionally, VLDLR-mediated HCV entry was not affected by the knockdown of cellular factors known to act as HCV receptors or HCV entry factors. Because VLDLR is expressed in primary human hepatocytes, our results suggest that VLDLR functions in vivo as an HCV receptor independent of canonical CD81-mediated HCV entry.

  13. Aerothermodynamics of blunt body entry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  14. The Timing of Entry into New Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Debra J. Aron

    1991-01-01

    Under what circumstances will a successful incumbent in a related market be the first to enter a new market? We present a model in which the order of entry into new markets has long run effects on the firms' profits. We assume that a firm that is successfully producing in a related market has valuable information about the demand in the new market. By his choice of location in product space in the new market the incumbent reveals information about the demand to the potential entrant. Thus, th...

  15. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    with a positive influence, namely having an entrepreneurial role model and having attended seminars about starting a business. In our model, these factors support waiting longer before starting a business. In light of these results, we call for a more experimental approach in entrepreneurship education.......This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  16. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  17. Energy Data Base corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is one of three agencies funding the major portion of government-supported research. One of the ways to locate the results of this research is to find reports in the Energy Data Base (EDB), the comprehensive data base of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Technical Information Center, and in publications derived therefrom by referring to the corporate organization performing the research. This information field has been established as an index point retrievable in on-line searching and is included as an index in printed publications. To provide consistent citing of names in bibliographic entries, this authority has been created and maintained as a means of entry of corporate names into the EDB. To locate such information, one can (1) use the seven-digit code number assigned to the corporate entity of interest (enter, for example, IC=9506086) or (2) use one word at a time from the corporate name given (enter, for example, CS=Dominion)

  18. 75 FR 82241 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... manner by which the declared transaction value on imported merchandise was determined. This requirement... whether the transaction value of imported merchandise is determined on the basis of the price paid by the...

  19. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S; Richardson, Christopher D

    2014-04-01

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytic Development of a Reference Profile for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This note shows that a feasible reference drag profile for the first entry portion of a skip entry can be generated as a polynomial expression of the velocity. The coefficients of that polynomial are found through the resolution of a system composed of m + 1 equations, where m is the degree of the drag polynomial. It has been shown that a minimum of five equations (m = 4) are required to establish the range and the initial and final conditions on velocity and flight path angle. It has been shown that at least one constraint on the trajectory can be imposed through the addition of one extra equation in the system, which must be accompanied by the increase in the degree of the drag polynomial. In order to simplify the resolution of the system of equations, the drag was considered as being a probability density function of the velocity, with the velocity as a distribution function of the drag. Combining this notion with the introduction of empirically derived constants, it has been shown that the system of equations required to generate the drag profile can be successfully reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. For completeness, the resulting drag profiles have been flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as a guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. Satisfactory results were achieved when the gains in the error dynamics were changed at a certain point along the trajectory that is dependent on the velocity and the curvature of the drag as a function of the velocity. Future work should study the capacity to update the drag profile in flight when dispersions are introduced. Also, future studies should attempt to link the first entry, as presented and controlled in this note, with a more standard control concept for the second entry, such as the Apollo entry guidance, to try to assess the overall skip entry performance. A guidance law that includes

  1. SAAS: Short Amino Acid Sequence - A Promising Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Method of Single Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In statistical methods of predicting protein secondary structure, many researchers focus on single amino acid frequencies in α-helices, β-sheets, and so on, or the impact near amino acids on an amino acid forming a secondary structure. But the paper considers a short sequence of amino acids (3, 4, 5 or 6 amino acids as integer, and statistics short sequence's probability forming secondary structure. Also, many researchers select low homologous sequences as statistical database. But this paper select whole PDB database. In this paper we propose a strategy to predict protein secondary structure using simple statistical method. Numerical computation shows that, short amino acids sequence as integer to statistics, which can easy see trend of short sequence forming secondary structure, and it will work well to select large statistical database (whole PDB database without considering homologous, and Q3 accuracy is ca. 74% using this paper proposed simple statistical method, but accuracy of others statistical methods is less than 70%.

  2. An automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized

  3. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  4. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  5. The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: Entry Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Chinese firms and other emerging markets firms aim to select a favourable entry mode to start or expand their international business, thus this is significant issue for research. This study demonstrates that the Chinese firms’ choice of entry mode is determined by internal-factors, external-factors and transaction cost factors. This is illustrated through the investigation of a case study of the Haier Group’s choice of entry mode and internationalization. Therefore, four processes of choice o...

  6. Entry Restrictions, Corruption and Extortion in the Context of Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Cabelkova

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that even temporary barriers to entry present at the very beginning of transition may lead to permanent extortion development. Entry restrictions, if binding, lead to excess profits, which create an incentive to extort. The emergence of extortionists reduces the expected profit from production, making producers expect extortion in the future. If, after this adaptation of expectations, the government removes the barriers to entry, only a few new firms will enter the market. H...

  7. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency under Co-opetition

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the social desirability of free entry in the co-opetition model in which firms compete in a homogeneous product market while sharing common property resources that affect market size or consumers' willingness to pay for products. We show that free entry leads to socially excessive or insufficient entry into the market in the case of non-commitment co-opetition, depending on the magnitude of "business stealing" and "common property" effects of entry. On the other hand, in the ca...

  8. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups...... depending on the control that the company has over its activities abroad. The paper examines selected factors that influence the ‘entry modes’ of Danish SMEs in different strategic settings. Results show that the most deciding factor for the choice of high control entry mode (subsidiary) was the factor...

  9. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  10. Regulated portals of entry into the cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2003-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  11. Access, entry and researcher-participant position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on methodological experiences obtained in an anthropologically inspired qualitative study among students of carpentry in Denmark. On the one hand the article deals with methodological issues of doing anthropological research among students of carpentry, while on the other...... it deals with the research findings that such a research design produced. As well as the methodological issues of researcher access, entry and participant position in the field, this article reports on the following questions: What kinds of implicit expectations of the students are embedded in the way...... the school introduces and initiates the programme? What kinds of effects does this have on the motivation of the students? How do the terms and professional language of the profession work on the individual students in including and excluding ways? These specific descriptions of classroom pedagogy, inspired...

  12. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...... membrane, and soil gas enters the cylinder through a changeable interface in the bottom. The depressurisation of the cylinder is controlled by a mass-flow controller, thereby limiting the influence of natural driving forces. Pressures, temperatures and radon concentrations are measured continuously...... in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect...

  13. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  14. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla

    2016-12-19

    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGED ENTRY AGREEMENTS IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Maxine F; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Merlin, Tracy; Roughead, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Australia relies on managed entry agreements (MEAs) for many medicines added to the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Previous studies of Australian MEAs examined public domain documents and were not able to provide a comprehensive assessment of the types and operation of MEAs. This study used government documents approved for release to examine the implementation and administration of MEAs implemented January 2012 to May 2016. We accessed documents for medicines with MEAs on the PBS between January 2012 and May 2016. Data were extracted on Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC), type of MEA (financial, financial with outcomes, outcomes, and subcategories within each group), implementation and administration methods, source of MEA recommendation, and type of economic analysis. Of all medication indication pairs (MIPs) recommended for listing, one-third had MEAs implemented. Our study of eighty-seven MIPs had 170 MEAs in place. The Government's expert health technology assessment (HTA) committee recommended MEAs for 90 percent of the eighty-seven MIPs. A total of 81 percent of MEAs were simple financial agreements: the majority either discounts (32 percent) or reimbursement caps (43 percent). Outcome-based MEAs were least common (5 percent). Ninety-two percent of MEAs were implemented and operated through legal agreements. Approximately half of the MIPs were listed on the basis of accepted claims of cost-minimization. Forty-nine percent of medicines were in ATC L group. Advice from HTA evaluations strongly influences the implementation of ways to manage uncertainties while providing access to medicines. The government relied primarily on simple financial agreements for the managed entry of medicines for which there were perceived risks.

  16. Infectious Entry Pathway Mediated by the Human Endogenous Retrovirus K Envelope Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lindsey R; Whelan, Sean P J

    2016-01-20

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the majority of which exist as degraded remnants of ancient viruses, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. The youngest human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the HERV-K(HML-2) subgroup and were endogenized within the past 1 million years. The viral envelope protein (ENV) facilitates the earliest events of endogenization (cellular attachment and entry), and here, we characterize the requirements for HERV-K ENV to mediate infectious cell entry. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that a minimum of two events are required for fusion, proteolytic processing by furin-like proteases and exposure to acidic pH. We generated an infectious autonomously replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein was replaced by HERV-K ENV. HERV-K ENV imparts an endocytic entry pathway that requires dynamin-mediated membrane scission and endosomal acidification but is distinct from clathrin-dependent or macropinocytic uptake pathways. The lack of impediments to the replication of the VSV core in eukaryotic cells allowed us to broadly survey the HERV-K ENV-dictated tropism. Unlike extant betaretroviral envelopes, which impart a narrow species tropism, we found that HERV-K ENV mediates broad tropism encompassing cells from multiple mammalian and nonmammalian species. We conclude that HERV-K ENV dictates an evolutionarily conserved entry pathway and that the restriction of HERV-K to primate genomes reflects downstream stages of the viral replication cycle. Approximately 8% of the human genome is of retroviral origin. While many of those viral genomes have become inactivated, some copies of the most recently endogenized human retrovirus, HERV-K, can encode individual functional proteins. Here, we characterize the envelope protein (ENV) of the virus to define how it mediates infection of cells. We demonstrate that HERV-K ENV undergoes a proteolytic processing step and triggers membrane fusion in response to acidic pH--a strategy

  17. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin O. Bates

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.

  18. THE BANDWAGON EFFECT OF LEADERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES ON FOLLOWERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Firms, whichhave to compete with global firms in domestic market, try to internationalizefor gaining competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to recommend a conceptual framework to explain thedynamics of internationalization process of leader and follower firms thatinternationalize from an emerging country. In this study, author tries tofigure out the determinants of entrymode decisions of follower firms. In addition, bandwagon effect of leaders'entry mode strategies on followers&...

  19. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... tion and media optimization are the methods applied for improving ... lanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine aminotransferase, the two entry point enzymes of the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway. .... As determined by HPLC,.

  20. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  1. 36 CFR 228.54 - Single entry sales or permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single entry sales or permits... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.54 Single entry sales or permits. The... plan which describes operating procedures and reclamation measures, unless the requirement is waived by...

  2. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Mexico 8 § 93.220 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All poultry offered for entry from Mexico, including such poultry intended for movement through...

  3. 9 CFR 93.426 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.426 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All ruminants offered for entry from Mexico, including such ruminants intended for movement...

  4. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  5. 19 CFR 12.99 - Procedures for permitted entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for permitted entry. 12.99 Section 12.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.99 Procedures for permitted entry...

  6. Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

  7. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For insuring...

  8. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a zone...

  9. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length,

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Submission of repair entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY GENERAL AGENT'S RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH FOREIGN REPAIR CUSTOM'S ENTRIES Sec. 2 Submission of repair entries. At the... with the District Director of Customs as defined in 19 CFR 1.1(d) an affidavit on Custom's Form 3417...

  11. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid-base catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric P; Vasquez, Ernesto E; Scott, William G

    2014-09-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid-base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK(a) of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK(a) and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the potential

  12. The entry of free radicals into polystyrene latex particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.E.; Trau, M.; Gilbert, R.C.; Napper, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the processes governing the kinetics of emulsion polymerization has both scientific and technical interest. One component of this process that is poorly understood at present is that of free radical entry into latex particles. Measurements were made of the entry rate coefficient as a function of temperature for free radicals entering polystyrene latex particles in seeded emulsion polymerizations initiated by γ-rays. The activation energy for entry was found to be less than 24 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , consistent with entry being controlled by a physical (e.g. diffusional) rather than a chemical process. Measurement of the entry rate coefficient as a function of the γ-ray dose rate suggested that the factors that determine the entry rate when the primary free radicals are uncharged are similar to those that determine the entry rate for charged free radicals derived from chemical initiation by peroxydisulfate. This result was consistent with measurements of the entry rate coefficient of charged free radicals derived from peroxydisulfate; these data were found to be virtually independent of both the extent of the latex surface coverage by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the ionic strength of the continuous phase. The data refute several proposals given in the literature for the rate-determining step for entry, being inconsistent with control by collision of free radicals with the latex particles, surfactant desorption, and an electrostatic barrier arising from the colloidal nature of the entering free radical. The origin of the activation energy for entry remains obscure

  13. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  14. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  15. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  16. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  17. Interaction of small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry with CCR5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, Christoph; Ying Weiwen; Gavrilov, Svetlana; Tsamis, Fotini; Kuhmann, Shawn E.; Palani, Anandan; Tagat, Jayaram R.; Clader, John W.; McCombie, Stuart W.; Baroudy, Bahige M.; Smith, Steven O.; Dragic, Tatjana; Moore, John P.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the major coreceptor for macrophage-tropic (R5) HIV-1 strains. Several small molecule inhibitors of CCR5 that block chemokine binding and HIV-1 entry are being evaluated as drug candidates. Here we define how CCR5 antagonists TAK-779, AD101 (SCH-350581) and SCH-C (SCH-351125), which inhibit HIV-1 entry, interact with CCR5. Using a mutagenesis approach in combination with a viral entry assay to provide a direct functional read out, we tested predictions based on a homology model of CCR5 and analyzed the functions of more than 30 amino acid residues. We find that a key set of aromatic and aliphatic residues serves as a hydrophobic core for the ligand binding pocket, while E283 is critical for high affinity interaction, most likely by acting as the counterion for a positively charged nitrogen atom common to all three inhibitors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding how specific antagonists interact with CCR5, and may be useful for the rational design of new, improved CCR5 ligands

  18. Vocabulary of acid precipitation and air pollution. Terminology bulletin 175. Vocabulaire des precipitations acides et de la pollution atmospherique. Bulletin de terminologie 175

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, D

    1988-01-01

    This English-French vocabulary includes about 600 concepts on acid rain as well as general air pollution terminology. A large number of official names and their abbreviations have also been incorporated into the dictionary. The vocabulary is arranged alphabeticaly into a series of terminology files, each of which begins with a main entry in English and French. The main entry represents those terms selected as being of superior terminological quality. The main entry may be followed by sub-entries, which are synonyms, and may also be followed by a definition, an example of usage, a defining context, or a terminological observation. Sub-entries are in the same alphabetical sequence as the main entries, and refer the reader to the main entry. An index of French terms is also included. 243 refs.

