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Sample records for acid pdb entries

  1. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, R.P.; Womack, T.; Vriend, G.; Bricogne, G.

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated

  2. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joosten, Robbie P. [CMBI, NCMLS, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Womack, Thomas [Global Phasing, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); Vriend, Gert, E-mail: vriend@cmbi.ru.nl [CMBI, NCMLS, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bricogne, Gérard [Global Phasing, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); CMBI, NCMLS, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  3. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Robbie P; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data. PMID:19171973

  4. PDB_REDO: automated re-refinement of X-ray structure models in the PDB

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, R.P.; Salzemann, J.; Bloch, V.; Stockinger, H.; Berglund, A; Blanchet, C.; Bongcam-Rudloff, E.; Combet, C.; Da Costa, A.L.; Deleage, G.; Diarena, M.; Fabbretti, R.; Fettahi, G.; Flegel, V.; Gisel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Structural biology, homology modelling and rational drug design require accurate three-dimensional macromolecular coordinates. However, the coordinates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have not all been obtained using the latest experimental and computational methods. In this study a method is presented for automated re-refinement of existing structure models in the PDB. A large-scale benchmark with 16 807 PDB entries showed that they can be improved in terms of fit to the deposited experimenta...

  5. The NMR restraints grid at BMRB for 5,266 protein and nucleic acid PDB entries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doreleijers, J.F.; Vranken, W.F.; Schulte, C.; Lin, J.; Wedell, J.R.; Penkett, C.J.; Vuister, G.W.; Vriend, G.; Markley, J.L.; Ulrich, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Several pilot experiments have indicated that improvements in older NMR structures can be expected by applying modern software and new protocols (Nabuurs et al. in Proteins 55:483-186, 2004; Nederveen et al. in Proteins 59:662-672, 2005; Saccenti and Rosato in J Biomol NMR 40:251-261, 2008). A recen

  6. A series of PDB-related databanks for everyday needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, W.G.; Baakman, C.A.B.; Black, J.; Beek, T.A. van; Krieger, E.; Joosten, R.P.; Vriend, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a series of databanks (http://swift.cmbi.ru.nl/gv/facilities/) that hold information that is computationally derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries and that might augment macromolecular structure studies. These derived databanks run parallel to the PDB, i.e. they have one entry per

  7. PDB_REDO: automated re-refinement of X-ray structure models in the PDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Robbie P; Salzemann, Jean; Bloch, Vincent; Stockinger, Heinz; Berglund, Ann-Charlott; Blanchet, Christophe; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Combet, Christophe; Da Costa, Ana L; Deleage, Gilbert; Diarena, Matteo; Fabbretti, Roberto; Fettahi, Géraldine; Flegel, Volker; Gisel, Andreas; Kasam, Vinod; Kervinen, Timo; Korpelainen, Eija; Mattila, Kimmo; Pagni, Marco; Reichstadt, Matthieu; Breton, Vincent; Tickle, Ian J; Vriend, Gert

    2009-06-01

    Structural biology, homology modelling and rational drug design require accurate three-dimensional macromolecular coordinates. However, the coordinates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have not all been obtained using the latest experimental and computational methods. In this study a method is presented for automated re-refinement of existing structure models in the PDB. A large-scale benchmark with 16 807 PDB entries showed that they can be improved in terms of fit to the deposited experimental X-ray data as well as in terms of geometric quality. The re-refinement protocol uses TLS models to describe concerted atom movement. The resulting structure models are made available through the PDB_REDO databank (http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/pdb_redo/). Grid computing techniques were used to overcome the computational requirements of this endeavour. PMID:22477769

  8. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  9. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Vikas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Results Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous αL helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into αR helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an αR conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a βR conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to αL helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. Conclusion By examining left-handed α-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed α-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  10. Outcome of the First wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul D; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; Bell, Jeffrey A; Berman, Helen M; Bhat, Talapady N; Blaney, Jeff M; Bolton, Evan; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, David; Burley, Stephen K; Case, David A; Clark, Kirk L; Darden, Tom; Emsley, Paul; Feher, Victoria A; Feng, Zukang; Groom, Colin R; Harris, Seth F; Hendle, Jorg; Holder, Thomas; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Krojer, Tobias; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Mark, Alan E; Markley, John L; Miller, Matthew; Minor, Wladek; Montelione, Gaetano T; Murshudov, Garib; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki; Nicholls, Anthony; Nicklaus, Marc; Nolte, Robert T; Padyana, Anil K; Peishoff, Catherine E; Pieniazek, Susan; Read, Randy J; Shao, Chenghua; Sheriff, Steven; Smart, Oliver; Soisson, Stephen; Spurlino, John; Stouch, Terry; Svobodova, Radka; Tempel, Wolfram; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Tronrud, Dale; Velankar, Sameer; Ward, Suzanna C; Warren, Gregory L; Westbrook, John D; Williams, Pamela; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine

    2016-04-01

    Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive, ∼75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery and design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron-density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide PDB/Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30-31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the PDB? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated.

  11. Outcome of the First wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul D; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; Bell, Jeffrey A; Berman, Helen M; Bhat, Talapady N; Blaney, Jeff M; Bolton, Evan; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, David; Burley, Stephen K; Case, David A; Clark, Kirk L; Darden, Tom; Emsley, Paul; Feher, Victoria A; Feng, Zukang; Groom, Colin R; Harris, Seth F; Hendle, Jorg; Holder, Thomas; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Krojer, Tobias; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Mark, Alan E; Markley, John L; Miller, Matthew; Minor, Wladek; Montelione, Gaetano T; Murshudov, Garib; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki; Nicholls, Anthony; Nicklaus, Marc; Nolte, Robert T; Padyana, Anil K; Peishoff, Catherine E; Pieniazek, Susan; Read, Randy J; Shao, Chenghua; Sheriff, Steven; Smart, Oliver; Soisson, Stephen; Spurlino, John; Stouch, Terry; Svobodova, Radka; Tempel, Wolfram; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Tronrud, Dale; Velankar, Sameer; Ward, Suzanna C; Warren, Gregory L; Westbrook, John D; Williams, Pamela; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine

    2016-04-01

    Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive, ∼75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery and design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron-density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide PDB/Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30-31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the PDB? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated. PMID:27050687

  12. PDB_REDO: constructive validation, more than just looking for errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Robbie P; Joosten, Krista; Murshudov, Garib N; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2012-04-01

    Developments of the PDB_REDO procedure that combine re-refinement and rebuilding within a unique decision-making framework to improve structures in the PDB are presented. PDB_REDO uses a variety of existing and custom-built software modules to choose an optimal refinement protocol (e.g. anisotropic, isotropic or overall B-factor refinement, TLS model) and to optimize the geometry versus data-refinement weights. Next, it proceeds to rebuild side chains and peptide planes before a final optimization round. PDB_REDO works fully automatically without the need for intervention by a crystallographic expert. The pipeline was tested on 12 000 PDB entries and the great majority of the test cases improved both in terms of crystallographic criteria such as R(free) and in terms of widely accepted geometric validation criteria. It is concluded that PDB_REDO is useful to update the otherwise `static' structures in the PDB to modern crystallographic standards. The publically available PDB_REDO database provides better model statistics and contributes to better refinement and validation targets. PMID:22505269

  13. Widespread occurrence of the tfd-II genes in soil bacteria revealed by nucleotide sequence analysis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradative plasmids pDB1 and p712.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Kim, Min-Sun; Lim, Jong-Sung; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Variovorax sp. strain DB1 and Pseudomonas pickettii strain 712 are 2,4-dicholorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria, which were isolated from agricultural soils in Republic of Korea and USA, respectively. Each strain harbors a 2,4-D degradative plasmid and is able to utilize 2,4-D as the sole source of carbon for its growth. The 2,4-D degradative plasmid pDB1 of strain DB1 consisted of a 65,269-bp circular molecule with a G+C content of 66.23% and had 68 ORFs. The 2,4-D degradative plasmid p712 of strain 712 was composed of a 62,798-bp circular molecule with a 62.11% G+C content and had 62 ORFs. The plasmids pDB1 and p712 share significantly homologous 2,4-D degradative genes with high similarity to the tfdR, tfdB-II, tfdC-II, tfdD-II, tfdE-II, tfdF-II, tfdK and tfdA genes of plasmid pJP4 of Alcaligenes eutrophus isolated from Australia. In a phylogenetic analysis with trfA, traL, and trbA genes, pDB1 belonged to IncP-1β with pJP4, while p712 belonged to IncP-1ε with pKJK5 and pEMT3. The results indicated that, in spite of the differences in their backbone regions, the 2,4-D catabolic genes of the two plasmids were closely related and also related to the well-known 2,4-D degradative plasmid pJP4 even though all were isolated from different geographic regions. Other similarities in the genetic organization and the presence of IS1071 suggested that these catabolic genes may be on a transposable element, leading to widespread occurrence in soil bacteria. PMID:23376020

  14. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

  15. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Emel Maden; Güntert, Peter, E-mail: guentert@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary.

  16. Proteins of Unknown Function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB: An Inventory of True Uncharacterized Proteins and Computational Tools for Their Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nadzirin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files that were categorized under “unknown function” are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  17. Reading PDB: perception of molecules from 3D atomic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaczek, Sascha; Kolodzik, Adrian; Groth, Inken; Heuser, Stefan; Rarey, Matthias

    2013-01-28

    The analysis of small molecule crystal structures is a common way to gather valuable information for drug development. The necessary structural data is usually provided in specific file formats containing only element identities and three-dimensional atomic coordinates as reliable chemical information. Consequently, the automated perception of molecular structures from atomic coordinates has become a standard task in cheminformatics. The molecules generated by such methods must be both chemically valid and reasonable to provide a reliable basis for subsequent calculations. This can be a difficult task since the provided coordinates may deviate from ideal molecular geometries due to experimental uncertainties or low resolution. Additionally, the quality of the input data often differs significantly thus making it difficult to distinguish between actual structural features and mere geometric distortions. We present a method for the generation of molecular structures from atomic coordinates based on the recently published NAOMI model. By making use of this consistent chemical description, our method is able to generate reliable results even with input data of low quality. Molecules from 363 Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries could be perceived with a success rate of 98%, a result which could not be achieved with previously described methods. The robustness of our approach has been assessed by processing all small molecules from the PDB and comparing them to reference structures. The complete data set can be processed in less than 3 min, thus showing that our approach is suitable for large scale applications.

  18. Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 utilizes sialic acid as a cellular receptor for virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S; Sharma, Anurag; Mittal, Suresh K

    2009-09-30

    Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAd3) and porcine adenovirus serotype 3 (PAd3) entry into the host cells is independent of Coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor and integrins. The role of sialic acid in BAd3 and PAd3 entry was investigated. Removal of sialic acid by neuraminidase, or blocking sialic acid by wheat germ agglutinin lectin significantly inhibited BAd3, but not PAd3, transduction of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. Maackia amurensis agglutinin or Sambucus nigra (elder) agglutinin treatment efficiently blocked BAd3 transduction suggesting that BAd3 utilized alpha(2,3)-linked and alpha(2,6)-linked sialic acid as a cell receptor. BAd3 transduction of MDBK cells was sensitive to sodium periodate, bromelain, or trypsin treatment indicating that the receptor sialoconjugate was a glycoprotein rather than a ganglioside. To determine sialic acid-containing cell membrane proteins that bind to BAd3, virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) was performed and showed that sialylated cell membrane proteins in size of approximately 97 and 34 kDa bind to BAd3. The results suggest that sialic acid serves as a primary receptor for BAd3.

  19. PDB: CBRC-PABE-07-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:377-801(Identity=9...6%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...377-801(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:377-801(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  20. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1491 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:337-792(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...337-792(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:337-792(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  1. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-1094 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:394-820(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  2. PDB: CBRC-AGAM-03-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:493-923(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...493-923(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:493-923(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  3. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-2184 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=91%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:381-814(Identity=9...1%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...381-814(Identity=90%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:381-814(Identity=90%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  4. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-02-0275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:374-798(Identity=9...6%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...374-798(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:374-798(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  5. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-37-0329 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=87%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:577-967(Identity=8...7%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  6. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-19-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:352-778(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...352-778(Identity=91%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:352-778(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  7. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-01-0507 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:324-795(Identity=9...3%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...324-795(Identity=92%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:324-795(Identity=92%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  8. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-04-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=95%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:385-812(Identity=9...5%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  9. PDB: CBRC-XTRO-01-3362 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=84%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:362-748(Identity=8...4%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...362-750(Identity=84%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:362-750(Identity=84%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  10. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1602 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:346-794(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...346-794(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:346-794(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  11. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-05-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:383-810(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...383-810(Identity=91%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:383-810(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  12. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-01-0096 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0096 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:132-163(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-OPRI-01-0544 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0544 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=93%) PDB:1HLL Chain:...A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=93%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=93%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=93%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1941 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1941 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-1163 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-1163 1HLL,1HO9,1HOD,1HOF, Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HLL Chain...:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HO9 Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOD Chain:A (NMR),Region:118-149(Identity=100%) PDB:1HOF Chain:A (NMR), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-PABE-08-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0030 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:45-139(Identity...=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity...=80%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity...=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0137 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR...),Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-37-0154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:3DU7 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB...:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:2WBE Chain:A (EM Resolution=9.40),Reg...ion:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:400-819(Id...entity=93%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.95),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:400-819(Identity=93%

  1. PDB: CBRC-ACAR-01-1016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:331-779(Identity=95%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:331-779(Identity=97%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolut...ion=1.90),Region:331-779(Identity=97%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Regio...n:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:331-779(I...dentity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:331-779(Identity=96%

  2. PDB: CBRC-TNIG-22-0159 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2WBE,3DU7,2E4H, Region:346-770(Identity=93%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:346-770(Identit...y=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:346-770(Identity=95%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28....00),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region...:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:346-770(Id

  3. PDB: CBRC-FRUB-02-0776 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:A (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolu...tion=1.90),Region:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Re...gion:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3DU7 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:1326...-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.95),Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:1326-1

  4. PDB: CBRC-DRER-10-0153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3DU7,3E22, Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resol...ution=28.00),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),...Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:383-83...1(Identity=93%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.58),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.20),Region:383-821(Identit

  5. PDB: CBRC-FRUB-02-0211 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3E22, Region:369-811(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:369-814(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolut...ion=1.90),Region:369-814(Identity=95%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Regio...n:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:369-814(I...dentity=94%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:369-814(Identity=94%

  6. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0391 1FFX,1IA0,1JFF,1SA0,1SA1,1TUB,1TVK,2WBE,1Z2B,3DCO,3DU7,3E22, Region:421-804(Identity...=82%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1IA0 Chai...n:B (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:421-804(Identity...=82%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:421-804(Identity=82...%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.20),Region:421-788(Identity=82%) PDB:1TUB Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.70),Region:421-788(Identit

  7. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-05-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-HSAP-05-0018 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  8. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-06-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-RMAC-06-0015 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  9. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:21-47(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:21-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:23-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:26-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:32-40(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PABE-06-0013 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:21-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  10. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PABE-06-0012 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  11. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-06-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PTRO-06-0019 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  12. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-0359 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PHAM-01-0359 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  13. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-28

    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2(nd) generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent.

  14. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-18-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-18-0028 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:27-122(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:27-122(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:27-122(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-17-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-17-0035 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2355 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2355 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:46-141(Identity=92%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:46-141(Identity=92%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:46-141(Identity=92%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-0319 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0319 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-03-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-03-0017 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-30-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-30-0010 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:14-109(Identity=81%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:14-109(Identity=81%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:14-109(Identity=81%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-PABE-04-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-04-0051 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-EEUR-01-1463 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1463 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:33-126(Identity=83%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:33-126(Identity=83%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:33-126(Identity=83%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1625 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1625 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-1460 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1460 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:22-118(Identity=85%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.76),Region:22-118(Identity=85%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:22-118(Identity=85%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-09-0212 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-09-0212 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-04-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-04-0013 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  6. The PDB_REDO server for macromolecular structure model optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Fei Long; Murshudov, Garib N.; Anastassis Perrakis

    2014-01-01

    The refinement and validation of a crystallographic structure model is the last step before the coordinates and the associated data are submitted to the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The success of the refinement procedure is typically assessed by validating the models against geometrical criteria and the diffraction data, and is an important step in ensuring the quality of the PDB public archive [Read et al. (2011 ▶), Structure, 19, 1395–1412]. The PDB_REDO procedure aims for ‘constructive valida...

  7. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-23-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-23-0006 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-10-0233 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-10-0233 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:26-121(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.76),Region:26-121(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:26-121(Identity=95%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-0880 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0880 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.76),Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-PABE-18-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-18-0028 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.76),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-OPRI-01-1523 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1523 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A... (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:85-449(Identity...=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:108-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-367(Ide...ntity=98%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-367(Identity=97%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:32-398(...Identity=96%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:55-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-06-0027 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:126-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:126-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:126-4...92(Identity=98%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:149-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-365(Ide...ntity=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  17. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengli [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States); Luecke, Christian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet (Germany); Baier, Leslie J. [NIDDK, NIH, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch (United States); Sacchettini, James C. [Texas A and M University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States); Hamilton, James A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States)

    1997-04-15

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel {beta}-strands which form two nearly orthogonal {beta}-sheets of five strands each, and two short {alpha}-helices that connect the {beta}-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two {beta}-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand.

  18. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-19-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-19-0007 2K03,2K04,2K05,3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:1-39(Identity=81%...) PDB:2K03 Chain:B (NMR),Region:1-39(Identity=81%) PDB:2K04 Chain:B (NMR),Region:1-39(Identity=81%) PDB:2K05... Chain:B (NMR),Region:2-320(Identity=95%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=95%)... PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(Identity=95%) PDB:3OE6 Chai...n:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=95%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=95%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1145 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1145 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-13-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-13-0058 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:10-3...29(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:10-323(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1471 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1471 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-0392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0392 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(...Identity=94%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-VPAC-01-0675 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0675 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-332(...Identity=91%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-326(Identity=91%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-OCUN-01-0879 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0879 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:13-3...32(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:13-326(Identity=96%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-MEUG-01-0424 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0424 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:13-3...27(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=3.1),Region:13-321(Identity=83%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-GGAL-01-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-01-0005 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-DNOV-01-3105 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-3105 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(...Identity=91%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-01-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-01-0060 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:6-332(...Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:6-326(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-06-0098 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0098 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-08-0108 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0108 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-ACAR-01-1082 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1082 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35...-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:35-585(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-OPRI-01-1351 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1351 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23...-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:23-573(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1639 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1639 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=95%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1389 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1389 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=94%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1532 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1532 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-1022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-1022 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-572(Identity=87%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2808 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2808 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=97%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-08-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-08-0048 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-XTRO-01-3192 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3192 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23...-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:23-573(Identity=85%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-MEUG-01-2439 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2439 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.35),Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35...-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.75),Region:35-585(Identity=94%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-TSYR-01-1259 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1259 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:1-306(...Identity=88%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:1-300(Identity=88%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1210 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1210 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-03-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-03-0009 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray... Resolution=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Res...olution=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-0762 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0762 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:3-325(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-02-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-02-0002 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2536 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2536 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:10-3...30(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-05-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-05-0006 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-EEUR-01-1356 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1356 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:35-3...53(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-14-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-14-0054 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-SARA-01-0838 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0838 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-330(...Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1190 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1190 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-48...5(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-10-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-10-0011 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:13-3...35(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-LAFR-01-1328 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1328 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-317(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0019 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:...25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-PABE-03-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-03-0008 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-330(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-02-0383 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0383 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-TSYR-01-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0036 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-55...1(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-04-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0056 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-GGAL-07-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-07-0011 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:9-331(...Identity=81%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1177 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1177 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-1379 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1379 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-05-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-05-0017 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-03-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-03-0043 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-1931 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1931 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:37-3...54(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-ETEL-01-1471 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1471 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:52-3...75(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1429 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1429 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1450 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1450 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:11...3-435(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-01-0008 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-02-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0054 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-13-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-13-0023 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-0390 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0390 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-07-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-07-0055 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-0300 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0300 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-271(...Identity=98%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-10-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-10-0003 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-PABE-08-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0035 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-07-0089 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-07-0089 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-MEUG-01-2373 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2373 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-04-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0074 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:18-3...40(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-01-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-01-0027 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:...33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-324(...Identity=94%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-20-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=97%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  2. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-11-0073 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  3. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-0804 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=97%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=94%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=94%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  4. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0298 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  5. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1599 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  6. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-04-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=95%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  7. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-06-0154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2HPY,2I35,2I36,2I37,2J4Y,3C9M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:2PED Chain:...A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3CAP Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.90),Region:1-40(Identity=90%) P...DB:1EDX Chain:A (NMR),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1F88 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:1-348(Identity...=93%) PDB:3DQB Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.20),Region:1-348(Identity=93%) PDB:1GZM Chain:A (X-ray Resolut

  8. Retinoic Acid signalling and the control of meiotic entry in the human fetal gonad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Childs

    Full Text Available The development of mammalian fetal germ cells along oogenic or spermatogenic fate trajectories is dictated by signals from the surrounding gonadal environment. Germ cells in the fetal testis enter mitotic arrest, whilst those in the fetal ovary undergo sex-specific entry into meiosis, the initiation of which is thought to be mediated by selective exposure of fetal ovarian germ cells to mesonephros-derived retinoic acid (RA. Aspects of this model are hard to reconcile with the spatiotemporal pattern of germ cell differentiation in the human fetal ovary, however. We have therefore examined the expression of components of the RA synthesis, metabolism and signalling pathways, and their downstream effectors and inhibitors in germ cells around the time of the initiation of meiosis in the human fetal gonad. Expression of the three RA-synthesising enzymes, ALDH1A1, 2 and 3 in the fetal ovary and testis was equal to or greater than that in the mesonephros at 8-9 weeks gestation, indicating an intrinsic capacity within the gonad to synthesise RA. Using immunohistochemistry to detect RA receptors RARα, β and RXRα, we find germ cells to be the predominant target of RA signalling in the fetal human ovary, but also reveal widespread receptor nuclear localization indicative of signalling in the testis, suggesting that human fetal testicular germ cells are not efficiently shielded from RA by the action of the RA-metabolising enzyme CYP26B1. Consistent with this, expression of CYP26B1 was greater in the human fetal ovary than testis, although the sexually-dimorphic expression patterns of the germ cell-intrinsic regulators of meiotic initiation, STRA8 and NANOS2, appear conserved. Finally, we demonstrate that RA induces a two-fold increase in STRA8 expression in cultures of human fetal testis, but is not sufficient to cause widespread meiosis-associated gene expression. Together, these data indicate that while local production of RA within the fetal ovary may

  9. MetalPDB: a database of metal sites in biological macromolecular structures

    OpenAIRE

    C. Andreini; Cavallaro, G.; Lorenzini, S.; Rosato, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present here MetalPDB (freely accessible at http://metalweb.cerm.unifi.it), a novel resource aimed at conveying the information available on the three-dimensional (3D) structures of metal-binding biological macromolecules in a consistent and effective manner. This is achieved through the systematic and automated representation of metal-binding sites in proteins and nucleic acids by way of Minimal Functional Sites (MFSs). MFSs are 3D templates that describe the local environment around the ...