  19. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  20. Macrophage sphingolipids are essential for the entry of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2018-07-01

    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known. In this work, we explored the role of host membrane sphingolipids in the entry of Mycobacterium smegmatis into J774A.1 macrophages. Our results show that metabolic depletion of sphingolipids in host macrophages results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis. Importantly, the entry of Escherichia coli into host macrophages under similar conditions remained invariant, implying the specificity of the requirement of sphingolipids in mycobacterial entry. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report demonstrating the role of host macrophage sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria. Our results could help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting sphingolipid-mediated entry of mycobacteria into host cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  2. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  3. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  4. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tanganelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  5. Development of the alternate entry port for the ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1993-05-01

    We discussed a second entry port for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) injection system at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which consists of a photocathode rf gun and a straight - ahead beamline directly into the 50 MeV linac. The proposed second entry port should improve the beam quality and lower the emittance needed for FEL (Free Electron Laser), and laser - acceleration experiments. A discussion on the laser driven high brightness photoelectrons through the primary entry port (a low energy 180 degrees achromatic double bend transport line) now in operation, and a beam analysis for the proposed secondary port is also given

  6. Predictive Modeling for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Modeling and Simulation (MS) is an enabling capability for complex NASA entry missions such as MSL and Orion. MS is used in every mission phase to define mission concepts, select appropriate architectures, design EDL systems, quantify margin and risk, ensure correct system operation, and analyze data returned from the entry. In an environment where it is impossible to fully test EDL concepts on the ground prior to use, accurate MS capability is required to extrapolate ground test results to expected flight performance.

  7. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  8. Game Changing Transformable Entry System Technology Applicability to Robotic Venus Science Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative adpative deployable entry and placement technology (ADEPT), also known as transformable entry system technology (TEST) concept, akin to an umbrella,...

  9. Overview of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; Corliss, James

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere samples back to Earth for detailed examination. Langley Research Center's MSR Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is a core part of the mission, protecting the sample container during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing. Planetary protection requirements demand a higher reliability from the EEV than for any previous planetary entry vehicle. An overview of the EEV design and preliminary analysis is presented, with a follow-on discussion of recommended future design trade studies to be performed over the next several years in support of an MSR launch in 2018 or 2020. Planned topics include vehicle size for impact protection of a range of sample container sizes, outer mold line changes to achieve surface sterilization during re-entry, micrometeoroid protection, aerodynamic stability, thermal protection, and structural materials selection.

  10. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  11. Ordering the Senses in a Monolingual Dictionary Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews issues to be considered in determining the order of meanings for a lexeme in a dictionary entry and compares techniques for deciding order. Types of ordering include importance, frequency, logical ordering, dominant meaning, syntactic, and historical. (MSE)

  12. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Sklarin, Nancy T.; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of computerized provider order entry for complex chemotherapy regimens supported Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's strategic plan to successfully establish a distributive, networked health care delivery system.

  13. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions as he may prescribe to assure that allowing the entry of such articles will be consistent with the... inventory controls are maintained at all times. Inedible egg products may be processed in official plants...

  14. The Significance of Barriers to Entry in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Valence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at the significance of barriers that firms considering entry into the construction industry might face. Drawing on the microeconomic characteristics of imperfectly competitive and oligopolistic markets the analysis finds that there are a dozen barriers to entry that affect the industry, but their significance depends on the product type. The discussion covers the question of product homogeneity in construction and evidence for the existence of barriers to entry in concentration levels. Barriers to entry specific to construction are then identified, which leads to an analysis of how they operate and their significance (high, medium or low in different market types, thus increasing our understanding of construction industry dynamics.

  15. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  16. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  17. 19 CFR 141.19 - Declaration of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of consignee—(1) Authorized agent with knowledge of the facts. When entry is made in a consignee's name by an agent who has knowledge of the facts and who is authorized under a proper power of attorney...

  18. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B

    1994-01-01

    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  19. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  20. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ASTRODYNAMICS AND RE-ENTRY MECHANICS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selected list of references in the fields of astronautics and re-entry mechanics is classified and discussed, and a comprehensive subject and author index is included for ease in locating the references. (Author)

  1. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  2. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), 118 Stat. 3638, as amended... major airport authority printed its own signs for Global Entry and strategically placed them throughout...

  3. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.

    2010-09-01

    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  4. Franchising as a method of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Vargovčíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The subject of presented bachelor thesis is Franchising as a method of entry to the market. The first part of this thesis deals with characteristics of franchising such as the definition of franchising and its advantages and disadvantages for both parties involved. Then there is also provided the current situation of franchising in the Czech Republic. The second part deals with entry into the market by franchising. In this section franchise agreement is mainly mentioned, how to start a franch...

  5. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  6. ExoMars entry, descent and landing science

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, F.; Lewis, S. R.; Withers, P.; Aboudan, A.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Golombek, M.; Harri, A. M.; Komatsu, G.; Leese, M. R.; Mäkinen, T.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Ori, G. G.; Patel, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) measurements can provide essential data for atmospheric scientific investigations.\\ud \\ud We intend to perform atmospheric science measurements by exploiting data from EDLS engineering sensors and exploiting their readings beyond the expected engineering information.

  7. Double Entry Bookkeeping and Kitab-us Siyakat

    OpenAIRE

    Örten, Remzi; Kurt, Ganite; Torun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    It is known that accounting is applied since the existence of human being. When historical development of accounting is examined, recording methods may be summarized as single sided and double sided. The first method used in accounting is the single entry bookkeeping. According to this entry, not all of information related to financial events but important part of them are recorded in a single way. We can specify follow-up of receivable, payable, incomes and expenses as single sided recording...

  8. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  9. Multinationals’ mode of entry with presence of vertical spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Balsvik, Ragnhild

    2004-01-01

    Multinationals’ mode of foreign expansion may depend on whether or not they expect technological externalities or spillovers to generate new competition. Existing models where ex-post spillovers affect the ex-ante entry choice usually study the choice between exporting and FDI with horizontal spillovers. I consider a monopoly firm with a vertical production structure that has four possible modes of entry, one of which includes outsourcing of intermediate input production to a h...

  10. Response to Competitive Entry: A Rationale for Delayed Defensive Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kalra; Surendra Rajiv; Kannan Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    Empirical studies examining responses to new product entries come to the puzzling conclusion that, in general, an incumbent reacts to a new entrant after a significant delay. Even easy-to-implement price cuts are observed after significant lag following entry. These findings seem to contradict the existing literature that either implicitly assumes or strongly advocates immediate defensive responses to limit competitive encroachment. When a competing firm enters the market, consumers may be un...

  11. Design features of an automated entry control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  12. Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid KUNZE

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the gender wage gap in entry wages and in the early career for German skilled workers in the period 1975-1990. We use a new administrative longitudinal data source that allows to observe complete work and skill accumulation histories from the beginning for up to 13 years in the labour market. Descriptives show an entry wage differential of 22 percent between male and female full-time workers. Furthermore, the differential stays almost constant throughout the first 8 ei...

  13. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Camara Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  14. Three-stage entry game: The strategic effects of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of investment in advertising in the three-stage entry game model with one incumbent and one potential entrant firm. It is shown that if a game theory is applied, under particular conditions, advertising can be used as a strategic weapon in the market entry game. Depending on the level of the advertising interaction factor, conditions for over-investment in advertising for strategic purposes are given. Furthermore, three specific cases are analyzed: strictly predatory advertising, informative advertising and the case when one firm’s advertising cannot directly influence the other firm's profit. For each of them, depending on the costs of advertising and marginal costs, equilibrium is determined, and conditions under which it is possible to deter the entry are given. It is shown that if the value of the advertising interaction factor increases, power of using advertising as a weapon to deter entry into the market decreases. Thus, in the case of informative advertising, advertising cannot be used as a tool for deterring entry into the market, while in the case of predatory advertising, it can. Also, we have proved that in the case of strictly informative advertising an over-investment never occurs, while in the two other cases, there is always over-investment either to deter or to accommodate the entry.

  15. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  16. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  17. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  18. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  19. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  20. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  1. Analysis of a conserved RGE/RGD motif in HCV E2 in mediating entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV encodes two transmembrane glycoproteins E1 and E2 which form a heterodimer. E1 is believed to mediate fusion while E2 has been shown to bind cellular receptors. It is clear that HCV uses a multi-receptor complex to gain entry into susceptible cells, however key elements of this complex remain elusive. In this study, the role of a highly conserved RGE/RGD motif of HCV E2 glycoprotein in viral entry was examined. The effect of each substitution mutation in this motif was tested by challenging susceptible cell lines with mutant HCV E1E2 pseudotyped viruses generated using a lentiviral system (HCVpp. In addition to assaying infectivity, producer cell expression and HCVpp incorporation of HCV E2 proteins, CD81 binding profiles, and conformation of mutants were examined. Results Based on these characteristics, mutants either displayed wt characteristics (high infectivity [≥ 90% of wt HCVpp], CD81 binding, E1E2 expression, and incorporation into viral particles and proper conformation or very low infectivity (≤ 20% of wt HCVpp. Only amino acid substitutions of the 3rd position (D or E resulted in wt characteristics as long as the negative charge was maintained or a neutral alanine was introduced. A change in charge to a positive lysine, disrupted HCVpp infectivity at this position. Conclusion Although most amino acid substitutions within this conserved motif displayed greatly reduced HCVpp infectivity, they retained soluble CD81 binding, proper E2 conformation, and incorporation into HCVpp. Our results suggest that although RGE/D is a well-defined integrin binding motif, in this case the role of these three hyperconserved amino acids does not appear to be integrin binding. As the extent of conservation of this region extends well beyond these three amino acids, we speculate that this region may play an important role in the structure of HCV E2 or in mediating the interaction with other factor(s during

  2. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  3. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, James Aaron

    The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

  4. Molecular Dynamics and Docking of Biphenyl: A Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a new drug that inhibits viral attachment and entry for the treatment of HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: Two Protein Databank (PDB) crystal structures of HIV-1 gp120-CD4 complexes, namely, 1RZK and 1G9N, were mutated at amino acid position 43 to a biphenylalanine (biPhe-43) residue. FireDock web ...

  5. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  6. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  7. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  8. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  9. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent

    2010-12-01

    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  10. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  11. Using Common Spatial Distributions of Atoms to Relate Functionally Divergent Influenza Virus N10 and N11 Protein Structures to Functionally Characterized Neuraminidase Structures, Toxin Cell Entry Domains, and Non-Influenza Virus Cell Entry Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Arthur; Weininger, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify the functional correlates of structural and sequence variation in proteins is a critical capability. We related structures of influenza A N10 and N11 proteins that have no established function to structures of proteins with known function by identifying spatially conserved atoms. We identified atoms with common distributed spatial occupancy in PDB structures of N10 protein, N11 protein, an influenza A neuraminidase, an influenza B neuraminidase, and a bacterial neuraminidase. By superposing these spatially conserved atoms, we aligned the structures and associated molecules. We report spatially and sequence invariant residues in the aligned structures. Spatially invariant residues in the N6 and influenza B neuraminidase active sites were found in previously unidentified spatially equivalent sites in the N10 and N11 proteins. We found the corresponding secondary and tertiary structures of the aligned proteins to be largely identical despite significant sequence divergence. We found structural precedent in known non-neuraminidase structures for residues exhibiting structural and sequence divergence in the aligned structures. In N10 protein, we identified staphylococcal enterotoxin I-like domains. In N11 protein, we identified hepatitis E E2S-like domains, SARS spike protein-like domains, and toxin components shared by alpha-bungarotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin I, anthrax lethal factor, clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, and clostridium tetanus toxin. The presence of active site components common to the N6, influenza B, and S. pneumoniae neuraminidases in the N10 and N11 proteins, combined with the absence of apparent neuraminidase function, suggests that the role of neuraminidases in H17N10 and H18N11 emerging influenza A viruses may have changed. The presentation of E2S-like, SARS spike protein-like, or toxin-like domains by the N10 and N11 proteins in these emerging viruses may indicate that H17N10 and H18N11 sialidase-facilitated cell

  12. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Ryuta [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: takashima@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Goto, Makoto [Department of Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1188 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown.

  13. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Goto, Makoto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  15. Soil and gas and radon entry potentials for substructure surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on measurement techniques and parameters that describe the potential for areas of a building substructure to have high soil gas and radon entry rates which have been developed. Flows and pressures measured at test holes in substructure surfaces while the substructure was intentionally depressurized were used in a highly simplified electrical circuit to model the substructure/soil network. Data from four New Jersey houses indicate that the soil was a factor of two to six times more resistant to soil gas flow than substructure surfaces, concrete slab floors, including perimeter gaps, cracks, and other penetrations, were approximately five times more resistant to soil gas movement than hollow block walls, and radon entry potentials were highest for slab floors. These indices of entry potential may be useful for characterizing the relative leakiness of below-grade substructure surfaces and for determining the selection and placement of radon control systems

  16. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  17. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-shan Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  18. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily......This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...

  19. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  20. Newcomer innovation during entry in a changing organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    ” of the organizational culture. Although acknowledging that organizational socialization is about continuity and change in the employing organization (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979), and realizing that the entry of newcomers holds the potential for innovation to the employing organization (Feldman, 2012), the discourse...... values and beliefs” (Feldman, 2012:215). Thus, the “workgroup”, “work processes”, “patterns of social interaction” and “core values” are considered stable units of analysis, which entries of organizational newcomers might affect. This gives rise to a dichotomy of newcomer assimilation versus...... organizational accommodation to organize much of the research on organizational socialization and innovation. The case study presented in this paper investigates organizational entry in a changing organization raising the question of how to understand organizational socialization and newcomer innovation when...

  1. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S.; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction

  2. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S. [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Christopher D., E-mail: chris.richardson@dal.ca [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); The Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction.

  3. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  4. Entry of soil gas and radon into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.