  10. Millisecond Timescale Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Testing of Its Relevance to the Ligand Entry Process

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Dong; Yang, Daiwen

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, scientists have been attempting to know more about the conformational dynamics of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), to answer the puzzling question of how ligands could access the internalized binding site(s). Conformational exchange of FABPs on the microsecond to millisecond timescales has been found in many FABPs and offers an important hypothesis for the ligand entry mechanism. Despite the potential significance, the validity of this hypothesis has not been verified y...

  11. The PDB_REDO server for macromolecular structure model optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Robbie P; Long, Fei; Murshudov, Garib N; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2014-07-01

    The refinement and validation of a crystallographic structure model is the last step before the coordinates and the associated data are submitted to the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The success of the refinement procedure is typically assessed by validating the models against geometrical criteria and the diffraction data, and is an important step in ensuring the quality of the PDB public archive [Read et al. (2011 ▶), Structure, 19, 1395-1412]. The PDB_REDO procedure aims for 'constructive validation', aspiring to consistent and optimal refinement parameterization and pro-active model rebuilding, not only correcting errors but striving for optimal interpretation of the electron density. A web server for PDB_REDO has been implemented, allowing thorough, consistent and fully automated optimization of the refinement procedure in REFMAC and partial model rebuilding. The goal of the web server is to help practicing crystallo-graphers to improve their model prior to submission to the PDB. For this, additional steps were implemented in the PDB_REDO pipeline, both in the refinement procedure, e.g. testing of resolution limits and k-fold cross-validation for small test sets, and as new validation criteria, e.g. the density-fit metrics implemented in EDSTATS and ligand validation as implemented in YASARA. Innovative ways to present the refinement and validation results to the user are also described, which together with auto-generated Coot scripts can guide users to subsequent model inspection and improvement. It is demonstrated that using the server can lead to substantial improvement of structure models before they are submitted to the PDB. PMID:25075342

  12. The PDB_REDO server for macromolecular structure model optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie P. Joosten

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The refinement and validation of a crystallographic structure model is the last step before the coordinates and the associated data are submitted to the Protein Data Bank (PDB. The success of the refinement procedure is typically assessed by validating the models against geometrical criteria and the diffraction data, and is an important step in ensuring the quality of the PDB public archive [Read et al. (2011, Structure, 19, 1395–1412]. The PDB_REDO procedure aims for `constructive validation', aspiring to consistent and optimal refinement parameterization and pro-active model rebuilding, not only correcting errors but striving for optimal interpretation of the electron density. A web server for PDB_REDO has been implemented, allowing thorough, consistent and fully automated optimization of the refinement procedure in REFMAC and partial model rebuilding. The goal of the web server is to help practicing crystallographers to improve their model prior to submission to the PDB. For this, additional steps were implemented in the PDB_REDO pipeline, both in the refinement procedure, e.g. testing of resolution limits and k-fold cross-validation for small test sets, and as new validation criteria, e.g. the density-fit metrics implemented in EDSTATS and ligand validation as implemented in YASARA. Innovative ways to present the refinement and validation results to the user are also described, which together with auto-generated Coot scripts can guide users to subsequent model inspection and improvement. It is demonstrated that using the server can lead to substantial improvement of structure models before they are submitted to the PDB.

  13. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Rossmann, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host

  14. A Schisandra-Derived Compound Schizandronic Acid Inhibits Entry of Pan-HCV Genotypes into Human Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xi-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Zhao, Ping; Jin, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Hai-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Qiang; Ren, Hao; Zhu, Shi-Ying; Tang, Hai-Lin; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Qi, Zhong-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the development of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors, cost-effective antiviral drugs, especially among the patients receiving liver transplantations, are still awaited. Schisandra is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat a range of liver disorders including hepatitis for thousands of years in China. To isolate the bioactive compounds of schisandra for the treatment of HCV infection, we screened a schisandra-extracts library and identified a tetracyclic triterpenoid, schizandronic acid (SZA), as a novel HCV entry inhibitor. Our findings suggested that SZA potently inhibited pan-HCV genotype entry into hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes without interfering virus binding on cell surface or internalization. However, virion-cell fusion process was impaired in the presence of SZA, along with the increased host membrane fluidity. We also found that SZA inhibited the spread of HCV to the neighboring cells, and combinations of SZA with interferon or telaprevir resulted in additive synergistic effect against HCV. Additionally, SZA diminished the establishment of HCV infection in vivo. The SZA target is different from conventional direct-acting antiviral agents, therefore, SZA is a potential therapeutic compound for the development of effective HCV entry inhibitors, especially for patients who need to prevent HCV reinfection during the course of liver transplantations. PMID:27252043

  15. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States); Bricogne, Gerard, E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Global Phasing Ltd, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Macromolecular structures deposited in the PDB can and should be continually reinterpreted and improved on the basis of their accompanying experimental X-ray data, exploiting the steady progress in methods and software that the deposition of such data into the PDB on a massive scale has made possible. Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be

  16. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macromolecular structures deposited in the PDB can and should be continually reinterpreted and improved on the basis of their accompanying experimental X-ray data, exploiting the steady progress in methods and software that the deposition of such data into the PDB on a massive scale has made possible. Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be

  17. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  18. soaPDB: a web application for searching the Protein Data Bank, organizing results, and receiving automatic email alerts

    OpenAIRE

    Lesburg, Charles A.; Duca, José S.

    2008-01-01

    soaPDB is a web application that allows generation and organization of saved PDB searches, and offers automatic email alerts. This tool is used from a web interface to store PDB searches and results in a backend relational database. Written using the Ruby on Rails open-source web framework, soaPDB is easy to deploy, maintain and customize. soaPDB is freely available upon request for local installation and is also available at http://soapdb.dyndns.org:3000.

  19. Hydrolyzable Tannins (Chebulagic Acid and Punicalagin) Target Viral Glycoprotein-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions To Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S.; Grindley, T. Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytot...

  20. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel L-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives as potential influenza virus entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Xu, Renyang; Shi, Yongying; Si, Longlong; Jiao, Pingxuan; Fan, Zibo; Han, Xu; Wu, Xingyu; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Yongmin; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin; Xiao, Sulong

    2016-03-01

    Since the influenza viruses can rapidly evolve, it is urgently required to develop novel anti-influenza agents possessing a novel mechanism of action. In our previous study, two pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (Q8 and Y3) have been found to have anti-influenza virus entry activities. Keeping the potential synergy of biological activity of pentacyclic triterpenes and l-ascorbic acid in mind, we synthesized a series of novel l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (18-26, 29-31, 35-40 and 42-43). Moreover, we evaluated these novel compounds for their anti-influenza activities against A/WSN/33 virus in MDCK cells. Among all evaluated compounds, the 2,3-O,O-dibenzyl-6-deoxy-l-ascorbic acid-betulinic acid conjugate (30) showed the most significant anti-influenza activity with an EC50 of 8.7 μM, and no cytotoxic effects on MDCK cells were observed. Time-of-addition assay indicated that compound 30 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle. Further analyses revealed that influenza virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by treatment of compound 30, and the interaction between the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and compound 30 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with a dissociation constant of KD = 3.76 μM. Finally, silico docking studies indicated that compound 30 and its derivative 31 were able to occupy the binding pocket of HA for sialic acid receptor. Collectively, these results suggested that l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpenes were promising anti-influenza entry inhibitors, and HA protein associated with viral entry was a promising drug target. PMID:26866456

  1. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  2. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Joachim Haupt

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology - a drug's ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand

  3. PDB ligand conformational energies calculated quantum-mechanically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzmann, Markus; Weidlich, Iwona E; Filippov, Igor V; Liao, Chenzhong; Peach, Megan L; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich; Karki, Rajeshri G; Borodina, Yulia V; Cachau, Raul E; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2012-03-26

    We present here a greatly updated version of an earlier study on the conformational energies of protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [Nicklaus et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1995, 3, 411-428], with the goal of improving on all possible aspects such as number and selection of ligand instances, energy calculations performed, and additional analyses conducted. Starting from about 357,000 ligand instances deposited in the 2008 version of the Ligand Expo database of the experimental 3D coordinates of all small-molecule instances in the PDB, we created a "high-quality" subset of ligand instances by various filtering steps including application of crystallographic quality criteria and structural unambiguousness. Submission of 640 Gaussian 03 jobs yielded a set of about 415 successfully concluded runs. We used a stepwise optimization of internal degrees of freedom at the DFT level of theory with the B3LYP/6-31G(d) basis set and a single-point energy calculation at B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) after each round of (partial) optimization to separate energy changes due to bond length stretches vs bond angle changes vs torsion changes. Even for the most "conservative" choice of all the possible conformational energies-the energy difference between the conformation in which all internal degrees of freedom except torsions have been optimized and the fully optimized conformer-significant energy values were found. The range of 0 to ~25 kcal/mol was populated quite evenly and independently of the crystallographic resolution. A smaller number of "outliers" of yet higher energies were seen only at resolutions above 1.3 Å. The energies showed some correlation with molecular size and flexibility but not with crystallographic quality metrics such as the Cruickshank diffraction-component precision index (DPI) and R(free)-R, or with the ligand instance-specific metrics such as occupancy-weighted B-factor (OWAB), real-space R factor (RSR), and real-space correlation coefficient

  4. PDB_REDO: constructive validation, more than just looking for errors

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Joosten, Krista; Murshudov, Garib N.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2012-01-01

    Developments of the PDB_REDO procedure that combine re-refinement and rebuilding within a unique decision-making framework to improve structures in the PDB are presented. PDB_REDO uses a variety of existing and custom-built software modules to choose an optimal refinement protocol (e.g. anisotropic, isotropic or overall B-factor refinement, TLS model) and to optimize the geometry versus data-refinement weights. Next, it proceeds to rebuild side chains and peptide planes before a final optimiz...

  5. soaPDB: a web application for searching the Protein Data Bank, organizing results, and receiving automatic email alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesburg, Charles A; Duca, José S

    2008-07-01

    soaPDB is a web application that allows generation and organization of saved PDB searches, and offers automatic email alerts. This tool is used from a web interface to store PDB searches and results in a backend relational database. Written using the Ruby on Rails open-source web framework, soaPDB is easy to deploy, maintain and customize. soaPDB is freely available upon request for local installation and is also available at http://soapdb.dyndns.org:3000. PMID:18487276

  6. Analisis Hubungan Ekspor, Impor, PDB dan Utang Luar Negeri Indonesia Periode 1970-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dison M.H. Batubara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya hubungan kausalitas serta kointegrasi di antara ekspor, impor, PDB dan utang luar negeri Indonesia dengan memakai data sekunder time series tahun 1970-2013. Penelitian ini menerapkan metode Vector Autoregression (VAR yang meliputi Granger-Causality test dan Johansen Co-Integration test, yang dilanjutkan dengan estimasi Vector Error Correction Model (VECM dan forecasting melalui analisis Impulse Response Function (IRF dan Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD. Hasil uji Granger-Causality menunjukkan diantara keempat variabel tidak terdapat kausalitas, namun terdapat lima hubungan satu arah (unidirectional, yang meliputi ekspor ke impor, ekspor ke utang luar negeri, PDB ke impor, impor ke utang luar negeri dan PDB ke utang luar negeri. Johansen Co-Integration test menunjukkan bahwa keempat variabel terkointegrasi. Analisis IRF dan FEVD menunjukkan bahwa variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap ekspor, impor dan PDB adalah ekspor, sedangkan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap utang luar negeri adalah impor

  7. Web servers and services for electrostatics calculations with APBS and PDB2PQR

    OpenAIRE

    Unni, Samir; Huang, Yong; Hanson, Robert; Tobias, Malcolm; Krishnan, Sriram; Li, Wilfred W.; Nielsen, Jens E.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    APBS and PDB2PQR are widely utilized free software packages for biomolecular electrostatics calculations. Using the Opal toolkit, we have developed a Web services framework for these software packages that enables the use of APBS and PDB2PQR by users who do not have local access to the necessary amount of computational capabilities. This not only increases accessibility of the software to a wider range of scientists, educators, and students but it also increases the availability of electrosta...

  8. PDB-UF: database of predicted enzymatic functions for unannotated protein structures from structural genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlewski Leszek

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of protein structures from structural genomics centers dramatically increases in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Many of these structures are functionally unannotated because they have no sequence similarity to proteins of known function. However, it is possible to successfully infer function using only structural similarity. Results Here we present the PDB-UF database, a web-accessible collection of predictions of enzymatic properties using structure-function relationship. The assignments were conducted for three-dimensional protein structures of unknown function that come from structural genomics initiatives. We show that 4 hypothetical proteins (with PDB accession codes: 1VH0, 1NS5, 1O6D, and 1TO0, for which standard BLAST tools such as PSI-BLAST or RPS-BLAST failed to assign any function, are probably methyltransferase enzymes. Conclusion We suggest that the structure-based prediction of an EC number should be conducted having the different similarity score cutoff for different protein folds. Moreover, performing the annotation using two different algorithms can reduce the rate of false positive assignments. We believe, that the presented web-based repository will help to decrease the number of protein structures that have functions marked as "unknown" in the PDB file. Availability http://paradox.harvard.edu/PDB-UF and http://bioinfo.pl/PDB-UF

  9. Evolution of China's sulphuric acid industry during the ten years after its entry into WTO%我国硫酸工业入世十年嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙银

    2012-01-01

    During the ten years after its entry into WTO, China's sulphuric acid production increased significantly with a CAGR of 112.8%. The structure of sulphuric acid industry has undergone great changes and the proportion of sulphur-burning sulphuric acid has increased greatly. At the same time, China's sulphuric acid industry has made great progress in large-scale installation, automation, equipment and material technology,low-level waste heat utilization,circular economy and so on. In the next ten years,those who are engaged in China's sulphuric acid industry have to perseveringly develop carbon-free energy economy, circular economy with sulphuric acid as the center and knowledge economy led by innovation, making China a sustainable and powerful sulphuric acid producer.%入世10年来,我国硫酸产量大幅增加,10年间年均复合增长率112.8%。硫酸原料结构布局已经发生了巨大变化,硫磺制酸所占比例大幅提高。同时,我国硫酸工业在大型化、自动化、设备材料技术、低温热回收、循环经济等方面都取得了长足的进步。今后的10年,我国硫酸工业更要坚持不懈地发展无碳能源经济、发展以硫酸为中心的循环经济、发展以创新为主导的知识经济,使我国成为可持续发展的硫酸强国。

  10. Triiodothyronine increases myocardial function and pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle after reperfusion in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Aaron K; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy; Rosiers, Christine Des; Portman, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) supplementation improves clinical outcomes in infants after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass by unknown mechanisms. We utilized a translational model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC), thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-(13)Carbon((13)C)]pyruvate for 40 min (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (control) or immediately after reperfusion (I/R) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (I/R-Tr) received T3 (1.2 μg/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC) using [2-(13)C]pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When compared with I/R, T3 (group I/R-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after I/R while elevating flux of both PDC and PC (∼4-fold). Although neither I/R nor I/R-Tr modified absolute CAC levels, T3 inhibited I/R-induced reductions in their molar percent enrichment. Furthermore, (13)C-labeling of CAC intermediates suggests that T3 may decrease entry of unlabeled carbons at the level of oxaloacetate through anaplerosis or exchange reaction with asparate. T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC fluxes, thereby providing potential substrate for elevated cardiac function after reperfusion. This T3-induced increase in pyruvate fluxes occurs with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Our labeling data raise the possibility that T3 reduces reliance on amino acids for anaplerosis after reperfusion.

  11. Arachidonic acid mediates non-capacitative calcium entry evoked by CB1-cannabinoid receptor activation in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuth, D.G.; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Droge, M.J.; Dekkers, B.G.J.; Esselink, H.J.; van Ree, Rutger; Parsons, M.E.; Zaagsma, Hans; Molleman, A; Nelemans, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1-receptor stimulation in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells induces a rise in [Ca2+](i), which is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and modulated by thapsigargin-sensitive stores, suggesting capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE), and by MAP kinase. Non-capacitative Ca2+ entry (NCCE) stimulated by ar

  12. Entry and incumbent innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We explore how the threat of entry influences the innovation activity of an incumbent. We show that the incumbent’s investment is hump-shaped in the entry threat. When the entry threat is small and increases, the incumbent invests more to deter entry, or to make it unlikely. This is due to the entry deterrence effect. However, when the threat becomes huge, entry can no longer profitably be deterred or made unlikely and the investment becomes small. Then the Schumpeterian effect dominates. The...

  13. Entry Modes of Starbucks

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría Sotillo, Beatriz; Ni, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Topic:When an MNC seeks to enter a foreign country, it must choose the most appropriate entry mode for that specific market, such as exporting, licensing, a turnkey project, franchising, joint ventures or wholly-owned subsidiaries. There are many factors which affect the choice of entry modes. Influential factors contributing to the entry mode decision can have different degrees of impact for each particular country. As a consequence, an MNC has to use different entry modes in order to adapt ...

  14. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn2+-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn2+, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate

  15. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Joosten, Robbie P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn{sup 2+}-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn{sup 2+}, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate.

  16. PENGARUH INFLASI, SUKU BUNGA, KURS, DAN PERTUMBUHAN PDB TERHADAP INDEKS HARGA SAHAM GABUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suramaya Suci Kewal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Inflation, interest rate, exchange rate, and GDP growth Toward Indonesia Composite Index. This research aims to investigate empirically the effect of selected macroeconomic variables, i.e., inflation rate, Bank Indonesia Certificate rate, the exchange rate on IDR, and GDP growth on Indonesia Composite Index at The Indonesia Stock Exchanges (IDX. This paper examines the direct effect of selected macroeconomic variabel on Indonesia Composite Index. The paper employs a regression model analysis. The result indicates that only the exchange rate on IDR significantly effects to Indonesia Composite Index. The inflation rate, Bank Certificate rate, and GDP growth do not effect to Indonesia Composite Index. This research only covers four selected macroeconomic variables. Therefore, further research should examine other potential macroeconomic variables.   Keywords: macroeconomic variables, Indonesia Composite Index   Abstrak: Pengaruh Inflasi, Suku Bunga, Kurs, dan Pertumbuhan PDB Terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti secara empiris pengaruh variabel-variabel makroekonomi, yaitu : tingkat inflasi, suku bunga sertifikat Bank Indonesia, kurs, dan tingkat pertumbuhan GDP terhadap IHSG di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa hanya kurs yang berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap IHSG, sedangkan tingkat inflasi, suku bunga SBI dan pertumbuhan PDB tidak berpengaruh terhadap IHSG. Penelitian ini hanya menggunakan empat variabel makroekonomi, sehingga penelitian selanjutnya perlu menemukan variabel makroekonomi lain yang diduga berpengaruh terhadap IHSG.   Kata kunci : variabel makroekonomi, IHSG.