    1992-04-01

    Entry of soil gas and radon into houses has been investigated by experiments conducted at radon test structures and numerical or analytical modelling. The numerical model solves the steady-state equations for Darcy flow of soil-gas and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. Model calculations were compared with results from field experiments conducted at Risoe National Laboratory, and it was found that there was good agreement between measured and modelled pressure coupling and radon concentration profiles. Discrepancies regarding absolute values of soil-gas entry rates and radon concentrations were observed. The numerical model has been used to study the importance of soil and building related factors on radon entry rates into slab-on-grade houses. It was found that, for a house with a 3 mm perimeter crack along the floor-wall joint, the entry was mainly determined by the soil permeability and building related factors such as house depressurization and presence of a capillary breaking layer of gravel below the slab. In a house with a bare soil floor, the diffusivity of the soil was found to be of principal importance for the entry rate even for moderate permeabilities. An analytical model was developed for the purpose of studying soil-gas entry rates into houses in response to non-static driving forces. It is based on the analogy between a 'buried drain' and a basement house with a perimeter crack. The structure was depressurized sinusoidally in time and the frequency dependent pressure couplings were measured. There was fairly good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. (LN) (26 tabs., 30 ills., 66 refs.)

  5. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  6. Technology Investments in the NASA Entry Systems Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Michael; Wright, Michael; Hughes, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The Entry Systems Modeling (ESM) technology development project, initiated in 2012 under NASAs Game Changing Development (GCD) Program, is engaged in maturation of fundamental research developing aerosciences, materials, and integrated systems products for entry, descent, and landing(EDL)technologies [1]. To date, the ESM project has published over 200 papers in these areas, comprising the bulk of NASAs research program for EDL modeling. This presentation will provide an overview of the projects successes and challenges, and an assessment of future investments in EDL modeling and simulation relevant to NASAs mission

  7. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklarin, Nancy T; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2011-07-01

    Implementation of a computerized provider order entry system for complex chemotherapy regimens at a large cancer center required intense effort from a multidisciplinary team of clinical and systems experts with experience in all facets of the chemotherapy process. The online tools had to resemble the paper forms used at the time and parallel the successful established process as well as add new functionality. Close collaboration between the institution and the vendor was necessary. This article summarizes the institutional efforts, challenges, and collaborative processes that facilitated universal chemotherapy computerized electronic order entry across multiple sites during a period of several years.

  8. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  9. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  10. The Secret of Guided Missile Re-Entry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-25

    I RD-PAI169 598 THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY(U) FOREIGN / I TECHNOLOGY DIV NRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH J CHEN ET AL. I 25 JUN 96 FTD-ID(RS)T...TECHNOLOGY DIVISION THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY by Chen Jingzhong, An Sehua J L 0 7 ’:;85’ ’ 0 *Approved for public release; Distribution...unlimite t d. :. 86 7 034.. FTD- ID(RS)T-0459-86 HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0459-86 25 June 1986 MICROFICHE NR: F - - 0Q 9? THE SECRET OF GUIDED

  11. A Systematic Assessment of Empirical Research on Foreign Entry Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of dimensions. Findings Findings question the frequent use of commonly used measures (e.g. advertising intensity) and control variables (e.g. firm size) and suggest that statements about the importance of mode choice for subsidiary performance may be premature. Methodologically, this study identifies critical...... issues with regard to interpretation of interactions and the entry mode choice set. Research limitations/implications This study limits itself to study the direction of relationships and does not analyze effect sizes. Further, future research may benefit from broadening the entry mode choice by extending...

  12. Equine rhinitis A virus and its low pH empty particle: clues towards an aphthovirus entry mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias J Tuthill

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, belonging to the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae. How picornaviruses introduce their RNA genome into the cytoplasm of the host cell to initiate replication is unclear since they have no lipid envelope to facilitate fusion with cellular membranes. It has been thought that the dissociation of the FMDV particle into pentameric subunits at acidic pH is the mechanism for genome release during cell entry, but this raises the problem of how transfer across the endosome membrane of the genome might be facilitated. In contrast, most other picornaviruses form 'altered' particle intermediates (not reported for aphthoviruses thought to induce membrane pores through which the genome can be transferred. Here we show that ERAV, like FMDV, dissociates into pentamers at mildly acidic pH but demonstrate that dissociation is preceded by the transient formation of empty 80S particles which have released their genome and may represent novel biologically relevant intermediates in the aphthovirus cell entry process. The crystal structures of the native ERAV virus and a low pH form have been determined via highly efficient crystallization and data collection strategies, required due to low virus yields. ERAV is closely similar to FMDV for VP2, VP3 and part of VP4 but VP1 diverges, to give a particle with a pitted surface, as seen in cardioviruses. The low pH particle has internal structure consistent with it representing a pre-dissociation cell entry intermediate. These results suggest a unified mechanism of picornavirus cell entry.

  13. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  14. Essays on empirical industrial organization : Entry and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  15. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  16. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  18. Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

  19. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATEGIES ON ENTRY TO FOREIGN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Morozova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A company must have distinctly described alternatives for taking strategically correct decisions. For this reason the purpose of the paper is to provide comparative characteristics and systematize strategies on entry to foreign market. It is necessary to select the required criteria and carry out multi-criterion analysis in order to arrange systematization and comparative characteristics of  numerous institutional forms being established within the framework of export, cooperation or integration, main strategies on entry to foreign market. The paper contains an analysis and systematization prepared in accordance with the following criteria: strategic purpose of entry to foreign market, time factor in respect of entry to foreign market, distribution of  company’s business-cycle stages among countries, level of investments, form of investments, distribution of investment and management level among countries, risk level, market involvement, legal grounds for foreign activity, status of a subject entering foreign market. The paper makes it possible to give comparative characteristics of the analyzed strategies.

  20. Assessing welfare impact of entry into power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, In-Koo; Kim, Hyunsook

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry in the Korean electricity market. We use two different models. One is the optimal fuel mix model to estimate the effect of a new entry in the long run. The other is the variable cost minimization model to assess the contribution of an existing installed private generator in the short run. A specific private generator, which has a cost advantage, saves a substantial amount of system-wide variable costs. We show that the right location for a new entrant can save power generation costs significantly, even if a new entrant does not have a cost advantage. - Highlights: • This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry. • We use two different models to estimate the entry effect. • The minimum and maximum cost savings of a new entrant are about 0.3% and 0.84% of total generation cost. • Even if a new entrant has no cost advantage, its choice of location could save money

  1. Determining Data Entry Points For Javascript-rich Web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maksimovich Noseevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted the task of automatic crawling of javascript-rich web applications for data entry points. A new technique is proposed, which combines dynamic and static javascript code analysis. Testing the proposed technique on real world web applications such as Twitter, Youtube and Reddit has confirmed its applicability for analysis of modern web applications.

  2. On Double-Entry Bookkeeping: The Mathematical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerman, David

    2014-01-01

    Double-entry bookkeeping (DEB) implicitly uses a specific mathematical construction, the group of differences using pairs of unsigned numbers ("T-accounts"). That construction was only formulated abstractly in mathematics in the nineteenth century, even though DEB had been used in the business world for over five centuries. Yet the…

  3. 30 CFR 840.12 - Right of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... of entry. (a) Within its jurisdiction, the State regulatory authority shall have authority that... mining and reclamation operation without advance notice upon presentation of appropriate credentials. No...

  4. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  5. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual in...

  6. Recent Health Care Use and Medicaid Entry of Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between Medicaid entry and recent health care use among Medicare beneficiaries. We identified Medicare beneficiaries without full Medicaid or use of hospital or nursing home services in 2008 (N = 2,163,387). A discrete survival analysis estimated beneficiaries' monthly likelihood of entry into the full Medicaid program between January 2009 and June 2010. During the 18-month study period, Medicaid entry occurred for 1.1% and 3.7% of beneficiaries who aged into Medicare or originally qualified for Medicare due to disability, respectively. Among beneficiaries who aged into Medicare, 49% of new Medicaid participants had no use of inpatient, skilled nursing facility, or nursing home services during the study period. Individuals who recently used inpatient, skilled nursing facility or nursing home services had monthly rates of 1.9, 14.0, and 38.1 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries, respectively, compared with 0.4 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries with no recent use of these services. Although recent health care use predicted greater likelihood of Medicaid entry, half of new Medicaid participants used no hospital or nursing home care during the study period. These patterns should be considered when designing and evaluating interventions to reform health care delivery for dual-eligible beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  8. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Competition and entry in banking: implications for capital regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2006-01-01

    We assess how capital regulation interacts with the degree of competitiveness of the banking industry. We particularly ask two questions: i) how does capital regulation affect (endogenous) entry; and ii) how do (exogenous) changes in the competitive environment affect bank monitoring choices and the

  10. Love me tender: new entry in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.; Chiu, M.M.; Wijnberg, N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate new entry as a process of organizational change against the background of the digital revolution in the music industry. The study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from 131 companies active in the Dutch music industry that collectively engaged in 215

  11. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.

    2007-01-01

    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show...... negotiations are subject to significant stakeholder interference. (For more information, please contact: Kristian Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark: kj.int@cbs.dk)...

  12. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  13. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  14. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...

  15. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury... securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or... securities are held directly by the Department of the Treasury in accounts maintained in the investor's name...

  16. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brammer, Jeremy R.; Brunet, Nicolas D.; Burton, A.C.; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V.; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M.

    2016-01-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of

  17. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a) Any native mammal, native bird, or native plants taken within Antarctica that are imported into or... Orleans, Louisiana. (7) New York, New York. (8) Seattle, Washington. (9) Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. (10...

  18. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  19. Infectious Entry and Neutralization of Pathogenic JC Polyomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M. Geoghegan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a lethal brain disease caused by uncontrolled replication of JC polyomavirus (JCV. JCV strains recovered from the brains of PML patients carry mutations that prevent the engagement of sialylated glycans, which are thought to serve as receptors for the infectious entry of wild-type JCV. In this report, we show that non-sialylated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs can serve as alternative attachment receptors for the infectious entry of both wild-type and PML mutant JCV strains. After GAG-mediated attachment, PML mutant strains engage non-sialylated non-GAG co-receptor glycans, such as asialo-GM1. JCV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients who recovered from PML appear to block infection by preventing the docking of post-attachment co-receptor glycans in an apical pocket of the JCV major capsid protein. Identification of the GAG-dependent/sialylated glycan-independent alternative entry pathway should facilitate the development of infection inhibitors, including recombinant neutralizing antibodies. : Geoghegan et al. show that JC polyomavirus strains that cause brain disease infect cells via a pathway involving a heparin-like attachment receptor and a non-sialylated co-receptor. Candidate therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies neutralize by blocking co-receptor engagement. Keywords: polyomavirus, JC, BK, SV40, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, monoclonal antibody, mAb, virus entry, receptor

  20. Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with 45 Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues

  1. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  2. Becoming Counselors through Growth and Learning: The Entry Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Holly H.; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored counselor development within the entry transition into counselor education programs using 4 interviews and interpretive dialogues with 8 beginning counselors. Six categories resulted from the authors' grounded theory analysis: Anticipation, Evolving Identity, Growth and Learning, Coping, Choosing to Trust the Process, and…

  3. Orbiter Entry Aerothermodynamics Practical Engineering and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Organization of the Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group; 2) Overview of the Principal RTF Aeroheating Tools Utilized for Tile Damage Assessment; 3) Description of the Integrated Tile Damage Assessment Team Analyses Process; 4) Space Shuttle Flight Support Process; and 5) JSC Applied Aerosciences and CFD Branch Applied Research Interests.

  4. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  5. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes on...

  6. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  7. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  8. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  9. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Truscott, T. T.; Speirs, N. B.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates

  10. Instrument Formatting with Computer Data Entry in Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; And Others

    Different formats for four types of research items were studied for ease of computer data entry. The types were: (1) numeric response items; (2) individual multiple choice items; (3) multiple choice items with the same response items; and (4) card column indicator placement. Each of the 13 experienced staff members of a major university's Data…

  11. A novel small molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Baldick

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple inhibitors of different targets. The entry process of HCV into hepatocytes represents another series of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, involving viral structural proteins that have not been extensively explored due to experimental limitations. To discover HCV entry inhibitors, we utilized HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating E1-E2 envelope proteins from a genotype 1b clinical isolate. Screening of a small molecule library identified a potent HCV-specific triazine inhibitor, EI-1. A series of HCVpp with E1-E2 sequences from various HCV isolates was used to show activity against all genotype 1a and 1b HCVpp tested, with median EC50 values of 0.134 and 0.027 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments demonstrated a block in HCVpp entry, downstream of initial attachment to the cell surface, and prior to or concomitant with bafilomycin inhibition of endosomal acidification. EI-1 was equally active against cell-culture adapted HCV (HCVcc, blocking both cell-free entry and cell-to-cell transmission of virus. HCVcc with high-level resistance to EI-1 was selected by sequential passage in the presence of inhibitor, and resistance was shown to be conferred by changes to residue 719 in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane anchor region of E2, implicating this envelope protein in EI-1 susceptibility. Combinations of EI-1 with interferon, or inhibitors of NS3 or NS5A, resulted in additive to synergistic activity. These results suggest that inhibitors of HCV entry could be added to replication inhibitors and interferons already in development.

  12. MOTIVATING FACTORS AND THE MODES OF ENTRY IN OTHER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  13. Dealing with low pH: entry and exit of alphaviruses and flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-San Martín, Claudia; Liu, Catherine Y; Kielian, Margaret

    2009-11-01

    The alphaviruses and flaviviruses include many important human pathogens, such as the dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya viruses. These enveloped viruses infect cells by a membrane fusion reaction triggered by the low pH in endosomes. Fusion is mediated by viral membrane proteins through their acid-dependent conversion from a dimer on the virus surface to a homotrimer inserted into the host cell membrane. Here we review recent studies on the regulatory mechanisms that silence these fusion proteins during virus exit and that sense low pH and mediate protein refolding during virus entry. We discuss results using truncated proteins to dissect the fusion reaction, and future research directions including the development of antiviral therapies against these medically important viruses.

  14. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and....208 Section 381.208 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist--Revised Manual [and] Helpful Entry Level Skill Checklist--Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development Centers of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY.