  17. Entry Threat in Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Peitz, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: An oligopolistic market with vertical product differentiation is parametrized in cost parameters. This allows me to study the impact of the technology of the firms (cost parameters) on market structure, conduct, and performance. Firms which differ only by the order of the sequential move to choose a quality use sophisticated entry deterring or entry accomodating strategies. I show that infinitesimal changes in the cost parameters can generate discontinuities in market profits. In pa...

  18. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  19. Low temperature activation of methane over a zinc-exchanged heteropolyacid as an entry to its selective oxidation to methanol and acetic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    A Zn-exchanged heteropolyacid supported onto silica (Zn-HPW/SiO2) activates methane at 25 °C into Zn-methyl. At higher temperatures and with CH4/O2 or CH4/CO2, it gives methanol and acetic acid respectively. This journal is

  20. Mitochondrial myopathy in rats fed with a diet containing beta-guanidine propionic acid, an inhibitor of creatine entry in muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Z.; De Tata, V.; Pollera, M.; Bergamini, E

    1988-01-01

    In rats with phosphoryl-creatine depletion (fed a standard Randoin-Causeret diet containing 1% beta-guanidine propionic acid) abnormal mitochondria were observed in slow skeletal muscles, often containing paracrystalline inclusions very like those induced by ischaemia or mitochondrial poisons and in human mitochondrial myopathy.

  1. Time card entry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, B.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Time Card Entry System was developed to interface with the DOE Headquarters Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure Numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills US Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. Tours of Duty (e.g. ten hour day, four day week with Friday through Sunday off), established in the ETA system, are imported into the Time Card Entry System by the Timekeepers. An individual`s Tour of Duty establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two week cycle, data is exported by the Timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA data files.

  2. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  3. PDB_Hydro: incorporating dipolar solvents with variable density in the Poisson-Boltzmann treatment of macromolecule electrostatics.

    OpenAIRE

    Azuara, Cyril; Lindahl, Erik; Koehl, Patrice; Orland, Henri; Delarue, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new way to calculate the electrostatic properties of macromolecules which eliminates the assumption of a constant dielectric value in the solvent region, resulting in a Generalized Poisson-Boltzmann-Langevin equation (GPBLE). We have implemented a web server (http://lorentz.immstr.pasteur.fr/pdb_hydro.php) that both numerically solves this equation and uses the resulting water density profiles to place water molecules at preferred sites of hydration. Surface atoms with high or l...

  4. Structural and Functional Studies of a Phosphatidic Acid-Binding Antifungal Plant Defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR Motif Governing Fungal Cell Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Sagaram, Uma Shankar; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Raghu S Pandurangi; Thomas J Smith; Dilip M Shah

    2013-01-01

    MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where ...

  5. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  6. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay;

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a...... core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with functional isolate sequences of genotypes 1a (alternative isolate), 1b, and 2a. While the 1a-E2 exchange did not impact virus viability, the 2a-E2 recombinant was nonviable. After E2 exchange from three 1b isolates, long delays were observed before spread of infection....... For recovered 1b-E2 recombinants, single E2 stem region amino acid changes were identified at residues 706, 707, and 710. In reverse genetic studies, these mutations increased infectivity titers by ~100-fold, apparently without influencing particle stability or cell binding although introducing slight decrease...

  7. Pairwise amino acid secondary structural propensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the propensities for amino acids to form a specific secondary structure when they are paired with other amino acids. Our investigations use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, and we compare the results to those from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Proper comparison requires weighting of the MD results in a manner consistent with the relative frequency of appearance in the PDB of each possible pair of amino acids. We find that the propensity for an amino acid to assume a secondary structure varies dramatically depending on the amino acid that is before or after it in the primary sequence. This cooperative effect means that when selecting amino acids to facilitate the formation of a secondary structure in peptide engineering experiments, the adjacent amino acids must be considered. We also examine the preference for a secondary structure in bacterial proteins and compare the results to those of human proteins.

  8. Dynamics of Water Entry

    CERN Document Server

    Truscott, Tadd T; Techet, Alexandra H

    2008-01-01

    The hydrodynamics associated with water-entry of spheres can be highly variable with respect to the material and kinematic properties of the sphere. This series of five fluid dynamics videos illustrates several subtle but interesting variations that can be seen. The first series of videos contrasts the nature of impact ($Fr = U_o/\\sqrt{gd} = 5.15$) between a hydrophilic (wetting angle of $\\alpha$ = 60$^\\circ$) and hydrophobic sphere ($\\alpha$ = 120$^\\circ$), and illustrates how surface coating can affect whether or not an air cavity is formed; the views from the side and from above are synchronized in time. The second video series illustrates how spin and surface treatments can alter the splash and cavity formation following water entry. The spinning sphere ($S = \\omega r / U_o = 1.7$; $Fr = 5.15$) causes a wedge of fluid to be drawn into the cavity due to the no-slip condition and follows a curved trajectory. The non-spinning sphere ($Fr = 5.15$) has two distinct surface treatments on the left and right hemi...

  9. Sport entries and qualification manual

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This manual is designed to provide National Olympic Committees (NOCs) with the Olympic Sport Entries process, relevant policies, and instructions for completing the online registration for athletes participating in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games and to assist NOCs in using the online Sport Entries and Qualification (eSEQ) system to complete the entries of their athletes to the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games.

  10. Entry deterrence and experimentation under demand uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, N

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effect of a threat of entry on experimentation about demand by an incumbent monopolist when there is a fixed cost of entry. We show that experimentation may itself be used as a tool for entry deterrence and derive conditions under which experimentation reduces the probability of entry. These conditions depend on the entry rule which in turn depends on entry costs. We show that if experimentation does not deter entry, the monopolist incumbent experiments less. We also characteri...

  11. Small-molecule inhibitors of dengue-virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron G Schmidt

    Full Text Available Flavivirus envelope protein (E mediates membrane fusion and viral entry from endosomes. A low-pH induced, dimer-to-trimer rearrangement and reconfiguration of the membrane-proximal "stem" of the E ectodomain draw together the viral and cellular membranes. We found stem-derived peptides from dengue virus (DV bind stem-less E trimer and mimic the stem-reconfiguration step in the fusion pathway. We adapted this experiment as a high-throughput screen for small molecules that block peptide binding and thus may inhibit viral entry. A compound identified in this screen, 1662G07, and a number of its analogs reversibly inhibit DV infectivity. They do so by binding the prefusion, dimeric E on the virion surface, before adsorption to a cell. They also block viral fusion with liposomes. Structure-activity relationship studies have led to analogs with submicromolar IC₉₀s against DV2, and certain analogs are active against DV serotypes 1,2, and 4. The compounds do not inhibit the closely related Kunjin virus. We propose that they bind in a previously identified, E-protein pocket, exposed on the virion surface and although this pocket is closed in the postfusion trimer, its mouth is fully accessible. Examination of the E-trimer coordinates (PDB 1OK8 shows that conformational fluctuations around the hinge could open the pocket without dissociating the trimer or otherwise generating molecular collisions. We propose that compounds such as 1662G07 trap the sE trimer in a "pocket-open" state, which has lost affinity for the stem peptide and cannot support the final "zipping up" of the stem.

  12. Brownfield Entry in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Saul Estrin

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the brown-field entry mode, as a special case of acquisition, in which the resources transferred by the investor dominate over those provided by the acquired firm. We see this mode as having particular relevance for entry strategies in emerging markets. The choice of entry mode is analyzed on the basis of a framework utilizing both resource-based and transaction-cost theories. The resource requirements have to be matched with resources available to the investor through a...

  13. Financial Intermediation and Entry Deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Neelam; Thomas D. Jeitschko; Mirman, Leonard J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the interaction between an incumbent firm's financial contract with abank and its product market decisions in the face of the threat of entry, in a dynamic model.The main results of the paper are: there exists a separating equilibrium with no limit pricing; thelow-cost incumbent repays more to the bank in the first period, due to the threat of entry; andthere are parameter values for which the bank makes more profits with the threat of entry thanwithout.

  14. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Orazem, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  15. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Entry Is Dependent on Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lecot, Steve; Belouzard, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) entry in MDBK cells were investigated. Chloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or ammonium chloride inhibited BVDV infection, indicating that an acidic endosomal pH is required for BVDV entry. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein partially inhibited BVDV infection at a postentry step, whereas BVDV entry was strongly inhibited by chlorpromazine or by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of EPS15, a protein essential for the formation ...

  16. Tactile Data Entry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  17. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  18. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  19. Inhibition of influenza H7 hemagglutinin-mediated entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Antanasijevic

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of H7N9 influenza in China is of high concern to public health. H7 hemagglutinin (HA plays a critical role in influenza entry and thus HA presents an attractive target for antivirals. Previous studies have suggested that the small molecule tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ inhibits the entry of influenza H3 HA by binding to the stem loop of HA and stabilizing the neutral pH conformation of HA, thereby disrupting the membrane fusion step. Based on amino acid sequence, structure and immunogenicity, H7 is a related Group 2 HA. In this work we show, using a pseudovirus entry assay, that TBHQ inhibits H7 HA-mediated entry, as well as H3 HA-mediated entry, with an IC50 ~ 6 µM. Using NMR, we show that TBHQ binds to the H7 stem loop region. STD NMR experiments indicate that the aromatic ring of TBHQ makes extensive contact with the H7 HA surface. Limited proteolysis experiments indicate that TBHQ inhibits influenza entry by stabilizing the H7 HA neutral pH conformation. Together, this work suggests that the stem loop region of H7 HA is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention and that TBHQ, which is a widely used food preservative, is a promising lead compound.

  20. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed...

  1. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a) Entry summary not filed at time of entry. When the entry documentation is filed before the entry...

  2. PRI-Modeler: extracting RNA structural elements from PDB files of protein-RNA complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungsook; Nepal, Chirag

    2007-05-01

    A complete understanding of protein and RNA structures and their interactions is important for determining the binding sites in protein-RNA complexes. Computational approaches exist for identifying secondary structural elements in proteins from atomic coordinates. However, similar methods have not been developed for RNA, due in part to the very limited structural data so far available. We have developed a set of algorithms for extracting and visualizing secondary and tertiary structures of RNA and for analyzing protein-RNA complexes. These algorithms have been implemented in a web-based program called PRI-Modeler (protein-RNA interaction modeler). Given one or more protein data bank files of protein-RNA complexes, PRI-Modeler analyzes the conformation of the RNA, calculates the hydrogen bond (H bond) and van der Waals interactions between amino acids and nucleotides, extracts secondary and tertiary RNA structure elements, and identifies the patterns of interactions between the proteins and RNAs. This paper presents PRI-Modeler and its application to the hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions in the most representative set of protein-RNA complexes. The analysis reveals several interesting interaction patterns at various levels. The information provided by PRI-Modeler should prove useful for determining the binding sites in protein-RNA complexes. PRI-Modeler is accessible at http://wilab.inha.ac.kr/primodeler/, and supplementary materials are available in the analysis results section at http://wilab.inha.ac.kr/primodeler/.

  3. Reconstruction of the Genesis Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Qualls, Garry D.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the reconstruction analyses performed for the Genesis capsule entry is described. The results indicate that the actual entry prior to the drogue deployment failure was very close to the pre-entry predictions. The capsule landed 8.3 km south of the desired target at Utah Test and Training Range. Analysis on infrared video footage (obtained from the tracking stations) during the descent estimated the onset of the capsule tumble at Mach 0.9. Frequency analysis on the infrared video data indicates that the aerodynamics generated for the Genesis capsule reasonably predicted the drag and static stability. Observations of the heatshield support the pre-entry simulation estimates of a small hypersonic angles-of-attack, since there is very little, if any, charring of the shoulder region or the aftbody. Through this investigation, an overall assertion can be made that all the data gathered from the Genesis entry is consistent with flight performance that was close to the nominal preentry prediction. Consequently, the design principles and methodologies utilized for the flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics analyses have been corroborated.

  4. The PDB database is a rich source of alpha-helical anti-microbial peptides to combat disease causing pathogens [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of α-helical anti-microbial peptides (AH-AMP to combat pathogens is fast gaining prominence. Based on recently published open access software for characterizing α-helical peptides (PAGAL, we elucidate a search methodology (SCALPEL that leverages the massive structural data pre-existing in the PDB database to obtain AH-AMPs belonging to the host proteome. We provide in vitro validation of SCALPEL on plant pathogens (Xylella fastidiosa, Xanthomonas arboricola and Liberibacter crescens by identifying AH-AMPs that mirror the function and properties of cecropin B, a well-studied AH-AMP. The identified peptides include a linear AH-AMP present within the existing structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC20, and an AH-AMP mimicing the properties of the two α-helices of cecropin B from chitinase (CHITI25. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these peptides are comparable to that of cecropin B, while anionic peptides used as control failed to show any inhibitory effect on these pathogens. Substitute therapies in place of conventional chemotherapies using membrane permeabilizing peptides like these might also prove effective to target cancer cells. The use of native structures from the same organism could possibly ensure that administration of such peptides will be better tolerated and not elicit an adverse immune response. We suggest a similar approach to target Ebola epitopes, enumerated using PAGAL recently, by selecting suitable peptides from the human proteome, especially in wake of recent reports of cationic amphiphiles inhibiting virus entry and infection.

  5. Membongkar Akuntansi Double Entry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whedy Prasetyo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Double entry isa process of recording transactions that always involve at least two accounts ofwhich changes (increases or decreases have consequences to maintain a balance equation. This is a simple basic accounting, that the use of the funds must alwaysbe equal to the acquisition of funds. The equation is not able to include some business events that are responses to the development of business environment. A proposed view is based on the interaction of researcher (New Bond with accountant (Mrs M to dismantle the double entry accounting through Maurice Merleau Ponty's approach (1906-1961. The results prove that physical aspects of knowledge willcontinue to evolve according to environmental interactions.

  6. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Chimeric E1/E2 Envelope Proteins and Identification of Single Amino Acids in the E2 Stem Region Important for Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Thomas H. R.; Scheel, Troels K. H.; Ramirez, Santseharay; Foung, Steven K. H.; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with functional isolate sequences of genotypes 1a (alternative isolate), 1b, and 2a. While the 1a-E2 exchange did not impact virus viability, the 2a-E2 recombinant was nonviab...

  7. Components of Visual Prior Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Keith A.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2003-01-01

    The prior entry hypothesis contends that attention accelerates sensory processing, shortening the time to perception. Typical observations supporting the hypothesis may be explained equally well by response biases, changes in decision criteria, or sensory facilitation. In a series of experiments conducted to discriminate among the potential…

  8. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2009-01-01

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  9. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  10. Ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine accumulation in the halophile Virgibacillus halodenitrificans PDB-F2 in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Yu, Yunjiang; Gu, Jidong; Liu, Yongdi

    2016-08-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Virgibacillus halodenitrificans PDB-F2 copes with salinity by synthesizing or taking up compatible solutes. The main compatible solutes in this strain were ectoine and hydroxyectoine, as determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that ectoine was the major solute that was synthesized in response to elevated salinity, while hydroxyectoine was a minor solute. However, the hydroxyectoine/ectoine ratio increased from 0.04 at 3 % NaCl to 0.45 at 15 % NaCl in the late exponential growth phase. A cluster of ectoine biosynthesis genes was identified, including three genes in the order of ectA, ectB, and ectC. The hydroxyectoine biosynthesis gene ectD was not part of the ectABC gene cluster. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) showed that the expression of the ect genes was salinity dependent. The expression of ectABC reached a maximum at 12 % NaCl, while ectD expression increased up to 15 % NaCl. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine production was growth phase dependent. The hydroxyectoine/ectoine ratio increased from 0.018 in the early exponential phase to 0.11 in the stationary phase at 5 % NaCl. Hydroxyectoine biosynthesis started much later than ectoine biosynthesis after osmotic shock, and the temporal expression of the ect genes differed under these conditions, with the ectABC genes being expressed first, followed by ectD gene. Increased culture salinity triggered ectoine or hydroxyectoine uptake when they were added to the medium. Hydroxyectoine was accumulated preferentially when both ectoine and hydroxyectoine were provided exogenously. PMID:27106915

  11. Bi-weekly waterfowl survey data entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data sheet for the entry of bi-weekly waterfowl survey data from the state of Kansas. This Excel file contains the data entry sheet and a chart displaying waterfowl...

  12. Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMALENSEE, Richard

    2004-01-01

    US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions based on economic welfare. It follows that economies of scale that involve sunk costs may create antitrust barriers to entry. A simple model shows that sunk costs without scale economies may discourage entry without creating an antitrust entry barrier.

  13. Endogenous Market Structure and Foreign Market Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Markusen, James R.; Frank Stähler

    2009-01-01

    Models dealing with cross-border acquisitions versus greenfield investment usually assume that the entry of a foreign firm into a market has effects on the outputs of all domestic firms in that market, but exit or entry of local firms is not considered. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the acquisition versus greenfield versus exporting question under fixed versus free entry assumptions for local firms. Our finding is that greenfield entry and exporting options are more attractive re...

  14. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  15. Sport entries and qualification manual: Nanjing 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sport entries constitute an important part of the delegation registration process of the Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games. This manual aims to introduce to NOCs the process, relevant policies and requirements regarding sport entries so as to ensure that NOCs can successfully complete the entries for their athletes to the Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games.

  16. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  17. Developing the Brand Entry Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Pramesh

    2004-01-01

    With more than two decades of experience in the flashlight industry, Vinpol is all set to launch the flashlights, under their brand name, into the market. This dissertation describes a process of generating a brand entry strategy for Vinpol. A model is proposed that adapts the approach of 4Ps and Relationship Marketing. The rationale for this report has come about due to initial secondary research which shows that there will be constant growth in the flashlight industry. Some factors that nee...

  18. Marketing Mix Reactions to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, William T.

    1988-01-01

    Initial product, distribution, marketing expenditure, and price reactions by incumbents are examined for 115 entrants into oligopolistic markets. The most common reaction pattern is either no reaction or only a single reaction. It is very unusual for entrants to face reactions across the entire marketing mix. Reactions in the first two years after entry are explained as a function of the entrant's strategy, incumbent characteristics, and industry characteristics. The explanation provides insi...

  19. Crystal structure and ligand affinity of avidin in the complex with 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Paweł; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Avidin is a protein found in egg white that binds numerous organic compounds with high affinity, especially biotin and its derivatives. Due to its extraordinary affinity for its ligands, avidin is extensively used in biotechnology. X-ray crystallography and fluorescence-based biophysical techniques were used to show that avidin binds the dye 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA) with a lower affinity than biotin. The apparent dissociation constant determined for the avidin complex with HABA by microscale thermophoresis (MST) is 4.12 μM. The crystal structure of avidin-HABA complex was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å (PDB entry 5chk). The crystals belong to a hexagonal system, in the space group P6422. In that structure, the hydrazone tautomer of HABA is bound at the bottom part of the central calyx near the polar residues. We show interactions of the dye with avidin and compare them with the previously reported avidin-biotin complex.

  20. Matrix Completion from Noisy Entries

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavan, Raghunandan H; Oh, Sewoong

    2009-01-01

    Given a matrix M of low-rank, we consider the problem of reconstructing it from noisy observations of a small, random subset of its entries. The problem arises in a variety of applications, from collaborative filtering (the `Netflix problem') to structure-from-motion and positioning. We study a low complexity algorithm introduced by Keshavan et al.(2009), based on a combination of spectral techniques and manifold optimization, that we call here OptSpace. We prove performance guarantees that are order-optimal in a number of circumstances.

  1. Endocytic Pathways Involved in Filovirus Entry: Advances, Implications and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions.

  2. BioMagResBank (BMRB) as a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB): new policies affecting biomolecular NMR depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the role of the BioMagResBank (BMRB) within the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) and recent policies affecting the deposition of biomolecular NMR data. All PDB depositions of structures based on NMR data must now be accompanied by experimental restraints. A scheme has been devised that allows depositors to specify a representative structure and to define residues within that structure found experimentally to be largely unstructured. The BMRB now accepts coordinate sets representing three-dimensional structural models based on experimental NMR data of molecules of biological interest that fall outside the guidelines of the Protein Data Bank (i.e., the molecule is a peptide with 23 or fewer residues, a polynucleotide with 3 or fewer residues, a polysaccharide with 3 or fewer sugar residues, or a natural product), provided that the coordinates are accompanied by representation of the covalent structure of the molecule (atom connectivity), assigned NMR chemical shifts, and the structural restraints used in generating model. The BMRB now contains an archive of NMR data for metabolites and other small molecules found in biological systems

  3. Who Benefits from Store Brand Entry?

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Pauwels; Shuba Srinivasan

    2004-01-01

    Store brand entry has become a key issue in marketing as it may structurally change the performance of and the interactions among all market players. Based on their multivariate time-series analysis, the authors demonstrate permanent performance effects of store brand entry, typically benefiting the retailer, the consumers, and premium-brand manufacturers, while harming second-tier brand manufacturers. For the , they consistently find two of store brand entry: . This increase in unit margins ...

  4. Realistic sampling of amino acid geometries for a multipolar polarizable force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Timothy J; Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-09-15

    The Quantum Chemical Topological Force Field (QCTFF) uses the machine learning method kriging to map atomic multipole moments to the coordinates of all atoms in the molecular system. It is important that kriging operates on relevant and realistic training sets of molecular geometries. Therefore, we sampled single amino acid geometries directly from protein crystal structures stored in the Protein Databank (PDB). This sampling enhances the conformational realism (in terms of dihedral angles) of the training geometries. However, these geometries can be fraught with inaccurate bond lengths and valence angles due to artefacts of the refinement process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, combined with experimentally invisible hydrogen atoms. This is why we developed a hybrid PDB/nonstationary normal modes (NM) sampling approach called PDB/NM. This method is superior over standard NM sampling, which captures only geometries optimized from the stationary points of single amino acids in the gas phase. Indeed, PDB/NM combines the sampling of relevant dihedral angles with chemically correct local geometries. Geometries sampled using PDB/NM were used to build kriging models for alanine and lysine, and their prediction accuracy was compared to models built from geometries sampled from three other sampling approaches. Bond length variation, as opposed to variation in dihedral angles, puts pressure on prediction accuracy, potentially lowering it. Hence, the larger coverage of dihedral angles of the PDB/NM method does not deteriorate the predictive accuracy of kriging models, compared to the NM sampling around local energetic minima used so far in the development of QCTFF.

  5. Specification of the Model 3 Entry Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Mary

    The Model 3 communication skills lexicon consists of three lists of words developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) for use in communication skills instruction in K-6. This report documents the procedures followed in compiling the entry lexicon, the first component of the Model 3 communication skills lexicon. The entry lexicon is…

  6. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel;

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  7. 19 CFR 4.8 - Preliminary entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enter, to commence lading and unlading operations prior to making formal entry. Preliminary entry may be accomplished electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system, or by any other means... electronic equivalent of a complete Customs Form 1302 (Cargo Declaration), in the manner provided in §...

  8. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...

  9. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  10. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    -aware language models that is introduced in the thesis. YourText enables different language models to be combined to a new common language model. The framework is designed so it can be adapted to different text entry methods, thereby enabling the language model to be transferred between devices. Your...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for adaptive context...

  11. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA

  12. Modeling late entry bias in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Eguchi, Shinto

    2005-06-01

    In a failure time analysis, we sometimes observe additional study subjects who enter during the study period. These late entries are treated as left-truncated data in the statistical literature. However, with real data, there is a substantial possibility that the delayed entries may have extremely different hazards compared to the other standard subjects. We focus on a situation in which such entry bias might arise in the analysis of survival data. The purpose of the present article is to develop an appropriate methodology for making inference about data including late entries. We construct a model that includes parameters for the effect of delayed entry bias having no specification for the distribution of entry time. We also discuss likelihood inference based on this model and derive the asymptotic behavior of estimates. A simulation study is conducted for a finite sample size in order to compare the analysis results using our method with those using the standard method, where independence between entry time and failure time is assumed. We apply this method to mortality analysis among atomic bomb survivors defined in a geographical study region. PMID:16011705

  13. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. Kort; Wrzaczek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump ...

  14. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  15. Entry Regulation under Asymmetric Information about Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sarmento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how an incumbent firm can use the regulatory policy about entry and the informational advantage to protect his market position. This question is studied through the construction of a signalling game where we assume that the regulator has less information about demand than the firms. We conclude that there is a pooling equilibrium and partially separating equilibria in which entry is deterred and, if demand is high, there will be insufficient entry. The final effect on welfare depends on the tradeoff between short-run benefits (lower price and long-run losses (weaker competition.

  16. 1994 Entry-Level Athletic Training Salaries

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Crayton L.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, I examined salaries for entry-level positions in athletic training during the year 1994. An entry-level position was defined as a position to be filled with an athletic trainer certified by the NATA, with no full-time paid employment experience. According to the “Placement Vacancy Notice” (NATA, Dallas, TX) and “BYLINE” (Athletic Trainer Services, Inc, Mt Pleasant, MI), there were 432 entry-level vacancies in hospital/clinics, college/universities, and high school settings. A t...

  17. Entry tank calibration in TOR pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is the description of calibration measurements used for determining the uranium and plutonium mass entry in the fast neutron fuel reprocessing pilot plant (TOR) of Marcoule

  18. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  19. Integrated Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Guo-dong; ZHANG Shu-guang; FANG Zhen-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the implementation of integrated three-degree-of-freedom constrained entry guidance for reusable launch vehicle is presented. Given any feasible entry conditions, terminal area energy management interface conditions, and the reference trajectory generated onboard then, the method can generate a longitudinal guidance profile rapidly, featuring linear quadratic regular method and a proportional-integral-derivative tracking law with time-varying gains, which satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the requirements with high precision. Afterwards, by utilizing special features of crossrange parameter, establishing bank-reversal corridor,and determining bank-reversals according to dynamically adjusted method, the algorithm enables the lateral entry guidance system to fly a wide range of missions and provides reliable and good performance in the presence of significant aerodynamic modeling uncertainty.Fast trajectory guidance profiles and simulations with a reusable launch vehicle model for various missions and aerodynamic uncertainties are presented to demonstrate the capacity and reliability of this method.

  20. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... are analysed. The effective management of firms’ resources and capabilities is influenced by the perception of these internal factors when expanding into foreign markets. Our results confirmed that family firms build up longer lasting relationships in the host country by choosing high commitment entry modes...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  1. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  2. Foreign Market Entry: Production-Related Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Je Tang; Chwo-Ming Joseph Yu

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the profit to a firm of different production-related strategies for entering a foreign market. The entry strategies examined are foreign direct investment, exclusive licensing, multiple licensing, joint venture, and a combination of joint venture and licensing. It is shown that even though the entering firm is able to charge the optimal licensing fee, foreign direct investment generates the highest profit and is thus the dominant entry strategy in many contexts. This paper...

  3. Predecessors of Double-Entry Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhaylo Kuter; Maryna Gurskaya; Artem Musaelyan

    2013-01-01

    The article covers analysis of some historically significant issues of accounting development in the home-country of contemporary accounting made with reference to the archived materials found in Italy. In particular, the issue of purpose and order of taking entries in the book titled 'RICORDANZE' ('Memorials') has been considered. Resulting from the analysis done, the significance has been grounded for keeping accounting records which do not subject to double-entry principle thus being busin...

  4. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  5. Developing Quantitative Models for Auditing Journal Entries

    OpenAIRE

    Argyrou, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines how the auditing of journal entries can detect and prevent financial statement fraud. Financial statement fraud occurs when an intentional act causes financial statements to be materially misstated. Although it is not a new phenomenon, financial statement fraud has attracted much publicity in the wake of numerous cases of financial malfeasance (e.g. ENRON, WorldCom). Existing literature has provided limited empirical evidence on the link between auditing journal entrie...

  6. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  7. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Register on February 6, 2012 (77 FR 5681), promulgated the regulation to establish Global Entry as an... FR 17492.) Travelers who wish to participate in Global Entry must apply via the CBP Global Entry Web... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY:...

  8. 76 FR 66875 - Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... quotas under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, CBP no longer needs to require formal entries for... for these articles due to the elimination of absolute quotas and visa requirements for textile..., which requires the use of a formal entry and visa or export license for certain shipments of textile...

  9. 77 FR 72715 - Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Agreement on Textiles and Clothing because CBP no longer needs to require formal entries for these articles... absolute quotas under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, CBP no longer needs to require formal entries... previously subject to absolute quotas under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing. Comment: One...

  10. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  11. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  12. 1994 entry-level athletic training salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C L

    1996-01-01

    In this study, I examined salaries for entry-level positions in athletic training during the year 1994. An entry-level position was defined as a position to be filled with an athletic trainer certified by the NATA, with no full-time paid employment experience. According to the "Placement Vacancy Notice" (NATA, Dallas, TX) and "BYLINE" (Athletic Trainer Services, Inc, Mt Pleasant, MI), there were 432 entry-level vacancies in hospital/clinics, college/universities, and high school settings. A total of 271 surveys (63%) were returned. Overall, beginning salaries for entry-level athletic training positions were $23,228 (+/-$3,177) for a bachelor's degree and $25,362 (+/-$3,883) for a master's degree. A stipend ($4,216 +/- $2,039) was included in 86% of the high school positions. The term of contract for high school was usually a 10-month position (10.0 +/- .9 months), hospital/clinic, 12-months (11.7 +/- .7 months), while the college/university varied from 9 to 12 months (10.5 +/- 1.2 months). Also included in the study was fringe benefit information: pension (other than Social Security), life, medical, dental, and vision insurance. Continued studies are recommended to establish salary norms and trends for entry-level positions so that athletic trainers will understand what monetary compensation to expect for their services. PMID:16558367

  13. Skip entry trajectory planning and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Christopher William

    A numerical predictor-corrector (NPC) method for trajectory planning and closed-loop guidance of low lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio vehicles during the skip entry phase of a lunar-return mission is presented. The strategy calls for controlling the trajectory by modulation of the magnitude of the vehicle's bank angle. The magnitude of the bank angle used in the skip phase is determined by satisfying the downrange requirement to the landing site. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear univariate root-finding problem. Full three degree of freedom (3DOF) nonlinear trajectory dynamics are included to achieve high accuracy of the landing prediction. In addition, the proposed approach automatically yields a direct entry trajectory when the downrange is such that a skip entry is no longer necessary. The same algorithm repeatedly applied on-board in every guidance cycle realizes closed-loop guidance in the skip entry phase. A number of issues are identified and addressed that are critical in closed-loop implementations. Extensive 3DOF dispersion simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, and the results demonstrate very reliable and robust performance of the algorithm in highly stressful dispersed conditions. Comparison is made between the proposed algorithm and an earlier skip algorithm developed for the Apollo space program. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is superior to the Apollo algorithm especially when used for entries with long downranges.

  14. Optimal R&D investment strategies with quantity competition under the threat of superior entry

    OpenAIRE

    Lukach, R.; Kort, P.M.; Plasmans, J.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies R&D investment decisions of a firm facing the threat of new technology entry and subject to technical uncertainty. We distinguish four scenarios: inevitable entry, entry deterrence, entry blockade, and non-credible entry threat. The entry threat stimulates the incumbent to innovate in case entry prevention is possible, but discourages R&D if entry is inevitable. In the case of entry deterrence the incumbent successfully prevents entry by innovating. Greater technical uncert...

  15. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... (first-mover or follower). Invention is understood as the conversion of human creativity, time and financial resources into new ideas. Innovation in turn reflects the practical and financial return on such investments. While there is little disagreement about what an innovator strategy is, imitative...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...

  16. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  17. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign mar...... including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making....

  18. An insight on the leading HIV entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Ana Salomé; Santos, Nuno C; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2006-01-01

    The main strategies nowadays to fight AIDS rely on chemical therapy to inhibit the reverse transcriptase or protease of HIV. However, a synthetic 36 amino-acids peptide that blocks the entry of the virus in the target cells (enfuvirtide) has recently reached approval for clinical application. This molecule may probably be just the leader of a new generation of drugs that is about to emerge to interrupt the first step in the HIV life cycle, i.e. preventing the virus from actually entering cells. This paper reviews the enfuvirtide path from clinical trials to the attempts to detail its molecular-level mode of action. It is commonly accepted that this peptide would block the fusion between viral and cell plasma membrane through binding to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) region of the viral protein gp41. However, there has been growing evidence that this model of action may be unrealistic, the action of enfuvirtide being more complex and diverse than initially thought. Membrane-assisted local concentration increase and interference with gp120/co-receptor docking may also contribute for the inhibitory action of the peptide. Selected HIV-entry inhibitors on clinical trials are presented to characterize the future drugs in the market in this class. PMID:18221135

  19. 19 CFR 10.31 - Entry; bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exported to Canada or Mexico (see § 181.53 of this chapter). ... voucher of the carnet shall serve as the entry. (3) In addition to the data usually shown on a regular... intended for display or demonstration, if brought into the United States by a resident of Canada,...

  20. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  1. Entry and exit, cycles, and productivity growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Ewijk

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of cycles on long-term growth in the presence of entry and exit of firms. It is argued that, whereas mild fluctuations may be beneficial for growth, more severe fluctuations will be detrimental for growth. The essential point is whether recessions go beyond the point t

  2. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  3. Duopoly Dynamics with a Barrier to Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.; Campbell, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of raising the cost of entry for a potential competitor on infinite-horizon Markov-perfect duopoly dynamics with ongoing demand uncertainty. All entrants serving the model industry incur sunk costs, and exit avoids future fixed costs. We focus on the unique equilibri

  4. Screening Children's Entry Characteristics in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2000-01-01

    A pilot study examined the reliability and predictive validity of a screening instrument for Dutch kindergartners. Findings indicated acceptable reliability and predictive validity. Parents could accurately screen their child's language proficiency level, pre-arithmetic level, and degree of extraversion at school entry. Teachers could predict…

  5. Targeting HCV Entry For Development of Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey F. McKelvy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in defining the molecular mechanisms of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV entry affords the opportunity to exploit new viral and host targets for therapeutic intervention. Entry inhibitors would limit the expansion of the infected cell reservoir, and would complement the many replication inhibitors now under development. The current model for the pathway of entry involves the initial docking of the virus onto the cell surface through interactions of virion envelope and associated low density lipoproteins (LDL with cell surface glycosaminoglycans and lipoprotein receptors, followed by more specific utilization with other hepatocyte membrane proteins: Scavenger Receptor Class B type 1 (SR-BI, CD81, Claudin 1 (CLDN1 and Occludin (OCLN. The use of blockers of these interactions, e.g. specific antibodies, suggests that inhibition of any one step in the entry pathway can inhibit infection. Despite this knowledge base, the tools for compound screening, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp and cell culture virus (HCVcc, and the ability to adapt them to industrial use are only recently available and as a result drug discovery initiatives are in their infancy. Several therapies aiming at modulating the virus envelope to prevent host cell binding are in early clinical testing. The first test case for blocking a cellular co-receptor is an SR-BI modulator. ITX 5061, an orally active small molecule, targets SR-BI and has shown potent antiviral activity against HCVpp and HCVcc. ITX 5061 has exhibited good safety in previous clinical studies, and is being evaluated in the clinic in chronic HCV patients and patients undergoing liver transplantation. Entry inhibitors promise to be valuable players in the future development of curative therapy against HCV.

  6. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function

  7. Fatty acid induced remodeling within the human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-09-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against LFABP. PMID:21757748

  8. Fatty Acid Induced Remodeling within the Human Liver Fatty Acid-binding Protein*

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-01-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against ...

  9. Foreign banks' entry into the Russian market: motivation, entry modes and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Gorshkov

    2011-01-01

    The present paper analyses motivation, entry modes and strategies of foreign banks entering into the Russian market. The share of foreign assets in the banking sector is gradually increasing, proving the fact that more and more foreign banks show their interest in the Russian banking sector. What lies behind this growth? The article shows that motivation for entry is similar to some other developing and transition economies (both PUSH and PULL reasons exist) and presents some peculiar feature...

  10. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market

    OpenAIRE

    Karataev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  11. Entry Location and Entry Timing (ELET Decision Model for International Construction Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Maznah Mat Isa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for entry location (EL and entry timing (ET decisions to guide construction firms in accessing targeted international markets.  Neglecting to properly choose the right combination of the entry location and entry timing (ELET decisions can lead to poor performance of the firms’ international ventures.  The sampling frame was from the Malaysian construction firms that have undertaken and completed projects abroad.  Survey questionnaires sent to 115 firms registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB Malaysia, operating in more than 50 countries, achieved a 39.1 per cent response rate. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of survey data it was found that the mutually inclusive significant factors that influenced the firms’ ELET decisions were: the firm’s ability to assess market signals and opportunities, international experience, financial capacity, competencies and capabilities (project management, specialist expertise and technology, resources (level of knowledge based on research and development, experience in similar works, financial support from the home country banks, technical complexities of projects and availability of funds for projects.  Hence, the present research builds on and extends the literature on the ELET decisions in a more integrated way. Keywords: Entry location, entry timing, resource-based view, international markets, Malaysian construction firms.

  12. The SR-BI partner PDZK1 facilitates hepatitis C virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Eyre

    Full Text Available Entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV into hepatocytes is a multi-step process that involves a number of different host cell factors. Following initial engagement with glycosaminoglycans and the low-density lipoprotein receptor, it is thought that HCV entry proceeds via interactions with the tetraspanin CD81, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, and the tight-junction proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1 and occludin (OCLN, culminating in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of HCV particles and their pH-dependent fusion with endosomal membranes. Physiologically, SR-BI is the major receptor for high-density lipoproteins (HDL in the liver, where its expression is primarily controlled at the post-transcriptional level by its interaction with the scaffold protein PDZK1. However, the importance of interaction with PDZK1 to the involvement of SR-BI in HCV entry is unclear. Here we demonstrate that stable shRNA-knockdown of PDZK1 expression in human hepatoma cells significantly reduces their susceptibility to HCV infection, and that this effect can be reversed by overexpression of full length PDZK1 but not the first PDZ domain of PDZK1 alone. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of a green fluorescent protein chimera of the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminus of SR-BI (amino acids 479-509 in Huh-7 cells resulted in its interaction with PDZK1 and a reduced susceptibility to HCV infection. In contrast a similar chimera lacking the final amino acid of SR-BI (amino acids 479-508 failed to interact with PDZK1 and did not inhibit HCV infection. Taken together these results indicate an indirect involvement of PDZK1 in HCV entry via its ability to interact with SR-BI and enhance its activity as an HCV entry factor.

  13. Role of Dickeya dadantii 3937 chemoreceptors in the entry to Arabidopsis leaves through wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río-Álvarez, Isabel; Muñoz-Gómez, Cristina; Navas-Vásquez, Mariela; Martínez-García, Pedro M; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2015-09-01

    Chemotaxis enables bacteria to move towards an optimal environment in response to chemical signals. In the case of plant-pathogenic bacteria, chemotaxis allows pathogens to explore the plant surface for potential entry sites with the ultimate aim to prosper inside plant tissues and to cause disease. Chemoreceptors, which constitute the sensory core of the chemotaxis system, are usually transmembrane proteins which change their conformation when sensing chemicals in the periplasm and transduce the signal through a kinase pathway to the flagellar motor. In the particular case of the soft-rot pathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937, jasmonic acid released in a plant wound has been found to be a strong chemoattractant which drives pathogen entry into the plant apoplast. In order to identify candidate chemoreceptors sensing wound-derived plant compounds, we carried out a bioinformatics search of candidate chemoreceptors in the genome of Dickeya dadantii 3937. The study of the chemotactic response to several compounds and the analysis of the entry process to Arabidopsis leaves of 10 selected mutants in chemoreceptors allowed us to determine the implications of at least two of them (ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680) in the chemotaxis-driven entry process through plant wounds. Our data suggest that ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680 may be candidate receptors of jasmonic acid and xylose, respectively.

  14. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  15. Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ADEPT Project is developing a mechanically deployable low-ballistic coefficient aeroshell entry system to perform entry descent landing (EDL) functions for...

  16. “Fuzzy oil drop” model applied to individual small proteins built of 70 amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    Prymula, Katarzyna; Sałapa, Kinga; Roterman, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The proteins composed of short polypeptides (about 70 amino acid residues) representing the following functional groups (according to PDB notation): growth hormones, serine protease inhibitors, antifreeze proteins, chaperones and proteins of unknown function, were selected for structural and functional analysis. Classification based on the distribution of hydrophobicity in terms of deficiency/excess as the measure of structural and functional specificity is presented. The ...