    The Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist was designed to assist preschool teachers in selecting functional skills that children (including children with disabilities) may need to make a successful transition into the public schools. These skills, for the most part, deal with attending, compliance, ability to follow directions, turn taking, ability…

  16. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  17. Financial Inclusion, Entry Barriers, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobin Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the relationship between financial inclusion and the formation of entrepreneurs, both theoretically and empirically. We first construct a theoretical model to examine how the development of financial inclusion affects the formation of entrepreneurs. The model suggests that the development of financial inclusion can mitigate credit constraints on entrepreneurial activities by reducing information asymmetry in financial transactions, and in addition this effect is greater in industries with lower barriers to entry. Then, using data from 31 provinces and 19 industries in China during the period 2005–2014, we test the impact of financial inclusion on the formation of entrepreneurs. The estimation results confirm the positive effect of financial inclusion development on the formation of entrepreneurs, and indicate that this effect is heterogeneous across industries. Moreover, the development of financial inclusion is often beneficial to the formations of entrepreneurs in sectors with lower entry barriers.

  18. Radio/FADS/IMU integrated navigation for Mars entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Huang, Xiangyu

    2018-03-01

    Supposing future orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission as the potential project background, this paper addresses the issue of Mars entry integrated navigation using radio beacon, flush air data sensing system (FADS), and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The range and Doppler information sensed from an orbiting radio beacon, the dynamic pressure and heating data sensed from flush air data sensing system, and acceleration and attitude angular rate outputs from an inertial measurement unit are integrated in an unscented Kalman filter to perform state estimation and suppress the system and measurement noise. Computer simulations show that the proposed integrated navigation scheme can enhance the navigation accuracy, which enables precise entry guidance for the given Mars orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission.

  19. Targeted steam injection using horizontal wells with limited entry perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, T. J.; Youck, D. G.; Sun, S. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    An experimental horizontal well using limited-entry perforations as a method for distributing steam to different zones was used to replace ten vertical injection wells. The well was located between rows of vertical wells in a reservoir that has been subjected to more than ten years of operation under cyclic steam stimulation. The limited-entry perforations enabled steam to be targeted at the cold regions of the reservoir. This paper presents an assessment of the well based on theoretical calculations, measured injection pressures and rates and 3-D seismic imaging. All the data collected during the experiment support the conclusion that effective steam distribution along the well has been achieved. It was also concluded that this technology has significant potential for SAGD applications as a mechanism for achieving improved steam distribution at a much reduced cost. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Data entry system for INIS input using a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi

    1990-01-01

    Input preparation for the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) has been performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1970. Instead of the input data preparation done by worksheets make out with the typewriters, new method with which data can be directly inputted into a diskette using personal computers is introduced. According to the popularization of personal computers and word processors, this system is easily applied to other system, so the outline and the future development on it are described. A shortcoming of this system is that spell-checking and data entry using authority files are hardly performed because of the limitation of hardware resources, and that data code conversion is needed because applied code systems between personal computer and main frame computer are quite different from each other. On the other hand, improving the timelyness of data entry is expected without duplication of keying. (author)

  1. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  2. HIV/AIDS testing at ports of entry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dejian; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Beasley, R Palmer

    2011-05-01

    In 2007 the Chinese government issued regulations requiring HIV/AIDS testing for Chinese citizens returning at ports of entry if they had resided outside China for 1 year or longer. Three years after publication and partial implementation of the regulations, the Chinese government decided to eliminate compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese. We examine the history of China's HIV/AIDS testing regulations on entry-exit populations, showing how China has gradually altered its policy. As of December 2010, the policy of compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese has been abandoned; however, the regulations still compel HIV/AIDS testing for other groups inside China. Our review sheds new light on the dynamics of regulatory changes in the last 3 years. The Chinese experience that we observed may provide useful insights for policymakers in other parts of the world.

  3. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption. PMID:21886891

  4. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Baron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption.

  5. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F

    1989-01-01

    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  6. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  8. Strategic Market Entry Factors and Market Share Achievement in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian B Ryans

    1988-01-01

    In developing entry marketing strategies for new product markets companies might be advised to target product markets where significant market shares are likely to be achieved. The literature on market share change is reviewed to identify situational and marketing strategy factors associated with market share achievement. Certain hypotheses suggested by this and related literatures were then tested using a database of products introduced into the Japanese market. The results of this analysis ...

  9. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  10. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Franchising as the entry mode to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Čepera, Vít

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part contains basics of franchising, its situation in the world and in the Czech Republic and advantages and disadvantages of franchising for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in general. The practical part of the thesis compares advantages and disadvantages of franchising on existing travel agencies.

  12. Franchising as a form of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Těšínská, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. This work is devided into three chapters. The first chapter is focused on general theory in franchising (definition, different kinds of franchising, advantages and disadvantages, franchising history etc.). The second chapter is devoted to the application of franchising in particular firm accor hotels, where I introduce the brand ibis hotels and its operation in the world. In the third chapter I describe and introduc...

  13. Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dictionary of christian words: setting up the list of entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrushina Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issues of compiling the entry list for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Russian Christian Words. It presents a fragment of the classifi cation of the terminology in the domain and suggests to use the frequency of a lexical item in relevant texts as a criterion of its terminologization. The paper also considers whether proper names should be included in the Dictionary.

  15. Foreign market entry mode choice of hotel companies: Determining factors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu, Rosario; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Decisions regarding firm internationalisation, especially when it comes to choosing which market entry mode to use, have been one of the most frequently discussed topics in academic literature in the last few decades. Many studies have been conducted from different perspectives, either focusing on one or several sectors or analysing companies from a specific country. Nevertheless, there are few studies dealing with the Chinese hotel industry. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationsh...

  16. Optimal Entry Timing in Markets with Social Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh V. Joshi; David J. Reibstein; Z. John Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Firms routinely face the challenging decision of whether to enter a new market where a firm's strong presence in an existing market has a positive influence (the leverage effect) on product adoption in the new market, but the reciprocal social influence on the existing market is negative (the backlash effect). In this paper, we show that a firm's optimal entry strategy in this situation cannot be characterized by the familiar "now or never" or "now or at maturity" strategies proposed in the l...

  17. Candidate Medical Countermeasures Targeting Ebola Virus Cell Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    ML, Hessell AJ, Oswald WB, Burton DR, Saphire EO. Structure of the 405 Ebola virus glycoprotein bound to an antibody from a human survivor. Nature...virus cell-entry inhibitors 21 17. Gallaher WR. Similar structural models of the transmembrane proteins of Ebola and 408 avian sarcoma viruses. Cell...85(4), 477-478 (1996). 409 18. Weissenhorn W, Carfí A, Lee K-H, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC. Crystal structure of the Ebola 410 virus membrane fusion

  18. Brazilian franchisor: Entry and operation of internationalized franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Helder de Souza; Luppe, Marcos Roberto; Nascimento, Paulo Tromboni de Souza

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the entry and operations strategies of franchisors of developed countries into foreign countries with Brazilian counterparts. Were there significant differences? An exploratory study was conducted with 16 international franchisors operating in Brazil and 31 Brazilian franchisors operating abroad. The results show that international franchisors operating abroad prefer to use a subsidiary in the destination country. At the same time, this strategy is little used by B...

  19. Event detection for car park entries by video-surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, Didier; Tailland, Johan; Cintract, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Intelligent surveillance has become an important research issue due to the high cost and low efficiency of human supervisors, and machine intelligence is required to provide a solution for automated event detection. In this paper we describe a real-time system that has been used for detecting car park entries, using an adaptive background learning algorithm and two indicators representing activity and identity to overcome the difficulty of tracking objects.

  20. Recent Advances in Hepatitis C Virus Cell Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 170 million patients worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. Prevalence rates range from 0.5% in Northern European countries to 28% in some areas of Egypt. HCV is hepatotropic, and in many countries chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver disease including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV persists in 50–85% of infected patients, and once chronic infection is established, spontaneous clearance is rare. HCV is a member of the Flaviviridae family, in which it forms its own genus. Many lines of evidence suggest that the HCV life cycle displays many differences to that of other Flaviviridae family members. Some of these differences may be due to the close interaction of HCV with its host’s lipid and particular triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which may explain why the virus can be found in association with lipoproteins in serum of infected patients. This review focuses on the molecular events underlying the HCV cell entry process and the respective roles of cellular co-factors that have been implied in these events. These include, among others, the lipoprotein receptors low density lipoprotein receptor and scavenger receptor BI, the tight junction factors occludin and claudin-1 as well as the tetraspanin CD81. We discuss the roles of these cellular factors in HCV cell entry and how association of HCV with lipoproteins may modulate the cell entry process.

  1. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Tuck

    2013-07-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011. Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  2. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Chloe; Zhang, Tongli; Potapova, Tamara; Malumbres, Marcos; Novák, Béla

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011). Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  3. High performance modeling of atmospheric re-entry vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Alexandre; Scalabrin, Leonardo C; Boyd, Iain D

    2012-01-01

    Re-entry vehicles designed for space exploration are usually equipped with thermal protection systems made of ablative material. In order to properly model and predict the aerothermal environment of the vehicle, it is imperative to account for the gases produced by ablation processes. In the case of charring ablators, where an inner resin is pyrolyzed at a relatively low temperature, the composition of the gas expelled into the boundary layer is complex and may lead to thermal chemical reactions that cannot be captured with simple flow chemistry models. In order to obtain better predictions, an appropriate gas flow chemistry model needs to be included in the CFD calculations. Using a recently developed chemistry model for ablating carbon-phenolic-in-air species, a CFD calculation of the Stardust re-entry at 71 km is presented. The code used for that purpose has been designed to take advantage of the nature of the problem and therefore remains very efficient when a high number of chemical species are involved. The CFD result demonstrates the need for such chemistry model when modeling the flow field around an ablative material. Modeling of the nonequilibrium radiation spectra is also presented, and compared to the experimental data obtained during Stardust re-entry by the Echelle instrument. The predicted emission from the CN lines compares quite well with the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of the current approach.

  4. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  5. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  6. Aerothermodynamic Environments Definition for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the aerothermodynamic environments definition status is presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle. The environments are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on a candidate aeroshell geometry and worst-case entry heating trajectories. Uncertainties for the flowfield predictions are based primarily on available ground data since Mars flight data are scarce. The forebody aerothermodynamics analysis focuses on boundary layer transition and turbulent heating augmentation. Turbulent transition is expected prior to peak heating, a first for Mars entry, resulting in augmented heat flux and shear stress at the same heatshield location. Afterbody computations are also shown with and without interference effects of reaction control system thruster plumes. Including uncertainties, analysis predicts that the heatshield may experience peaks of 225 W/sq cm for turbulent heat flux, 0.32 atm for stagnation pressure, and 400 Pa for turbulent shear stress. The afterbody heat flux without thruster plume interference is predicted to be 7 W/sq cm on the backshell and 10 W/sq cm on the parachute cover. If the reaction control jets are fired near peak dynamic pressure, the heat flux at localized areas could reach as high as 76 W/sq cm on the backshell and 38 W/sq cm on the parachute cover, including uncertainties. The final flight environments used for hardware design will be updated for any changes in the aeroshell configuration, heating design trajectories, or uncertainties.

  7. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  8. Rotavirus RRV associates with lipid membrane microdomains during cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Pavel; Realpe, Mauricio; Romero, Pedro; Lopez, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.

    2004-01-01

    Rotavirus cell entry is a multistep process, not completely understood, which requires at least four interactions between the virus and cell surface molecules. In this work, we investigated the role of the sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains (rafts) in the entry of rotavirus strain RRV to MA104 cells. We found that ganglioside GM1, integrin subunits α2 and β3, and the heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70), all of which have been implicated as rotavirus receptors, are associated with TX-100 and Lubrol WX detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). Integrin subunits α2 and β3 were found to be particularly enriched in DRMs resistant to lysis by Lubrol WX. When purified RRV particles were incubated with cells at 4 deg. C, about 10% of the total infectious virus was found associated with DRMs, and the DRM-associated virus increased to 37% in Lubrol-resistant membrane domains after 60-min incubation at 37 deg. C. The virus was excluded from DRMs if the cells were treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Immunoblot analysis of the viral proteins showed that the virus surface proteins became enriched in DRMs upon incubation at 37 deg. C, being almost exclusively localized in Lubrol-resistant DRMs after 60 min. These data suggest that detergent-resistant membrane domains play an important role in the cell entry of rotaviruses, which could provide a platform to facilitate the efficient interaction of the rotavirus receptors with the virus particle

  9. 19 CFR 10.49 - Articles for exhibition; requirements on entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Works of Art § 10.49 Articles for exhibition; requirements on entry. (a) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of works of art and other articles claimed to be free of duty under Chapter 98... proof demanded by the port director in connection with the entry. (c) Articles entered under subheading...

  10. 19 CFR 176.22 - Deletion of protest or entry number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deletion of protest or entry number. 176.22... Facts § 176.22 Deletion of protest or entry number. If any protest number or entry number is to be... authorized official making and approving the deletion. [T.D. 70-181, 35 FR 13433, Aug. 22, 1970] ...

  11. 77 FR 76063 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles...

  12. Development Output Program Data Entry System For RSG-GAS Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihombing, Edison; Sitorus, Jupiter; Imron, M.; Azriani

    2000-01-01

    Data Entry System is a data acquisition software of failure data of system and component. The acquisition data was calculated to get the failure rate, upper bound value. Since the calculated is big enough the development on Data Entry System program was introduced. Now, the data Entry System can be run to calculate big enough data

  13. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  14. 12 CFR 995.4 - Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation... FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.4 Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations. (a) Authority. Any Federal Reserve Bank shall have authority to apply book-entry procedure to Financing...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5451 - Book-entry and definitive securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry and definitive securities. 615.5451... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Book-Entry Procedures for Farm Credit Securities § 615.5451 Book-entry and definitive securities. Subject to subpart C of this part: (a) Farm...

  16. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for entry...

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-22 - Ports of entry or export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry or export. 319.8-22 Section 319.8-22... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-22 Ports of entry or export. When ports of entry or export are not specifically designated...