  17. Collusion and downstream entry in a vertically integrated industry

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Avenel; Stéphane Caprice

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the impact of an entry threat at the downstream level on the ability of a pair of vertically integrated incumbents to collude. We present an original model of horizontal product differentiation on the final market and characterize the structures of this market for which an entry threat facilitates collusion between incumbents. While the entry threat leaves collusion and deviation profits unchanged, it lowers profits in punishment periods. Consequently, an entry threat discourages d...

  18. Multi entry framework for financial and risk reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Staszkiewicz, Piotr W.

    2011-01-01

    Author challenges one of the oldest accounting double bookkeeping rules, used since 1494, and proposes instead application of the quadruple accounting entry. He presents the concept of the multiply accounting entry for the risk financial statements and risk management. The development gap concept is described and introduces a simplified entry and reporting example. Model is illustrated with a number of financial-risk statements and attributes including the journal entries. The potential co...

  19. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency in Radio Broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Berry; Joel Waldfogel

    1996-01-01

    In theory, free entry can lead to social inefficiency. When new products are substitutes for existing products, the business stolen from incumbents places a wedge between private and social benefits of entry. The business stealing effect can be offset if entry reduces prices or increases available product variety. Our study of the radio industry provides one of the first empirical attempts to quantify the inefficiency associated with free entry. Using data on advertising prices, number of sta...

  20. Strategic Advantage and the Optimal Exercise of Entry Options

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Enrico C; Rossetto, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is revealed, while anticipating competitors' entry behaviour. When the strategic investment grants a strong competitive advantage, the innovator can optimally choose the timing of entry; in case of w...

  1. Model-based guidance and control for atmospheric guided entry

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Enrico; Ospina, Jose Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a solution of the translational control for a biconic atmospheric entry capsule using the bank angle as a command. The control algorithm is separated into path planning and reference-path tracking. The path-planning algorithm computes the entry trajectory from the navigated state at the Entry Interface Point until the desired Parachute Deployment Point. The algorithm aims to recover the landing site uncertainty caused by Entry Interface Point dispersions. Atmospheric and a...

  2. The Double-Entry Journal in Literature Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Harold; Nugent, Susan

    The double-entry journal requires students to write affective response statements to literature readings and to compare such entries with those of classmates. Use of the double-entry journal is intended to activate students' prior learning and present feelings, foster collaborative learning, integrate major language skills, and encourage the…

  3. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Peter; Wrzaczek, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry

  4. 30 CFR 877.14 - Entry for emergency reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry for emergency reclamation. 877.14 Section 877.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.14 Entry for emergency reclamation. (a)...

  5. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extra copy of entry summary. 151.64 Section 151.64... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  6. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  7. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the...

  8. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... selection process, and the initial airport locations. See 77 FR 5681 and 8 CFR 235.12. Travelers who wish to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S... as Global Entry, at twenty major U.S. airports. Global Entry allows pre-approved,...

  9. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  10. Electroosmotic Entry Flow with Joule Heating Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Rama; Kale, Akshay; Xuan, Xiangchun

    Electrokinetic flow, which transports liquids by electroosmosis and samples by electrophoresis, is the transport method of choice in microfluidic chips over traditional pressure-driven flows. Studies on electrokinetic flows have so far been almost entirely limited to inside microchannels. Very little work has been done on the electroosmotic fluid entry from a reservoir to a microchannel, which is the origin of all fluid and sample motions in microchips. We demonstrate in this talk that strong vortices of opposite circulating directions can be generated in electroosmotic entry flows. We also develop a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model of the entire microchip to predict and understand the fluid temperature and flow fields at the reservoir-microchannel junction.

  11. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m-3h-1. (Author)

  12. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2...... were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate modes. The results also show that high control modes can positively affect the bottom line profit through higher market investments and better implementation of cross border strategies. Finally, further research suggestions...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results....

  13. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M.

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1.

  14. Asset Ownership and Foreign-Market Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Raff, Horst; Ryan, Michael; Stähler, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the link between a firm's ownership of productive assets and its choice of foreign-market entry strategy. We find that, controlling for industry- and country-specific characteristics, the most productive firms (i.e., those owning the most assets) will enter through greenfield investment, less productive ones will choose M&A, and the least productive ones will export. In addition, the most productive firms are shown to prefer whole ownership to a joint venture. These predic...

  15. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  16. Horizontal mergers, entry, and efficiency defences

    OpenAIRE

    Spector, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of horizontal mergers on prices. It is shown that if firms compete in quantities and marginal costs are nondecreasing, any profitable merger failing to generate technological synergies must harm consumers through higher prices, irrespective of entry conditions in the industry. However this result does not hold if products are differentiated and firms compete in prices. The implications for merger policy are discussed.

  17. Market Entry into Nigeria : Case study: Uros

    OpenAIRE

    Itoje, Tobore

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to look into the telecommunication market on a business-to-business basis for foreign companies like Uros with partnership. It focuses on the Nigerian telecommunication market and the possibilities for entry. The thesis could also be of help to any foreign companies that wants to enter into the telecommunication market in Nigeria. The main reason for Uros to enter into the Nigerian market is to expand their network, gain more international audience to their pr...

  18. Hex: dynamics and probabilistic text entry

    OpenAIRE

    J. Williamson; Murray-Smith, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present a gestural interface for entering text on a mobile device via continuous movements, with control based on feedback from a probabilistic language model. Text is represented by continuous trajectories over a hexagonal tessellation, and entry becomes a manual control task. The language model is used to infer user intentions and provide predictions about future actions, and the local dynamics adapt to reduce effort in entering probable text. This leads to an interface with a stable lay...

  19. Cellular Factors Implicated in Filovirus Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Suchita Bhattacharyya; Hope, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replica...

  20. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)–driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  1. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  2. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)-driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  3. Kinetics of virus entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-04-01

    Entry of virions into the host cells is either endocytotic or fusogenic. In both cases, it occurs via reversible formation of numerous relatively weak bonds resulting in wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent membrane rupture or scission. The corresponding kinetic models are customarily focused on the formation of bonds and do not pay attention to the energetics of the whole process, which is crucially dependent, especially in the case of endocytosis, on deformation of actin filaments forming the cytoskeleton of the host cell. The kinetic model of endocytosis, proposed by the author, takes this factor into account and shows that the whole process can be divided into a rapid initial transient stage and a long steady-state stage. The entry occurs during the latter stage and can be described as a first-order reaction. Depending on the details of the dependence of the grand canonical potential on the number of bonds, the entry can be limited either by the interplay of bond formation and membrane rupture (or scission) or by reaching a maximum of this potential.

  4. Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert D.; Manning, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has successfully landed five robotic systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had landed mass below 0.6 metric tons (t), had landed footprints on the order of hundreds of km and landed at sites below -1.4 km MOLA elevation due the need to perform entry, descent and landing operations in an environment with sufficient atmospheric density. At present, robotic exploration systems engineers are struggling with the challenges of increasing landed mass capability to 0.8 t while improving landed accuracy to tens of km and landing at a site as high as +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project. Meanwhile, current plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of 40-80 t surface elements at scientifically interesting locations within close proximity (tens of m) of pre-positioned robotic assets. This paper summarizes past successful entry, descent and landing systems and approaches being developed by the robotic Mars exploration program to increased landed performance (mass, accuracy and surface elevation). In addition, the entry, descent and landing sequence for a human exploration system will be reviewed, highlighting the technology and systems advances required.

  5. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry. PMID:21628425

  6. Cellular factors implicated in filovirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23365575

  7. Cellular Factors Implicated in Filovirus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1 and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1 as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics.

  8. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity....

  9. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  10. Imaging single retrovirus entry through alternative receptor isoforms and intermediates of virus-endosome fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Jha

    Full Text Available A large group of viruses rely on low pH to activate their fusion proteins that merge the viral envelope with an endosomal membrane, releasing the viral nucleocapsid. A critical barrier to understanding these events has been the lack of approaches to study virus-cell membrane fusion within acidic endosomes, the natural sites of virus nucleocapsid capsid entry into the cytosol. Here we have investigated these events using the highly tractable subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein (EnvA-TVA receptor system. Through labeling EnvA pseudotyped viruses with a pH-sensitive fluorescent marker, we imaged their entry into mildly acidic compartments. We found that cells expressing the transmembrane receptor (TVA950 internalized the virus much faster than those expressing the GPI-anchored receptor isoform (TVA800. Surprisingly, TVA800 did not accelerate virus uptake compared to cells lacking the receptor. Subsequent steps of virus entry were visualized by incorporating a small viral content marker that was released into the cytosol as a result of fusion. EnvA-dependent fusion with TVA800-expressing cells occurred shortly after endocytosis and delivery into acidic endosomes, whereas fusion of viruses internalized through TVA950 was delayed. In the latter case, a relatively stable hemifusion-like intermediate preceded the fusion pore opening. The apparent size and stability of nascent fusion pores depended on the TVA isoforms and their expression levels, with TVA950 supporting more robust pores and a higher efficiency of infection compared to TVA800. These results demonstrate that surface receptor density and the intracellular trafficking pathway used are important determinants of efficient EnvA-mediated membrane fusion, and suggest that early fusion intermediates play a critical role in establishing low pH-dependent virus entry from within acidic endosomes.

  11. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  12. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kaoru Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S. There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.

  13. High Efficiency of Functional Carbon Nanodots as Entry Inhibitors of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, Alexandre; Pagneux, Quentin; Sane, Famara; Wang, Qi; Boukherroub, Rabah; Hober, Didier; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-04-13

    Nanostructures have been lately identified as an efficient therapeutic strategy to modulate viral attachment and entry. The high concentrations of ligands present on nanostructures can considerably enhance affinities toward biological receptors. We demonstrate here the potential of carbon nanodots (C-dots) surface-functionalized with boronic acid or amine functions to interfere with the entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). C-dots formed from 4-aminophenylboronic acid hydrochloride (4-AB/C-dots) using a modified hydrothermal carbonization are shown to prevent HSV-1 infection in the nanograms per milliliter concentration range (EC50 = 80 and 145 ng mL(-1) on Vero and A549 cells, respectively), whereas the corresponding C-dots formed from phenylboronic acid (B/C-dots) have no effects even at high concentrations. Some of the presented results also suggest that C-dots are specifically acting on the early stage of virus entry through an interaction with the virus and probably the cells at the same time.

  14. The Timing of Entry into New Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Debra J. Aron

    1991-01-01

    Under what circumstances will a successful incumbent in a related market be the first to enter a new market? We present a model in which the order of entry into new markets has long run effects on the firms' profits. We assume that a firm that is successfully producing in a related market has valuable information about the demand in the new market. By his choice of location in product space in the new market the incumbent reveals information about the demand to the potential entrant. Thus, th...

  15. Flight Path Characteristics for Re entry Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Gurtu

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximate analytical solutions on velocity, range, deceleration, maximum deceleration, distance and time of flight, etc. are obtained for object entry in a planetary atmosphere when (i rate of change of velocity is proportional to the nth power of the velocity, and (ii rate of change of altitude is proportional to the pth power of the velocity. Loh's results for constant deceleration flight and constant rate of change of decent flight are obtained as particular cases. Finally, trajectory characteristics are obtained rate of change of range flight.

  16. Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt R.; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of reference pricing on pharmaceutical prices and ex-penditures when generic entry is endogenously determined. We develop a Salop-type model where a brand-name producer competes with generic producers in terms of prices. In the market there are two types of consumers: (i) brand biased consumers who choose between brand-name and generic drugs, and (ii) brand neutral consumers who choose between the different generic drugs. We find that, for a given number of ...

  17. Determinants of Human CD134 Essential for Entry of Human Herpesvirus 6B

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    We identified two key amino acid residues within human CD134 (hCD134) that are required for its interaction with human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) and for HHV-6B entry into cells. One of the residues (K79) allows access of the HHV-6B ligand to hCD134. Murine CD134 (mCD134) functioned as an HHV-6B receptor when these two amino acid residues were replaced with homologous human residues. This study identifies both the HHV-6B receptor-ligand interaction and the species-specific determinants of hCD134...

  18. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point (L1) collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the sample return capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the mission operations phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.002 deg (which was the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma error of +/-0.0274 deg (a third of the requirement). The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from deep space and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  19. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  20. The Hera Saturn Entry Probe Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Spilker, T; Venkatapathy, E; Poncy, J; Frampton, R; Coustenis, A; Reh, K; Lebreton, J -P; Fletcher, L N; Hueso, R; Amato, M J; Colaprete, A; Ferri, F; Stam, D; Wurz, P; Atreya, S; Aslam, S; Banfield, D J; Calcutt, S; Fischer, G; Holland, A; Keller, C; Kessler, E; Leese, M; Levacher, P; Morse, A; Munoz, O; Renard, J -B; Sheridan, S; Schmider, F -X; Snik, F; Waite, J H; Bird, M; Cavalié, T; Deleuil, M; Fortney, J; Gautier, D; Guillot, T; Lunine, J I; Marty, B; Nixon, C; Orton, G S; Sanchez-Lavega, A

    2015-01-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M--class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and ev...

  1. Structural correlates of rotavirus cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa H Abdelhakim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell entry by non-enveloped viruses requires translocation into the cytosol of a macromolecular complex--for double-strand RNA viruses, a complete subviral particle. We have used live-cell fluorescence imaging to follow rotavirus entry and penetration into the cytosol of its ∼ 700 Å inner capsid particle ("double-layered particle", DLP. We label with distinct fluorescent tags the DLP and each of the two outer-layer proteins and track the fates of each species as the particles bind and enter BSC-1 cells. Virions attach to their glycolipid receptors in the host cell membrane and rapidly become inaccessible to externally added agents; most particles that release their DLP into the cytosol have done so by ∼ 10 minutes, as detected by rapid diffusional motion of the DLP away from residual outer-layer proteins. Electron microscopy shows images of particles at various stages of engulfment into tightly fitting membrane invaginations, consistent with the interpretation that rotavirus particles drive their own uptake. Electron cryotomography of membrane-bound virions also shows closely wrapped membrane. Combined with high resolution structural information about the viral components, these observations suggest a molecular model for membrane disruption and DLP penetration.

  2. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  3. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  4. Deregulation of Bank Entry and Branching: Impact on Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Milo, Melanie S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper looks at public policy towards bank entry and branching in the Philippines and its impact on the sector’s structure, conduct and performance. In particular, it argues that regulatory restrictions on bank entry and branching have had adverse effects on competition, while the liberalization of these restrictions have led to a more competitive banking sector. The paper has two main sections. Section II presents the history of regulation of bank entry and branching in the Philippines. ...

  5. Labour Market Entry Conditions, Wages and Job Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; David, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Economic conditions at the time of labour market entry can induce wage differentials between workers entering the labour market at different points in time. While the existence and persistence of these entry wage differentials are well documented, little is known about their interaction with employees’ mobility behaviour. This paper contributes to this research area by analyzing the interaction between job mobility and entry wage differentials using German administrative data. The results sug...

  6. Labor Market Entry Conditions, Wages and Job Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Thomas K.; Bachmann, Ronald; David, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Economic conditions at the time of labour market entry can induce wage differentials between workers entering the labour market at different points in time. While the existence and persistence of these entry wage differentials are well documented, little is known about their interaction with employees' mobility behaviour. This paper contributes to this research area by analyzing the interaction between job mobility and entry wage differentials using German administrative data. The results sug...

  7. Sunk Costs and Risk-Based Barriers to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2009-01-01

    In merger analysis and other antitrust settings, risk is often cited as a potential barrier to entry. But there is little consensus as to the kinds of risk that matter - systematic versus non-systematic and industry-wide versus firm-specific - and the mechanisms through which they affect entry. I show how and to what extent different kinds of risk magnify the deterrent effect of exogenous sunk costs of entry, and thereby affect industry dynamics, concentration, and equilibrium market prices. ...

  8. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  9. Pharmaceutical Use Following Generic Entry: Paying Less and Buying Less

    OpenAIRE

    Huckfeldt, Peter J; Christopher R. Knittel

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of generic entry on prices and utilization using both event study models that exploit the differential timing of generic entry across drug molecules and cast studies. Our analysis examines drugs treating hypertension, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and depression using price and utilization data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We find that utilization of drug molecules starts decreasing in the two years prior to generic entry and continues to decrease in...

  10. Generic Entry, Reformulations and Promotion of SSRIs in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Huskamp, Haiden A.; Donohue, Julie M.; Catherine Koss; Berndt, Ernst R.; Frank, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that a manufacturer's promotional strategy for a brand name drug is typically affected by generic entry. However, little is known about how newer strategies to extend patent life, including product reformulation introduction or obtaining approval to market for additional clinical indications, influence promotion. Objective: To examine the relationships among promotional expenditures, generic entry, reformulation entry and new indication approval. Method...

  11. The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: Entry Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Chinese firms and other emerging markets firms aim to select a favourable entry mode to start or expand their international business, thus this is significant issue for research. This study demonstrates that the Chinese firms’ choice of entry mode is determined by internal-factors, external-factors and transaction cost factors. This is illustrated through the investigation of a case study of the Haier Group’s choice of entry mode and internationalization. Therefore, four processes of choice o...

  12. Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of HIV entry inhibitors derived from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Arra, Manoj; Liu, Yanze; Guo, Huijun; Swartz, Glenn; Kennedy, Jeffrey S; Breneman, Curt; Shekhtman, Alexander; Canki, Mario

    2014-01-01

    AIDS is a global pandemic that has seen the development of novel and effective treatments to improve the quality of life of those infected and reduction of spread of the disease. Palmitic Acid (PA), which we identified and isolated from Sargassum fusiforme, is a naturally occurring fatty acid that specifically inhibits HIV entry by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor. We also identified a structural analogue, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), as a more effective HIV entry inhibitor with a 20-fold increase in efficacy. We have used the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 2-BP as a platform to identify new small chemical molecules that fit into the various identified active sites in an effort to identify more potent CD4 entry inhibitors. To validate further drug development, we tested the PA and 2-BP scaffold molecules for genotoxic potential. The FDA and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) recommends using a standardized 3-test battery for testing compound genotoxicity consisting of the bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse lymphoma assay, and rat micronucleus assay. PA and 2-BP and their metabolites tested negative in all three genotoxicty tests. 2-BP is the first derivative of PA to undergo pre-clinical screening, which will enable us to now test multiple simultaneous small chemical structures based on activity in scaffold modeling across the dimension of pre-clinical testing to enable transition to human testing. PMID:24667334

  13. Using the Tools and Resources of the RCSB Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Luigi Di; Ghosh, Sutapa; Zardecki, Christine; Burley, Stephen K

    2016-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the worldwide repository of experimentally determined three-dimensional structures of large biological molecules found in all three kingdoms of life. Atomic-level structures of these proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies thereof are central to research and education in molecular, cellular, and organismal biology, biochemistry, biophysics, materials science, bioengineering, ecology, and medicine. Several types of information are associated with each PDB archival entry, including atomic coordinates, primary experimental data, polymer sequence(s), and summary metadata. The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB) serves as the U.S. data center for the PDB, distributing archival data and supporting both simple and complex queries that return results. These data can be freely downloaded, analyzed, and visualized using RCSB PDB tools and resources to gain a deeper understanding of fundamental biological processes, molecular evolution, human health and disease, and drug discovery. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27603019

  14. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency under Co-opetition

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the social desirability of free entry in the co-opetition model in which firms compete in a homogeneous product market while sharing common property resources that affect market size or consumers' willingness to pay for products. We show that free entry leads to socially excessive or insufficient entry into the market in the case of non-commitment co-opetition, depending on the magnitude of "business stealing" and "common property" effects of entry. On the other hand, in the ca...

  15. A novel peptide that inhibits HIV-1 entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; HUANG Xiaoxing; WANG Qiong; YANG Yaling; TIAN Po; ZHANG Wentao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The global epidemic of HIV infection, the cause of AIDS, has created an urgent need for novel classes of antiretroviral agent. Besides reverse transcriptase and protease, the viral entry process provides new anti-HIV-1 targets. A new generation of antiviral drugs intended to block HIV entry into host cells is now under develop- ment[1]. These compounds are generally referred to as fusion or entry inhibitor. Several HIV-1 entry inhibitors that target CD4-gp120 interactions, co-receptor function, and gp41-mediated membrane fusion are in different stages of clinical development[2].

  16. Observability analysis of Mars entry integrated navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liansheng; Xia, Yuanqing

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies three schemes of Mars entry navigation: inertial measurement unit (IMU) based dead reckoning (DR), IMU/orbiter based integrated navigation, and IMU/orbiter/Mars surface beacon (MSB) based integrated navigation. We demonstrate through simulations that first scheme, IMU based DR, produces substantially large state estimation errors. Although these errors are reduced by adding two Mars orbiters, the system is only barely observable. However, by adding two MSBs in above configuration, the position and velocity estimation errors are reduced to the scope of 10 m and 0.5 m/s respectively and the navigation system becomes completely observable. Finally, the estimability of states is investigated; it is observed that velocity variables or velocity variables linear combinations can be estimated better than position variables.

  17. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Paulsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated forms processing may be an alternative, but further validation is warranted. METHODS: 200 patients were randomly selected from a cohort of 5777 patients who had previously answered two different questionnaires. The questionnaires were scanned using an automated forms processing technique, as well as processed by single and double manual data entry, using the EpiData Entry data entry program. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correctly entered numbers at question, form and study level. RESULTS: Manual double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 performed better than single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729, (p = 0.020. There was no statistical difference between Optical Mark Recognition (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 and double-key data entry (p = 1.000. With the Intelligent Character Recognition method, there was no statistical difference compared to single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 6.734 (95% CI: 0.817-24.113, (p = 0.656, as well as double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 3.367 (95% CI: 0.085-18.616, (p = 0.319. CONCLUSIONS: Automated forms processing is a valid alternative to double manual data entry for highly structured forms containing only check boxes, numerical codes and no dates. Automated forms processing can be superior to single manual data entry through a data entry program, depending on the method chosen.

  18. Coupling approaches used in atmospheric entry models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    While a planet orbits the Sun, it is subject to impact by smaller objects, ranging from tiny dust particles and space debris to much larger asteroids and comets. Such collisions have taken place frequently over geological time and played an important role in the evolution of planets and the development of life on the Earth. Though the search for near-Earth objects addresses one of the main points of the Asteroid and Comet Hazard, one should not underestimate the useful information to be gleaned from smaller atmospheric encounters, known as meteors or fireballs. Not only do these events help determine the linkages between meteorites and their parent bodies; due to their relative regularity they provide a good statistical basis for analysis. For successful cases with found meteorites, the detailed atmospheric path record is an excellent tool to test and improve existing entry models assuring the robustness of their implementation. There are many more important scientific questions meteoroids help us to answer, among them: Where do these objects come from, what are their origins, physical properties and chemical composition? What are the shapes and bulk densities of the space objects which fully ablate in an atmosphere and do not reach the planetary surface? Which values are directly measured and which are initially assumed as input to various models? How to couple both fragmentation and ablation effects in the model, taking real size distribution of fragments into account? How to specify and speed up the recovery of a recently fallen meteorites, not letting weathering to affect samples too much? How big is the pre-atmospheric projectile to terminal body ratio in terms of their mass/volume? Which exact parameters beside initial mass define this ratio? More generally, how entering object affects Earth's atmosphere and (if applicable) Earth's surface? How to predict these impact consequences based on atmospheric trajectory data? How to describe atmospheric entry

  19. Are entry criteria for cataract surgery justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Böhringer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The German Ophthalmological Society (GOS recently proposed surgical entry criteria, i.e. 300 cataract surgeries. We herein correlate the surgical hands-on experience with the risk of posterior capsule ruptures in order to assess whether this number is appropriate. METHODS: We identified all cataract operations that had been performed at the University Eye Hospital Freiburg since 1995. For each surgeon, we assigned a running number to his/her procedures in the order they had been performed. Thereafter, we excluded all combined procedures and the second eyes. We then selected the 5475 surgical reports between November 2008 and November 2012 for detailed review. We additionally classified each surgery into low- vs. high- à priori risk for posterior capsule ruptures. We fitted a multifactorial logistic regression model to assess the GOS recommendation of 300 surgeries under supervision. In the low-risk group, we additionally visualized the 'typical' learning curve by plotting the posterior capsule ruptures against the respective rank numbers. RESULTS: The odds ratio for posterior capsule ruptures of 'learning-mode' (one of the respective surgeon's 300 first procedures vs. the non-learning-mode was 3.8 (p<0.0001. By contrast, classification into the low-risk group lowered the risk of posterior capsule ruptures three fold (p<0.0001. According to the low-risk plot, the surgeons started with a complication rate of 4% and continuously improved towards 0.5% after 1500 operations. Thereafter, the rate increased again and stabilized around one percent. CONCLUSION: The learning curve with respect to posterior capsule ruptures is surprisingly flat. The GOS entry criterion of 300 cataract procedures is therefore most likely justified. Careful selection of low-risk patients for the training surgeons may help in reducing the rate of posterior capsule ruptures during training.

  20. The Hera Saturn entry probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Frampton, R.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hueso, R.; Amato, M. J.; Colaprete, A.; Ferri, F.; Stam, D.; Wurz, P.; Atreya, S.; Aslam, S.; Banfield, D. J.; Calcutt, S.; Fischer, G.; Holland, A.; Keller, C.; Kessler, E.; Leese, M.; Levacher, P.; Morse, A.; Muñoz, O.; Renard, J.-B.; Sheridan, S.; Schmider, F.-X.; Snik, F.; Waite, J. H.; Bird, M.; Cavalié, T.; Deleuil, M.; Fortney, J.; Gautier, D.; Guillot, T.; Lunine, J. I.; Marty, B.; Nixon, C.; Orton, G. S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M-class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera's aim is to probe well into the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to the locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. By leading to an improved understanding of the processes by which giant planets formed, including the composition and properties of the local solar nebula at the time and location of giant planet formation, Hera will extend the legacy of the Galileo and Cassini missions by further addressing the creation, formation, and chemical, dynamical, and thermal evolution of the giant planets, the entire solar system including Earth and the other terrestrial planets, and formation of other planetary systems.

  1. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length, num

  2. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent...

  3. 50 CFR 660.340 - Limited entry permit appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry permit appeals. 660.340... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.340 Limited entry permit appeals. (a) Decisions on appeals of initial decisions... appeal may be accompanied by a request that the Regional Administrator seek a recommendation from...

  4. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For...

  5. Return on Investment Point of Service Computerized Provider Charge Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Kiepek, Wendy; Fitzhenry, Fern1; Shultz, Edward K.

    2003-01-01

    Provider charge entry systems offer many benefits to users and organizations. At Vanderbilt University Medical Center, a web-based provider charge entry system promises to deliver benefits in reducing days in accounts receivable, reducing labor required for claims and edit processing, and implementing business rules that deliver both strategic and financial benefits.

  6. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of i

  7. 19 CFR 141.68 - Time of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mexico of goods imported into the United States under a duty-deferral program defined in § 181.53 of this chapter. When merchandise in a U.S. duty-deferral program is withdrawn for exportation to Canada or Mexico or for entry into a duty-deferral program in Canada or Mexico, the date of entry is the date...

  8. 47 CFR 11.14 - Primary Entry Point (PEP) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. 11.14 Section 11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.14 Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. The PEP system is a nationwide network of...

  9. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations governing TreasuryDirect are found at 31 CFR part 363. (b) Transferability between TRADES and... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Book-entry systems. 357.0 Section 357..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS,...

  10. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a...

  11. Re-Entry: Managing Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy J.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the re-entry process of corporate and governmental employees (N=200) returning to Canada after working overseas. Research found re-entry into the original culture was a more difficult transition than moving to the foreign culture. Home-country managers tended to exhibit xenophobia in assessing the potential and actual effectiveness of…

  12. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1499.8 Section 1499.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT....8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements...

  13. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1599.8 Section... PROGRAM § 1599.8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements for receiving the donated commodities in the targeted country, including obtaining...

  14. 27 CFR 31.12 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and examination. 31.12 Section 31.12 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Right of entry and examination. Any appropriate TTB officer may enter during business hours the...

  15. 27 CFR 20.27 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and examination. 20.27 Section 20.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Administrative Provisions Authorities § 20.27 Right of entry and examination. An appropriate TTB officer...

  16. 27 CFR 19.81 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and examination. 19.81 Section 19.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.81 Right of entry and examination. Any appropriate...

  17. 27 CFR 479.22 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 479.22 Right of entry and... any books, papers, or records necessary to determine any liability for tax under 26 U.S.C. Chapter...

  18. 27 CFR 25.51 - Right of Entry and Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of Entry and Examination. 25.51 Section 25.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions § 25.51 Right of Entry...

  19. 27 CFR 18.15 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and examination. 18.15 Section 18.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... and Miscellaneous Provisions § 18.15 Right of entry and examination. Appropriate TTB officers may...

  20. 19 CFR 146.64 - Entry for warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for warehouse. 146.64 Section 146.64 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.64 Entry for warehouse. (a) Foreign... status may not be entered for warehouse from a zone. Merchandise in nonprivileged foreign...

  1. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail...

  2. Strategic advantage and the optimal exercise of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Perotti; S. Rossetto

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is

  3. SeqX: a tool to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures

    OpenAIRE

    Fördös Gergely; Biro Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The interacting residues of protein and nucleic acid sequences are close to each other – they are co-located. Structure databases (like Protein Data Bank, PDB and Nucleic Acid Data Bank, NDB) contain all information about these co-locations; however it is not an easy task to penetrate this complex information. We developed a JAVA tool, called SeqX for this purpose. Results SeqX tool is useful to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid...

  4. The Hemagglutinin of Bat-Associated Influenza Viruses Is Activated by TMPRSS2 for pH-Dependent Entry into Bat but Not Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus; Krüger, Nadine; Zmora, Pawel; Wrensch, Florian; Herrler, Georg; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    New World bats have recently been discovered to harbor influenza A virus (FLUAV)-related viruses, termed bat-associated influenza A-like viruses (batFLUAV). The internal proteins of batFLUAV are functional in mammalian cells. In contrast, no biological functionality could be demonstrated for the surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HAL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NAL), and these proteins need to be replaced by their human counterparts to allow spread of batFLUAV in human cells. Here, we employed rhabdoviral vectors to study the role of HAL and NAL in viral entry. Vectors pseudotyped with batFLUAV-HAL and -NAL were able to enter bat cells but not cells from other mammalian species. Host cell entry was mediated by HAL and was dependent on prior proteolytic activation of HAL and endosomal low pH. In contrast, sialic acids were dispensable for HAL-driven entry. Finally, the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was able to activate HAL for cell entry indicating that batFLUAV can utilize human proteases for HAL activation. Collectively, these results identify viral and cellular factors governing host cell entry driven by batFLUAV surface proteins. They suggest that the absence of a functional receptor precludes entry of batFLUAV into human cells while other prerequisites for entry, HAL activation and protonation, are met in target cells of human origin. PMID:27028521

  5. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rasoul ghollamzadeh

    2011-12-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  6. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  7. Extended High-Gain Observer for Mars Entry Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyuan Cui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To deliver a Mars entry vehicle to the prescribed parachute deployment point, active entry guidance is essential. This paper addresses the problem of Mars atmospheric entry guidance through drag tracking method with extended high gain observer. First, an extended high gain observer combined with feedback linearization is applied in drag tracking for Mars entry longitudinal guidance.  The observer estimates the drag and drag rate for drag tracking, estimates the perturbation due to model uncertainty and disturbance, and compensate for the perturbation by canceling its estimate. Then, bank reversal is adopted in the lateral plane to reduce the cross-range error. Finally, Mars entry simulation is performed to assess the performance of the adaptive guidance law. The results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law exhibits good performance.

  8. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Form, its meaning, and dictionary entriesAs we know, a language form is a unit which plays a specific form in the language, e.g. a semantic or syntactical one. We establish the function of a form based on its use (occurrence, i.e. its relation with the meanings of other forms in speech or in a text. The meaning of a form is the value of its function. In the traditional grammar, form is opposed to its meaning. However, various grammar schools have big problems with distinguishingbetween a form and its function. For example, the present tense form has a number of basic temporal meanings in Bulgarian as well as in Polish and Russian, and in none of those languages this is only the present time, (see past, future and habituality expressed using the present tense form. It is a big mistake not to distinguish between the meanings of article in article languages. For example, in Bulgarian the same form of article canexpress both uniqueness and universality (or, respectively: definiteness and indefiniteness. In the quoted book (Koseska-Toszewa 1982, I put forward a hypothesis on the development of the meaning of Bulgarian article. In my opinion, initially the article expressed uniqueness of an element (object, and then started to express also uniqueness of a set, which later, due to equalling two completely different semantically-logical structures, i.e. structures with universal and unique quantification, lead to a homonymy and to the article expressing also universality, i.e. indefiniteness. Similarly in English, French, Rumanian or Albanian, where the same form of article can express either uniqueness or universality. This proves that the above homonymy is of a general rather than typological (e.g. Balkan character. Naturally, in the above languages the definite article form can also express uniqueness of an object or a set, so it also expresses definiteness. Ambiguity of the definite article form is a phenomenon exceeding the

  9. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  10. Inflatable Emergency Atmospheric-Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Hall, Jeffrey; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2004-01-01

    In response to the loss of seven astronauts in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, large, lightweight, inflatable atmospheric- entry vehicles have been proposed as means of emergency descent and landing for persons who must abandon a spacecraft that is about to reenter the atmosphere and has been determined to be unable to land safely. Such a vehicle would act as an atmospheric decelerator at supersonic speed in the upper atmosphere, and a smaller, central astronaut pod could then separate at lower altitudes and parachute separately to Earth. Astronaut-rescue systems that have been considered previously have been massive, and the cost of designing them has exceeded the cost of fabrication of a space shuttle. In contrast, an inflatable emergency-landing vehicle according to the proposal would have a mass between 100 and 200 kg, could be stored in a volume of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cu m, and could likely be designed and built much less expensively. When fully inflated, the escape vehicle behaves as a large balloon parachute, or ballute. Due to very low mass-per-surface area, a large radius, and a large coefficient of drag, ballutes decelerate at much higher altitudes and with much lower heating rates than the space shuttle. Although the space shuttle atmospheric reentry results in surface temperatures of about 1,600 C, ballutes can be designed for maximum temperatures below 600 C. This allows ballutes to be fabricated with lightweight ZYLON(Registered TradeMark) or polybenzoxazole (PBO), or equivalent.

  11. Lysosomotropic agents as HCV entry inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HCV has two envelop proteins named as E1 and E2 which play an important role in cell entry through two main pathways: direct fusion at the plasma membrane and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Fusion of the HCV envelope proteins is triggered by low pH within the endosome. Lysosomotropic agents (LA such as Chloroquine and Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl are the weak bases and penetrate in lysosome as protonated form and increase the intracellular pH. To investigate the antiviral effect of LA (Chloroquine and NH4Cl on pH dependent endocytosis, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp of 1a and 3a genotype were produced and used to infect liver cells. The toxicological effects of Chloroquine and NH4Cl were tested in liver cells through MTT cell proliferation assay. For antiviral screening of Chloroquine and NH4Cl, liver cells were infected with HCVpp of 3a and 1a genotype in the presence or absence of different concentrations of Chloroquine and NH4Cl and there luciferase activity was determined by using a luminometer. The results demonstrated that Chloroquine and NH4Cl showed more than 50% reduction of virus infectivity at 50 μM and 10 mM concentrations respectively. These results suggest that inhibition of HCV at fusion step by increasing the lysosomal pH will be better option to treat chronic HCV.

  12. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palucci, Ivana; Camassa, Serena; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Anoosheh, Saber; Zumbo, Antonella; Minerva, Mariachiara; Iantomasi, Raffaella; De Maio, Flavio; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Palù, Giorgio; Brennan, Michael J; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33) in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3), indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  13. Layout and support technology of entry for pillar face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianli; Xu Ying; Li Wenfeng; Wang Xiangyu; Bai Jianbiao

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the recovery rate of coal, some mines have begun to recover the residual protective pillars in the form of short wall faces. However, it is difficult to control stability of the haulage entry and the ventilating entry under the mining influences of the pillar face and the two side faces. Thus the 4311 face, which was designed to recover the 57 m wide residual protective pillar in Guojiashan Coal Mine, was taken as engineering background. Distribution law of stress and plastic zone in the residual protec-tive pillar was analyzed using the numerical simulation. Then the gob-side entry driving technology was proposed to layout the entries for the pillar face. Based on the analysis of stress distribution and defor-mation characteristics of surrounding rocks in gob-side entry driving with different width of narrow pil-lars, the width of the narrow pillar of the entries in the 4311 face was decided to be 4 m. In order to control stability of the gob-side entry driving, the mechanical model of the main roof was established and deformation characteristic of surrounding rock was analyzed. Then the bolt support technology with high strength and high pre-tightening force was proposed for entry support. Especially, the hydraulic expansion bolts were used to support the narrow pillar rib. The engineering results show that the width of the narrow pillar is reasonable and the entry support technology is effective. The research achievement can provide some references to pillar recovery for other coal mines.

  14. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  15. Fuel cells selected entries from the encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The expected end of the "oil age" will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role.  Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today's fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. Featuring 21 peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Fuel

  16. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  17. Fluctuations of Matrix Entries of Regular Functions of Wigner Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzo, Alessandro; Soshnikov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the matrix entries of regular functions of Wigner random matrices in the limit when the matrix size goes to infinity. In the case of the Gaussian ensembles (GOE and GUE) this problem was considered by A.Lytova and L.Pastur in J. Stat. Phys., v.134, 147-159 (2009). Our results are valid provided the off-diagonal matrix entries have finite fourth moment, the diagonal matrix entries have finite third moment, and the test functions have four continuous derivatives in a neighborhood of the support of the Wigner semicircle law.

  18. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tanganelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  19. Entry Attitude Controller for the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul B.; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Wong, Edward C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary concept for the RCS 3-axis attitude controller for the exo-atmospheric and guided entry phases of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descend and Landing. The entry controller is formulated as three independent channels in the control frame, which is nominally aligned with the stability frame. Each channel has a feedfoward and a feedback. The feedforward path enables fast response to large bank commands. The feedback path stabilizes the vehicle angle of attack and sideslip around its trim position, and tracks bank commands. The feedback path has a PD/D structure with deadbands that minimizes fuel usage. The performance of this design is demonstrated via simulation.

  20. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; Tauber, Michael E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  1. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid-base catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric P; Vasquez, Ernesto E; Scott, William G

    2014-09-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid-base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK(a) of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK(a) and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the potential

  2. Visualization of entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Simon, Terence W.

    1992-01-01

    Neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles with laser illumination are used to document entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes. For a symmetric entry case, the size of the separation zone appears to mildly depend on Reynolds number in the acceleration phase, but is roughly Reynolds number independent in the deceleration phase. For the asymmetric entry case, the separation zone was larger and appeared to grow somewhat during the deceleration phase. The separation zones for both entry geometry cases remain relatively small throughout the cycle. This is different from what would be observed in all-laminar, oscillator flows and is probably due to the high turbulence of the flow, particularly during the deceleration phase of the cycle.

  3. Entry Vehicle Control System Design for the Mars Smart Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Queen, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, participated in a preliminary design study of the Entry, Descent and Landing phase for the Mars Smart Lander Project. This concept utilizes advances in Guidance, Navigation and Control technology to significantly reduce uncertainty in the vehicle landed location on the Mars surface. A candidate entry vehicle controller based on the Reaction Control System controller for the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module digital autopilot is proposed for use in the entry vehicle attitude control. A slight modification to the phase plane controller is used to reduce jet-firing chattering while maintaining good control response for the Martian entry probe application. The controller performance is demonstrated in a six-degree-of-freedom simulation with representative aerodynamics.

  4. Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every...

  5. Efficiency and optimal allocation in the staggered entry design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The staggered entry design for survival analysis specifies that r left-truncated samples are to be used in estimation of a population survival function. The ith sample is taken at time Bi, from the subpopulation of individuals having survival time exceeding Bi. This paper investigates the performance of the staggered entry design relative to the usual design in which all samples have a common time origin. The staggered entry design is shown to be an attractive alternative, even when not necessitated by logistical constraints. The staggered entry design allows for increased precision in estimation of the right tail of the survival function, especially when some of the data may be censored. A trade-off between the range of values for which the increased precision occurs and the magnitude of the increased precision is demonstrated.

  6. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...... in the labor market and entry modes shape the post-entry dynamics of nascent business owners. By differentiating between different entry and exit routes, this paper provides new evidence on different human capital patterns among nascent business owners and on key determinants of entrepreneurial survival. Our...

  7. Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber™ sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry...

  8. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  9. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  10. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  11. Higher Entry Threshold of the Secondary Lead Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to news posted on the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s website on September 5,the MIIT and the Ministry of Environmental Protection recently jointly issued the Entry Conditions of the Secondary

  12. 7 CFR 319.37-14 - Ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... offered for importation at any Customs designated port of entry indicated in 19 CFR 101.3(b)(1..., Building G, Linden, NJ 07036. New York Jamaica (JFK) Plant Inspection Station, 230-59 International...