  18. 19 CFR 144.42 - Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 144.42 Section 144.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Rewarehouse Entries § 144.42 Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (a) Applicability... rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (b) Procedure for entry. The procedures set forth in § 144.41 are...

  19. 50 CFR 660.24 - Limited entry and open access fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.24 Limited entry and open access fisheries. (a) General. All commercial fishing for groundfish must be conducted in accordance with the regulations governing limited entry and open...

  20. 50 CFR 660.331 - Limited entry and open access fisheries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.331 Limited entry and open access fisheries—general. All... entry and open access fisheries, except such fishing by treaty Indian tribes as may be separately...

  1. 78 FR 76152 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and...

  2. 75 FR 60772 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and... techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP...

  3. Hyperammonemia Associated with Valproic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid, a branched short-chain fatty acid, has numerous action mechanisms which turn it into a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug and make its use possible in some other pathologies such as bipolar disorder. It is extensively metabolized in liver, representing β-oxidation in the mitochondria one of its main metabolic route (40%. Carnitine is responsible for its entry into the mitochondria as any other fatty acid. Long-term high-dose VPA therapy or acute VPA overdose induces carnitine depletion, resulting in high levels of ammonia in blood. As a high correlation between salivary valproic acid levels and plasma ultrafiltrate levels was found in humans, saliva becomes a promising monitoring fluid in order to study valproic acid pharmacokinetics and its toxic effect. Extended-release (twice daily formulations of valproic acid or carnitine supplementation are the proposed two therapeutic strategies in order to reverse hyperammonemia.

  4. Modeling radon entry into Florida slab-on-grade houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and isotropic except for certain simulations in which soil layers of high permeability or radium content are introduced. Depressurization of the house induces a pressure field in the soil and backfill. The Laplace equation, resulting from Darcy's law and the continuity equation, is solved using a steady-state finite-difference model to determine this field. The mass-transport equation is then solved to obtain the diffusive and advective radon entry rates through the slab; the permeable stem wall; gaps at the intersections of the slab, stem wall, and footer; and gaps in the slab. These rates are determined for variable soil, backfill, and stem-wall permeability and radium content, slab-opening width and position, slab and stem-wall diffusivity, and water table depth. The variations in soil permeability and radium content include cases of horizontally stratified soil. We also consider the effect of a gap between the edge of the slab and the stem wall that restricts the passage of soil gas from the stem wall into the house. Calculations indicate that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. Variations in most of the factors, other than the soil permeability and radium content, have only a small effect on the total radon entry rate. However, for a fixed soil permeability, the total radon entry rate may be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by decreasing the backfill permeability, by making the stem wall impermeable and gap-free, (possibly by constructing a one-piece slab/stem-wall/footer), or by increasing the pressure in the interior of the stem wall

  5. ELECTRA © Launch and Re-Entry Safety Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, B.; Arnal, M. H.; Aussilhou, C.; Blazquez, A.; Chemama, F.

    2010-09-01

    French Space Operation Act gives as prime objective to National Technical Regulations to protect people, properties, public health and environment. In this frame, an independent technical assessment of French space operation is delegated to CNES. To perform this task and also for his owns operations CNES needs efficient state-of-the-art tools for evaluating risks. The development of the ELECTRA© tool, undertaken in 2007, meets the requirement for precise quantification of the risks involved in launching and re-entry of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© project draws on the proven expertise of CNES technical centers in the field of flight analysis and safety, spaceflight dynamics and the design of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© tool was specifically designed to evaluate the risks involved in the re-entry and return to Earth of all or part of a spacecraft. It will also be used for locating and visualizing nominal or accidental re-entry zones while comparing them with suitable geographic data such as population density, urban areas, and shipping lines, among others. The method chosen for ELECTRA© consists of two main steps: calculating the possible reentry trajectories for each fragment after the spacecraft breaks up; calculating the risks while taking into account the energy of the fragments, the population density and protection afforded by buildings. For launch operations and active re-entry, the risk calculation will be weighted by the probability of instantaneous failure of the spacecraft and integrated for the whole trajectory. ELECTRA©’s development is today at the end of the validation phase, last step before delivery to users. Validation process has been performed in different ways: numerical application way for the risk formulation; benchmarking process for casualty area, level of energy of the fragments entries and level of protection housing module; best practices in space transportation industries concerning dependability evaluation; benchmarking process for

  6. Optimizing TLB entries for mixed page size storage in contiguous memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kriegel, Jon K.; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2013-04-30

    A system and method for accessing memory are provided. The system comprises a lookup buffer for storing one or more page table entries, wherein each of the one or more page table entries comprises at least a virtual page number and a physical page number; a logic circuit for receiving a virtual address from said processor, said logic circuit for matching the virtual address to the virtual page number in one of the page table entries to select the physical page number in the same page table entry, said page table entry having one or more bits set to exclude a memory range from a page.

  7. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  8. Biliary Bile Acids in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Effect of Ursodeoxycholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Burton; Carithers, Robert L.; Maddrey, Willis C.; Munoz, Santiago; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Bonner, Gregory F.; Boyer, James L.; Luketic, Velimir A.; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; Peters, Marion G.; White, Heather; Zetterman, Rowen K.; Risser, Richard; Rossi, Stephen S.; Hofmann, Alan F.

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid composition in fasting duodenal bile was assessed at entry and at 2 years in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (10–12 mg/kg/d) taken as a single bedtime dose. Specimens were analyzed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method that had been validated against gas chromatography. Percent composition in bile (mean ± SD) for 98 patients at entry for cholic (CA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), deoxycholic (DCA), lithocholic (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) acids, respectively, were 57.4 ± 18.6, 31.5 ± 15.5, 8.0 ± 9.3, 0.3 ± 1.0, and 0.6 ± 0.9. Values for CA were increased, whereas those for CDCA, DCA, LCA, and UDCA were decreased when compared with values in normal persons. Bile acid composition of the major bile acids did not change after 2 years on placebo medication. By contrast, in patients receiving UDCA for 2 years, bile became enriched with UDCA on average to 40.1%, and significant decreases were noted for CA (to 32.2%) and CDCA (to 19.5%). No change in percent composition was observed for DCA and LCA. Percent composition at entry and changes in composition after 2 years on UDCA were similar in patients with varying severity of PBC. In patients whose bile was not enriched in UDCA (entry and placebo-treated specimens), CA, CDCA, DCA, and the small amount of UDCA found in some of these specimens were conjugated to a greater extent with glycine (52%–64%) than with taurine (36%–48%). Treatment with UDCA caused the proportion of all endogenous bile acids conjugated with glycine to increase to 69% to 78%, while the proportion conjugated with taurine (22%–31%) fell (P < .05). Administered UDCA was also conjugated predominantly with glycine (87%). PMID:10347103

  9. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Kai; Chen, Maoyun; Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi; Jin, Fujun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections

  10. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Kai [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Maoyun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jin, Fujun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yifei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections.

  11. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  12. Order Entry Protocols Are an Amenable Target for Workflow Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, James; Klochko, Chad; Patel, Milind; Siegal, Daniel

    2018-04-21

    Order entry protocol selection of advanced imaging studies is labor-intensive, can disrupt workflow, and may displace staff from more valuable tasks. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the behaviors of radiologic technologists and radiologists when determining protocol to identify opportunities for workflow automation. A data set of over 273,000 cross-sectional examination orders from four hospitals within our health system was created. From this data set, we isolated the 12 most frequently requested examinations, which represent almost 50% of the entirety of advanced imaging volume. Intergroup comparisons were made between behavior of radiologic technologists and radiologists or residents when determining protocol. Frequencies of changes were calculated. Common parameters of changed examinations were identified. The overall change rate for both radiologists and residents (4%) is very low and comparable to the overall change rate of radiologic technologists (1%). The change rates for the 12 most ordered examinations were calculated and compared individually. Most examinations that underwent change involved a patient with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate, a patient with a contrast allergy, or a provider ordering a general examination but in fact wanting an organ-specific protocol or an angiographic study. Order entry protocol selection of the most frequently ordered advanced imaging examinations was rarely a value-added activity because these examinations are rarely changed. Changes follow predictable patterns that make order entry protocol selection of most radiology orders for advanced imaging amenable to workflow automation. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; Wright, Henry; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Santos, Jose; Karlgaard, Chris; Kuhl, Chris; Oishi, TOmo; Trombetta, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This paper will introduce Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2) on NASA's Mars2020 mission. Mars2020 is a flagship NASA mission with science and technology objectives to help answer questions about possibility of life on Mars as well as to demonstrate technologies for future human expedition. Mars2020 is scheduled for launch in 2020. MEDLI2 is a suite of instruments embedded in the heatshield and backshell thermal protection systems of Mars2020 entry vehicle. The objectives of MEDLI2 are to gather critical aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and TPS performance data during EDL phase of the mission. MEDLI2 builds up the success of MEDLI flight instrumentation on Mars Science Laboratory mission in 2012. MEDLI instrumentation suite measured surface pressure and TPS temperature on the heatshield during MSL entry into Mars. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has highlighted extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. MEDLI2 expands the scope of instrumentation by focusing on quantities of interest not addressed in MEDLI suite. The type the sensors are expanded and their layout on the TPS modified to meet these new objectives. The paper will provide key motivation and governing requirements that drive the choice and the implementation of the new sensor suite. The implementation considerations of sensor selection, qualification, and demonstration of minimal risk to the host mission will be described. The additional challenges associated with mechanical accommodation, electrical impact, data storage and retrieval for MEDLI2 system, which extends sensors to backshell will also be described.

  14. Lowering Entry Barriers for Multidisciplinary Cyber(e)-Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Multidisciplinarity is more and more important to study the Earth System and address Global Changes. To achieve that, multidisciplinary cyber(e)-infrastructures are an important instrument. In the last years, several European, US and international initiatives have been started to carry out multidisciplinary infrastructures, including: the Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE), the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), the Data Observation Network for Earth (DataOne), and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The majority of these initiatives are developing service-based digital infrastructures asking scientific Communities (i.e. disciplinary Users and data Producers) to implement a set of standards for information interoperability. For scientific Communities, this has represented an entry barrier which has proved to be high, in several cases. In fact, both data Producers and Users do not seem to be willing to invest precious resources to become expert on interoperability solutions -on the contrary, they are focused on developing disciplinary and thematic capacities. Therefore, an important research topic is lowering entry barriers for joining multidisciplinary cyber(e)-Infrastructures. This presentation will introduce a new approach to achieve multidisciplinary interoperability underpinning multidisciplinary infrastructures and lowering the present entry barriers for both Users and data Producers. This is called the Brokering approach: it extends the service-based paradigm by introducing a new a Brokering layer or cloud which is in charge of managing all the interoperability complexity (e.g. data discovery, access, and use) thus easing Users' and Producers' burden. This approach was successfully experimented in the framework of several European FP7 Projects and in GEOSS.

  15. Nuclear power plant personnel entry level qualifications and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Haas, P.M.; Selby, D.L.; Lowry, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the early results and current status of a research program at ORNL which is intended to provide the methods and technical basis for NRC to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for NPP control room personnel. The program is an outgrowth of previous studies of simulator hardware and simulator training requirements under the Safety Related Operator Actions Program which recommended adaptation of a systems methodology to development and evaluation of NPP training programs

  16. Aerothermodynamics of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  17. Port entry of nuclear ships differences, procedures and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, D.; Bianchi, H.

    1978-01-01

    There are about 250 nuclear propelled ships, only 2 of them are merchant ships: the US freighter Savannah and the bulk carrier Otto Hahn of the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper is restricted to the experience with both of these ships, showing partly similar and partly different procedures for port entry. They have called at 107 ports in 40 countries. The Savannah was operated in the periods from 1962 - 1971 and the Otto Hahn is still in operation. The endeavours of the OECD and IMCO to review and to harmonize international rules for nuclear merchant ships should be supported and continued

  18. Kinetics of 210Pb entry into the endoneurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windebank, A.J.; Dyck, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Alteration in the blood-nerve barrier may be of primary importance in the development of experimental lead neuropathy. Using quantitative track autoradiography, the authors have directly demonstrated that there is a 15-fold increase in the rate of 210 Pb accumulation in the endoneurium 70 days after the onset of chronic intoxication. This change in rate coincides with the appearance of edema but occurs later than the previously demonstrated total endoneurial lead accumulation and later than the onset of segmental demyelination suggesting that, in addition to rate of entry, binding within and exit from this compartment are important determinants of endoneurial lead concentration. (Auth.)

  19. Safer laparoscopic trocar entry: it's all about pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Jim; Pearce, Scott; Lawrence, Anthony; Meads, Alan; Mezzatesta, Joseph; Nicolson, Scott

    2004-08-01

    This prospective observational study aimed to assess the feasibility of adapting peritoneal hyperdistention to 25 mmHg during laparoscopy in an Australian hospital environment. A total of 1150 consecutive diagnostic or operative laparoscopies were performed. All cases were monitored for early detection of untoward physiological changes. All patients had Veress needle insufflation with distension to 25 mmHg prior to insertion of the primary trocar. No patients experienced any surgical entry complications or adverse clinical effects noted during anaesthetic. The aim of the current study is to assess the feasibility and safety of increasing the peritoneal insufflation pressure to 25 mmHg for primary trocar insertion.

  20. Overview of Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Mahzari, Milad; Milos, Frank S.; Nishioka, Owen S.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Young, Zion W.; Gage, Peter J.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) projects objective is to mature a 3-D Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) to Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6 to support future NASA missions to destinations such as Venus and Saturn. The scope of the project, status of which will be discussed, encompasses development of manufacturing and integration processes, fabrication of a prototype 1m diameter engineering test unit (ETU) that will undergo a series of structural tests, characterizing material aerothermal performance including development of a material response model, and structural testing and analysis to develop tools to support design and establish system capability.