  13. Harnessing the Electrophilicity of Keteniminium Ions: A Simple and Straightforward Entry to Tetrahydropyridines and Piperidines from Ynamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An efficient, modular and straightforward entry to tetrahydropyridines and piperidines is reported. This reaction is based on a formal intramolecular hydroalkylation of readily available, properly substituted ynamides which, upon simple activation under acidic conditions, generate highly reactive activated keteniminium ions whose reactivity can be finely controlled to induce a remarkably efficient [1,5]‐hydride shift from unactivated C−H bonds and trigger a cationic cyclization which is complete within minutes. PMID:26934474

  14. Barriers to entry : abolishing the barriers to understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Keppler, Jan Horst

    2009-01-01

    BARRIERS TO ENTRY: ABOLISHING THE BARRIERS TO UNDERSTANDING by Jan-Horst Keppler Professor of economics Université Paris – Dauphine, LEDa, and Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, PHARE Port.: (+33 6) 77 81 37 46; Email: . Abstract The concept of a barrier to entry has been discussed least since Bain (1956) with important contributions by Spence (1977), Dixit (1980) or Milgrom and Roberts (1982). The more recent discussion is synth...

  15. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups d...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances)....

  16. Stagnation Point Radiative Heating Relations for Venus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Palmer, Grant E.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Improved analytic expressions for calculating the stagnation point radiative heating during entry into the atmosphere of Venus have been developed. These analytic expressions can be incorporated into entry trajectory simulation codes. Together with analytical expressions for convective heating at the stagnation point, the time-integrated total heat load at the stagnation point is used in determining the thickness of protective material required, and hence the mass of the fore body heatshield of uniform thickness.

  17. Influenza A Virus Entry Inhibitors Targeting the Hemagglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Shuwen Liu; Jie Yang; Xintian Shen; Minmin Li

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has caused seasonal influenza epidemics and influenza pandemics, which resulted in serious threat to public health and socioeconomic impacts. Until now, only 5 drugs belong to two categories are used for prophylaxis and treatment of IAV infection. Hemagglutinin (HA), the envelope glycoprotein of IAV, plays a critical role in viral binding, fusion and entry. Therefore, HA is an attractive target for developing anti‑IAV drugs to block the entry step of IAV infection. Her...

  18. Design features of an automated entry control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  19. Predicting Entry of Swedish Wholesale Firms into Local Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Håkansson, Johan; Macuchova, Zuzana; Rudholm, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. As in previous entry studies, profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors, and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we...

  20. FDI In India : Determinents Of Entry Modes In India

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Gaurav

    2003-01-01

    Although cultural distance between countries have gained a lot of attention in the FDI literature but impact on cultural distance on entry mode has recently been extensively researched, after Kogut and Singh introduced the simple measure to calculate cultural distance between the countries. This dissertation tests the proposition that do cultural distance, Sector, or Nationality affect the entry mode strategies of multinational firms when they enter foreign countries. I focus my study by conc...

  1. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  2. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  3. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods. PMID:26360215

  4. Entry and Exit Stress Variation of Cold Rolling Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDong—cheng

    2012-01-01

    The shortcomings of an exit stress variation formula which has been well accepted are analyzed~ it is found that the exit stress variation formula violates the premise of the law of volume constancy. The shortcomings of an en- try stress variation formula are analyzed too, and the basic assumption of the formula is uniform exit velocity. How- ever, for a rigid-plastic material uniform exit velocity implies that the lateral distributioi1 of elongation is uniform, so the exit stress must be uniform and any type of flatness defect is impossible, which is contrary to the practice. In fact, entry and exit velocity variation influence entry and exit stress variation, and entry and exit stress variation in- fluence entry and exit velocity variation too, so a precise explicit stress variation formula cannot be got easily. Con- sidering the relationship between stress variation and velocity variation, an iteration method is presented to calculate entry and exit stress variation of cold rolling strip. To avoid divergent phenomenon of the iteration course, a relaxa- tion factor method is adopted. The calculation results are compared with the entry and exit stress variation formula commonly used by many researchers. The difference is remarkable, while the result calculated agree more well with measured result if the exit elastic recovery zone is considered. Specially, the incoming flatnessI propagate efficiency calculated ~ives a more realistic result.

  5. Three-stage entry game: The strategic effects of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of investment in advertising in the three-stage entry game model with one incumbent and one potential entrant firm. It is shown that if a game theory is applied, under particular conditions, advertising can be used as a strategic weapon in the market entry game. Depending on the level of the advertising interaction factor, conditions for over-investment in advertising for strategic purposes are given. Furthermore, three specific cases are analyzed: strictly predatory advertising, informative advertising and the case when one firm’s advertising cannot directly influence the other firm's profit. For each of them, depending on the costs of advertising and marginal costs, equilibrium is determined, and conditions under which it is possible to deter the entry are given. It is shown that if the value of the advertising interaction factor increases, power of using advertising as a weapon to deter entry into the market decreases. Thus, in the case of informative advertising, advertising cannot be used as a tool for deterring entry into the market, while in the case of predatory advertising, it can. Also, we have proved that in the case of strictly informative advertising an over-investment never occurs, while in the two other cases, there is always over-investment either to deter or to accommodate the entry.

  6. Chelyabinsk meteoroid entry and airburst damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Emel'yanenko, Vacheslav; Kartashova, Anna; Rybnov, Yurij; Shuvalov, Valery; Jenniskens, Peter; Kharlamov, Vladimir

    The Chelyabinsk airburst of 15 February 2013, was exceptional because of the large kinetic energy of the impacting body and the airburst that was generated, which created significant damage on the ground and numerous injuries in a populated area. The meteor and the effects of the airburst were extraordinarily well documented. Other events with comparable or larger energy in the past century or so include the 1963 August 3 bolide over the south Atlantic, for which only an infrasound signal was recorded, and the famous Tunguska impact in 1908. Estimates of the kinetic energy of the Tunguska impact range from 3 to 50 Mt, due to a lack of good observations at the time. The Chelyabinsk event is much better documented than both, and provides a unique opportunity to calibrate the different approaches used to model meteoroid entry and calculate the damaging effects of its airburst. Being able to predict better the potential damage on the ground from an impending small asteroid impact will help future impact hazard mitigation efforts. In order to be able to model the damaging effects of the Chelyabinsk airburst, the initial kinetic energy and approach trajectory needed to be known, how that energy was dissipated in the atmosphere, and what were the properties of the resulting airburst shockwave. Infrasonic waves are an important source of information about the fireball's initial kinetic energy. Further information about the kinetic energy is derived from the fireball's light curve. Analysis of video observations of the fireball and the shadows movements provided a meteor light curve, deceleration curve and trajectory. Video records also provided time of arrivals of the shockwave and much detail about how that shockwave interacted with surface structures. The extent of the glass damage was mapped by visiting over 50 villages in the area. Meteorites were analysed in a consortium study to understand how their material properties may have contributed to the fragmentation

  7. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  8. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  9. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens... DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for entry of aliens. International airports for the entry of aliens shall be those airports designated as...

  10. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  11. Caveolin-1 associated adenovirus entry into human corneal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Yousuf

    Full Text Available The cellular entry of viruses represents a critical area of study, not only for viral tropism, but also because viral entry dictates the nature of the immune response elicited upon infection. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC, caused by viruses within human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D, is a severe, ocular surface infection associated with corneal inflammation. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has previously been shown to play a critical role in entry of other HAdV species into many host cell types. However, HAdV-D endocytosis into corneal cells has not been extensively studied. Herein, we show an essential role for cholesterol rich, lipid raft microdomains and caveolin-1, in the entry of HAdV-D37 into primary human corneal fibroblasts. Cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD profoundly reduced viral infection. When replenished with soluble cholesterol, the effect of MβCD was reversed, allowing productive viral infection. HAdV-D37 DNA was identified in caveolin-1 rich endosomal fractions after infection. Src kinase activity was also increased in caveolin-1 rich endosomal fractions after infection, and Src phosphorylation and CXCL1 induction were both decreased in caveolin-1-/- mice corneas compared to wild type mice. siRNA knock down of caveolin-1 in corneal cells reduced chemokine induction upon viral infection, and caveolin-1-/- mouse corneas showed reduced cellular entry of HAdV-D37. As a control, HAdV-C2, a non-corneal pathogen, appeared to utilize the caveolar pathway for entry into A549 cells, but failed to infect corneal cells entirely, indicating virus and cell specific tropism. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed the presence of caveolin-1 in HAdV-D37-containing vesicles during the earliest stages of viral entry. Collectively, these experiments indicate for the first time that HAdV-D37 uses a lipid raft mediated caveolin-1 associated pathway for entry into corneal cells, and connects the processes of viral entry with

  12. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  13. Past, present, and future of entry inhibitors as HIV microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Richard M; Arts, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Preventing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the main goal of numerous studies trying to develop an effective vaccine and microbicide agents. Here we review the use of antiretroviral drugs to inhibit viral entry as potential HIV microbicides. After the failure of nonoxynol-9 microbicide strategies shifted towards the use of compounds creating a physical barrier to virus attachment (e.g., surfactants) or inhibit the virus in the vaginal milieu (e.g., polyanions). These early, non-specific inhibitors showed promise in both in vitro and in vivo(non-human primates) studies but provided only modest protection from HIV transmission in clinical efficacy trials. The next generation of HIV entry microbicides was based on specifically blocking virus from entering host cells by targeting CD4 attachment, gp120 binding, and virus-cell membrane fusion events. Although protection from an SIV-HIV hybrid was evident in non-human primates treated and challenged in the vaginal cavity, none of these compounds have advanced to clinical trials as a microbicide. Here we will discuss the reasons for these failures, including the selection of drug resistant HIV variants, which raises questions as to the future of broadly effective microbicides based on HIV entry inhibitors. The outcome of continued research and potential efficacy trials on the next generation of entry inhibitors might reveal whether or not an effective entry microbicide can be developed. PMID:22264042

  14. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  15. Influence of interplanetary trajectory selection on Mars atmospheric entry velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striepe, Scott A.; Braun, Robert D.; Powell, Richard W.; Fowler, Wallace T.

    1993-01-01

    Many current manned Mars mission studies are using low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) vehicles to aerobrake at both Mars and Earth. The use of these low L/D vehicles could limit the allowable velocity at the atmospheric interface. This paper will demonstrate that if entry velocity constraints are incorporated into the interplanetary analysis of aerobraking Mars missions, many opportunities can be achieved for a small increase in initial mass in low-Earth orbit (IMLEO). These opportunities result from varying the initial launch date and the encounter dates and possibly using a powered Venus swingby on either the inbound or outbound transfer. This paper demonstrates this technique by using three atmospheric entry velocity ranges at Mars arrival (6.0-8.5, 6.4-8.1, and 7.2-7.3 km/s), unconstrained Mars entry velocities, and an Earth return entry velocity below 14 km/s. The results indicate that, by carefully selecting the interplanetary trajectory, an optimum IMLEO mission can be found for even highly restrictive entry velocity missions in practically all of the 15 yr studied.

  16. Rhadinovirus host entry by co-operative infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lawler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan⁺ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs. Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding.

  17. A Novel Keyless Entry System Using Visible Light Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyoshi Okuda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major conventional car key is the mechanical key. When users inserted the key into a cylinder mechanical key and turn, users can unlock. The mechanical key may be able to be worn away for physical contact. And it may be impossible to use. Further the mechanical key may be damaged or destroyed by mischief. So a keyless entry system has been developed. The keyless entry system locks and unlocks using the infrared ray and radio waves communication. The keyless entry system does not require physical contacts. Therefore, the possibilities of damage due to mischief and be worn away are fell. However, the transmission ranges of infrared ray and radio waves communication are not clear. Submitting data might be tapped to the malicious people. If the information is tapped, then you have theft of the car and the risk of car break. We propose a keyless entry system using visible light communication in order to solve this problem. Visible light communication transmits signal using blinking light. Thus the transmission range is clear. The user can transmit the information only to the aimed place. Therefore, the usability is improved. We measure the durations of "take out the remote control", "put the aim" and "takes to unlock key" in order to evaluate the usability in the experiment. We also compared with the infrared ray communication and examined the superiority. Usability is improved in the experimental results, and usability is better than conventional keyless entry system.

  18. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  19. Features of Human Herpesvirus-6A and -6B Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Maeki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 is a T lymphotropic herpesvirus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. HHV-6 was long classified into variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B; however, recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were reclassified as different species. The process of herpesvirus entry into target cells is complicated, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated, although both viruses are known to enter cells via endocytosis. In this paper, (1 findings about the cellular receptor and its ligand for HHV-6A and HHV-6B are summarized, and (2 a schematic model of HHV-6A’s replication cycle, including its entry, is presented. In addition, (3 reports showing the importance of lipids in both the HHV-6A envelope and target-cell membrane for viral entry are reviewed, and (4 glycoproteins involved in cell fusion are discussed.

  20. Dengue Virus Entry as Target for Antiviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M. F. Alen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infections are expanding worldwide and, because of the lack of a vaccine, the search for antiviral products is imperative. Four serotypes of DENV are described and they all cause a similar disease outcome. It would be interesting to develop an antiviral product that can interact with all four serotypes, prevent host cell infection and subsequent immune activation. DENV entry is thus an interesting target for antiviral therapy. DENV enters the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several cellular receptors have been proposed, and DC-SIGN, present on dendritic cells, is considered as the most important DENV receptor until now. Because DENV entry is a target for antiviral therapy, various classes of compounds have been investigated to inhibit this process. In this paper, an overview is given of all the putative DENV receptors, and the most promising DENV entry inhibitors are discussed.

  1. Influenza A Virus Entry Inhibitors Targeting the Hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV has caused seasonal influenza epidemics and influenza pandemics, which resulted in serious threat to public health and socioeconomic impacts. Until now, only 5 drugs belong to two categories are used for prophylaxis and treatment of IAV infection. Hemagglutinin (HA, the envelope glycoprotein of IAV, plays a critical role in viral binding, fusion and entry. Therefore, HA is an attractive target for developing anti‑IAV drugs to block the entry step of IAV infection. Here we reviewed the recent progress in the study of conformational changes of HA during viral fusion process and the development of HA-based IAV entry inhibitors, which may provide a new choice for controlling future influenza pandemics.

  2. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System Modeling, Calibration, and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; VanNorman, John; Siemers, Paul M.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Munk, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)/Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) project installed seven pressure ports through the MSL Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield to measure heatshield surface pressures during entry. These measured surface pressures are used to generate estimates of atmospheric quantities based on modeled surface pressure distributions. In particular, the quantities to be estimated from the MEADS pressure measurements include the dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This report describes the calibration of the pressure transducers utilized to reconstruct the atmospheric data and associated uncertainty models, pressure modeling and uncertainty analysis, and system performance results. The results indicate that the MEADS pressure measurement system hardware meets the project requirements.

  3. Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin L(U); Shu-wen LIU; Shi-bo JIANG; Shu-guang WU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism by which tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of tannin on HIV-1 replication and entry was detected by p24 production and HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, respectively. The inhibitory activity on the gp41 six-helix bundle formation was determined by an improved sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Tannins from different sources showed potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 replication,HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, and the gp4 six-helix bundle formation. CONCLUSION: Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells by interfering with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, thus blocking HIV-1 fusion with the target cell.

  4. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  5. HIV entry inhibitors: a new generation of antiretroviral drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elias KRAMBOVITIS; Filippos PORICHIS; Demetrios A SPANDIDOS

    2005-01-01

    AIDS is presently treatable, and patients can have a good prognosis due to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but it is still not curable or preventable. High toxicity of HAART, and the emergence of drug resistance add to the imperative to continue research into new strategies and interventions.Considerable progress in the understanding of HIV attachment and entry into host cells has suggested new possibilities for rationally designing agents that interfere with this process. The approval and introduction of the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) for clinical use signals a new era in AIDS therapeutics. Here we review the crucial steps the virus uses to achieve cell entry, which merit attention as potential targets, and the compounds at pre-clinical and clinical development stages, reported to effectively inhibit cell entry.

  6. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown

  7. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S. [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Christopher D., E-mail: chris.richardson@dal.ca [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); The Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction.

  8. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction

  9. Geometry of Weyl theory for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. The Weyl surface describing the dependence of Green's matrix on the boundary conditions is interpreted as the set of maximally isotropic subspace of a quadratic from given by the Wronskian. Analysis of the possibly degenerate limit quadratic form leads to the limit point/limit surface theory of maximal symmetric extensions for semi-infinite Jacobi matrices with matrix entries with arbitrary deficiency indices. The resolvent of the extensions is explicitly calculated.

  10. Self-sterilization of bodies during outer planet entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A body encountering the atmosphere of an outer planet is subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body nonviable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical outer planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from outer space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.

  11. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  12. Developing international market entry strategy for cultural tourism of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to examine potential international markets for culture tourism of Turkey and to determine a mode of entry strategy for it. The structure of this paper includes screening, identification, and selection stage based on applied various analysis, techniques, methods, and statistics. The major findings here suggest that South Korea and Canada are two possible foreign markets to penetrate. After deeply analysis of South Korea and Canada outbound tourism market, opening overseas tourism promotion office and applying agency are recommended as an appropriate mode of entry strategy for them, respectively. In this regard, practical implications are also mentioned for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey.

  13. Best Entry Points for Structured Document Retrieval - Part I: Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Jane; Lalmas, Mounia; Finesilver, Karen;

    2006-01-01

    Structured document retrieval makes use of document components as the basis of the retrieval process, rather than complete documents. The inherent relationships between these components make it vital to support users' natural browsing behaviour in order to offer effective and efficient access...... to structured documents. This paper examines the concept of best entry points, which are document components from which the user can browse to obtain optimal access to relevant document components. In particular this paper investigates the basic characteristics of best entry points....

  14. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  15. DCl Transport through Dodecyl Sulfate Films on Salty Glycerol: Effects of Seawater Ions on Gas Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaloski, Michael A; Sobyra, Thomas B; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2015-12-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments were employed to measure the entry and dissociation of the acidic gas DCl into salty glycerol coated with dodecyl sulfate ions (DS(-) = CH3(CH2)11OSO3(-)). Five sets of salty solutions were examined: 0.25 and 0.5 M NaCl, 0.25 M MgCl2, 0.25 M CaCl2, and artificial sea salt. DS(-) bulk concentrations were varied from 0 to 11 mM, generating DS(-) surface coverages of up to 34% of a compact monolayer, as determined by surface tension and argon scattering measurements. DS(-) surface segregation is enhanced by the dissolved salts in the order MgCl2 ≈ CaCl2 > sea salt > NaCl. We find that DCl penetration through the dodecyl chains decreases at first gradually and then sharply as more chains segregate to the surface, dropping from 70% entry on bare glycerol to 11% for DS(-) surface concentrations of 1.8 × 10(14) cm(-2). When plotted against DS(-) surface concentration, the DCl entry probabilities fall within a single band for all solutions. These observations imply that the monovalent Na(+) and divalent Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions do not bind differently enough to the ROSO3(-) headgroup to significantly alter the diffusive passage of DCl molecules through the dodecyl chains at the same DS(-) chain density. The chief difference among the salts is the greater propensity for the divalent salts to expel the soluble ionic surfactant to the surface. PMID:26317681

  16. Pentacyclic triterpenes grafted on CD cores to interfere with influenza virus entry: A dramatic multivalent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sulong; Si, Longlong; Tian, Zhenyu; Jiao, Pingxuan; Fan, Zibo; Meng, Kun; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Wang, Han; Xu, Renyang; Han, Xu; Fu, Ge; Zhang, Yongmin; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin

    2016-02-01

    Multivalent effect plays an important role in biological processes, particularly in the specific recognition of virus with its host cell during the first step of infection. Here we report the synthesis of multivalent pentacyclic triterpene grafted on cyclodextrin core and potency of against influenza entry activity. Nine star-shaped compounds containing six, seven and eight pentacyclic triterpene pharmacophore on cyclodextrin scaffold were prepared by way of copper-catalyzed azide-alkyl cycloaddition reaction under microwave activation. Some of the multimers exhibited much potent antiviral activity against H1N1 virus (A/WSN/33), even equivalent or superior to oseltamivir. The most active compound 31, a heptavalent oleanolic acid-β-cyclodextrin conjugate, shows an up to 125-fold potency enhancement by its IC50 value over the corresponding monovalent conjugate and oleanolic acid, disclosing a clear multivalent effect. Further studies show that three compounds 31-33 exhibited broad spectrum inhibitory activity against other two human influenza A/JX/312 (H3N2) and A/HN/1222 (H3N2) viruses with the IC50 values at 2.47-14.90 μM. Most importantly, we found that compound 31, one of the best representative conjugate, binds tightly to the viral envelope hemagglutinin with a dissociation constant of KD = 2.08 μM, disrupting the interaction of hemagglutinin with the sialic acid receptor and thus the attachment of viruses to host cells. Our study might establish a strategy for the design of new pharmaceutical agents based on multivalency so as to block influenza virus entry into host cells. PMID:26686050

  17. Equine rhinitis A virus and its low pH empty particle: clues towards an aphthovirus entry mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias J Tuthill

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, belonging to the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae. How picornaviruses introduce their RNA genome into the cytoplasm of the host cell to initiate replication is unclear since they have no lipid envelope to facilitate fusion with cellular membranes. It has been thought that the dissociation of the FMDV particle into pentameric subunits at acidic pH is the mechanism for genome release during cell entry, but this raises the problem of how transfer across the endosome membrane of the genome might be facilitated. In contrast, most other picornaviruses form 'altered' particle intermediates (not reported for aphthoviruses thought to induce membrane pores through which the genome can be transferred. Here we show that ERAV, like FMDV, dissociates into pentamers at mildly acidic pH but demonstrate that dissociation is preceded by the transient formation of empty 80S particles which have released their genome and may represent novel biologically relevant intermediates in the aphthovirus cell entry process. The crystal structures of the native ERAV virus and a low pH form have been determined via highly efficient crystallization and data collection strategies, required due to low virus yields. ERAV is closely similar to FMDV for VP2, VP3 and part of VP4 but VP1 diverges, to give a particle with a pitted surface, as seen in cardioviruses. The low pH particle has internal structure consistent with it representing a pre-dissociation cell entry intermediate. These results suggest a unified mechanism of picornavirus cell entry.

  18. The importance of prior probabilities for entry page search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.; Hiemstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Een belangrijke groep zoekopdrachten op het internet heeft ten doel de startpagina of 'entry page' van een organisatie te vinden. Zoeken naar een startpagina verschilt sterk van algemeen of 'Ad Hoc' zoeken. De resultaten van een simpel algemeen zoeksysteem zijn teleurstellend. In het rapport wordt g

  19. 33 CFR 151.08 - Denial of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.08 Denial of entry. (a) Unless a ship is... prewashed under 46 CFR part 153, may enter any port or terminal under § 158.110(a) of this chapter...

  20. 50 CFR 635.41 - Products denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel listed on the ICCAT record as engaged in illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing will be... included on the ICCAT list as engaged in illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing will be denied entry... ICCAT convention area by a fishing vessel that is required to be listed, but not listed on the...

  1. Orbiter Entry Aerothermodynamics Practical Engineering and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Organization of the Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group; 2) Overview of the Principal RTF Aeroheating Tools Utilized for Tile Damage Assessment; 3) Description of the Integrated Tile Damage Assessment Team Analyses Process; 4) Space Shuttle Flight Support Process; and 5) JSC Applied Aerosciences and CFD Branch Applied Research Interests.

  2. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  3. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries

    CERN Document Server

    Sadel, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. Averaging over boundary conditions leads to explicit formulas for the averaged spectral measure which can potentially be useful for spectral analysis. Furthermore another variant of spectral averaging over coupling constants for these operators is presented.

  4. The Effect of Kindergarten Entry Age on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buten, Nicole A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…

  5. China's Oil Industry Facing Challenge & Opportunity from WTO Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ With ups and downs in the past 15 years, China was officially admitted into World Trade Organization in November 2001. China's entry into WTO inevitably poses a severe challenge to the country's domestic petroleum and petrochemical industry, which has been protected by means of tariff hurdles and other administrative measures for a long time.

  6. A Systematic Assessment of Empirical Research on Foreign Entry Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reviews on foreign market entry mode are limited by their methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to overcome some of these limitations by systematically assessing the empirical support for central relationships in the empirical literature. Design/methodology/approach This r......Purpose Reviews on foreign market entry mode are limited by their methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to overcome some of these limitations by systematically assessing the empirical support for central relationships in the empirical literature. Design....../methodology/approach This review provides a systematic assessment of empirical support through a simple quantitative procedure using transparent criteria for article selection. In total, 1217 statistical tests from 119 studies published in 44 different scientific journals in the period 1997-2013 are examined across a range...... issues with regard to interpretation of interactions and the entry mode choice set. Research limitations/implications This study limits itself to study the direction of relationships and does not analyze effect sizes. Further, future research may benefit from broadening the entry mode choice by extending...

  7. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  8. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  9. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1849-01 - Right of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1849-01 Right of entry. (a) Any manufacturer who has applied for certification of a new motor vehicle subject to testing under this subpart, or any manufacturer or... activities connected with such testing are or were performed. (2) Any facility where any new motor vehicle...

  11. 25 CFR 227.12 - Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries. 227.12 Section 227.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  12. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  13. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes...

  14. Wigner law for matrices with dependent entries - a perturbative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Krajewski, T; Vu, D L

    2016-01-01

    We show that Wigner semi-circle law holds for Hermitian matrices with dependent entries, provided the deviation of the cumulants from the normalised Gaussian case obeys a simple power law bound in the size of the matrix. To establish this result, we use replicas interpreted as a zero-dimensional quantum field theoretical model whose effective potential obey a renormalisation group equation.

  15. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most o...

  16. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  17. Love me tender: new entry in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mol; M.M. Chiu; N. Wijnberg

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate new entry as a process of organizational change against the background of the digital revolution in the music industry. The study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from 131 companies active in the Dutch music industry that collectively engaged in 215 ne

  18. College Students' Expectations for Entry-Level Broadcast Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Edward; Savage, Arthur L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates whether entry-level, college-educated broadcast employees have job expectations that broadcast managers do not understand. Indicates that students' desire for rapid professional advancement has increased between 1979 and 1980. Revealed that managers accurately perceived the rank order students assigned to the 20 outcomes, but…

  19. 76 FR 13703 - New Origin Entry Separation & Containerization Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... service area of the origin Network Distribution Center (NDC) from the rest of the mailing. Use column A of... (L603 for parcels). When the origin NDC is Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis or San Francisco, use Labeling... the origin entry site from the rest of the mailing. Use column B of Labeling List L201 to...

  20. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisio

  1. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisi

  2. 27 CFR 22.25 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and examination. 22.25 Section 22.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL...

  3. 27 CFR 24.35 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in 27 CFR 70.22, appropriate TTB officers may examine financial records, books of account, and any... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and examination. 24.35 Section 24.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND...

  4. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual...

  5. Text entry on handheld computers by older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P; Bartram, C; Rogers, N; Emslie, H; Evans, J; Wilson, B; Belt, S

    2000-06-01

    Small pocket computers offer great potential in workplaces where mobility is needed to collect data or access reference information while carrying out tasks such as maintenance or customer support. This paper reports on three studies examining the hypothesis that data entry by older workers is easier when the pocket computer has a physical keyboard, albeit a small one, rather than a touch-screen keyboard. Using a counter-balanced, within-subjects design the accuracy and speed with which adults over 55 years of age could make or modify short text entries was measured for both kinds of pocket computer. The keyboard computer was the Hewlett Packard 360LX (HP), but the touch-screen computers varied across studies (experiment 1: Apple Newton and PalmPilot; experiment 2: Philips Nino; experiment 3: Casio E10). All studies showed significant decrements in accuracy and speed when entering text via the touch-screen. Across studies, most participants preferred using the HP's small physical keyboard. Even after additional practice with the touch screen (experiments 2 and 3) many entries still contained errors. Experiment 3 showed that younger people were faster but not more accurate than older people at using the touch-screen keyboard. It is concluded that satisfactory text entry on palm-size computers awaits improvements to the touch-screen keyboard or alternative input methods such as handwriting or voice. Interface developments that assist older people typically benefit younger users too. PMID:10902881

  6. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  7. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  8. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  9. Modeling radon entry into Florida slab-on-grade houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzan, K L; Fisk, W J; Sextro, R G

    1993-10-01

    Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and isotropic except for certain simulations in which soil layers of high permeability or radium content are introduced. Depressurization of the house induces a pressure field in the soil and backfill. The Laplace equation, resulting from Darcy's law and the continuity equation, is solved using a steady-state finite-difference model to determine this field. The mass-transport equation is then solved to obtain the diffusive and advective radon entry rates through the slab; the permeable stem wall; gaps at the intersections of the slab, stem wall, and footer; and gaps in the slab. These rates are determined for variable soil, backfill, and stem-wall permeability and radium content, slab-opening width and position, slab and stem-wall diffusivity, and water table depth. The variations in soil permeability and radium content include cases of horizontally stratified soil. We also consider the effect of a gap between the edge of the slab and the stem wall that restricts the passage of soil gas from the stem wall into the house. Calculations indicate that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. Variations in most of the factors, other than the soil permeability and radium content, have only a small effect on the total radon entry rate. However, for a fixed soil permeability, the total radon entry rate may be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by decreasing the backfill permeability, by making the stem wall impermeable and gap-free, (possibly by constructing a one-piece slab/stem-wall/footer), or by increasing the pressure in the interior of the stem wall (by

  10. MOTIVATING FACTORS AND THE MODES OF ENTRY IN OTHER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  11. A novel small molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Baldick

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple inhibitors of different targets. The entry process of HCV into hepatocytes represents another series of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, involving viral structural proteins that have not been extensively explored due to experimental limitations. To discover HCV entry inhibitors, we utilized HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating E1-E2 envelope proteins from a genotype 1b clinical isolate. Screening of a small molecule library identified a potent HCV-specific triazine inhibitor, EI-1. A series of HCVpp with E1-E2 sequences from various HCV isolates was used to show activity against all genotype 1a and 1b HCVpp tested, with median EC50 values of 0.134 and 0.027 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments demonstrated a block in HCVpp entry, downstream of initial attachment to the cell surface, and prior to or concomitant with bafilomycin inhibition of endosomal acidification. EI-1 was equally active against cell-culture adapted HCV (HCVcc, blocking both cell-free entry and cell-to-cell transmission of virus. HCVcc with high-level resistance to EI-1 was selected by sequential passage in the presence of inhibitor, and resistance was shown to be conferred by changes to residue 719 in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane anchor region of E2, implicating this envelope protein in EI-1 susceptibility. Combinations of EI-1 with interferon, or inhibitors of NS3 or NS5A, resulted in additive to synergistic activity. These results suggest that inhibitors of HCV entry could be added to replication inhibitors and interferons already in development.

  12. Human SCARB2-mediated entry and endocytosis of EV71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Enterovirus (EV 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2 has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2 to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.

  13. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  14. Learning through Writing: The Double-Entry Journal in Literature Classes (Theory into Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Susan Monroe; Nugent, Harold E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the double-entry journal and its theoretical underpinnings as an approach to learning through writing. Involves reading literature, sharing responses in small groups, participating in class presentations, and synthesizing these findings in a second journal entry. (SR)

  15. Connecting the Language Arts: The Double-Entry Journal in Literature Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Harold; Nugent, Susan

    The double-entry journal requires students to write affective response statements to readings, and to compare such entries with classmates. After discussions with peers and critical analysis of the literature, students write a second journal entry synthesizing insights gained from discussion, analysis, readings, and writings. The journal (1)…

  16. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Number issued by Canada at time of filing entry summary documentation. The 8-digit Canadian-issued Export... alpha-numeric code “P88888888” must be used in the Export Permit Number data entry field on the CBP Form... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada....

  17. 14 CFR 135.443 - Airworthiness release or aircraft maintenance log entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance log entry. 135.443 Section 135.443 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... release or aircraft maintenance log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after... (2) An appropriate entry in the aircraft maintenance log. (b) The airworthiness release or log...

  18. 14 CFR 91.1443 - CAMP: Airworthiness release or aircraft maintenance log entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance log entry. 91.1443 Section 91.1443 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aircraft maintenance log entry. (a) No program aircraft maintained under a CAMP may be operated after... release; or (2) An appropriate entry in the aircraft maintenance log. (b) The airworthiness release or...

  19. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  20. Applying Foreign Entry Market Strategies to UK Higher Education Transnational Education Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Victoria; Antoniou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We take a multidisciplinary approach mapping the models used by UK higher education (HE) institutions against established international business foreign market entry strategies. We review the conditions in host markets that facilitate market entry and consider how these will determine foreign market entry strategy. We specifically consider four…

  1. INHIBITING MAP KINASE ACTIVITY PREVENTS CALCIUM TRANSIENTS AND MITOSIS ENTRY IN EARLY SEA URCHIN EMBRYOS

    OpenAIRE

    Philipova, Rada; Larman, Mark G.; Leckie, Calum P.; Harrison, Patrick K.; Groigno, Laurence; Whitaker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A transient calcium increase triggers nuclear envelope breakdown (mitosis entry) in sea urchin embryos. Cdk1/cyclin B kinase activation is also known to be required for mitosis entry. More recently MAP kinase activity has also been shown to increase during mitosis. In sea urchin embryos both kinases show a similar activation profile, peaking at the time of mitosis entry.

  2. 19 CFR 142.46 - Presentation of invoice and assignment of entry number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of invoice and assignment of entry... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.46 Presentation of invoice and assignment of entry number. (a) Presentation of invoice. When merchandise that has...

  3. 76 FR 40367 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Duty-Free Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Duty- Free Entry AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General... previously approved information collection requirement concerning duty-free entry. Public comments are... Collection 9000- 0022, Duty-Free Entry by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  4. 77 FR 76063 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... the Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This request for comment is...: Title: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles OMB Number: 1651-0014 Form Number: Form...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5451 - Book-entry and definitive securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry and definitive securities. 615.5451... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Book-Entry Procedures for Farm Credit Securities § 615.5451 Book-entry and definitive securities. Subject to subpart C of this part: (a)...

  6. 12 CFR 995.4 - Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation... FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.4 Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations. (a) Authority. Any Federal Reserve Bank shall have authority to apply book-entry procedure to...

  7. 50 CFR 660.338 - Limited entry permits-small fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry permits-small fleet. 660.338... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.338 Limited entry permits-small fleet. (a) Small limited entry fisheries fleets... another vessel that will continue to operate in the same certified small fleet, provided that the...

  8. 50 CFR 660.232 - Limited entry daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry daily trip limit (DTL... limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish. (a) Limited entry DTL fisheries both north and south of 36° N. lat... restrictions and limits of the limited entry daily and/or weekly trip limit (DTL) fishery for...

  9. 19 CFR 159.52 - Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal. 159.52 Section 159.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal. Liquidation of a warehouse or rewarehouse entry...

  10. RFID Based Networked Gate Entry Control System (GECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Lal Raheja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an RFID based smart gate entry control system (GECS which is developed for theemployees of an organization to supervise and record their entry related activity. Entire system isdeveloped with low frequency RFID reader & passive tag at one end & network based applicationsoftware running at the other end. The developed application with back-end application softwareprovides solutions regarding employee presence in the organization, keep track their transaction, andcalculate total work duration within organization. Here we discussed data base technique & logic forautomatic report generation related to employee’s monthly presence activity. We also discussed aboutwhy & how SMTP code can be helpful to develop an auto E-mail delivery feature for the monthly reportto the concerned employee's institutional Head.

  11. The green tea molecule EGCG inhibits Zika virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Bruno M; Batista, Mariana N; Braga, Ana Cláudia S; Nogueira, Maurício L; Rahal, Paula

    2016-09-01

    During ZIKV the outbreak in Brazil it was observed an increase of almost 20 times the number of reported cases of microcephaly in newborn babies. There is no vaccine or approved drug available for the treatment and prevention of infections by this virus. EGCG, a polyphenol present in green tea has been shown to have an antiviral activity for many viruses. In view of the need for the development of a drug against a Brazilian strain of ZIKV, we assessed the effect of EGCG on ZIKV entry in Vero E6 cells. The drug was capable of inhibiting the virus entry by at least 1-log (>90%) at higher concentrations (>100μM). The pre-treatment of cells with EGCG did not show any effect on virus attachment. This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of EGCG on ZIKV indicating that this drug might be possibility to be used for prevention of Zika virus infections. PMID:27344138

  12. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F

    1989-01-01

    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  13. Data entry system for INIS input using a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Input preparation for the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) has been performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1970. Instead of the input data preparation done by worksheets make out with the typewriters, new method with which data can be directly inputted into a diskette using personal computers is introduced. According to the popularization of personal computers and word processors, this system is easily applied to other system, so the outline and the future development on it are described. A shortcoming of this system is that spell-checking and data entry using authority files are hardly performed because of the limitation of hardware resources, and that data code conversion is needed because applied code systems between personal computer and main frame computer are quite different from each other. On the other hand, improving the timelyness of data entry is expected without duplication of keying. (author)

  14. Resonances in random reactance networks with fluctuating entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that disordered LC networks are an appropriate model for describing giant fluctuations of electric fields in a random metal-dielectric composite. The fluctuations reflect an inherent multifractal internal structure of the local fields which arise due to dipole-dipole interactions between the clusters with ''dielectric resonances. The resonances are poles of the conductance of disordered dissipationless LC networks. Though this topic is widely presented in the literature, described methods allow to study only the cases with fixed L and C values randomly distributed on a lattice. In this paper we generalize this approach and study random LC networks with fluctuating values of L and C entries. We demonstrate anticrossing of resonances due to their dipole-dipole interaction and splitting of the typical resonances for a discrete set of fluctuating L or C (or both) entries

  15. Navigation strategy with the spacecraft communications blackout for Mars entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xichen; Xia, Yuanqing

    2015-02-01

    Future Mars missions require precision entry navigation capability, especially in the presence of communications blackout. On the mission of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), there was a 70-s communications blackout period during atmospheric entry phase. In allusion to the spacecraft communications blackout encountered, this paper predicts an upper-bound for any possible blackout period firstly, improves the default integrated navigation measurements based on IMU and surface radiometric beacons, and proposes innovative attitude observation model based on IMU and range observation model based on orbiters finally. To verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed observation models in the presence of communications blackout, unscented Kalman filter is utilized to demonstrate the navigation performance. The results show that navigation errors based on improved observation models proposed in this paper degrade an order of magnitude compared with the default observation models even if the communications blackout takes place, which satisfies the requirements of future Mars landing missions.

  16. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    The paper develops a simple model for a developing country with a dual economic structure. The model is a further theoretical extension and empirical work to an earlier published book chapter on the same topic. The abstract was updated after presentation at the conference in Gold Coast, Australia...... with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...... entry barriers push the entrepreneurs towards the informal sector. Whether entrepreneurs succeed in the transition towards the formal sector depends on the size of the entry barriers which are indirectly regulated both by informal institutions such as corruption and formal institutions...

  17. Newcomer innovation during entry in a changing organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    ” of the organizational culture. Although acknowledging that organizational socialization is about continuity and change in the employing organization (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979), and realizing that the entry of newcomers holds the potential for innovation to the employing organization (Feldman, 2012), the discourse......A recent Ph.D. thesis explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry (Revsbaek, 2014). The study challenges the prevailing assumption in many standardized organizational induction programs that consider newcomers as insecure novices in need of being “taught the ropes...... in research on organizational socialization largely heralds the raison d’être of organizational socialization as preserving the culture of the organization from one generation of employees to the next. “Much of the work on organizational socialization still reflects a narrow social perspective: perhaps...

  18. UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS AND CAVITATING FLOW OF WATER ENTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghui; KUME Makoto

    2004-01-01

    The fluid mechanics of water entry is studied through investigating the underwater acoustics and the supercavitation. Underwater acoustic signals in water entry are extensively measured at about 30 different positions by using a PVDF needle hydrophone. From the measurements we obtain (1) the primary shock wave caused by the impact of the blunt body on free surface; (2) the vapor pressure inside the cavity; (3) the secondary shock wave caused by pulling away of the cavity from free surface; and so on. The supercavitation induced by the blunt body is observed by using a digital high-speed video camera as well as the single shot photography. The periodic and 3 dimensional motion of the supercavitation is revealed. The experiment is carried out at room temperature.

  19. Entry Guidance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; Craig, Lynn E.

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry to safely deliver the rover to a touchdown ellipse of 25 km x 20 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range error while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Key dispersions driving deploy ellipse and altitude performance are identified. Performance sensitivities including attitude initialization error and the velocity of transition from range control to heading alignment are presented.

  20. Price discrimination, entry, and switching costs in network competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews theoretical models of network competition in telecommunications. We will discuss two alternative approaches. The first approach assumes Hoteling’s horizontal differentiation and the second approach is based on switching costs. We will first analyse spatial competition with linear prices and continue with price discrimination between on-net and off-net calls. Price discrimination can also be used to deter entry to the market. We will also deal with the regulator’s optimal choice of access price, which should be designed to induce entry of new firms. Furthermore, pricing of roaming services and the switching cost approach to network competition will be considered. Finally, we will illustrate the theoretical results with data from the Serbian mobile and fixed telephony market.