  1. Inflatable Re-Entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) Design Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.; Starr, Brett R.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Lindell, Michael C.; Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable aeroshells offer several advantages over traditional rigid aeroshells for atmospheric entry. Inflatables offer increased payload volume fraction of the launch vehicle shroud and the possibility to deliver more payload mass to the surface for equivalent trajectory constraints. An inflatable s diameter is not constrained by the launch vehicle shroud. The resultant larger drag area can provide deceleration equivalent to a rigid system at higher atmospheric altitudes, thus offering access to higher landing sites. When stowed for launch and cruise, inflatable aeroshells allow access to the payload after the vehicle is integrated for launch and offer direct access to vehicle structure for structural attachment with the launch vehicle. They also offer an opportunity to eliminate system duplication between the cruise stage and entry vehicle. There are however several potential technical challenges for inflatable aeroshells. First and foremost is the fact that they are flexible structures. That flexibility could lead to unpredictable drag performance or an aerostructural dynamic instability. In addition, durability of large inflatable structures may limit their application. They are susceptible to puncture, a potentially catastrophic insult, from many possible sources. Finally, aerothermal heating during planetary entry poses a significant challenge to a thin membrane. NASA Langley Research Center and NASA's Wallops Flight Facility are jointly developing inflatable aeroshell technology for use on future NASA missions. The technology will be demonstrated in the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE). This paper will detail the development of the initial IRVE inflatable system to be launched on a Terrier/Orion sounding rocket in the fourth quarter of CY2005. The experiment will demonstrate achievable packaging efficiency of the inflatable aeroshell for launch, inflation, leak performance of the inflatable system throughout the flight regime, structural

  2. Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.

  3. Hayabusa Re-Entry: Trajectory Analysis and Observation Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Winter, Michael W.; Allen, Gary A.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Antimisiaris, Manny E.; Albers, James; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On June 13th, 2010, the Hayabusa sample return capsule successfully re-entered Earth s atmosphere over the Woomera Prohibited Area in southern Australia in its quest to return fragments from the asteroid 1998 SF36 Itokawa . The sample return capsule entered at a super-orbital velocity of 12.04 km/sec (inertial), making it the second fastest human-made object to traverse the atmosphere. The NASA DC-8 airborne observatory was utilized as an instrument platform to record the luminous portion of the sample return capsule re-entry (60 sec) with a variety of on-board spectroscopic imaging instruments. The predicted sample return capsule s entry state information at 200 km altitude was propagated through the atmosphere to generate aerothermodynamic and trajectory data used for initial observation flight path design and planning. The DC- 8 flight path was designed by considering safety, optimal sample return capsule viewing geometry and aircraft capabilities in concert with key aerothermodynamic events along the predicted trajectory. Subsequent entry state vector updates provided by the Deep Space Network team at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory were analyzed after the planned trajectory correction maneuvers to further refine the DC-8 observation flight path. Primary and alternate observation flight paths were generated during the mission planning phase which required coordination with Australian authorities for pre-mission approval. The final observation flight path was chosen based upon trade-offs between optimal viewing requirements, ground based observer locations (to facilitate post-flight trajectory reconstruction), predicted weather in the Woomera Prohibited Area and constraints imposed by flight path filing deadlines. To facilitate sample return capsule tracking by the instrument operators, a series of two racetrack flight path patterns were performed prior to the observation leg so the instruments could be pointed towards the region in the star background where

  4. How Helpful is Colour-Cueing of PIN Entry?

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, Karen; Ramsay, Judith

    2014-01-01

    21st Century citizens are faced with the need to remember numbers of PINs (Personal Identification Numbers) in order to do their daily business, and they often have difficulties due to human memory limitations. One way of helping them could be by providing cues during the PIN entry process. The provision of cues that would only be helpful to the PIN owner is challenging because the cue should only make sense to the legitimate user, and not to a random observer. In this paper we report on an e...

  5. Flexible robotic entry device for a nuclear materials production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory has developed and is implementing a flexible robotic entry device (FRED) for the nuclear materials production reactors now operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). FRED is designed for rapid deployment into confinement areas of operating reactors to assess unknown conditions. A unique smart tether method has been incorporated into FRED for simultaneous bidirectional transmission of multiple video/audio/control/power signals over a single coaxial cable. This system makes it possible to use FRED under all operating and standby conditions, including those where radio/microwave transmissions are not possible or permitted, and increases the quantity of data available

  6. The RCSB protein data bank: integrative view of protein, gene and 3D structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Altunkaya, Ali; Bi, Chunxiao; Bradley, Anthony R; Christie, Cole H; Costanzo, Luigi Di; Duarte, Jose M; Dutta, Shuchismita; Feng, Zukang; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S; Hudson, Brian; Kalro, Tara; Lowe, Robert; Peisach, Ezra; Randle, Christopher; Rose, Alexander S; Shao, Chenghua; Tao, Yi-Ping; Valasatava, Yana; Voigt, Maria; Westbrook, John D; Woo, Jesse; Yang, Huangwang; Young, Jasmine Y; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M; Burley, Stephen K

    2017-01-04

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://rcsb.org), the US data center for the global PDB archive, makes PDB data freely available to all users, from structural biologists to computational biologists and beyond. New tools and resources have been added to the RCSB PDB web portal in support of a 'Structural View of Biology.' Recent developments have improved the User experience, including the high-speed NGL Viewer that provides 3D molecular visualization in any web browser, improved support for data file download and enhanced organization of website pages for query, reporting and individual structure exploration. Structure validation information is now visible for all archival entries. PDB data have been integrated with external biological resources, including chromosomal position within the human genome; protein modifications; and metabolic pathways. PDB-101 educational materials have been reorganized into a searchable website and expanded to include new features such as the Geis Digital Archive. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. On the entry of an emerging arbovirus into host cells: Mayaro virus takes the highway to the cytoplasm through fusion with early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.M. Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is an emergent sylvatic alphavirus in South America, related to sporadic outbreaks of a chikungunya-like human febrile illness accompanied by severe arthralgia. Despite its high potential for urban emergence, MAYV is still an obscure virus with scarce information about its infection cycle, including the corresponding early events. Even for prototypical alphaviruses, the cell entry mechanism still has some rough edges to trim: although clathrin-mediated endocytosis is quoted as the putative route, alternative paths as distinct as direct virus genome injection through the cell plasma membrane seems to be possible. Our aim was to clarify crucial details on the entry route exploited by MAYV to gain access into the host cell. Tracking the virus since its first contact with the surface of Vero cells by fluorescence microscopy, we show that its entry occurs by a fast endocytic process and relies on fusion with acidic endosomal compartments. Moreover, blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis or depleting cholesterol from the cell membrane leads to a strong inhibition of viral infection, as assessed by plaque assays. Following this clue, we found that early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles are both implicated as target membranes for MAYV fusion. Our findings unravel the very first events that culminate in a productive infection by MAYV and shed light on potential targets for a rational antiviral therapy, besides providing a better comprehension of the entry routes exploited by alphaviruses to get into the cell.

  8. Automation of Command and Data Entry in a Glovebox Work Volume: An Evaluation of Data Entry Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne K.; Nakamura, Gail; Havens, Cindy; LeMay, Moira

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the human-computer interface for data entry while performing experimental procedures within a glovebox work volume in order to make a recommendation to the Space Station Biological Research Project for a data entry system to be used within the Life Sciences Glovebox. Test subjects entered data using either a manual keypad, similar to a standard computer numerical keypad located within the glovebox work volume, or a voice input system using a speech recognition program with a microphone headset. Numerical input and commands were programmed in an identical manner between the two systems. With both electronic systems, a small trackball was available within the work volume for cursor control. Data, such as sample vial identification numbers, sample tissue weights, and health check parameters of the specimen, were entered directly into procedures that were electronically displayed on a video monitor within the glovebox. A pen and paper system with a 'flip-chart' format for procedure display, similar to that currently in use on the Space Shuttle, was used as a baseline data entry condition. Procedures were performed by a single operator; eight test subjects were used in the study. The electronic systems were tested under both a 'nominal' or 'anomalous' condition. The anomalous condition was introduced into the experimental procedure to increase the probability of finding limitations or problems with human interactions with the electronic systems. Each subject performed five test runs during a test day: two procedures each with voice and keypad, one with and one without anomalies, and one pen and paper procedure. The data collected were both quantitative (times, errors) and qualitative (subjective ratings of the subjects).

  9. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Garloff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  10. NASA Ames Arc Jets and Range, Capabilities for Planetary Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretter, Ernest F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is pursuing innovative technologies and concepts as part of America's Vision for Space Exploration. The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has led to new concepts for multipurpose shields to prevent catastrophic loss of vehicles and crew against the triple threats of aeroheating during atmospheric entry, radiation (Solar and galactic cosmic rays) and Micrometorid/Orbital Debris (MMOD) strikes. One proposed concept is the Thermal Radiation Impact Protection System (TRIPS) using carbon nanotubes, hydrogenated carbon nanotubes, and ceramic coatings as a multi-use TPS. The Thermophysics Facilities Branch of the Space Technology Division at NASA Ames Research Center provides testing services for the development and validation of the present and future concepts being developed by NASA and national and International research firms. The Branch operates two key facilities - the Range Complex and the Arc Jets. The Ranges include both the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) and the Hypervelocity Free Flight (HFF) gas guns best suited for MMOD investigations. Test coupons can be installed in the AVGR or HFF and subjected to particle impacts from glass or metal particles from micron to _ inch (6.35-mm) diameters and at velocities from 5 to 8 kilometers per second. The facility can record high-speed data on film and provide damage assessment for analysis by the Principle Investigator or Ames personnel. Damaged articles can be installed in the Arc Jet facility for further testing to quantify the effects of damage on the heat shield s performance upon entry into atmospheric environments.

  11. The Islamic Entries in Three Major English Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrosyid Abdurrosyid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to analyze Islamic entries in three major English dictionaries; Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE, Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learners’Dictionary (MWALED, and Macquarie Australian National Dictionary (MAND. The three dictionaries are used the object of this study because they represent the major varieties of English besides the existence of a great number of new Englishness emerges around the globe. The selected entries are in accordance to Islamic sciences such as theology, Islamic  Jurisprudence,  Quranic  exegesis,  hadith  Science,  Islamic  mysticism  and  Islamic  History. Inappropriate and inaccurate or misleading definitions given by the dictionaries are identified and analyzed, then they will be examined according to definitions from each Islamic science so that accurate and appropriate definitions can be delivered as the alternatives and in turn more acceptable definitions and understandings of Islam will be given to not only the Muslim communities but also the greater readers.DOI: 10.15408/insaniyat.v2i1.6588

  12. Experimental measurements of the cavitating flow after horizontal water entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thang Tat; Thai, Nguyen Quang; Phuong, Truong Thi [Institute of Mechanics (IMECH), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 264—Doi Can, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hai, Duong Ngoc, E-mail: ntthang@imech.vast.vn, E-mail: dnhai@vast.vn, E-mail: nqthai@imech.vast.vn, E-mail: ttphuong@imech.vast.vn [Graduate University of Science and Technology (GUST), VAST, 18—Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2017-10-15

    Water-entry cavitating flow is of considerable importance in underwater high-speed applications. That is because of the drag-reduction effect that concerns the presence of a cavity around moving objects. Though the study of the flow has long been carried out, little data are documented in literature so far. Besides, currently, in the case of unsteady flow, experimental measurements of some flow parameters such as the cavity pressure still encounter difficulties. Hence continuing research efforts are of important significance. The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the unsteady cavitating flow after the horizontal water entry of projectiles. An experimental apparatus has been developed. Qualitative and quantitative optical visualizations of the flow have been carried out by using high-speed videography. Digital image processing has been applied to analyzing the recorded flow images. Based on the known correlations between the ellipsoidal super-cavity’s size and the corresponding cavitation number, the cavity pressure has been measured by utilizing the data of image processing. A comparison between the partial- and super-cavitating flow regimes is reported. The received results can be useful for the design of high-speed underwater projectiles. (paper)

  13. Identifying missing dictionary entries with frequency-conserving context models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Clark, Eric M.; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-10-01

    In an effort to better understand meaning from natural language texts, we explore methods aimed at organizing lexical objects into contexts. A number of these methods for organization fall into a family defined by word ordering. Unlike demographic or spatial partitions of data, these collocation models are of special importance for their universal applicability. While we are interested here in text and have framed our treatment appropriately, our work is potentially applicable to other areas of research (e.g., speech, genomics, and mobility patterns) where one has ordered categorical data (e.g., sounds, genes, and locations). Our approach focuses on the phrase (whether word or larger) as the primary meaning-bearing lexical unit and object of study. To do so, we employ our previously developed framework for generating word-conserving phrase-frequency data. Upon training our model with the Wiktionary, an extensive, online, collaborative, and open-source dictionary that contains over 100 000 phrasal definitions, we develop highly effective filters for the identification of meaningful, missing phrase entries. With our predictions we then engage the editorial community of the Wiktionary and propose short lists of potential missing entries for definition, developing a breakthrough, lexical extraction technique and expanding our knowledge of the defined English lexicon of phrases.

  14. A Choice Prediction Competition for Market Entry Games: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Erev

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A choice prediction competition is organized that focuses on decisions from experience in market entry games (http://sites.google.com/site/gpredcomp/ and http://www.mdpi.com/si/games/predict-behavior/. The competition is based on two experiments: An estimation experiment, and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of several baseline models. The experimental results reveal the robustness of eight behavioral tendencies that were documented in previous studies of market entry games and individual decisions from experience. The best baseline model (I-SAW assumes reliance on small samples of experiences, and strong inertia when the recent results are not surprising. The competition experiment will be run in May 2010 (after the completion of this introduction, but they will not be revealed until September. To participate in the competition, researchers are asked to E-mail the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competition will be invited to publish a paper that describes their model.

  15. Recent Observations on Australian Bat Lyssavirus Tropism and Viral Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn L. Weir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported, the most recent in 2013, and each manifested as acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013, the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G. Recent studies have revealed that proposed rabies virus (RABV receptors are not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into host cells and that the unknown receptor is broadly conserved among mammalian species. However, despite clear tropism differences between ABLV and RABV, the two viruses appear to utilize similar endocytic entry pathways. The recent human and horse infections highlight the importance of continued Australian public health awareness of this emerging pathogen.

  16. Terminal altitude maximization for Mars entry considering uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pingyuan; Zhao, Zeduan; Yu, Zhengshi; Dai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Uncertainties present in the Mars atmospheric entry process may cause state deviations from the nominal designed values, which will lead to unexpected performance degradation if the trajectory is designed merely based on the deterministic dynamic model. In this paper, a linear covariance based entry trajectory optimization method is proposed considering the uncertainties presenting in the initial states and parameters. By extending the elements of the state covariance matrix as augmented states, the statistical behavior of the trajectory is captured to reformulate the performance metrics and path constraints. The optimization problem is solved by the GPOPS-II toolbox in MATLAB environment. Monte Carlo simulations are also conducted to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. Primary trading performances between the nominal deployment altitude and its dispersion can be observed by modulating the weights on the dispersion penalty, and a compromised result referring to maximizing the 3σ lower bound of the terminal altitude is achieved. The resulting path constraints also show better satisfaction in a disturbed environment compared with the nominal situation.

  17. Brazilian franchisor: Entry and operation of internationalized franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder de Souza Aguiar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the entry and operations strategies of franchisors of developed countries into foreign countries with Brazilian counterparts. Were there significant differences? An exploratory study was conducted with 16 international franchisors operating in Brazil and 31 Brazilian franchisors operating abroad. The results show that international franchisors operating abroad prefer to use a subsidiary in the destination country. At the same time, this strategy is little used by Brazilian franchisors, which prefer the strategy of direct franchises. For data collection, 47 directors or managers of the international expansion of Brazilian companies and the expansion directors of the international companies which operates in Brazil were interviewed. Although more expensive, the subsidiary in the target country offers greater control over the expansion of business reducing the problems caused by the distance of the country of origin. For the management of franchisors, this paper points out that the subsidiary is a natural evolution of entry and operation mode when it is desired or it is needed to control the expansion of networks in other countries. Thus, managers of franchisors in emerging countries should carefully examine the subsidiary option in the target country when their company considers accelerating international growth.

  18. Verification of SAMG entry condition for APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Junghyun; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In the wake of the Fukushima accident, severe accident management has become important more than ever. While Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) focuses on cooling down the core during a design basis accident, the prime objective of severe accident management guideline (SAMG) is to prevent the release of radioactive material into the environment during a severe accident. Only one fixed value of core exit temperature (CET) has been applied for several decades to different types of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea. Although the different types of NPPs have different cladding materials and system designs, the identical CET, i. e., 650 .deg. C, is applied as the entry condition to the SAMG of all the NPPs (except CANDU plants), i. e., Westinghouse type, OPR1000, and APR1400. In this paper, the transition point is re-evaluated for dominant severe accident sequences; station black-out (SBO), small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA), and me dium break loss of coolant accident (MBLOCA). In cases of SBO and SBLOCA, the current SAMG entry condition seems proper, while it needs to be reconsidered for MBLOCA case.

  19. Diving, Jumping and Drinking: instabilities during water entry and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    All organisms interact with fluids in one way or another, and some have presumably adapted their behaviors or features in response to fluid-mechanical forces. Particularly, fluid forces are of great importance when organisms or their body parts move in and out of water. In this talk, I will discuss three problems in which fluid mechanics principles affect form and function of animals. The first problem is how several seabirds (e.g. Gannets and Boobies) dive into water at up to 24 m/s without any injuries. This study examines the effects of their beak shape and dense feathers during water entry to reduce or spread the impact force on the body. The second problem is how animals jump out of water, from plankton to whales. Some aquatic animals generate enough force to exit the water surface as an effective method of capturing prey or escaping from predators. Finally, I will discuss about lapping animals (e.g. dog and cat) as a combined water entry and exit. During the tongue-lapping, associated fluid forces and pinch-off instability will be discussed.

  20. Physician Order Entry Clerical Support Improves Physician Satisfaction and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contratto, Erin; Romp, Katherine; Estrada, Carlos A; Agne, April; Willett, Lisa L

    2017-05-01

    To examine the impact of clerical support personnel for physician order entry on physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with electronic health record (EHR) documentation, and physician attitudes. All seven part-time physicians at an academic general internal medicine practice were included in this quasi-experimental (single group, pre- and postintervention) mixed-methods study. One full-time clerical support staff member was trained and hired to enter physician orders in the EHR and conduct previsit planning. Physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with EHR documentation, and physician attitudes toward the intervention were measured. Four months after the intervention, physicians reported improvements in overall quality of life (good quality, 71%-100%), personal balance (43%-71%), and burnout (weekly, 43%-14%; callousness, 14%-0%). Matched for quarter, productivity increased: work relative value unit (wRVU) per session increased by 20.5% (before, April-June 2014; after, April-June 2015; range -9.2% to 27.5%). Physicians reported feeling more supported, more focused on patient care, and less stressed and fatigued after the intervention. This study supports the use of physician order entry clerical personnel as a simple, cost-effective intervention to improve the work lives of primary care physicians.

  1. Recent observations on Australian bat lyssavirus tropism and viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Dawn L; Annand, Edward J; Reid, Peter A; Broder, Christopher C

    2014-02-19

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus) and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus). Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported, the most recent in 2013, and each manifested as acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013, the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G). Recent studies have revealed that proposed rabies virus (RABV) receptors are not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into host cells and that the unknown receptor is broadly conserved among mammalian species. However, despite clear tropism differences between ABLV and RABV, the two viruses appear to utilize similar endocytic entry pathways. The recent human and horse infections highlight the importance of continued Australian public health awareness of this emerging pathogen.

  2. Experimental Economics on Firm’s Behavior: Entry Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sukadana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes subject’s behavior in evolutionary process of entry game. The experiment is designed to analyze the behavior of the subject. The experiment is set in sequential entry games. Process of the game was conducted under asymmetric information, uncertainty, payoff perturbation and random matching. The subjects of the experiment were students of the Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Subjects who play as new-entrance firms tend to choose “stay-out” strategy when the uncertainty and the amount of loss increase. Meanwhile, the subjects who play as an incumbent firm, which set to have more information about the game (market rather than the new-entrances, most of the time abuse their position by choose “threat” strategy, which not a credible strategy for some of them. Experimental studies shows that New-entrance tend to weight more on lost when the risk increase (from risk averse setting to risk seeking setting, and tend to choose sure value over a lotteries although the expected value from lotteries is higher or the same. These findings support the reason that Indonesian youngsters tend to choose a job as a PNS or employee of existing firms. The results also support the reason that Indonesian businessman is more willing to open a new business if they have a guarantee for their losses.

  3. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  4. Atmospheric Mars Entry and Landing Investigations & Analysis (AMELIA) by ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli Entry Descent Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F.; Karatekin, O.; Aboudan, A.; VanHove, B.; Colombatti, C.; Bettanini, C.; Debei, S.; Lewis, S.; Forget, F.

    2017-09-01

    On the 19th October 2016, Schiaparelli, the Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ESA ExoMars Program entered into the martian atmosphere. Although it did not complete a safe landing on Mars, it transmitted data throughout its descent to the surface, until the loss of signal at 1 minute before the expected touch-down on Mars' surface. From the flight data, we reconstruct the actual dynamics of the vehicle during its descent towards Mars's surface and retrieve the atmospheric profile, in terms of density, pressure and temperature, along its trajectory for atmospheric investigations.

  5. Dissecting virus entry: Replication-independent analysis of virus binding, internalization, and penetration using minimal complementation of β-galactosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkard, Christine; Bloyet, Louis Marie; Wicht, Oliver; Van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Rottier, Peter J M; De Haan, Cornelis A M; Bosch, Berend Jan

    2014-01-01

    Studies of viral entry into host cells often rely on the detection of post-entry parameters, such as viral replication or the expression of a reporter gene, rather than on measuring entry per se. The lack of assays to easily detect the different steps of entry severely hampers the analysis of this

  6. 31 CFR 351.60 - How are book-entry Series EE savings bonds purchased and held?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are book-entry Series EE savings... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Book-Entry Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.60 How are book-entry Series EE savings bonds purchased and held? Book-entry bonds must be purchased and held online...

  7. 31 CFR 370.6 - What requirements apply to a financial institution that handles a credit entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial institution that handles a credit entry? 370.6 Section 370.6 Money and Finance: Treasury... Entries § 370.6 What requirements apply to a financial institution that handles a credit entry? A financial institution that accepts and handles a credit entry initiated by us agrees to the provisions of...

  8. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  9. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  10. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  11. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  12. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  13. Escape from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines.

  14. Mechanism of H. pylori intracellular entry: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eLiu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of H. pylori reside on gastric epithelial cell surfaces and in the overlying mucus, but a small fraction of H. pylori enter host epithelial and immune cells. To explore the role of the nudA invasin in host cell entry, a ΔnudA deletion derivative of strain J99 was constructed and transformants were verified by PCR and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. AGS cells were inoculated with either wild type (WT strain J99 or its ΔnudA mutant to determine the fraction of bacteria that were bound to the cells and inside these cells using the gentamicin protection assay. We observed no significant difference between either the density of H. pylori bound to AGS cell membranes or the density of intracellular H. pylori. To further explore this finding, separate chambers of each culture were fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy (TEM and immunogold TEM. This addition to the classical gentamicin assay demonstrated that there were significantly more intracellular, and fewer membrane-bound, H. pylori in WT-infected AGS cells than in ΔnudA allele infected cells. Thus, the sum of intracellular and membrane-bound H. pylori was similar in the two groups. Since no other similar TEM study has been performed, it is at present unknown whether our observations can be reproduced by others Taken together however, our observations suggest that the classical gentamicin protection assay is not sufficiently sensitive to analyze H. pylori cell entry and that the addition of TEM to the test demonstrate that nudA plays a role in H. pylori entry into AGS cells in vitro. In addition, deletion of the invasin gene appears to limit H. pylori to the AGS cell surface, where it may be partly protected against gentamicin. In contrast, this specific environment may render H. pylori more vulnerable to host defense and therapeutic intervention, and less prone to trigger normal immune, carcinogenic, and other developmental response pathways.

  15. Entry knowledge and situational feedback of MBBS students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S C; Maharjan, S

    2005-01-01

    A need has been felt to acquire knowledge of students at Kathmandu Medical College (KMC) who have decided to take up a medical career and have enrolled at KMC after completing two years of basic sciences. The intent was to (i) find out the entering status with regard to general knowledge, (ii) get feedback from the students about the facilities provided by the management both at basic sciences complex at Duwakot and clinical sciences at Sinamangal and (iii) get feedback regarding the teaching learning activities provided by various departments in KMC. This attempt at getting their point of view was for trying to improve upon the facilities by taking up their suggestions and doing away with the weaknesses. Preference was given to hostel students as they would be able to comment on living conditions. A total of 150 students from three consecutive batches from basic and clinical sciences were included in the study. Survey questionnaires were distributed and all the forms were returned. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5 version for Windows. It was found that the entry knowledge on general issue was better in 6th batch of students (87.08+/-17.41) than 5th batch (82.19+/-17.43) and 7th batch (78.93+/-20.60), but not significant (p=0.164>0.05). The students in different batches differed in their rating of various facilities provided by KMCTH. The most liked departments in terms of teaching learning activities were departments of Anatomy and Pathology. Entry knowledge of the students of three batches was found to differ but not significant, correlating with the amount of teaching and learning received at KMC. The facilities provided by KMC were perceived as more satisfactory by the students who enrolled at KMC in later years. The earlier students had to cope with more difficulties as KMC was trying to improve on various facilities it provided to its students. Level of entry knowledge got better as the students attained more and more years of teaching and

  16. Visualization of house-entry behaviour of malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2016-04-25

    Malaria mosquitoes often blood feed indoors on human hosts. The mosquitoes predominantly enter houses via open eaves. Host-seeking is odour-driven, and finding a host depends on the quality of the odour plume and whether the route towards the host is free of obstructions. Little is known about in-flight behaviour of mosquitoes during house entry. This semi-field study visualizes mosquito house entry in three dimensions (3D) and offers new insights for optimizing vector control interventions. The approach and house entry of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was studied in a semi-field set-up using video-recorded flight tracks and 3D analysis. Behavioural parameters of host-seeking female mosquitoes were visualized with respect to their position relative to the eave as well as whether a mosquito would enter or not. Host odour was standardized using an attractive synthetic blend in addition to CO2. The study was conducted in western Kenya at the Thomas Odhiambo Campus of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Mbita. The majority of host-seeking An. gambiae approached a house with a flight altitude at eave level, arriving within a horizontal arc of 180°. Fifty-five per cent of mosquitoes approaching a house did not enter or made multiple attempts before passing through the eave. During approach, mosquitoes greatly reduced their speed and the flight paths became more convoluted. As a result, mosquitoes that passed through the eave spent more than 80 % of the observed time within 30 cm of the eave. Mosquitoes that exited the eave departed at eave level and followed the edge of the roof (12.5 %) or quickly re-entered after exiting (9.6 %). The study shows that host-seeking mosquitoes, when entering a house, approach the eave in a wide angle to the house at eave level. Less than 25 % of approaching mosquitoes entered the house without interruption, whereas 12.5 % of mosquitoes that had entered left the house again within the time of observation

  17. Transaction cost determinants and ownership-based entry mode choice: a meta-analytical review

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxin Zhao; Yadong Luo; Taewon Suh

    2004-01-01

    Entry mode choice is a critical ingredient of international entry strategies, and has been voluminously examined in the field. The findings, however, are very mixed, especially with respect to transaction-cost-related factors in determining the ownership-based entry mode choice. This study conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the literature and empirically generalize more conclusive findings. Based on the 106 effect sizes of 38 empirical studies, the meta-analysis shows that ...

  18. Phytosanitary inspection of woody plants for planting at european union entry points: A practical enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Eschen, René; Rigaux, Ludovic; Sukovata, Lidia; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Marzano, Mariella; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Phytosanitary import inspections are important to avoid entry of harmful pests on live plants. In the European Union (EU), all consignments of live plants must be inspected at the first point of entry, and plants allowed entry can be moved without further inspection among the 28 Member States and Switzerland. It is important that inspections in EU countries adhere to the same standard to avoid introduction of harmful organisms through countries with weaker methods. We tested whether sampling ...

  19. Quick look report, entry 4: Three Mile Island Unit 2, November 13, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidam, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes tasks performed during entry 4 at Three Mile Island Unit 2. During the entry into containment, which was made on November 13, 1980, additional beta and gamma surveys were conducted to supplement data acquired on previous entries. A decontamination test was completed on Elevation 305. Power receptables tested on Elevation 305 were deenergized, but receptacles on Elevation 347 were energized. Still photography was acquired of Elevations 305 and 347. During the entry, 86 still photographs were taken. Videotaping (color and black and white) was done on Elevations 305 and 347, but lighting on both elevations was insufficient for high-quality video

  20. 76 FR 43263 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... (polyethylene, epoxies) under different loadings such as compression, fatigue, creep, impact, scratch and... sophisticated approach to analyzing the relationship of subcellular elements. Justification for Duty-Free Entry...

  1. Quick look report, Entry 3: Three Mile Island Unit 2, October 16, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes tasks performed during the third entry at Three Mile Island Unit 2. During the entry into containment, which was made on October 16, 1980, additional beta, gamma, and neutron surveys were performed to supplement data obtained on previous entries. In addition, several maintenance tasks were completed including testing the operation of both equipment hatch doors, replacing a loose parts monitor system pre-amplifier, and removing a source range monitor. The five-man entry team accomplished these tasks in about 1-1/2 hours

  2. Characterization of the receptor-binding domain of Ebola glycoprotein in viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhen; Manicassamy, Balaji; Caffrey, Michael; Rong, Lijun

    2011-06-01

    Ebola virus infection causes severe hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates with high mortality. Viral entry/infection is initiated by binding of glycoprotein GP protein on Ebola virion to host cells, followed by fusion of virus-cell membrane also mediated by GP. Using an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based pseudotyping system, the roles of 41 Ebola GP1 residues in the receptor-binding domain in viral entry were studied by alanine scanning substitutions. We identified that four residues appear to be involved in protein folding/structure and four residues are important for viral entry. An improved entry interference assay was developed and used to study the role of these residues that are important for viral entry. It was found that R64 and K95 are involved in receptor binding. In contrast, some residues such as I170 are important for viral entry, but do not play a major role in receptor binding as indicated by entry interference assay and/or protein binding data, suggesting that these residues are involved in post-binding steps of viral entry. Furthermore, our results also suggested that Ebola and Marburg viruses share a common cellular molecule for entry.

  3. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  4. Sunk costs equal sunk boats? The effect of entry costs in a transboundary sequential fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    that for other fisheries substantial sunk investments are needed. In this paper I investigate the effect of such sunk entry costs in a sequential fisheries. I model the uncertainty as a shock to the stock dependent fishing costs, in a two player game, where one of the players faces sunk entry costs. I find that......, depending on parameters, sunk costs can i) increase the competitive pressure on the fish stock compared to a game where entry is free ii) act as a deterrence mechanism and iii) act as a commitment device. I conclude that entry costs can play a crucial role because they can change the outcome of the game...

  5. Nordisk Wavin A/S: a story of successful entry in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Succesful entry in the Polish market by Nordisk Wavin A/S. An analysis of the entry process, its main steps and the managerial handling of the problems in each step.The firm,the market evaluation and potential,risk,information and the political imperative,handling the Polish market and the experi......Succesful entry in the Polish market by Nordisk Wavin A/S. An analysis of the entry process, its main steps and the managerial handling of the problems in each step.The firm,the market evaluation and potential,risk,information and the political imperative,handling the Polish market...

  6. Market entry, power, pharmacokinetics: what makes a successful drug innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Susanne; Helmstädter, Axel

    2018-02-01

    Depending on the timing of market entry, radical innovations can be distinguished from incremental innovations. Whereas a radical innovation typically is the first available derivative of a drug class, incremental innovations are launched later and show a certain benefit compared with the radical innovation. Here, we use historical market data relating to pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and other drug-related properties to investigate which derivatives within certain drug classes have been most successful on the market. Based on our investigations, we suggest naming the most successful drugs 'overtaking innovation', because they often exceed the market share of all the other derivatives. Seven drug classes showed that the overtaking innovation is never a radical innovation, but rather an early incremental innovation, with advantages in manageability and/or tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time multi-function entry / exit management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Asano, Norikazu; Onoue, Ryuji; Eguchi, Shohei; Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Hori, Naohiko; Ueda, Hisao; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent radiation accident and its expansion, more integrated management system is required to safety management for radiation workers in the nuclear facilities. Therefore, JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have developed innovative real-time multi-function entry/exit management system which managed worker's exposed dose and position under the joint developed patent. This system is sharing worker's data among workers and server manager who is inside of or outside of building, such as worker's positing, health condition and exposed dose. It consists of mobile equipments, receivers, LAN, and servers system. This report summarizes the system to be installed in the JMTR. (author)

  8. Olympic athletes’ job market entry strategies. A typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vilanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a typology of job market entry strategies among Olympic athletes. Guided by rational choice theory and social reproduction theory, we conducted a telephone survey among 94 athletes (68 men and 26 women. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct groups, which we called parallel life strategists, freelance strategists, lifetime athletes, and non-strategists: it’s a job. The results show that athletes from families with greater economic and cultural capital implement career transition strategies further in advance and achieve greater career success and satisfaction. These findings can be used to develop support programs tailored to the needs of athletes according to their profile.

  9. Single Pilot Workload Management During Cruise in Entry Level Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Silverman, Evan; Hackworth, Carla; Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Drechsler, Gena; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Advanced technologies and automation are important facilitators of single pilot operations, but they also contribute to the workload management challenges faced by the pilot. We examined task completion, workload management, and automation use in an entry level jet (ELJ) flown by single pilots. Thirteen certificated Cessna Citation Mustang (C510-S) pilots flew an instrument flight rules (IFR) experimental flight in a Cessna Citation Mustang simulator. At one point participants had to descend to meet a crossing restriction prior to a waypoint and prepare for an instrument approach into an un-towered field while facilitating communication from a lost pilot who was flying too low for ATC to hear. Four participants experienced some sort of difficulty with regard to meeting the crossing restriction and almost half (n=6) had problems associated with the instrument approach. Additional errors were also observed including eight participants landing at the airport with an incorrect altimeter setting.

  10. Macropinocytosis is the Entry Mechanism of Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Vilhardt, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    of infection. Understanding how pathogens and toxins exploit or divert endocytosis pathways has advanced our understanding of membrane trafficking pathways, which benefits development of new therapeutical schemes and methods of drug delivery. We show here that Murine Leukemia Virus (A-MLV) pseudotyped......, or NIH-3T3 cells knocked-down for caveolin expression, was unaffected. Conversely, A-MLV infection of NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells was sensitive to amiloride analogues and actin-depolymerizing drugs that interfere with macropinocytosis. Further manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton through conditional...... with the amphotropic (expands the host range to many mammalian cells) envelope protein gains entry into host cells by macropinocytosis. Macropinosomes form as large, fluid-filled vacuoles (up to 10 μm) following collapse of cell surface protrusions and membrane scission. We use drugs or introduction of mutant proteins...

  11. Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Cervantes-de-la-Torre, Francisco; Diaz-Montes, Jesus; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus

    2018-05-01

    According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold's upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.

  12. Presenilin-mediated modulation of capacitative calcium entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, A S; Cheng, I; Chung, S; Grenfell, T Z; Lee, H; Pack-Chung, E; Handler, M; Shen, J; Xia, W; Tesco, G; Saunders, A J; Ding, K; Frosch, M P; Tanzi, R E; Kim, T W

    2000-09-01

    We studied a novel function of the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) in governing capacitative calcium entry (CCE), a refilling mechanism for depleted intracellular calcium stores. Abrogation of functional PS1, by either knocking out PS1 or expressing inactive PS1, markedly potentiated CCE, suggesting a role for PS1 in the modulation of CCE. In contrast, familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)-linked mutant PS1 or PS2 significantly attenuated CCE and store depletion-activated currents. While inhibition of CCE selectively increased the amyloidogenic amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42), increased accumulation of the peptide had no effect on CCE. Thus, reduced CCE is most likely an early cellular event leading to increased Abeta42 generation associated with FAD mutant presenilins. Our data indicate that the CCE pathway is a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    The paper develops a simple model for a developing country with a dual economic structure. The model is a further theoretical extension and empirical work to an earlier published book chapter on the same topic. The abstract was updated after presentation at the conference in Gold Coast, Australia....... The main research question is why it is so difficult for new entrepreneurs to enter markets, or in other words, why are the barriers to entry seemingly higher in developing countries? Development writers such as Hernando de Soto and Daron Acemoglu suggest that this question is closely related...... with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...

  14. Risk Factors of Entry in Out-of-Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Ejrnæs, Niels Morten; Frederiksen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    . The mother’s characteristics are more important risk factors than the corresponding risk factors of the father. The results, the applied method and the epidemiological inspired analysis make an opportunity to discuss the central concepts and methods of calculation of statistical association, risk, prediction......This paper presents the results of research on children’s risk of being placed in out-of-home care. The purpose is: firstly, to compare children placed in out-of-home care with non-placed children, secondly, to estimate the children’s risk of entry into care and finally, to compare the results...... of this study with the results from similar studies. The study is based on register data from the Statistics Denmark. The sample includes all children with Danish citizenship who were born 1981–2003. In order to estimate the risk of being placed in out-of-home care, we use information about the child...

  15. Dissociative recombination in reactive flows related to planetary atmospheric entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bultel Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dissociative Recombination (DR processes play a significant role in plasma chemistry. This article illustrates this role from the modeling point of view in the case of reactive flows related to atmospheric entry plasmas. Two situations are investigated, for which the studied plasma is nitrogen. The first configuration corresponds to the relaxation process behind a strong shock wave moving at high Mach number in a shock tube, the second one to the recombination taking place in an expanding plasma flowing in a diverging nozzle. In both cases, the collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2, involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and electrons, is implemented in an Eulerian 1D code able to compute the aerodynamic fields; calculations are performed in standard conditions. We show that, according to the rate coefficients used for the DR processes, the population density of the charged species especially N2+ is strongly modified only for the post-shock flow.

  16. Human Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Architecture Study Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Polsgrove, Tara T.

    2016-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Architecture Study is a multi-NASA center activity to analyze candidate EDL systems as they apply to human Mars landing in the context of the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The study, led by the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), is performed in conjunction with the NASA's Science Mission Directorate and the Human Architecture Team, sponsored by NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The primary objective is to prioritize future STMD EDL technology investments by (1) generating Phase A-level designs for selected concepts to deliver 20 t human class payloads, (2) developing a parameterized mass model for each concept capable of examining payloads between 5 and 40 t, and (3) evaluating integrated system performance using trajectory simulations. This paper summarizes the initial study results.

  17. What principles should govern the use of managed entry agreements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marianne; Frønsdal, Katrine; Facey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To ensure rapid access to new potentially beneficial health technologies, obtain best value for money, and ensure affordability, healthcare payers are adopting a range of innovative reimbursement approaches that may be called Managed Entry Agreements (MEAs). METHODS: The Health...... Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum sought to identify why MEAs might be used, issues associated with implementation and develop principles for their use. A 2-day deliberative workshop discussed key papers, members' experiences, and collectively addressed four policy questions...... that resulted in this study. RESULTS: MEAs are used to give access to new technologies where traditional reimbursement is deemed inappropriate. Three different forms of MEAs have been identified: management of budget impact, management of uncertainty relating to clinical and/or cost...

  18. California serogroup GC (G1) glycoprotein is the principal determinant of pH-dependent cell fusion and entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Soldan, Samantha S.; Stachelek, Karen M.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Members of the California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, particularly La Crosse (LAC) and Tahyna (TAH) viruses, are significant human pathogens in areas where their mosquito vectors are endemic. Previous studies using wild-type LAC and TAH181/57, a highly neurovirulent strain with low neuroinvasiveness (Janssen, R., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Nathanson, N., 1984. Mechanisms of bunyavirus virulence. Comparative pathogenesis of a virulent strain of La Crosse and an avirulent strain of Tahyna virus. Lab. Invest. 50 (4), 447-455), have demonstrated that the neuroinvasive phenotype maps to the M segment, the segment that encodes the two viral glycoproteins GN (G2) and GC (G1), as well as a non-structural protein NSm. To further define the role of GN and GC in fusion and entry, we prepared a panel of recombinant M segment constructs using LAC, TAH181/57, and V22F, a monoclonal-resistant variant of LAC with deficient fusion function. These M segment constructs were then tested in two surrogate assays for virus entry: a cell-to-cell fusion assay based on T7-luciferase expression, and a pseudotype transduction assay based on the incorporation of the bunyavirus glycoproteins on an MLV backbone. Both assays demonstrated that GC is the principal determinant of virus fusion and cell entry, and furthermore that the region delineated by amino acids 860-1442, corresponding to the membrane proximal two-thirds of GC, is key to these processes. These results, coupled with structural modeling suggesting homologies between the carboxy region of GC and Sindbis virus E1, suggest that the LAC GC functions as a type II fusion protein

  19. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong, E-mail: jimtong@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lau, Kean Seng [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  20. Passivity analysis for a winged re-entry vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooij, E. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-10

    Application of simple adaptive control (SAC) theory to the design of guidance and control systems for winged re-entry vehicles has been proven successful. To apply SAC to these non-linear and non-stationary systems, it needs to be Almost Strictly Passive (ASP), which is an extension of the Almost Strictly Positive Real (ASPR) condition for linear, time-invariant systems. To fulfill the ASP condition, the controlled, non-linear system has to be minimum-phase (i.e., the zero dynamics is stable), and there is a specific condition for the product of output and input matrix. Earlier studies indicate that even the linearised system is not ASPR. The two problems at hand are: 1) the system is non-minimum phase when flying with zero bank angle, and 2) whenever there is hybrid control, e.g., yaw control is established by combined reaction and aerodynamic control for the major part of flight, the second ASPR condition cannot be met. In this paper we look at both issues, the former related to the guidance system and the latter to the attitude-control system. It is concluded that whenever the nominal bank angle is zero, the passivity conditions can never be met, and guidance should be based on nominal commands and a redefinition of those whenever the error becomes too large. For the remaining part of the trajectory, the passivity conditions are marginally met, but it is proposed to add feedforward compensators to alleviate these conditions. The issue of hybrid control is avoided by redefining the controls with total control moments and adding a so-called control allocator. Deriving the passivity conditions for rotational motion, and evaluating these conditions along the trajectory shows that the (non-linear) winged entry vehicle is ASP. The sufficient conditions to apply SAC for attitude control are thus met.